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LTE from A-Z Technology and Concepts of the 4G 3GPP Standard

INACON GmbH Kriegsstrasse 154 76133 Karlsruhe Germany www.inacon.com e-mail: inacon@inacon.de

Cover design by Stefan Kohler 1999 - 2009 INACON GmbH Kriegsstrasse 154 76133 Karlsruhe All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this publication, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. For more information, contact INACON GmbH at www.inacon.com.

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All INACON publications use the same color codes to distinguish mandatory from optional or conditional parts in frame formats or optional from mandatory data blocks or signaling messages in scenarios. The different color codes are explained underneath:

Color Codes in Frame Formats:

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Foreword of the Publisher:


Dear Reader: Note that this book is primarily a training document because the primary business of INACON GmbH is the training and consulting market for mobile communications. As such, we are proud to providing high-end training courses to many clients worldwide, among them operators like Cingular, Mobilkom Austria, SWISSCOM, T-MOBILE or VSNL (India) and equipment suppliers like ALCATEL-LUCENT, ERICSSON and SONY-ERICSSON, MOTOROLA, NOKIA-SIEMENS and RIM. INACON GmbH is not one of the old-fashioned publishers. With respect to time-tomarket, form-factor, homogenous quality over all books and most importantly with respect to after-sales support, INACON GmbH is moving into a new direction. Therefore, INACON GmbH does not leave you alone with your issues and this book but we offer you to contact the author directly through e-mail (inacon@inacon.de), if you have any questions. All our authors are employees of INACON GmbH and all of them are proven experts in their area with usually many years of practical experience. The most important assets and features of the book in front of you are: Extreme degree of detailed information about a certain technology. Extensive and detailed index to allow instant access to information about virtually every parameter, timer and detail of this technology. Incorporation of several practical exercises. If applicable, incorporation of examples from our practical field experiences and real life recordings. References to the respective standards and recommendations on virtually every page.

Finally, we again like to congratulate you to the purchase of this book and we like to wish you success in using it during your daily work. Sincerely,

Gunnar Heine / President & CEO of INACON GmbH

Table of Content

Table of Content
Principles and Motivation of LTE............................................1
1.1 Mobile Radio: Comparison between 3G and 4G..................2
1.1.1 Performance and Mobility Management related Issues..............2 1.1.2 Architecture related Issues..........................................................4 1.1.3 Procedure and Radio related Issues...........................................6

1.2 Requirements on LTE............................................................8


1.2.1 General Requirements................................................................8
1.2.1.1 Support of Enhanced Quadruple Play Services............................10 1.2.1.2 Very High Data Rates @ flexible bandwidth deployment ((1.25) 5 20 MHz).....................................................................................................10 1.2.1.3 AIPN and PS services only............................................................10

1.2.2 Important Characteristics of LTE Physical Layer.......................12


1.2.2.1 General Physical Layer Characteristics.........................................12 1.2.2.1.1 OFDM ..................................................................................12 1.2.2.1.2 Scalable Bandwidth..............................................................13 1.2.2.1.3 Smart Antenna Technology..................................................14 1.2.2.1.4 Fast scheduling and AMC.....................................................14 1.2.2.1.5 No Soft(er) handover............................................................14 1.2.3.2 OFDM/OFDMA..............................................................................16 1.2.3.2.1 Traditional narrowband communication................................16 1.2.3.2.2 Problems for wideband signals.............................................17 1.2.3.2.3 OFDM...................................................................................17 1.2.3.2.4 OFDM and OFDMA..............................................................17 1.2.3.2.5 LTE and OFDM.....................................................................17 1.2.3.3 Smart Antenna Technology in LTE................................................18 1.2.3.3.1 Categorization of Smart Antenna Technologies...................18 1.2.3.3.1.1 SISO.............................................................................18 1.2.3.3.1.2 SIMO............................................................................18 1.2.3.3.1.3 MISO............................................................................19 1.2.3.3.1.4 MIMO...........................................................................19 1.2.3.3.2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)..................................20 1.2.3.3.2.1 Multiple carrier technology...........................................21 1.2.3.3.2.2 MIMO...........................................................................21 1.2.3.3.3 Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS)........................................22 1.2.3.3.3.1 Signal generation.........................................................23 1.2.3.3.3.2 Constructive superimposition at the intended receiver 23 1.2.3.3.3.3 Destructive superimposition at the not intended receiver .......................................................................................................23 1.2.3.3.3.4 Generation of signals for multiple UEs........................23 1.2.3.4 Macro Diversity exploitation by SFN..............................................24 1.2.3.4.1 Requirements for MBMS services........................................24 1.2.3.4.2 MBMS operation with a SFN.................................................24 1.2.3.4.3 SFN for point to point services..............................................25 1.2.3.5 The Frequency Bands Intended for LTE.......................................26 1.2.3.5.1 Exclusive usage....................................................................27 1.2.3.5.2 Refarming.............................................................................27 1.2.3.5.3 Licensed operation................................................................27 1.2.3.5.4 Unlicensed operation............................................................27 1.2.3.6 Flexible Bandwidths, Parameters..................................................28

INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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1.2.3.6.1 Fixed subcarrier separation..................................................28 1.2.3.6.2 Usage of carriers in the middle of the bandwidth for PBCH and synchronization signals.................................................................29 1.2.3.6.3 Deployment Scenarios..........................................................30

1.2.4 Important Characteristics of the LTE Layer 2 and 3..................32


1.2.4.1 Support of the new LTE L1............................................................32 1.2.4.2 Simple IP centric protocols supporting AIPN.................................32 1.2.4.3 Support of various inter RAT handovers (GSM, UTRA, etc.)........33

1.3 LTE and System Architecture Evolution (SAE)..................34


1.3.1 Overview...................................................................................34
1.3.1.1 Missing RNC..................................................................................34 1.3.1.2 Interconnected eNBs....................................................................35 1.3.1.3 Separate entities for user plane and control plane in the EPC......36 1.3.1.4 Combined Serving Gateway and MME.........................................36 1.3.1.5 Combined Serving and PDN Gateways........................................36 1.3.1.6 S1-flex...........................................................................................36 1.3.1.7 Used legacy elements...................................................................36 1.3.1.8 Roaming case................................................................................36 1.3.1.9 Direct Tunnel.................................................................................36 1.3.1.10 EPS, EPC, E-UTRAN & LTE, SAE..............................................36

1.3.2 The eNB....................................................................................38


1.3.2.1 Selection of MME at attachment....................................................39 1.3.2.2 Scheduling of paging messages....................................................39 1.3.2.3 Routing of user plane data to Serving GW....................................40 1.3.2.4 PDCP.............................................................................................40 1.3.2.5 RRM/RRC......................................................................................40 1.3.2.6 RLC...............................................................................................40 1.3.2.7 MAC...............................................................................................40 1.3.2.8 Complete L1 functionality..............................................................40

1.3.3 The MME...................................................................................42


1.3.3.1 NAS signalling...............................................................................42 1.3.3.2 Inter CN node signaling (3GPP networks).....................................42 1.3.3.3 Security management....................................................................42

1.3.4 The Serving GW........................................................................44


1.3.4.1 Termination of U-plane packets for paging reasons......................44 1.3.4.2 Support of UE mobility anchoring by switching U-plane during inter eNB handover............................................................................................44 1.3.4.3 Transport Packet Marking According to QCI.................................45 1.3.4.4 Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility....................................45 1.3.4.5 Packet routing and forwarding.......................................................45 1.3.4.6 Charging support...........................................................................45 1.3.4.7 Lawful interception.........................................................................45

1.3.5 The PDN GW............................................................................46


1.3.5.1 Termination towards of PDNs.......................................................46 1.3.5.2 Policy enforcement........................................................................46 1.3.5.3 Charging support...........................................................................46 1.3.5.4 DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 functions...................................................47

1.3.6 Identifiers of the UE and the Network Elements........................48


1.3.6.1 PLMN ID........................................................................................50 1.3.6.2 EPS Bearer ID...............................................................................50 1.3.6.3 MMEI.............................................................................................50 1.3.6.4 GUMMEI........................................................................................50 1.3.6.5 Physical Cell ID.............................................................................50

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INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

Table of Content
1.3.6.6 eNB/cell ID.....................................................................................50 1.3.6.7 TAI.................................................................................................50 1.3.6.8 C-RNTI..........................................................................................50 1.3.6.9 RA-RNTI........................................................................................50 1.3.6.10 SI-RNTI........................................................................................50 1.3.6.11 P-RNTI.........................................................................................50 1.3.6.12 Random Value.............................................................................50 1.3.6.13 IMSI, S-TMSI, and IMEI...............................................................52 1.3.6.14 GUTI............................................................................................52 1.3.6.15 eNB S1-AP UE ID and MME S1-AP UE ID.................................52

1.4 The E-UTRAN Protocol Stack..............................................54


1.4.1 Control Plane Protocol Stack....................................................54
1.4.1.1 Air Interface protocols....................................................................55 1.4.1.2 NAS protocols................................................................................56

1.4.2 User Plane Protocol Stack........................................................58


1.4.2.1 Air Interface protocols....................................................................58 1.4.2.2 S1 protocol....................................................................................58

1.4.3 X2 Interface Control Plane Protocol Stack................................60 1.4.4 X2 User Plane Protocol Stack...................................................62

1.5 Overview Channels of E-UTRAN.........................................64


1.5.1 Channel Types..........................................................................64
1.5.1.1 Logical Channels...........................................................................64 1.5.1.2 Transport Channels.......................................................................64 1.5.1.3 Physical Channels.........................................................................65

1.5.2 Logical Channels of E-UTRAN..................................................66


1.5.2.1 BCCH............................................................................................66 1.5.2.2 PCCH............................................................................................66 1.5.2.3 CCCH............................................................................................66 1.5.2.4 MCCH............................................................................................66 1.5.2.5 DCCH............................................................................................67 1.5.2.6 DTCH.............................................................................................67 1.5.2.7 MTCH............................................................................................67

1.5.3 Transport Channels of E-UTRAN..............................................68


1.5.3.1 RACH............................................................................................68 1.5.3.2 UL-SCH.........................................................................................68 1.5.3.3 BCH...............................................................................................68 1.5.3.4 PCH...............................................................................................68 1.5.3.5 MCH..............................................................................................69 1.5.3.6 DL-SCH.........................................................................................69

1.5.4 Physical Channels of E-UTRAN................................................70


1.5.4.1 PBCH.............................................................................................70 1.5.4.2 PDCCH..........................................................................................70 1.5.4.3 PCFICH.........................................................................................71 1.5.4.4 PUCCH..........................................................................................71 1.5.4.5 PRACH..........................................................................................71 1.5.4.6 PHICH...........................................................................................72 1.5.4.7 PDSCH..........................................................................................72 1.5.4.8 PMCH............................................................................................72 1.5.4.9 PUSCH..........................................................................................72 1.5.4.10 Downlink reference signal...........................................................72 1.5.4.11 Primary and secondary synchronization signal...........................72 1.5.4.12 Uplink reference signal or UL pilot symbol..................................72 1.5.4.13 Uplink sounding signal.................................................................72
INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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LTE from A-Z


1.5.4.14 Random Access Preamble..........................................................72

1.5.5 Mapping of Channels in E-UTRAN............................................74

1.6 Key Development Trends manifested in LTE.....................76


1.6.1 Mapping of User Plane Packets to the Resources....................76
1.6.1.1 Method 1: Fast resource allocation on optimum resources...........77 1.6.1.2 Method 2: Slow resource allocation on suboptimum resources....78 1.6.1.3 GSM..............................................................................................78 1.6.1.4 WCDMA.........................................................................................78 1.6.1.5 HSPA.............................................................................................78 1.6.1.6 LTE................................................................................................78 1.6.1.7 General trend.................................................................................78

1.6.2 All IP Network and Simple Packet Service Driven Protocols.....80


1.6.2.1 Reduced User Plane Latency........................................................82 1.6.2.1 Reduced Control Plane Latency....................................................84

1.7 LTE Key Feature Summary..................................................86


1.7.1 Air Interface Technology...........................................................86 1.7.2 System Architecture..................................................................87 1.7.3 Service Aspects........................................................................87

Key Technologies of the LTE Physical Layer......................89


2.1 Introduction OFDM Technology..........................................90
2.1.1 Impact of Orthogonality in the Frequency Domain 3 Steps....90 2.1.2 Practical Exercise: Physical Basics of OFDM / OFDMA...........96 2.1.3 Practical Exercise: Scaling of OFDM / OFDMA-Systems..........98 2.1.4 The In-Phase Quadrature (I/Q) Presentation.......................100 2.1.5 OFDM / OFDMA and IFFT......................................................102
2.1.5.1 Considering the Discrete Oscillator Array Option........................103 2.1.5.2 Details of the IFFT Option...........................................................103 2.1.5.3 Why is it called F a s t Fourier Transformation?..........................103

2.1.6 Modulation Scheme Overview.................................................104 2.1.8 Tackling Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)..................................108


2.1.8.1 Introduction..................................................................................108 2.1.8.1.1 Delay Spread......................................................................108 2.1.8.2 Cyclic Prefix.................................................................................110 2.1.8.2.1 Variable Duration and other Assets of the Cyclic Prefix.....111 2.1.8.2.2 Cyclic Prefix in OFDMA in LTE...........................................111

2.1.9 Layout of a Typical OFDM System..........................................112


2.1.9.1 Remarks on the Brick Wall Image...............................................113 2.1.9.2 Subchannelization ......................................................................113 2.1.9.3 Pilot Subcarriers..........................................................................113 2.1.9.4 Null Subcarriers...........................................................................113

2.2 Introduction to MIMO Technology....................................114


2.2.1 The Basics: Signal Fading Physics between TX and RX........114 2.2.2 Multiplexing Dimensions.........................................................116 2.2.2 Multiplexing Dimensions.........................................................118 2.2.3 The Multipath Dimension........................................................120 2.2.6 MIMO General Operation........................................................122

The Physical Layer of E-UTRAN..........................................125


3.1 The Use of OFDM/OFDMA in LTE.....................................126
INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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Table of Content
3.1.1 Frame Structure......................................................................126
3.1.1.1 The generic frame structure........................................................126 3.1.1.2 The downlink slots.......................................................................127 3.1.1.3 The uplink slots............................................................................127 3.1.1.4 The frame structure type 2..........................................................127

3.1.2 LTE Parameters......................................................................128


3.1.2.1 The normal configuration.............................................................128 3.1.2.2 The extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier separation...128 3.1.2.3 The extended configuration with 7.5 kHz subcarrier separation..129

3.1.2 Resource Element and Resource Block Definition..................130


3.1.2.1 Definition Resource Element.......................................................130 3.1.2.2 Definition Resource Block...........................................................130 3.1.2.3 Definition Subframe.....................................................................130 3.1.2.4 Number of resource blocks in a given bandwidth........................131

3.1.3 Choice of the UL Transmission Scheme (UL Data Symbols only) .........................................................................................................132
3.1.3.1 What would happen if OFDM would be used in the UL...............133 3.1.3.2 SC-FDMA is used for the UL.......................................................133

3.1.4 FDD and TDD Operation in E-UTRAN....................................134


3.1.4.1 Reciprocity...................................................................................134 3.1.4.1.1 Reciprocity of the mobile radio channel..............................134 3.1.4.1.2 Speed of scheduling decisions...........................................135 3.1.4.2 UL / DL Asymmetry and Others...................................................136 3.1.4.2.1 UL/DL symmetry.................................................................136 3.1.4.2.2 Interference scenarios........................................................136 3.1.4.2.3 TRX architecture.................................................................137 3.1.4.2.4 Deployment in a given frequency band...............................137 3.1.4.3 Summary FDD vs. TDD...............................................................138

3.2 The DL Physical Channels and their Frame Structures. .140


3.2.1 Allocation of DL Physical Channels to Resource Elements... .140
3.2.1.1 Not used subcarriers...................................................................142 3.2.1.2 Primary Synchronization Signal...................................................142 3.2.1.3 Secondary Synchronization Signal..............................................142 3.2.1.4 Pilot or Reference Signal.............................................................142 3.2.1.5 PBCH...........................................................................................142 3.2.1.6 PCFICH.......................................................................................142 3.2.1.7 PHICH.........................................................................................142 3.2.1.8 PDCCH........................................................................................142 3.2.1.9 PDSCH (and PMCH)...................................................................142

3.2.2 System Information on PBCH and PDSCH.............................144


3.2.2.1 Split of the BCH on the PBCH and the PDSCH..........................144

3.2.3 PCFICH, PDCCH, and PHICH................................................146


3.2.3.1 The PCFICH................................................................................147 3.2.3.2 The PDCCH.................................................................................148 3.2.3.3 The PHICH..................................................................................148

3.2.4 The Downlink Processing Chain.............................................150


3.2.4.1 Encoded transport block bits.......................................................150 3.2.4.2 Scrambling...................................................................................150 3.2.4.3 Modulator.....................................................................................152 3.2.4.4 Layer Mapper..............................................................................152 3.2.4.5 Precoding....................................................................................152 3.2.4.6 OFDM signal generation..............................................................152 3.2.4.7 CP and IFFT................................................................................152
INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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3.3 The UL Physical Channels and their Frame Structures. .154
3.3.1 Overview UL Physical Channels (RRC_CONNECTED).........154
3.3.1.1 Scheduling Request (SR) on the PUCCH...................................154 3.3.1.2 Small amount of L1 information on the PUCCH..........................155 3.3.1.3 Big amount of L1 information on the PUSCH..............................155 3.3.1.4 L1 information on the PUSCH multiplexed with the TrCH data...155 3.3.1.5 Sounding reference symbols PUSCH resources.........................155

3.3.2 Overview PUCCH...................................................................156 3.3.3 PUCCH Mapping for ACK/NACK only and Scheduling Request .........................................................................................................158
3.3.3.1 Usage of Zadoff-Chu sequences.................................................158 3.3.3.2 Spreading of repeated data Zadoff-Chu symbols........................160 3.3.3.3 Spreading of reference Zadoff-Chu symbols...............................160 3.3.3.3 PUCCH Format 1........................................................................160 3.3.3.4 PUCCH Formats 1a and 1b.........................................................160 3.3.3.5 Shortened PUCCH Formats 1a and 1b.......................................160 3.3.3.6 Multiple access of the PUCCH....................................................160

3.3.4 Shared usage of Resources with CAZAC Sequences............162


3.3.4.1 Zadoff-Chu sequences are CAZAC sequences..........................163 3.3.4.2 Separation of different UEs with cyclic shifted Zadoff-Chu sequences...............................................................................................163 3.3.5.1 PUCCH Format 2........................................................................164 3.3.5.2 PUCCH Formats 2a and 2b.........................................................165

3.3.6 The Uplink Processing Chain..................................................166


3.3.6.1 Transport block bits.....................................................................166 3.3.6.2 Scrambling...................................................................................166 3.3.6.3 Modulator.....................................................................................166 3.3.6.4 DFT pre-coder.............................................................................166 3.3.6.5 Demultiplexing of signals other than data....................................167 3.3.6.6 Resource element mapper..........................................................167 3.3.6.7 IFFT.............................................................................................167 3.3.6.7 CP................................................................................................167

3.4 Overview all Physical Channels........................................168


3.4.1 Special usage of the 6 RB around the DC carrier...................169 3.4.2 Multiplexing of the PCFICH, PDCCH and the PDSCH/PMCH in the normal DL subframe...................................................................170 3.4.3 Sounding reference signal.......................................................170 3.4.4 Modulation of the physical channels.......................................170 3.4.5 Channel coding.......................................................................170

3.5 Physical Layer Procedures...............................................172


3.5.1 Timing Advance Control..........................................................174
3.5.1.1 Principle.......................................................................................174 3.5.1.2 Procedure....................................................................................178 3.5.1.2.1 TA while the UE is not synchronized to the eNB................178 3.5.1.2.2 TA while the UE is synchronized to the eNB......................179

3.5.2 Channel Estimation DL...........................................................180


3.5.2.1 Channel Estimation Principle of LTE...........................................180 3.5.2.1.1 The description of the mobile radio channel.......................180 3.5.2.1.2 Coping with a frequency selective mobile radio channel....182 3.5.2.2 Channel Estimation Downlink......................................................184 3.5.2.2.1 Normal configuration with 4 TX antennas...........................184 3.5.2.2.2 Normal configuration with less than 4 TX antennas...........185

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INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

Table of Content
3.5.2.2.3 Extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing.....185 3.5.2.2.4 Extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing for MBSFN..............................................................................................185 3.5.2.2.5 Extended configuration with 7.5 kHz subcarrier spacing for MBSFN..............................................................................................185

3.5.3 Power Control Principle (PUSCH)...........................................186


3.5.4.1 The Transmission Diversity Problem...........................................188 3.5.4.1.1 Receive diversity.................................................................188 3.5.4.1.2 Unsuccessful transmit diversity...........................................189 3.5.4.2 AAS in LTE............................................................................190 3.5.4.2.1 Practical Exercise: Draw the Antenna Diagram of AAS......192 3.5.4.3 CDD.............................................................................................194 3.5.4.3.1 Delay diversity.....................................................................194 3.5.4.3.2 Cyclic delay diversity...........................................................194 3.5.4.3.3 Cyclic delay diversity and MIMO.........................................195 3.5.4.4 SFBC...........................................................................................196 3.5.4.4.1 Space Frequency Block Codes...........................................197 3.5.4.4.2 Space Time Block Codes....................................................197 3.5.4.5 MIMO...........................................................................................198 3.5.4.5.1 MIMO and AAS combined = multiple rank beamforming....199 3.5.4.5.2 When MIMO fails................................................................199 3.5.4.6 The Codebook.............................................................................200 3.5.4.6.1 Optimum beamforming weights..........................................201 3.5.4.6.2 Signaling of sub-optimum beamforming weights................201

3.5.5 Initial Cell Search ...................................................................202


3.5.5.1 Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signals........................202 3.5.5.2 Procedure....................................................................................204

3.5.6 Random Access......................................................................206


3.5.6.1 PRACH Structure Format 0.........................................................206 3.5.6.2 Random Access Procedure.........................................................208

3.5.7 Inter Cell Interference Mitigation.............................................210


3.5.7.1 Traditional frequency reuse in LTE..............................................210 3.5.7.1.1 Frequency reuse bigger than 1...........................................211 3.5.7.1.2 Frequency reuse 1 with low initial load...............................211 3.5.7.1.3 Frequency reuse 1 strongly increased load........................211 3.5.7.1.4 Frequency reuse 1 after the party....................................211 3.5.7.2 Fractional Frequency Reuse with Intercell Interference Coordination............................................................................................212

3.6 UE Classes..........................................................................214
3.6.1 Overview.................................................................................214
3.6.1.1 Classes 1-4..................................................................................214 3.6.1.2 UE class 5...................................................................................215

3.6.2 Calculation of the DL Peak Throughput for LTE UE Class 5...216

The Higher Layers of E-UTRAN...........................................219


4.1 Overview.............................................................................220
4.1.1 E-UTRAN Architecture Control Plane.....................................220 4.1.2 E-UTRAN Architecture User Plane.........................................222

4.2 Features of MAC.................................................................224


4.2.1 Overview.................................................................................224
4.2.1.1 Data transfer logical channels transport channels..............224 4.2.1.2 Radio resource allocation............................................................224

INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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LTE from A-Z


4.2.2 MAC Random Access Procedure............................................226
4.2.2.1 Contention based random access procedure..............................226 4.2.2.2 Non-contention based random access procedure.......................227

4.2.3 Structure of MAC-PDU............................................................228


4.2.3.1 MAC control element...................................................................229 4.2.3.2 Normal MAC SDU.......................................................................229

4.2.4 MAC Control Elements............................................................230


4.2.4.1 Contention resolution ID..............................................................231 4.2.4.2 Timing Advance...........................................................................231 4.2.4.3 DRX.............................................................................................231 4.2.4.4 Padding.......................................................................................231 4.2.4.5 Short, long and truncated buffer status reports...........................231

4.3 Features of RLC.................................................................232


4.3.1 Overview.................................................................................232
4.3.1.1 Data transfer................................................................................232 4.3.1.2 Error detection and recovery.......................................................232 4.3.1.3 Reset...........................................................................................233

4.3.2 Structure of RLC PDU.............................................................234 4.3.3 Structure of RLC AM with PDCP PDU Segments...................236

4.4 Features of PDCP...............................................................238


4.4.1 Overview.................................................................................238
4.4.1.1 RoHC...........................................................................................238 4.4.1.2 Numbering of PDCP PDUs.........................................................238 4.4.1.3 In-sequence delivery of PDUs....................................................238 4.4.1.4 Duplicate deletion........................................................................238 4.4.1.5 Encryption....................................................................................239 4.4.1.6 Integrity Protection.......................................................................239

4.4.2 Structure of PDCP PDU..........................................................240

4.5 Features of RRC.................................................................242


4.5.1 Overview.................................................................................242
4.5.1.1 Transmission of broadcast information........................................243 4.5.1.2 Establish and maintain services..................................................243 4.5.1.3 QoS control..................................................................................243 4.5.1.4 Transfer of dedicated control information....................................243

4.5.2 State Characteristics of RRC..................................................244


4.5.2.1 RRC_IDLE...................................................................................244 4.5.2.2 RRC_CONNECTED....................................................................244

4.6 NAS Protocol States and Transitions...............................246


4.6.1 EMM-DEREGISTERED & ECM-IDLE.....................................246 4.6.2 EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE..........................................246 4.6.3 EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED...........................247

4.7 Mobility...............................................................................248
4.7.1 Mobility Management in the EMM-DEREGISTERED & ECMIDLE State........................................................................................248 4.7.2 Mobility Management in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE State.................................................................................................250 4.7.3 Mobility Management in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECMCONNECTED State.........................................................................252 4.7.4 Inter RAT Mobility Management..............................................254
4.7.4.1 Cell Reselection (EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE).................255 4.7.4.2 Handover (EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED)............255
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Table of Content
4.8 QoS in LTE..........................................................................256
4.8.1 Bearer Architecture.................................................................256 4.8.2 QoS Parameters.....................................................................258
4.8.2.1 ARP.............................................................................................259 4.8.2.2 Label............................................................................................259 4.8.2.3 GBR.............................................................................................259 4.8.2.4 MBR.............................................................................................259 4.8.2.5 AMBR..........................................................................................259

4.8.3 QoS Classes Identifier............................................................260

4.9 Security in LTE...................................................................262

Selected E-UTRAN Scenarios..............................................265


5.1 Initial Context Setup Procedure........................................266 5.2 Tracking Area Update........................................................268
5.1.1 Inter MME tracking area update..............................................268 5.1.2 Intra MME tracking area update..............................................269

5.3 PDP Context Establishment..............................................270 5.4 Intra MME Handover...........................................................274


5.4.1 Practical Exercise: Intra eNB Handover..................................278

5.5 Inter MME Handover...........................................................280 5.6 How a TCP/IP MTU is reaching the UE / the Internet.......284
5.6.1 TCP/IP layer............................................................................284 5.6.2 PDCP layer.............................................................................284 5.6.3 RLC layer................................................................................284 5.6.4 MAC layer...............................................................................285 5.6.5 PHY layer................................................................................285

Solutions for Practical Exercises........................................287

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LTE from A-Z

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Principles and Motivation of LTE

Chapter 1:
Principles and Motivation of LTE

Objectives
Some of your questions that will be answered during this session What is the difference in-between 3G and 4G? What is LTE and why it is introduced in the first place? What are the requirements for LTE and how do they differentiate from those of UMTS? What are the key characteristics of LTEs (E-UTRANs) layer 1 and layer 2/3? How the LTE and SAE (System Architecture Evolution) does evolved mobile radio network look like? How the protocol stacks of the E-UTRAN and its network elements look like? What key development trends are manifested in LTE?

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1.1 Mobile Radio: Comparison between 3G and 4G


1.1.1 Performance and Mobility Management related Issues

The objective of this section is to list the most important performance and mobility management related differences between 3G and 4G mobile radio. Key points of this section are: 1. 4G mobile radio will be strongly focusing on the provision of IP-based bearer services. This will also require IP-based mobility management mechanisms. 2. 4G mobile radio services will not be able to provide IP-based real-time end-to-end services without QoS-aware IP backbone networks. This is an important, yet usually unconsidered constraint.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation ... 4th Generation ... GPRS Mobility Management Internet Key Exchange protocol / version 2 (RFC 4306) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Mobility Management MOBIKE QoS RAN RAT SIP IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming Protocol (RFC 4555) Quality of Service Radio Access Network Radio Access Technology (e.g. GERAN, UTRAN, ...) Session Initiation Protocol (RFC 3261)

3G ... 4G GMM IKEv2 IP MM

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1.1.2 Architecture related Issues

The objective of this section is to list the most important architecture related differences between 3G and 4G mobile radio. Key points of this section are: 1. The independence between core and access network is the basic means to provide for FMC. 2. Many 4G handsets will be multipurpose devices that are not limited to mobile access networks. To a large degree, these handsets will have at least the functionality of todays PDAs.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation ... 4th Generation ... Fixed Mobile Convergence IP PDA Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Personal Digital Assistant

3G ... 4G FMC

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1.1.3 Procedure and Radio related Issues

The objective of this section is to list the most important procedure and radio related differences between 3G and 4G mobile radio. Key points of this section are: 1. The most impressive increased spectral efficiency of 4G mobile radio. 2. The transition away from an access network specific protocol architecture towards an IP-based architecture.

Spectral efficiency is not relating to the peak throughput directly but is giving average usage of the spectrum in the cells. The true unit is bit/s/Hz/cell.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation ... 4th Generation ... Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access SIP UMTS WCDMA Session Initiation Protocol (RFC 3261) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access

3G ... 4G IP OFDMA

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1.2 Requirements on LTE


1.2.1 General Requirements

The objective of this section is to provide the key requirements on LTE. Key points of this section are that LTE is designed for AIPN and for PS services only from the start and that the requirements are very similar to those of WiMAX.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


All IP Network Downlink MHz PS UL Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Packet Switched Uplink

AIPN DL

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network L1 Layer 1 (physical layer)

UTRAN

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (IEEE 802.16)

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

WiMAX

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1.2.1.1 Support of Enhanced Quadruple Play Services Quadruple play services have not only to be followed - also the (quality) enhancements being standardized in 3GPP and the other standardization bodies have to be followed, e.g. conversational QoS VoIP, fast gaming, enhanced MBMS etc. For the UE Mobility speeds of up to 250 km/h should be supported. In a special case implementation up to 500 km/h should be possible. 1.2.1.2 Very High Data Rates @ flexible bandwidth deployment ((1.25) 5 20 MHz) Very high data rates are necessary in order to keep up with the fixed network developments and the other 4G mobile radio standards. Flexible bandwidth is easing the deployment because not everywhere the biggest bandwidth deployment is reasonable or possible. It is open whether 1.25 MHz will be implemented. This is a compatibility issue with LCR. LCR and 1.25 MHz apply for China. 1.2.1.3 AIPN and PS services only The AIPN will make the infrastructure deployment a lot cheaper and easier. Naturally, to use only PS services in an AIPN is the best choice. However, in order to have the same high QoS standards as known from CS services, both the network architecture and the latency requirements in the PS user plane need to be changed. As well an efficient operation of PS service including fast wake up of the UE in RRC_IDLE mode is requiring low latency times in the control plane as well. [3GTR 25.912 (13.2, 13.3), 3GTR 25.814 (7.1.2.4.3), 3GTR 26.913 (5, 7.5), 3GTR 25.912 (7.1.1.4)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) 3rd Generation Technical Report 4th Generation ... All IP Network Circuit Switched Low Chip Rate TDD Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service MHz Mega Hertz (106 Hertz)

3GTR 4G AIPN CS LCR MBMS

PS QoS RRC_ID LE UE VoIP

Packet Switched Quality of Service RRC state User Equipment Voice over IP

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1.2.2 Important Characteristics of LTE Physical Layer 1.2.2.1 General Physical Layer Characteristics

The objectives of this section are to list the key characteristics of the physical layer and to provide understanding about how they relate to the requirements on LTE. Key point of this section is that the LTE layer 1 is dominated by flexibility in all aspects.

1.2.2.1.1 OFDM OFDM is enabling an efficient and low complexity usage of high data rate transmission in a frequency selective channel. In a broadband single carrier system AMC is the less efficient the more bandwidth is used. [3GTR 25.912 (7.1, 7.2), 3GTR 25.912 (5.8, 6.6)]

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1.2.2.1.2 Scalable Bandwidth It is for further study what operating bandwidths are used for TDD below 5 MHz 1.6 and 3.2 MHz will not be used for FDD. [3GTS 36.101 (4.5.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Adaptive Antenna Systems Adaptive Modulation and Coding Downlink MIMO OFDM OFDMA Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

3GTR 3GTS AAS AMC DL

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access TDD UE Time Division Duplex User Equipment

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network FDD LTE Frequency Division Duplex Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

UL UTRAN

Uplink UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

MBMS MHz

Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service Mega Hertz (106 Hertz)

eNB

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1.2.2.1.3 Smart Antenna Technology Especially MIMO Technologies and SDMA (beam forming) technology have to be mentioned here. These technologies are allowing reuse of the transmission capacity of the given radio channel several times and are the preconditions for very high data rates. [3GTR 25.912 (5.3.3, 5.3.4)] 1.2.2.1.4 Fast scheduling and AMC As known from HSPA, LTE will also perform fast scheduling and HARQ. The difference with respect to HSPA will be that these processes run much faster. LTE offers a HARQ RTT of only 5 ms. AMC will be used for both UL and DL with more variants of modulation schemes than HSPA. In contrast to HSPA a shared channel is used in the UL. [3GTR 25.912 (7.1.2)] 1.2.2.1.5 No Soft(er) handover Since there will be no RNCs, currently no soft handover will be used for LTE. Instead of the soft handover the eNBs coordinate their interference amongst each other. In order to reach the same benefits as the missing soft handover this interference coordination will be utilized in a self organizing network such that the interference amongst the eNBs is kept at a minimum. [3GTR 25.912 (7.1.1.4, 11.2.5)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report Adaptive Modulation and Coding Downlink Hybrid ARQ MIMO RNC RTT SDMA Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Radio Network Controller Round Trip Time Space Division Multiple Access Uplink Enhanced Node B

3GTR AMC DL HARQ HSPA LTE

High Speed Packet Access (operation UL of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) eNB

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1.2.3.2 OFDM/OFDMA

The objective of this section is to show how OFDM technology is combining the benefits of narrowband systems with the benefits of wideband systems by means of orthogonal frequency multiplexing technology. Key point of this section is that OFDM is combining the advantages of narrowband systems simple receiver with the advantage of wideband systems high

1.2.3.2.1 Traditional narrowband communication All mobile radio signals experience distortions at the boundaries of their symbols. This is due various delayed versions of the transmitted signal that are received with different delays and are thus overlapping at the symbol boundaries. The nature of traditional narrowband communication is that the symbols are very long compared to the distortion zone in-between their symbols. In the useful time of the received symbol the modulated content of the symbol can be demodulated. The advantage of this scheme is that no complex equalizer is needed in order to detect these narrowband signals

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1.2.3.2.2 Problems for wideband signals Unfortunately this scheme cannot be used for wideband signals directly since then the symbol duration is limited by the maximum expected length of the distortion zone. 1.2.3.2.3 OFDM OFDM is a wideband system using many orthogonal narrowband carries in order to perform a simple receive processing on each of these carriers. Orthogonality is achieved by means of having an equal distance in-between the individual carriers. This frequency spacing is the inverse useful symbol duration. Thus OFDM can allow for both a wideband signal for high data rate transmission and an easy detection mechanism. In the picture Orthogonality can be seen by the fact that at the position of the main lobe of each subcarriers spectrum there is a zero crossing of the other subcarriers spectra. 1.2.3.2.4 OFDM and OFDMA Both OFDM and OFDMA are using OFDM technology. The difference is: OFDMA The OFDMA transmitter is mapping signals dedicated to more than one receiver on the OFDM carriers. OFDM OFDM alone is using all the transmitted carriers for a single receiver. 1.2.3.2.5 LTE and OFDM LTE is using OFDMA technology in the DL and single carrier technology in the UL. However the UL signals look like OFDM signals. This method is allowing an easy equalization in the frequency domain before the UL signals are demodulated in the time domain. [3GTR 25.912 (7.1, 7.2)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report Downlink Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) OFDM OFDMA UL Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Uplink

3GTR DL LTE

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1.2.3.3 Smart Antenna Technology in LTE 1.2.3.3.1 Categorization of Smart Antenna Technologies

The objective of this section is to clarify the different terms which are used in the context of multiple antenna techniques Key point of this section is that the terms single in / out or multiple-in / out have to be interpreted from the perspective of the channel between TX and RX. Therefore, a system with two RX-antennas and one TX-antenna is a SIMO

Image Description The image illustrates a system which consists of a transmitter (TX) and a receiver (RX). Both, transmitter and receiver may deploy one or multiple antennas to send information into the channel or to receive information from that channel. Depending on the number of antennas, the different configurations SISO, MISO, SIMO and MIMO have to be distinguished

1.2.3.3.1.1 SISO SISO-systems do not really belong in this section but need to be mentioned for completeness. SISO-systems deploy only one TX- and one RX-antenna which excludes them from the group of multiple antennas techniques with their enhanced capabilities. 1.2.3.3.1.2 SIMO SIMO-systems have been around for quite some time. SIMO-systems apply receive diversity schemes and typically soft decision and maximum ratio combining (MRC) to counteract poor multipath conditions at a single antenna.

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One important implementation example for a receive diversity scheme is the GSM-uplink receive diversity: The MS uses a single TX-antenna but typically, the BS has two receive antennas

1.2.3.3.1.3 MISO The opposite cases to the aforementioned one are MISO-systems. Two or more TX-antennas are used to apply transmit diversity schemes towards a single RXantenna. One important implementation example for a transmit diversity scheme is Space-Time-Coding (STC) which will be represented in a later section. Another example are beamforming techniques which will also be elaborated in more detail in a later section.

1.2.3.3.1.4 MIMO MIMO-systems are characterized by deploying both: Two or more TX-antennas and two or more RX-antennas. MIMO-systems may or may not incorporate the receive and transmit diversity schemes of SIMO- and MISO-systems, respectively.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Base Station (IEEE 802.16) Global System for Mobile Communication Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Multiple In / Single Out (antenna system) Maximum Ratio Combining Mobile Station RX SIMO SISO STC TX Receive Single In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Single In / Single Out (antenna system) Space Time Coding Transmit

BS GSM MIMO MISO MRC MS

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1.2.3.3.2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

The objective of this section to visualize the key features of MIMO technology in a very simple way. Key points of this section are the efficiency of MIMO comes with the expense of equalization:
1. that MIMO is enabling a multiplication of the data rate possible on the same radio frequency 2. that this increase comes at the expense of additional complexity. Image Description This picture is showing a comparison of multiple carrier technology with MIMO technology

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Green and red bits are symbolizing the two data streams at the transmitter. The pipes are symbolizing the mobile radio channels of the two carriers. The buckets are symbolizing the output of the initial detector at the receiver. The two guys are conveying the key messages.

1.2.3.3.2.1 Multiple carrier technology For the multiple carrier transmission scheme the input data need first to be separated to two data streams. Each of the data streams could be able to completely occupy the individual carrier. Each of the shown two carriers is treated individually as if only one carrier would be transmitted. Multiple carrier technology is known for a very long time even though the digital signal processing is very simple the challenge of multiple carrier technology lies in the RF. This is why these days not that much multiple carrier technology is implemented (except for OFDM systems of course). 1.2.3.3.2.2 MIMO MIMO is as well using a serial to parallel converter in order to create separate data streams. The difference here is that not multiple carriers but multiple antennas are used in TX and RX in order to create more max. throughput or signals for more users. With e.g. N antennas for TX and N antennas for RX (N x N) the data rate could be enhanced by N times. Since each receive antenna is receiving the signals from both transmitters in the general case the mobile radio channel is mixing up the two data streams. This means that the receiver has to separate these mixed data streams from each other. Since N data streams have to be separated the receiver has to receive N different versions of the N data stream signals. This is why N receive antennas are needed. This data separation might add quite significant effort in the receivers digital signal processing. Since with MIMO now the data rate on a single carrier is multiplied, it becomes very tempting for 4G to implement MIMO nevertheless. MIMO add a new dimension to mobile radio: Instead of frequency space is used.

Abbreviations of this Section:


4th Generation ... Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing RF RX TX Radio Frequency Receive Transmit

4G MIMO OFDM

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1.2.3.3.3 Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS)

The objective of this section to show key features and key benefits of AAS. Key point of this section is that AAS is both improving the signal quality and is reducing the interference in the system by means of weighing various TX antennas signals with different antenna weights.

Image Description The top half of the picture is showing the generation of the signal for UE 1 in an AAS scenario with two antennas. The lower half of the picture is showing how the signal for UE 1 is perceived by UE 2.

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1.2.3.3.3.1 Signal generation In the upper part the physical setup the signal generation is shown. At first the user signal is created as if there were no AAS. Then the signal is copied two times (once for each antenna) and is then multiplied with a user dependent weighing factor for each antenna. In the case of this picture the two weighing factors are both 1. In an AAS system the antennas are usually very close together: Typically half the wave length is chosen in order to perform beamforming. 1.2.3.3.3.2 Constructive superimposition at the intended receiver In the picture the weighing coefficients are chosen in a way that the two antennas radio signals are superimposing constructively at the position of the UE. One benefit of the AAS is that the TX energy is bundled in the direction of the UEs the signal is intended for. For realistic AAS more than 2 antennas are situated in a line (linear antenna array) or on a circle (circular antenna array). 1.2.3.3.3.3 Destructive superimposition at the not intended receiver UE2 is located below the two antennas. Here the signal of antenna 1 has traveled exactly half a wavelength longer than the signal of antenna 2. This has the consequence that it always has a phase shift of 180 degrees compared with the signal of antenna 2. This leads to a complete destruction of the two antennas signals. Here the benefit of AAS of interference reduction is shown very well. What would happen once one of the two antennas is switched off? How to achieve that that the AAS is radiating the signal towards UE2? 1.2.3.3.3.4 Generation of signals for multiple UEs Each UE will have its own signal generated with its own weighing factors. After the weighing process for each UE the signals are added up before they reach the TX antennas. This feature is very important for AASs application in modern mobile radio systems where multiple signals for multiple UEs are transmitted on the individual radio carrier.

Room for your Note

Abbreviations of this Section:


Adaptive Antenna Systems Transmit UE User Equipment

AAS TX

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1.2.3.4 Macro Diversity exploitation by SFN

The objective of this section is to illustrate how the SFN basically works. Key point of this section is that SFN transmitting the same signals synchronously by multiple eNBs in order to provide macro diversity.

Image Description This picture is comparing SFN with a choir: The core network is the conductor, the eNBs are the choir members, and the UEs are the audience.

1.2.3.4.1 Requirements for MBMS services Since the signals for MBMS are multicast it is difficult to direct or tune them to the individual UEs mobile radio channels. They have to be broadcast. Even though here MIMO is applicable many other methods like power control, AAS, etc. cannot be applied. This is why it would be very advantageous if some kind of macro diversity could be exploited in order to enhance the quality of MBMS to a similar level as for the point to point services. 1.2.3.4.2 MBMS operation with a SFN Like in a choir the core network is distributing the same piece of data to a multitude of eNBs. The eNBs are drawn as choir members. In a choir all the members have to sing synchronously and with the same voice. In an OFDM system SFN can be applied easily provided that all the eNBs are synchronized and that they are transmitting exactly the same bits on exactly the same subcarriers. Then the UEs cannot distinguish whether the signal is coming from one or from several eNBs and macro diversity is exploited automatically.

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This benefit, however, comes at a price: Like the conductor does with the choir, the mobile radio network needs to coordinate precisely within the eNBs. 1.2.3.4.3 SFN for point to point services Imagine an individual person is listening to a choir presentation alone. Then the ticket would be quite expensive. In the same way the aforementioned coordination overhead is limiting the use of SFN for point to point services. Features like soft handover are not intended by LTE especially this can be seen from the network architecture. [3GTR 25.912 (7.1.1.4, 13.9)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Adaptive Antenna Systems Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) OFDM SFN UE eNB Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Single Frequency Network User Equipment Enhanced Node B

AAS LTE MBMS MIMO

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1.2.3.5 The Frequency Bands Intended for LTE

The objective of this section is to show how LTE will use the available frequency bands. Key point of this section is that LTE and UTRA compete for the same frequency bands.
Table Description These tables are showing the frequency bands foreseen for FDD and TDD. On purpose they are identical to the frequency bands for UMTS - UTRA. Since of the frequency bands are also foreseen for other standards e.g. band 7 and 12 might/will also be used for WiMAX, LTE is both competing with other standards and with UTRA about the frequency bands.

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Obviously 6 bits will be used for signaling of the frequency bands later on. Thus the lower 32 band numbers are used for FDD and the higher 32 band numbers are used for TDD bands. There is a work item to introduce LTE in the 3.5 GHz band. [3GTS 36.101 (5.2)] Possibly the following options can be used for the frequency allocation by the country individual regulators and operators: 1.2.3.5.1 Exclusive usage Here the regulator decides to mandate a certain mobile radio standard to be used on this frequency (band), e.g. LTE. These days usually this decision is left up to the operators owning this frequency. 1.2.3.5.2 Refarming The frequency band is previously operated with another standard e.g. UTRA and the operator decides to use LTE instead. Also both systems LTE and UMTS might be operated in the operators band. Here they will use different carriers. Another possibility is the license for this frequency band is running out and the regulator is allocating a new operator to this frequency band. 1.2.3.5.3 Licensed operation A frequency band is given to an operator and this operator decides how it is used. 1.2.3.5.4 Unlicensed operation A frequency band is not belonging to anybody and everybody can use it provided the rules set by the regulator are adhered to. Handovers will be difficult in this scenario. In any case unlicensed bands do not allow for a mobile radio operation as known from the licensed bands. What is the maximum width of the consecutive bands an operator might get? WiMAX is aiming to use the 3.5 GHz bands as well. This indicates that higher frequency will also be an option for LTE as well. Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report Downlink Frequency Division Duplex Giga Hertz (109 Hertz) TDD UL UMTS UTRA Time Division Duplex Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (IEEE 802.16)

3GTR DL FDD GHz

LTE MHz

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mega Hertz (106 Hertz)

WiMAX

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1.2.3.6 Flexible Bandwidths, Parameters

The objectives of this section are - to show how the bandwidth of both the network and the terminal can be used flexibly - to list what deployment scenarios are resulting from this flexibility to show where to find the SCH and the BCH to enable the UE to log on the cell. Key point of this section is there are many constraints to deploy LTE at its full capability using 20 MHz.

Image Description On the left hand side of this picture the different applicable bandwidths of LTE are shown. Unlike for UTRAN there is no fixed bandwidth intended to be applied in the whole network. Instead there is a set of 4 bandwidths to choose from.

On the right hand side the basic trade-offs of the application scenarios are visualized. Now the problem arises that regardless of the chosen bandwidth in the network every UE regardless its capability restrictions (not only bandwidth) - should be able to use that cell and should be able to camp on this cell. This is achieved by two measures: 1.2.3.6.1 Fixed subcarrier separation The subcarrier separation is fixed either to 15 kHz (normal configuration) or to 7.5 kHz (extended configuration for lower UE mobility and broadcast-like operation). This is resulting for a different amount of used carriers for each of the 4 bandwidths. Due to the fixed subcarrier separation all the UEs can use at least a subset of the subcarriers regardless how big their bandwidths is.

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1.2.3.6.2 Usage of carriers in the middle of the bandwidth for PBCH and synchronization signals In the middle of the bandwidth always the same number of consecutive carriers is used for carrying PBCH and primary/secondary synchronization signals. This is enabling the UEs to synchronize on the cells and to read the PBCH in the middle of the subcarrier range. Of course the UE is not in need to tune its subcarriers always to the middle. Once it gets assigned other subcarriers it does not need to read the PBCH and will tune to the sub-carriers assigned. Since the same frequency bands as UTRA are used, the center frequency of the cells can vary to any center frequency in the well-known 200 kHz grid. [3GTR 25.912 (10.1), 3GTR 25.813 (9.1.1), 3GTR 25.814 (7.1.1, 7.1.2.4.3)] In any case the RF front end of any UE has to support 20 MHz bandwidth. This is a tough constraint for the implementation of the UE.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) 3rd Generation Technical Report UE User Equipment

3GPP

3GTR

UTRA

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

UTRAN

MHz PBCH

Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Physical Broadcast Channel

kHz

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1.2.3.6.3 Deployment Scenarios The right hand side of the picture is showing the application scenarios of LTE. Reviewing the size of the FDD and TDD frequency bands foreseen for LTE and the current allocation of these frequency bands to the operators, it is less likely that an operator gets allocated a consecutive band of 20 MHz. Even if it gets this bandwidth it is likely that it only has 20 MHz - then at a given location the operator can only use a single 20 MHz carrier. This is imposing some restrictions on the usage of LTE at is full capability. It is more likely that 20 MHz bandwidth can be used 1. The smaller the cells are. Pico cells usually are well shielded from the surrounding macro cells and thus can be used at 20 MHz bandwidth without a penalty in the surrounding macro cells. 2. The higher the carrier frequency becomes Since there is not that much opportunity in the bands noted in the tables above, the operators might need to wait to deploy LTE at its full capability in frequency bands having a higher carrier frequency than e.g. 3 GHz and are not assigned yet. These bands are broader than the bands listed above. Unfortunately due to the constraints of the radio propagation these bands only allow for less mobility and less range. LTE needs a bandwidth of 20 MHz in order to provide the peak data rates of 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink.

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Frequency Division Duplex Giga Hertz (109 Hertz) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) MHz TDD Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Time Division Duplex

FDD GHz LTE

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1.2.4 Important Characteristics of the LTE Layer 2 and 3

The objective of this section is to illustrate the key differences of the LTE layer 2 and 3 compared to the legacy UMTS systems. Key point of this section is the simplification of layer 2 and layer 3 in LTE goes that far that the RNC has been removed.
1.2.4.1 Support of the new LTE L1 Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.2.4.2 Simple IP centric protocols supporting AIPN The consequent tuning towards simple protocols suitable for an AIPN is involving quite radical changes such as removal of the RNC, an eNB covering L1/2/3 completely, and the abandoning of the soft handover concept. The concept of selforganizing networks will replace the soft handover. There are only 2 RRC states in LTE. - 32 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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1.2.4.3 Support of various inter RAT handovers (GSM, UTRA, etc.) Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. [3GTR 25.912 (8, 9.1, 9.3)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report All IP Network Global System for Mobile Communication Handover Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Layer 1 (physical layer) Layer 2 (data link layer) MM RAT RNC RRC SM UMTS UTRA Mobility Management Radio Access Technology (e.g. GERAN, UTRAN, ...) Radio Network Controller Radio Resource Control Session Management (3GTS 23.060, 3GTS 24.008) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Enhanced Node B

3GTR AIPN GSM HO IP L1 L2

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

eNB

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1.3 LTE and System Architecture Evolution (SAE)


1.3.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the LTE radio access network elements and the new SAE EPC network elements. Key point of this section that LTE is going together with very significant changes in the core as well.

Image Description In the picture the LTE and SAE network is shown. Here the radical change in the network architecture becomes obvious. 1.3.1.1 Missing RNC Since a RNC would have obstructed short latency times and a high quality of service it has been removed and its functionality is now distributed in-between EPC and eNB.

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1.3.1.2 Interconnected eNBs The X2 interface is interconnecting the eNBs. One might think that the X2 interface is like the Iur interface. Even though the inter eNB handovers are negotiated using the X2 interface during the handover it is only transferring the data in the buffer from the source eNB to the target eNB. Continuous payload exchange and a soft handover are not foreseen. Instead the inter cell interference coordination for a self-organizing network is done on the X2 interface.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


PCRF Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (3GTS 23.203) (Rel. 7 onwards) Packet Data Network Packet Switched Public Switched Telephone Network Radio Network Controller System Architecture Evolution Serving GPRS Support Node

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network EPC EPS GERAN GGSN GW HSS Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Evolved Packet System GSM EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Home Subscriber Server (3GTS 23.002). HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5

PDN PS PSTN RNC SAE SGSN

IMS LTE

Internet Protocol Multimedia Core SGi Network Subsystem (Rel. 5 onwards) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) UTRAN

Reference Point in LTE UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

MME

Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

eNB

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1.3.1.3 Separate entities for user plane and control plane in the EPC Like in the UTRAN in the CS domain now also the EPC is separating control plane and user plane. 1.3.1.4 Combined Serving Gateway and MME Optionally the Serving Gateway and the MME can be united in one entity. Then the S11 interface need not to be implemented. 1.3.1.5 Combined Serving and PDN Gateways Optionally the Serving Gateway and the PDN Gateway can be united in one entity. Then the S5 interface needs not to be implemented. 1.3.1.6 S1-flex Like the Iu-flex feature in UMTS there is a S1-flex feature in SAE. With this feature the eNBs can be connected to different MMEs and Serving Gateways also including the core networks of other operators using the regarded E-UTRAN as well. 1.3.1.7 Used legacy elements The SGSN, HSS, and the network elements right of the PDN Gateway are legacy elements. The PCRF is a R7 core network element. 1.3.1.8 Roaming case In the roaming case the VPLMN is connecting to the HSS, PDN Gateway, PCRF, IMS, PDN, etc. of the HPLMN. 1.3.1.9 Direct Tunnel The optional S12 is used between UTRAN and Serving GW for user plane tunneling when a Direct Tunnel is established. 1.3.1.10 EPS, EPC, E-UTRAN & LTE, SAE The names LTE and SAE describe standardization processes for the RAN and the core network respectively. They are more of marketing nature soon they will disappear from the specifications. E-UTRAN, EPC, and EPS are official standardization terms in the specifications and describe the RAN, the core and the unity of RAN and core respectively. [3GTS 23.203 (6.2.1), 3GTS 23.401, 3GTR 25.912 (9)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Circuit Switched LTE MME PCRF Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (3GTS 23.203) (Rel. 7 onwards) Packet Data Network

3GTR 3GTS CS

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network eNB EPC EPS GW HPLMN Enhanced Node B Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Evolved Packet System Gateway Home Public Land Mobile radio Network Home Subscriber Server (3GTS 23.002). HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5 Internet Protocol Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (Rel. 5 onwards)

PDN

RAN SAE SGSN UMTS UTRAN

Radio Access Network System Architecture Evolution Serving GPRS Support Node Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Visited Public Land Mobile radio Network

HSS

VPLMN

IMS

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1.3.2 The eNB

The objective of this section is to provide the key functions of the eNB. Key point of this section is that the eNB is having most of the functions of the RNC in a UTRAN network.
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1.3.2.1 Selection of MME at attachment Since there is the S1-flex feature more than one MME can be connected to the same eNB. The eNB select which MME it connects the UE to according to the load situation and the operator the UE belongs to. 1.3.2.2 Scheduling of paging messages Once the UE is in the idle state there are neither location areas nor routing areas but tracking areas. Then the UE needs to be paged on TA level. The TA is having a function like the URA but is also replacing LA and RA.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Acknowledged Mode operation Downlink Gateway Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Layer 1 (physical layer) Location Area Medium Access Control Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Packet Data Convergence Protocol Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Routing Area RNC RRC RRM SAE TA TM UE UL UM URA UTRAN Radio Network Controller Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management System Architecture Evolution Tracking Area Transparent Mode operation User Equipment Uplink Unacknowledged Mode operation UTRAN Registration Area UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

AM DL GW IP L1 LA MAC MME PDCP PDU RA

RLC

Radio Link Control

eNB

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1.3.2.3 Routing of user plane data to Serving GW It is for further study which node is establishing the user plane tunnel and whether it is established at RRC establishment. 1.3.2.4 PDCP Please note here that PDCP is used for both control and user plane. In UTRAN there is no PDCP in the control plane. 1.3.2.5 RRM/RRC The RRC is issuing commands executing the decisions of the RRM. 1.3.2.6 RLC Since L1 RLC and MAC are in the eNB there is the possibility to adapt the RLC-PDU size flexibly to the transport block size in MAC. 1.3.2.7 MAC Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.3.2.8 Complete L1 functionality See layer 1 sections. [3GTS 36.300 (4.1), 3GTR 25.912 (9)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Gateway Layer 1 (physical layer) Medium Access Control Integrated Services Digital Network PDU RLC RRC RRM SAE UTRAN Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Radio Link Control Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management System Architecture Evolution UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS GW L1 MAC ISDN

PDCP

Packet Data Convergence Protocol

eNB

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1.3.3 The MME

The objective of this section is to provide the key functions of the mobility management entity. Key points of this section are that the SGSN is separated in user plane entity and control plane entity and that the MME is performing all control plane activities representing the EPC towards the E-UTRAN.

1.3.3.1 NAS signalling Once the UE is idle but stays registered the MME keeps the context of the UE in order to allow for a fast reconnection. 1.3.3.2 Inter CN node signaling (3GPP networks) The MME is interconnecting to the SGSN and the HSS as well as to the Serving GW and it has the responsibility to select the right code network nodes especially in a handover situation. 1.3.3.3 Security management Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. [3GTS 23.401 (4.4.2), 3GTS 36.300 (4.1)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) 3rd Generation Technical Specification Core Network Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Gateway Home Subscriber Server (3GTS 23.002). HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5 MME Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

3GTS CN EPC GW HSS

NAS SAE SGSN UE UTRAN

Non-Access-Stratum System Architecture Evolution Serving GPRS Support Node User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

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1.3.4 The Serving GW

The objective of this section is to provide the key functions of the Serving GW. Key point of this section is that the Serving GW is performing all user plane activities representing the EPC towards the E-UTRAN.

1.3.4.1 Termination of U-plane packets for paging reasons Once data is arriving in the downlink and the UE is in EMM-REGISTERED & ECMIDLE then the Serving Gateway is initiating the paging procedure before forwarding the data packets further. 1.3.4.2 Support of UE mobility anchoring by switching U-plane during inter eNB handover At any time each UE has just one Serving GW. Once the UE does not leave the zone of the Serving GW the Serving GW stays the same (anchoring).

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1.3.4.3 Transport Packet Marking According to QCI The marking of the packets is helping the eNB to reinforce the right QoS. 1.3.4.4 Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP mobility It terminates the S4 interface towards the SGSN for 2G/3G traffic. 1.3.4.5 Packet routing and forwarding In handover situations involving different code network entities the packets need to be forward to the target Serving GW before the handover is complete. 1.3.4.6 Charging support Nothing to be added to what is stated above. 1.3.4.7 Lawful interception The Serving GW has to support tapping the user plane for lawful interception purposes. [3GTS 23.401 (4.4.3.2), 3GTS 36.300 (4.1)] Abbreviations of this Section:
Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) 3rd Generation Technical Specification SAE System Architecture Evolution

3GPP

3GTS

SGSN UE

Serving GPRS Support Node User Equipment

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTERED state for non active packet & ECM-IDLE transmission EPC Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Gateway QoS Classes Identifier

UTRAN

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

GW QCI

eNB

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1.3.5 The PDN GW

The objective of this section is to provide the key functions of the Packet Data Network GW. Key point of this section is that the PDN GWs difference to the Serving GW is that this PDN GW is directed towards the PDN, IMS, PSTN and service related core network entities, whereas the Serving GW has a clear direction towards the E-UTRAN.

1.3.5.1 Termination towards of PDNs If the UE using more than one PDN it may use more than one PDN GW. Once the UE connects to a PDN GW for a service then it stays connected to this PDN GW as long as the service is consumed. 1.3.5.2 Policy enforcement Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.3.5.3 Charging support For users visiting the network the charging policies may be downloaded from its home PLMN.

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1.3.5.4 DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 functions The PDN GW will provide the IP addresses to the UEs. [3GTR 23.882 (7.2.2), 3GTS 23.401 (4.4.3.3), 3GTS 36.300 (4.1)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Version 4 (RFC 2131) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Version 6 (RFC 3315) Gateway PLMN PSTN QCI SGi UE Public Land Mobile Network Public Switched Telephone Network QoS Classes Identifier Reference Point in LTE User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

3GTR 3GTS DHCPv4 DHCPv6 GW IMS

Internet Protocol Multimedia Core UTRAN Network Subsystem (Rel. 5 onwards) Packet Data Network

PDN

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1.3.6 Identifiers of the UE and the Network Elements

The objective of this section is to provide a list of the most relevant IDs in the LTE RAN and in the SAE network and to emphasize the importance of the IDs for a packet centric protocol stack. Key point of this section is that the ID concept of LTE is very close to UMTS even though some IDs have changed.
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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier MNC PLMN Mobile Network Code Public Land Mobile Network

C-RNTI

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network eNB EPS GUMMEI GUTI ID IMEI IMSI LTE M-TMSI MCC MME MMEC MMEGI Enhanced Node B Evolved Packet Switched Global Unique MME Identity Global Unique Terminal Identity Identity International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) MME - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Mobile Country Code Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) MME Code MME Group Identity

P-RNTI RA-RNTI RAN S-TMSI S1-AP SAE SI-RNTI TAC TAI TMSI UE UMTS UTRAN

Paging - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Radio Access Network SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution System Information - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Tracking Area Code Timing Advance Index Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

MMEI

MME Identity

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1.3.6.1 PLMN ID Like in UTRAN multiple operators can share the same E-UTRAN. Consequently more than 1 PLMN ID (MCC + MNC) can be signaled. 1.3.6.2 EPS Bearer ID An EPS bearer ID uniquely identifies an EPS bearer for one UE accessing via EUTRAN. 1.3.6.3 MMEI The MMEI provides a unique ID for identifying the MME during RRC connection establishment. It is constructed using the MMEGI identifying the group of MMEs and the MMEC being the code of the MME within these groups. 1.3.6.4 GUMMEI The GUMMEI is the global unique ID if the MME it is adding MCC and MNC to the MMEI. 1.3.6.5 Physical Cell ID This ID is related to the choice of the primary and secondary synchronization signals and scrambling codes of the cell. 1.3.6.6 eNB/cell ID The exact definition of the eNB or cell ID is for further study at the point of time this training manual has been written. The eNB ID might be used in order to identify the old eNB after handover for better handover handling. The cell ID will also be used in the cell update procedure. 1.3.6.7 TAI Each cell can be allocated only to one TAI even though the TAI of different cells belonging to the same eNB can be different. The TAI is replacing both URA ID, LAI, and RAI. Similar as the LAI the TAI is constructed using MCC, MNC, and TAC. 1.3.6.8 C-RNTI The C-RNTI is identifying the RRC connection uniquely on cell level. It is replacing the H-RNTI for HSDPA and the E-RNTI for HSUPA. 1.3.6.9 RA-RNTI The RA-RNTI is used during some transient states, the UE is temporarily identified with a random value for contention resolution purposes. 1.3.6.10 SI-RNTI The SI-RNTI is used in order to identity paging groups on the BCCH mapped on the DL-SCH. 1.3.6.11 P-RNTI The P-RNTI is used in order to identity paging groups on the PCH mapped on the PDSCH. 1.3.6.12 Random Value During random access the UE is using a random ID for contention resolution.

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Abbreviations of this Section


Broadcast Control Channel Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Downlink Shared Channel E-DCH Radio Network Temporary Identifier (3GTS 25.401) MMEI MNC P-RNTI PCH PDSCH MME Identity Mobile Network Code Paging - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Paging Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel

BCCH C-RNTI DL-SCH E-RNTI

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network eNB EPS GUMMEI H-RNTI HSDPA Enhanced Node B Evolved Packet System Global Unique MME Identity HS-DSCH Radio Network Transaction Identifier (3GTS 25.331, 25.433) High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) High Speed Uplink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.309, 25.401, 3GTR 25.896) Identity Location Area Identification (LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC) Mobile Country Code Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) MME Code

PLMN RA-RNTI RAI RRC SCH

Public Land Mobile Network Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Routing Area Identification Radio Resource Control Synchronization Channel

HSUPA

SI-RNTI

System Information - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Tracking Area Code Timing Advance Index User Equipment UTRAN Registration Area UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

ID LAI MCC MME MMEC

TAC TAI UE URA UTRAN

MMEGI

MME Group Identity

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1.3.6.13 IMSI, S-TMSI, and IMEI Used as in 3GPP 2G and 3G. S-TMSI is using the M-TMSI which is identifying the UE in the MME. The S-TMSI is replacing TMSI and P-TMSI in 2G and 3G networks. IMSI and IMEI are used as in UTRAN. 1.3.6.14 GUTI The GUTI is a temporary ID. It is used to support subscriber identity confidentiality, and, in the shortened S-TMSI form, to enable more efficient radio signaling procedures (e.g. paging and Service Request). 1.3.6.15 eNB S1-AP UE ID and MME S1-AP UE ID The eNB S1-AP UE ID and MME S1-AP UE ID are temporary IDs which are identifying the UE in the S1-MME in the eNB or MME respectively. [3GTS 23.401 (5.2), 3GTR 25.813 (5.6), 3GTS 36.300 (8)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section


Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) 3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Enhanced Node B Global Unique Terminal Identity Identity International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity M-TMSI MME - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

3GPP

3GTR 3GTS eNB GUTI ID IMEI IMSI

MME P-TMSI S-TMSI S1-AP TMSI UE UTRAN

Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Packet TMSI SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity S1 Application Part Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

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1.4 The E-UTRAN Protocol Stack


1.4.1 Control Plane Protocol Stack

The objective of this section is to visualize the control plane protocol stack of the various network elements and interfaces of LTE. Key point of this section is the control plane protocol stack structure of LTE is combining the AIPN protocol stack and the air-interface protocol stack of UMTS.

Image Description This picture is showing the control plane protocol stack of E-UTRAN. More or less the control plane is exhibiting the same structure as the protocols known from UTRAN with an AIPN.

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1.4.1.1 Air Interface protocols Even though the individual protocol layer may differ significantly due to the new air interface, names and structure are retained from UTRAN. Here also the RRM is shown which is determining the configurations and channel settings transmitted in the RRC messages. What is new here is the allocation of protocol entities on the network elements. In particular the eNB has now a complete set of L2 and L3 protocols. Since the NAS and the AS messaging will be ciphered the PDCP protocol has also been introduced for the control plane in LTE. Since all the transport channels are shared the scheduler in the eNB has to be implemented with special care. There is a similar concept like in UTRAN for SRBs but details are not specified yet.

Abbreviations of this Section:


All IP Network Access Stratum (UMTS) RLC RRC RRM Radio Link Control Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management

AIPN AS

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network IP L2 L3 LTE MAC MME NAS Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Layer 2 (data link layer) Layer 3 (network layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum

S1-AP SCTP SDH SRB TrCH UMTS UTRAN

S1 Application Part Stream Control Transmission Protocol (RFC 2960) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Signaling Radio Bearer Transport Channel (UMTS) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

PDCP PDH

Packet Data Convergence Protocol Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

eNB

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Since it will be discussed later on, the RRM is shown in the picture. This is not a protocol entity which is in need to be standardized e.g. like the RRC. This is more a group of tasks which have to be included in the eNB in order to make it perform well. The RRM is using the protocols to work in a smart way. How to use the protocols smartly is not in need to be specified in the standards. A powerful RRM is essential for a good implementation.

1.4.1.2 NAS protocols For the NAS protocols there are no details defined yet. The author is expecting that there will be SM and EMM protocol entities here.

The name S1-AP is preliminary at this point in time and might change in future [3GTS 36.300 (4.3.2, 19)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Evolved Mobility Management Non-Access-Stratum Radio Resource Control RRM S1-AP SM eNB Radio Resource Management S1 Application Part Session Management (3GTS 23.060, 3GTS 24.008) Enhanced Node B

3GTS EMM NAS RRC

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1.4.2 User Plane Protocol Stack

The objective of this section is to visualize the user plane protocol stack of the various network elements and interfaces of LTE. Key point of this section is the user plane protocol stack structure of LTE is combining the AIPN protocol stack and the air-interface protocol stack of UMTS.
Image Description This picture is showing the user plane protocol stack of E-UTRAN. Again there is a big similarity with the protocols known from UTRAN with an AIPN. 1.4.2.1 Air Interface protocols For the air interface protocols the same naming conventions and presumably also the internal structure of UTRAN is reused. There again there is the possibility of AM, UM and TM for the RLC data. This means in RLC-AM there is like in HSPA both an ARQ loop on RLC level and an HARQ loop on MAC and L1 level. The RLC PDU size will be variable. The PDP is terminated in the PDN/internet.

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1.4.2.2 S1 protocol Physical layer, data link layer, and IP are typical protocol entities known from the AIPN already. Like in UTRAN there is the GTP-U creating a shared tunnel for the user data in the EPC. [3GTS 36.300 (4.3.1, 19)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification All IP Network Acknowledged Mode operation Automatic Repeat Request Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) GPRS Tunneling Protocol (3GTS 29.060) GTP User Plane Gateway Hybrid ARQ PDN PDP PDSCH PDU PUSCH RLC SAE SDH SI TM UDP Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Physical Uplink Shared Channel Radio Link Control System Architecture Evolution Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Indicator Transparent Mode operation User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768) Uplink Uplink Shared Channel Unacknowledged Mode operation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

3GTS AIPN AM ARQ DL DL-SCH EPC GTP GTP-U GW HARQ HSPA IP L1 LTE MAC

High Speed Packet Access (operation UL of HSDPA and HSUPA) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Message Authentication Code UL-SCH UM UMTS UTRAN

PDCP PDH

Packet Data Convergence Protocol Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

eNB

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1.4.3 X2 Interface Control Plane Protocol Stack

The objective of this section is to visualize the control plane protocol stack of the X2 interface in LTE. Key point of this section is that the control plane of the X2 interface is mainly dealing with inference coordination for the self-organizing network and RRM issues.

Image Description This picture is showing the control plane protocol stack of the X2 interface. Physical layer, data link layer, IP and SCTP are typical protocol entities known from the AIPN already. The X2-AP is executing the commands from RRM, e.g. for handover and for interference coordination in the self organizing network. The X2 interface is a virtual interface. Physically it will connect via a router in the core. [3GTS 36.300 (20)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification All IP Network Layer 2 Protocol for IP (IEEE 802.3) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy RRM SCTP SDH X2-AP eNB Radio Resource Management Stream Control Transmission Protocol (RFC 2960) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy X2 Application Part Enhanced Node B

3GTS AIPN Ethernet IP LTE PDH

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1.4.4 X2 User Plane Protocol Stack

The objective of this section is to visualize the user plane protocol stack of the X2 interface of LTE. Key point of this section is that the user plane of the X2 interface is used to forward data from one eNB to the other but that this is only for a short time during handover.

Image Description This picture is showing the user plane protocol stack of the X2 interface. Physical layer, data link layer, and IP are typical protocol entities known from the AIPN already. The X2 interfaces user plane is used for data forwarding during the handover procedure. Once the source eNB still has data in its buffer it will forward it to the target eNB. Unlike procedures on the Iur this data forwarding is only short term. No semi permanent data forwarding is intended. Like for the transmission in-between core network elements and the RAN the GTP-U is taking care of the transmission in-between the eNBs. [3GTS 36.300 (4.3.1, 19, 20)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification All IP Network Acknowledged Mode operation Automatic Repeat Request Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) GPRS Tunneling Protocol (3GTS 29.060) GTP User Plane Internet Protocol (RFC 791) MAC PDH PDN PDP RAN RLC SDH UTRAN Message Authentication Code Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Radio Access Network Radio Link Control Synchronous Digital Hierarchy UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

3GTS AIPN AM ARQ EPC GTP GTP-U IP

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

eNB

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1.5 Overview Channels of E-UTRAN


1.5.1 Channel Types

The objective of this section is to show that physical channels, transport channels, and logical channels are defined according to the same guidelines as in UTRAN. Key point of this section is that the LTE has the same concept about logical, transport, and physical channels as UTRAN.
Image Description This graph shows part of the Radio Interface Protocol Architecture of E-UTRA and the different channel types defined for signal exchange between the different protocol layers.

1.5.1.1 Logical Channels The interface between RLC and MAC is called Logical Channel. There are several different Logical Channel types. The type of data that is transferred defines each Logical Channel type. This data can be either control or user data. 1.5.1.2 Transport Channels The interface between MAC and the Physical Layer is denoted as Transport Channel.
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Transport Channels are services offered by layer 1 to the higher layers for data transfer over the air interface. Transport Channels define how and with which characteristics data is transferred by the physical layer. Transport Channels are required to allow service multiplexing and to enable the use of variable bit rate transmission. 1.5.1.3 Physical Channels Physical Channels are used to finally transmit the data over the air interface. Physical Channels define the exact physical characteristics of the radio channel (frequency, subcarrier ...)

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Dedicated Traffic Channel Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) RLC UL-SCH UTRA Radio Link Control Uplink Shared Channel UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

DTCH E-UTRA LTE

MAC

Medium Access Control

UTRAN

PUSCH

Physical Uplink Shared Channel

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1.5.2 Logical Channels of E-UTRAN

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the logical channels being defined for LTE uplink and LTE downlink. Key point of this section is that except for very few exemptions the logical channels are the same as in UTRAN.
Image Description This picture shows the different logical channels used in E-UTRA. It categorizes them in control channels and traffic channels.

1.5.2.1 BCCH Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.5.2.2 PCCH Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.5.2.3 CCCH Here it has to be mentioned that the FACH and the RACH as signaling carrying transport channel do not exist in E-UTRAN and that all the UE specific signaling is handled on the shared channels as well. 1.5.2.4 MCCH Transmits MBMS control information. It is for further study whether MBMS scheduling is done by layer 1 signaling (like the HSPA control channels).

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1.5.2.5 DCCH This channel is present only once an RRC connection has been established (RRC_CONNECTED state). Usage as in UTRAN. 1.5.2.6 DTCH Nothing to add to what is stated in the image. 1.5.2.7 MTCH This point to multipoint channel is used for MBMS service. [3GTS 36.300 (6.1.2)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel Common Control Channel Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Dedicated Traffic Channel Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Forward Access Channel (UMTS Transport Channel) LTE MBMS MCCH MTCH PCCH RRC Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel Paging Control Channel Radio Resource Control

3GTS BCCH CCCH CCH DCCH DL DTCH E-UTRA FACH

RRC_CON RRC state in E-UTRA NECTED UE UTRA User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

HSPA

High Speed Packet Access (operation UTRAN of HSDPA and HSUPA)

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1.5.3 Transport Channels of E-UTRAN

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the transport channels being defined for LTE. Key point of this section is that the transport channel concept in LTE is focusing on shared channels. There are no dedicated transport channels.

Image Description his picture shows the different transport channels used in E-UTRA.

1.5.3.1 RACH Transmits very limited control information only. In UTRAN it can also carry short user packages. As in UTRAN collisions can happen. 1.5.3.2 UL-SCH Recourses are allocated dynamically or semi statically. HARQ and beamforming are applied (does not exist in UTRAN). 1.5.3.3 BCH Only fixed transport format is used. Is transmitted over complete coverage area of the cell but is only containing the most basic system information. The other system information is transmitted on the DL-SCH. 1.5.3.4 PCH Is mapped dynamically on physical channels (different from UTRAN).

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1.5.3.5 MCH Is transmitted for the complete cell. It supports SFN combining during transmission on multiple cells. The MCH does not exist in UTRAN. 1.5.3.6 DL-SCH Recourses are allocated dynamically or semi statically. HARQ and beamforming are applied (as in HSDPA). [3GTS 36.300 (5.3)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section


3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Hybrid ARQ High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) PCH RACH SFN TrCH UL UL-SCH UTRA Paging Channel Random Access Channel Single Frequency Network Transport Channel (UMTS) Uplink Uplink Shared Channel UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

3GTS BCH DL DL-SCH E-UTRA HARQ HSDPA

LTE

UTRAN

MCH

Multicast Channel

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1.5.4 Physical Channels of E-UTRAN

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the physical channels being defined for LTE. Key point of this section is that the physical channel concept is very similar to HSPA but with the difference that it is symmetric in uplink and downlink.
Image Description This picture shows the different physical channels and physical signals used in EUTRA.

1.5.4.1 PBCH The PBCH is using QPSK modulation and is using always the 72 subcarriers (shared with other physical channels) around the DC carrier. It carries only the MIB. 1.5.4.2 PDCCH The PDCCH is transporting the transport format, resource allocation and the HARQ information for the PCH, UL-SCH, and the DL-SCH. As well power control information for the UL is transmitted.

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1.5.4.3 PCFICH The PCFICH is transmitting the size of the PDCCH. 1.5.4.4 PUCCH The PUCCH is formed by two consecutive resource blocks with frequency hopping at the slot boundary. It contains CQI (in case of MIMO this is also containing the MIMO related feedback), the ACK/NACK (1 bit for HARQ) and the scheduling requests for the coordination of coming UL transmissions. 1.5.4.5 PRACH The PRACH is only comprising the random access preamble and it is occupying 72 subcarriers of bandwidth in the frequency domain. Once the random access is successful the random access message is transmitted on the UL-SCH. All control channels have QPSK modulation (the PUCCH can use BPSK) and - like in HSPA - the timing of the transport blocks and the corresponding ACK/NACK is fixed such that signaling load is saved. Abbreviations of this Section:
Acknowledgement Broadcast Channel Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying Channel Quality Indicator Direct Current Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Hybrid ARQ High Speed Packet Access (operation of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Master Information Block Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Negative Acknowledgement PBCH PCFICH PCH PDCCH PDSCH PHICH PMCH PRACH PUCCH Physical Broadcast Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Paging Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Physical Multicast Channel Physical Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel

ACK BCH BPSK CQI DC DL DL-SCH E-UTRA EUTRAN HARQ HSPA LTE MIB MIMO NACK

PUSCH QPSK SCH UL UL-SCH

Physical Uplink Shared Channel Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Synchronization Channel Uplink Uplink Shared Channel

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1.5.4.6 PHICH The PHICH is used to acknowledge UL transmissions. 1.5.4.7 PDSCH The PDSCH is carrying the DL payload. It is using AMC with QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM. It is intended to be used with smart antenna technologies like MIMO. 1.5.4.8 PMCH The PMCH is carrying the DL multicast payload in case of multiple cell transmission. It can be used like the PDSCH but is transmitted with only 1 antenna. This might be an antenna only used for MBMS and only be used for SFN. 1.5.4.9 PUSCH The PUSCH is carrying the UL payload in the LTE system it is using AMC with QPSK, 16-QAM, and optionally 64-QAM. It is intended to be used with smart antenna technologies like MIMO. 1.5.4.10 Downlink reference signal The downlink reference signal is located on selected subcarriers on selected OFDM symbols of a downlink slot. 1.5.4.11 Primary and secondary synchronization signal The synchronization signal is identifying 168 cell ID groups of 3 group members each. 1.5.4.12 Uplink reference signal or UL pilot symbol The uplink reference signal is located on the 4th SC-FDMA symbol block of an UL slot of the PUSCH. The PUCCH can have 2 or 3 uplink reference signals. The reference signal is a cyclically extended Zadoff-Chu sequence. It is used as a reference for the equalization of UL signals in the frequency domain. 1.5.4.13 Uplink sounding signal The uplink sounding signal is transmitted on the last symbol of the PUSCH. It is requested by the eNB in order to access the mobile radio channel quality and the timing of the UEs UL transmissions. 1.5.4.14 Random Access Preamble The random access preamble is part of the PRACH and is again generated with a Zadoff-Chu sequence. These Zadoff-Chu sequences have a zero correlation zone with eases the processing of different random access bursts received together. [3GTS 36.211 (5, 6), 3GTS 36.300 (5.1, 5.2, 5.3.1)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 3rd Generation Technical Specification 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Adaptive Modulation and Coding Downlink Frequency Division Multiple Access Identity Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Downlink Shared Channel PHICH PMCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH QPSK Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Physical Multicast Channel Physical Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

16-QAM 3GTS 64-QAM AMC DL FDMA ID LTE MBMS MIMO OFDM PDSCH

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SFN UE UL eNB Single Frequency Network User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

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1.5.5 Mapping of Channels in E-UTRAN

The objective of this section is to visualize the mapping amongst the different channel types in LTE. Key point of this section is that the LTE channel mapping is a lot simpler than in UTRAN.

Image Description This picture shows how the different channel types in E-UTRA are mapped on each other. It is worth to highlight the following mappings: Since the RACH is carrying only limited control information no logical channel is mapped on this transport channel. Consequently mostly the MAC is driving the activities on the RACH. Like in HSPA no transport channel is mapped on the PUCCH, the PCFICH, the PHICH, and the PDCCH. This shows that also in LTE the scheduling HARQ, etc. is a procedure very close to the physical layer which is expressed by the physical layer signaling approach used here. The PBCH is always transmitted in the middle of the LTE carrier. [3GTS 36.300 (5.3.1, 6.1.3)]

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Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Hybrid ARQ PBCH PCCH PCFICH PCH PDCCH PDSCH PHICH PMCH PRACH PUCCH Physical Broadcast Channel Paging Control Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Paging Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Physical Multicast Channel Packet Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Random Access Channel Uplink Uplink Shared Channel UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

3GTS BCCH BCH CCCH DCCH DL DL-SCH DTCH E-UTRA HARQ HSPA L1 LTE MAC MCCH

High Speed Packet Access (operation PUSCH of HSDPA and HSUPA) Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel Multicast Channel RACH UL UL-SCH UTRA

MCH

UTRAN

MTCH

MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel

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1.6 Key Development Trends manifested in LTE


1.6.1 Mapping of User Plane Packets to the Resources

The objective of this section is to describe the changes of the resource scheduling strategies from UMTS over HSPA to LTE. Key point of this section is that todays standards combine resource allocation strategies with diversity.

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Image Description With the introduction of digital signal processing technology the mobile radio systems have been enabled to play with the degrees of freedom offered by the mobile radio channel and the setup of the network: time, frequency, and space. In particular the bad fading characteristics have been combated by means of one or more diversity schemes. In general there are two ways how to do that

1.6.1.1 Method 1: Fast resource allocation on optimum resources Here always the best instantaneous selection (time, frequency, and space) of resources is chosen. This means a combination of choosing the best time, the best frequency and the best space properties for transmission of the data packet in order to have the best possible throughput. Since for early mobile radio systems this is needing too much signaling and these systems are not able to schedule their transmissions very fast this method is not used e.g. for GSM. Another problem is that for a moving UE the optimum configuration is changing faster than it can be traced or faster than it can be signaled. This is why the second approach is also very important.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Global System for Mobile Communication UE User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access

GSM HSPA LTE

High Speed Packet Access (operation UMTS of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) WCDMA

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1.6.1.2 Method 2: Slow resource allocation on suboptimum resources Here, the resources are spread on a wide range of time, frequency, or space. This exploits that in some regions there is good quality and in some other regions there is bad quality. Since the resources are spread on both kinds of regions the effect of the bad regions is averaged and not critical any more. This scheme is working always more or less good but of course is only providing a throughput being of average size only. In the following some examples are given of how the resource allocation is optimized in well-known mobile radio systems: 1.6.1.3 GSM In GSM for speech transmission each interleaving frame is extending over a time of 37 ms using 8 different bursts such that the different instantaneous quality of the 8 bursts used is averaging out. As well GSM is applying frequency hopping such that also the quality of up to 8 different carrier frequencies in the interleaving frame can average out. 1.6.1.4 WCDMA WCDMA is spreading its resources on a wideband carrier and is exploiting frequency diversity by means of spreading. As well time diversity is exploited e.g. by means of a 20 ms TTI for speech services. However only the low performing second scheme can be used for WCDMA 1.6.1.5 HSPA In HSPA the TTIs are that short (2 ms) and the signaling is that fast that the first scheme can be applied for the first time on the time dimension. The UEs might only be scheduled to use the resources on the carrier once the quality is very good - once the quality is bad other UEs might be scheduled on the resources. It has to be mentioned that these methods is requiring a bidirectional signaling: One direction for the scheduling and another direction for the feedback (quality and ACK/NACK).Since still spreading is used the second method is applied on the frequency dimension. Optionally beamforming is using also the first method on the space dimension: by means of radiating the signal only to the direction of the UE. 1.6.1.6 LTE In LTE there is now the possibility to use the first method for both the time and the frequency dimension. Once the transmission is both restricted to the subcarriers having the best quality at the time instants with the best quality as well, a very high throughput can be achieved. Again bidirectional signaling might is required. MIMO and beamforming are applied on the space dimension. Also the second method can be deployed in the frequency dimension, e.g. by applying frequency hopping. 1.6.1.7 General trend The general trend being visible is that for modern mobile radio systems it is possible to select the best configuration for the resources very fast and even follow changing mobile radio conditions: best frequency at the best time and using the best antenna configuration. The tuning in this respect is becoming more and more precise with the advance of mobile radio standards and the duration of the allocated data packets is getting shorter and shorter in order to track a changing mobile radio channel faster.

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Principles and Motivation of LTE

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Acknowledgement Global System for Mobile Communication NACK TTI Negative Acknowledgement Transmission Time Interval User Equipment Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access

ACK GSM HSPA LTE MIMO

High Speed Packet Access (operation UE of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) WCDMA

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1.6.2 All IP Network and Simple Packet Service Driven Protocols

The objectives of this section are to highlight the benefits of the packet service driven protocols, and to show these lead to a new network architecture tailored to the all IP network (AIPN). Key point of this section is that the simplified network architecture of LTE leads to a reduced latency.
Image Description This picture is visualizing the latency of a messages traveling through the UTRAN and the E-UTRAN. The longer the line the longer the latency will be. In UTRAN an AIPN has been introduced step by step and at the same time PS services have gained more and more momentum within 3GPP. However, still the basic structure of the GSM network is used. The Node Bs are connected to RNCs and the RNCs are connected to the core network. This is still like BTS, BSC und Core in GSM. Since this structure is best suited for CS services which are routed rather stationary in-between the network elements the structure is leading to the rather complex protocol for the PS services where the allocation of the resources is not fixed and shared. - 80 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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In the picture a message is running through many network entities and their various algorithms especially to pass them in and out of the network elements is very timeconsuming and disadvantageous for the latency of the user plane and the latency of the control plane. This is one of the reasons why the RNC is not present in LTE. The result is that the protocols are simplifying a lot and that the latency is reduced significantly by means of having less algorithms and processing stages involved. Effectively the trend toward an AIPN and all PS services is dictating a very revolutionary change in the network architecture: The missing RNC in LTE.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) All IP Network Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Circuit Switched Global System for Mobile Communication Gateway MME Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

3GPP

AIPN BSC BTS CS GSM GW

PS RNC SAE SGSN UMTS UTRAN

Packet Switched Radio Network Controller System Architecture Evolution Serving GPRS Support Node Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

IP LTE

Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

eNB

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1.6.2.1 Reduced User Plane Latency

The objective of this section is to visualize how the tight latency requirements of the physical layer are allowing the use of all QoS classes of the PS services. Key point of this section is that reduced user plane latency allows for HSPAlike HARQ and the application of all QoS traffic classes.

Image Description This picture is showing the composition of the LTE user plane latency and how it is relating it to the QoS requirements. The user plane latency time for a good and reliable packet transmission has been one of the blocking points which have delayed an introduction of Streaming and Conversational QoS PS services. Since no CS services are intended in LTE, the user plane latency has to be significantly improved. The top part of the picture is showing the chain of processing steps leading to the user plane latency. The chain of events is starting with data arriving in the Serving GW and is ending with data arriving in the application running on the UE. It can be seen that the processing times inside the network elements and on the interfaces are dimensioned to be very short.

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This is possible because the Serving GW is directly connected to the eNB. In case of a failure to transmit a packet on the Uu interface, retransmissions using HARQ are adding another 5 ms each to the user plane latency. As shown in the middle part of the picture the duration of a single transmission (basic user plane latency) and the time duration for possible retransmissions using HARQ have to be smaller the maximum user plane delay tolerated by the QoS profile. Assuming a BLER of 30 % the average user plane latency of LTE then is ranging from 6.3 to 20.9 ms. This is a very short user plane latency. Once a RTT for HARQ of e.g. 12 ms is assumed it becomes clear that for HSPA only one retransmission could be tolerated for a high QoS service. Only then the Uu latency for the first transmission and the following retransmission can stay below the 20 ms interleaving frame duration of CS voice transmission. This would lead to a quite low performance. However with LTE the Uu latency is below 20 ms even if the voice packets are retransmitted 2 times. This is demonstrating very well that with LTE there is the possibility to achieve an even higher QoS than possible with UMTS CS services. [3GTR 25.912 (13.3), 3GTS 36.213] Question No 1: Once the BLER for a signal transmission is 30 %, what is the residual BLER after 3 transmissions? Once for speech services a residual BLER of 1 % is aimed at what would be the BLER for a single transmission?

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report Block Error Rate Circuit Switched Gateway Hybrid ARQ QoS RTT SAE TTI UE Quality of Service Round Trip Time System Architecture Evolution Transmission Time Interval User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

3GTR BLER CS GW HARQ HSPA LTE PS

High Speed Packet Access (operation UMTS of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Packet Switched eNB

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1.6.2.1 Reduced Control Plane Latency

The objective of this section is to demonstrate how the reduced control plane latency is allowing for a reduced protocol complexity. Key point of this section is that reduced control plane latencies lead to dramatically simplified layer 3 protocols - not vice versa.

Image Description This picture is showing the RRC states of LTE and UTRAN and the necessary transition times in-between them. In LTE the transition times in-between the RRC states are required to be 50 ms or less and from the detached state to the active state there is the requirement of 100 ms control plane latency. [3GTR 25.913 (6.2.1)] These latency times are very short compared to those of UTRAN because LTE is aiming to keep the UEs in a dormant state (like URA_PCH) with the benefit of having a low resource consumption on air and a low battery power consumption whilst having also a very fast reactivation of the UE once some data is to be transferred again. For UMTS the transition time in-between the various RRC states are shown in the lower part of the picture. These times are taken from a 3GTR about the possible future improvement of the protocols and are not even implemented yet. [3GTR 25.815 (5)]

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As it can be seen these times are a lot longer than the LTE requirement of 50 ms. The result of the LTE feasibility study shows that the transition time from the EMMREGISTERED & ECM-IDLE to the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED state can be done in only 56-96 ms. This is already involving the RRC connection establishment with the MME. Since the time is significantly smaller than any UTRAN transition to the CELL_DCH state the 5 RRC states in UTRAN reduce to just 2 states in LTE. In LTE the CELL_FACH state does not make any sense any more and the RRC_IDLE, the URA_PCH, and the CELL_PCH states functions are taken by the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE state. This is leading to a very significant reduction of the protocol complexity and is well suited for the packet services as well: For a packet transmission there are also two possibilities only: Either packets are transmitted or the transmitter is idle and is not transmitting any packets. [3GTR 36.300 (A.2)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report RRC Dedicated State RRC FACH State in UTRA RRC PCH State in UTRA RRC RRC_CON NECTED Radio Resource Control RRC state in E-UTRA

3GTR CELL_DCH CELL_FACH CELL_PCH

RRC_IDLE RRC state UE UMTS User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTERED state for active packet & ECMtransmission CONNECTED EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTERED state for non active packet & ECM-IDLE transmission LTE Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

URA_PCH

RRC URA State in UTRA

UTRAN

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

MME

Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

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1.7 LTE Key Feature Summary

The objective of this section is to summarize the key features of LTE. Key point of this section is both air interface, system architecture, and services change dramatically with LTE.

1.7.1 Air Interface Technology The changes in the air interface technology cause that LTE is not compatible to legacy UMTS / HSPA+ UEs. CDMA technology has been replaced with OFDM (SCFDMA). Also the SFN operation is new for LTE. The data rates are at least double as high than for HSPA+. The data rates given are the max possible data rates for UL and DL. Like HSPA+ LTE is using MIMO, too.

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1.7.2 System Architecture For LTE all the standardization activities worked towards an AIPN from the start. This brings quite revolutionary changes such has to omit the RNC and to create a new EPC. 1.7.3 Service Aspects The choice of only relying on PS services from the start and not to implement any CS services is leading to a quite challenging task on protocol stack level. At the beginning of the UMTS process PS services have just been some best effort services. Now PS has to comply to the same if not tougher requirements as for the legacy CS services. This challenge has been met with a very low user plane and a very low control plane latency.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


All IP Network Code Division Multiple Access Circuit Switched Downlink Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Frequency Division Multiple Access MIMO OFDM PS RNC Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Packet Switched Radio Network Controller

AIPN CDMA CS DL EPC FDMA HSPA HSPA+

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SFN Single Frequency Network User Equipment Uplink

High Speed Packet Access (operation UE of HSDPA and HSUPA) Enhanced High Speed Packet Access (operation of enhanced HSDPA and enhanced HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) UL

LTE

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

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Lessons Learned / Conclusions:

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Chapter 2:
Key Technologies of the LTE Physical Layer
2

Objectives
Some of your questions that will be answered during this session What is OFDM and how does it differ from OFDMA? How does IFFT relate to OFDM? What is a cyclic prefix, why can it differ in duration and what is it used for? How MIMO is applied in order to multiply the throughput compared to systems with a single antenna?

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2.1 Introduction OFDM Technology


2.1.1 Impact of Orthogonality in the Frequency Domain 3 Steps
2

The objectives of this section are to provide a 3D-view of sine waves and to pave the way to understand orthogonality.

Image Description The image illustrates 3 different sine waves on 3 different frequencies. The image provides two different perspectives: in the upper left part (cylinder) the image presents the time domain while in the lower right part the frequency domain is highlighted. In the OFDM-terminology, the 3 different frequencies are usually called subcarriers or tones.

Provided their carrier frequency is different not modulated carriers can always be perfectly separated.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OFDM

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2.1.1 Impact of Orthogonality in the Frequency Domain 3 Steps

The objective of this section is to illustrate what happens to three nonorthogonal frequencies if they are modulated. If frequencies are non-orthogonal, they need to be sufficiently spaced apart from each other to minimize the inter-frequency interference.

Image Description The image continues the presentation from the previous section. However, in this section, the three non-orthogonal frequencies are modulated with some baseband signal. The impact becomes visible in the frequency domain: Modulation cause sidebands with decreasing amplitude, yet inter-frequency interference cannot be avoided.

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Room for your Notes


2

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2.1.1 Impact of Orthogonality in the Frequency Domain 3 Steps

The objective of this section is to illustrate how orthogonality is achieved in case of FDM. Key point is that orthogonal frequencies are integer multiples of a base frequency. The orthogonality therefore relates to the distance among the different frequencies f1, f2, f3 and f(n).

Image Description The image illustrates the already known cylinder. In this case, the distance between the frequencies f1, f2 and f3 is chosen in a way that it is always an integer multiple of the base frequency f1. Example: If f1 = 10 kHz, then f2 = 20 kHz, f3 = and 30 kHz and so on. The most important property of selecting the distance among the different carriers like this is that in case of modulation, the zero crossings of the side bands coincide with the center frequencies. Therefore there is no interference between these center frequencies and the side bands of the other carrier frequencies.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:


Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDM

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2.1.2 Practical Exercise: Physical Basics of OFDM / OFDMA

The objective of this section is to familiarize the students with the operation of OFDM-systems.

Image Description The image illustrates an OFDM transmitter which uses three subcarriers and BPSK-modulation on all subcarriers. The input bit rate is 6 bit/s which means that the duration of a single bit at the input equals 166.67 ms. On the right hand side the image illustrates the resulting OFDM-wave which represents the sum of the three subcarriers.

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Your tasks: 1. Assign the different bits 1 through 6 to the 3 subcarriers. 2. Use color pencils to draw the signal waves for the 6 bits into the respective parts of the OFDM-modulator, using BPSK-modulation. 3. What is the duration of a single bit (symbol) within the OFDM-modulator? Answer: The duration equals T(b) = _______ s 4. What does this mean for the smallest frequency f(0)? Answer: Subcarrier 0 uses a frequency f(0) = _______ = ________ 5. and what does it mean for the f between the subcarriers? Answer: f = _______ = ________

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

BPSK OFDM

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2.1.3 Practical Exercise: Scaling of OFDM / OFDMA-Systems

The objective of this section is to guide the students through basic scaling and dimensioning issues of OFDM-systems.

Image Description The image illustrates two options on how to scale an OFDM-system in case of variable bandwidth situations.

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The upper part uses fix subcarrier spacing and simply applies more subcarriers if more bandwidth is available. The second part uses the opposite approach: n = 5 and the subcarrier spacing varies with the available bandwidth The third part uses a constant overall bandwidth and varies the number of subcarriers. This will keep the throughput the same. The lower part uses different modulation schemes on the subcarriers. Your tasks: 1. Which option (1 - 4) do you suggest and prefer in a mobile environment? Explain your choice in detail.

2.

What is a safe subcarrier spacing in case of LTE?

Abbreviations of this Section:


Bandwidth Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (IEEE 802.16)

BW LTE OFDM

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2.1.4 The In-Phase Quadrature (I/Q) Presentation

The objective of this section is to show how sine-waves can be expressed by complex numbers in the I / Q plane. Key point of this section is that amplitude and phase of any sine-wave can be expressed by a complex number.

Image description This picture is showing that the superimposition of a sinus and a cosine is creating any other sine wave of different amplitude and phase. On the left side the complex expression of this superimposition is shown.

The expression of base band signals in the complex notation is very common. Any sine-wave with arbitrary amplitude and phase can be expressed as the liner superimposition of a sine-wave and a cosine-wave. Note that the complex superimposition works based on the signals (phase and amplitude) being modulated on the carrier frequency of the radio carrier.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:

There are no abbreviations in this section.

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2.1.5 OFDM / OFDMA and IFFT

The objective of this section is to illustrate how IFFT maps so perfectly to the requirements of an OFDM system. Key point of this section is that IFFT provides nothing else but the digital recipe to produce perfectly orthogonal sine waves and to burn the formula into silicon.

Image Description The image illustrates two implementation options. The upper option 1 is analog and operates by producing the single orthogonal subcarriers within an oscillator array. Option 2 goes a different way and applies the IFFT formula within the yellow box. The most important asset of this IFFT-formula is the factor k that inherently provides harmonic, orthogonal frequencies. Please note that in both cases, the resulting S(t) is a baseband signal that needs to be mapped to the respective RF-carrier frequency.

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2.1.5.1 Considering the Discrete Oscillator Array Option This option is unrealistic for large scale deployments as it scales very poorly and since it is very expensive to implement. 2.1.5.2 Details of the IFFT Option The illustrated formula may be real numbered only (sin) or complex numbered (sin + cos). The number of samples S(t) over one symbol duration T(b) depends on the highest OFDM frequency which is k x f(0). According to Nyquist, we therefore need 2 x k x f(0) different samples S(t) per symbol period T(b) to provide for an error-free signal processing. Obviously, for each sample S(t(x)), all different k-values need to be applied. We provided the aforementioned details to illustrate the enormous processing power that is required for OFDM.

2.1.5.3 Why is it called F a s t Fourier Transformation? The difference between fast and regular Fourier transformation is that fast Fourier transformation uses a special algorithm for the fast calculation of the single values of a Fourier series. This algorithm was officially published in 1965 but was applied already by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1805. Obviously, this algorithm is also optimal for chip based calculations. The only disadvantage of FFT is that the FFT-size = N needs to be a 2 k value (e.g. 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 ) for best efficiency. Values like N = 66, 214 or similar are therefore less efficient.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Fast Fourier Transformation Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA RF Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Radio Frequency

FFT IFFT OFDM

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2.1.6 Modulation Scheme Overview

The objective of this section is to illustrate the basic modulation schemes which are used by the LTE implementation. Key point of this section is that higher order modulation schemes require a better CINR because their decision space between adjacent symbols is smaller.

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Image Description The image illustrates the I/Q-plane view of the three modulation schemes which are supported by the LTE - implementation. Each dot stands for a separate symbol and its position is used to convey the respective number of bits.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio LTE QPSK Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

16-QAM 64-QAM CINR

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2.1.7 Using different Modulation Schemes on Different Subcarriers

The objective of this section is to illustrate the inherent capability of IFFT to mimic different modulation schemes on different subcarriers. Key point of this section is that commercial OFDM/OFDMA-systems do not use coefficients 0 to n but rather -n/2 to (n/2-1) with the DC-subcarrier being positioned at the center carrier frequency.

Image Description The image illustrates at the top the already introduced formula for complex numbered IFFT. In this example, only three subcarriers shall be considered. The so called DC-subcarrier always generates a zero output (see image). This rule also applies in commercial OFDM-implementations. On subcarrier 1 (k = 1), QPSK shall be applied with a bit value of 10 to be transmitted. On subcarrier 2 (k = 2), 16-QAM shall be applied with a bit value of 0001 to be transmitted.

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As the right part of the image illustrates, every combined phase and amplitude digital modulation system represents its different symbol values simply by applying different coefficients a(k(t)) and b(k(t)) to the sine and cosine parts.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Direct Current Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation OFDM OFDMA QPSK Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

16-QAM DC IFFT

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2.1.8 Tackling Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) 2.1.8.1 Introduction


2

The objectives of this section are to illustrate how multipath causes intersymbol interferences and which means exist to tackle this interference. Key point of this section is that there are basically two means to cope with ISI: Either to increase the time between two successive symbols or to calculate the impact of ISI for each symbol (equalization).
Image Description The red sine wave represents the transmitted signal at the transmitter. All the grey sine waves are attenuated and time shifted copies which are perceived by and at the receiver. As illustrated, these copies spread into the following symbol and interfere with it. You may compare this ISI with the water that the car in front of you spills on your windshield while it is raining and if you are too close. 2.1.8.1.1 Delay Spread The delay spread represents the maximum delay which needs to be considered. Its value depends mostly on the RF-frequency in use, on the relative speed of transmitter and receiver and on the type of terrain

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One well known example is GSM with an RF-frequency of 900 MHz, a symbol duration of 3.692 s and a maximum speed of 250 km/h. The delay spread to be coped with by technical implementations is 5 symbol periods (app. 18 s). In a GSM-system equalizers are used to calculate the impact of the ISI caused by the preceding 4 symbols on the current symbol. This equalization is a complex process and needs to be done independently for each burst. However, the alternative to wait long enough between two successive symbols in GSM is obviously no option considering the enormous delay spread of 18 s compared to a symbol duration of just 3.69 s. However, this is very different in an OFDM-system with its inherently long symbol durations.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Global System for Mobile Communication Inter-Symbol Interference Mega Hertz (10 Hertz)
6

GSM ISI MHz

OFDM RF

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Radio Frequency

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2.1.8.2 Cyclic Prefix

The objective of this section is to introduce the cyclic prefix which is placed in front of each symbol to cope with the ISI from the previous symbol. Key points of this section are: 1. OFDM can cope without equalization because the inherently long symbol durations allow for the option to insert a cyclic prefix in the first place. 2. The squeezing in of the cyclic prefix between two successive OFDMsymbols obviously degrades the system performance by the respective percentages (e.g. N(CP) = 5 - 20 % of N). 3. The operation in lower RF-frequency ranges tendentiously requires larger N(CP) T(sample) -values because of the probability of more paths and therefore higher delay spread.

The useful symbol time T(b) is therefore only 80-95 % of the overall OFDMA symbol time.

Image Description The image illustrates an OFDM-symbol and its preceding and succeeding neighbors.

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The cyclic prefix represents the final part of the OFDM-symbol that is simply copied and placed at the front of the same OFDM-symbol. Note how smooth and without sharp edge the cyclic prefix attaches to the beginning of the indicated symbol period. This is clear considering that the OFDM-wave consists of the aggregation of a number of phase consistent (n x 2) pure sine waves (upper right part of the image).

2.1.8.2.1 Variable Duration and other Assets of the Cyclic Prefix The aforementioned smooth edge is due to the phase and amplitude consistency. All contributing sine waves of the OFDM-symbol are phase consistent which means that they all begin and end at n x 2. Consequentially, there is no phase or amplitude shift at the edge between cyclic prefix and OFDM-symbol. In LTE, N(CP) is variable (e.g. 1/20 1/5 of N) to provide for the compensation of different delay spread durations at different frequencies. Frequently, people ask why no pure sine is used for the cyclic prefix. Taking the previous explanations on this page into account, a pure sine wave as cyclic prefix would interfere with the contiguous OFDM-symbol because of the phase shift that occurs between them. Opposed to a pure sine wave, the OFDM-wave is identical and even phase consistent between the cyclic prefix and the contiguous OFDM-symbol.

2.1.8.2.2 Cyclic Prefix in OFDMA in LTE The specification mandates adjustable cyclic prefix values of 6 % and 20 % of the OFDMA symbol to be supported by all implementations.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section


Inter-Symbol Interference Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA RF Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Radio Frequency

ISI LTE OFDM

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2.1.9 Layout of a Typical OFDM System

The objectives of this section are to illustrate the typical brick wall image of any OFDM/OFDMA-implementation to the student and to indicate the specific settings of the OFDM-physical layer. Key points of this section are: 1. OFDM uses all the subcarriers for a single user. 2. OFDMA used different subcarriers for different users. 3. There are three types of subcarriers: Data, Pilot and Null.

Image Description The image illustrates the most important assets of any OFDM-system

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2.1.9.1 Remarks on the Brick Wall Image Important to recognize are the two guard bands at the outer edges of the OFDMsignal. The related guard band subcarriers remain unused (no RF-Transmission). This helps to avoid interferences with adjacent bands. This leaves us with only less than N subcarriers of data transmission of which one is occupied by the DC-subcarrier at the center carrier frequency. So there are only less than N subcarriers left. Taking into account the subcarriers reserved for pilot signals, even less subcarriers are left for data transmission.

2.1.9.2 Subchannelization These N-X subcarriers may be subchannelized to support multiple users during one OFDM-symbol (OFDMA). Or all subcarriers are allocated to a single user during the OFDM Symbol duration (OFDM).

2.1.9.3 Pilot Subcarriers In general, pilot subcarriers are evenly distributed along the subcarriers. Pilot subcarriers transmit a predefined bit pattern and allow the receiver the detection of frequency selective channel distortions. The detection of these distortion patterns is required also for the channel estimation of the frequency adjacent data subcarriers. Note the fix position of the pilot subcarriers the picture. In fact the position of the pilot subcarriers is variable and they may not occur in the same position in the different OFDM symbols.

2.1.9.4 Null Subcarriers In addition to data and pilot subcarriers there are also null subcarriers without any transmission. These null subcarriers are the DC-subcarrier and subcarriers within the guard bands. They are not transmitted. Abbreviations of this Section:
Direct Current Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA RF Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Radio Frequency

DC MHz OFDM

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2.2 Introduction to MIMO Technology


2.2.1 The Basics: Signal Fading Physics between TX and RX
2

The objectives of this section are to illustrate the different physical principles resulting in fading of the mobile radio channel. Key point of this section is that all the effects are resulting in the superposition of different radio paths at the receivers antenna. This is causing the fading.
[3GTR 25.876] On its way from sender to destination, any electromagnetic wave may encounter the illustrated types of signal distortions. It depends on the terrain whether one or some of these signal distortion types are dominant or simply not there. Example: Satellite transmissions are not affected by obstacles and therefore suffer the least. Scattering When the electromagnetic wave hits an obstacle which dimension is close to the wavelength of that wavelength then scattering happens: Scattering causes the original wave to be split into multiple parts of which each takes its own route. Compare this to a water hose that is directed at a smaller stone. The one water beam is scattered in all directions.

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Refraction Refraction occurs when an electromagnetic wave changes the media in which it propagates. Example: When regular light moves on from the media air into the media water it is affected by refraction. We can see this refraction for instance by putting a stick into the water. The stick seems to have a buckling. That is, the direction of the electromagnetic wave changes. Reflection The most well known signal distortion is reflection. Reflection means that electromagnetic wave hits an obstacle which dimension is well beyond its wavelength. In such case, reflections occur. Reflections represent copies of the original electromagnetic wave that take a different path. Reflections occur again and again on a single wave and are pre-dominantly responsible for multipath effects. Diffraction Diffraction is a mixture of scattering and reflections. It occurs when electromagnetic waves run through holes which have a dimension of approximately the wavelength of this electromagnetic wave. Reflections and scattering cause a mixture of signal annulations (when (+) and () meet) and signal amplifications (when (+) and (+) or (-) and (-) meet) because of multipath effects.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report Receive TX Transmit

3GTR RX

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2.2.2 Multiplexing Dimensions

The objective of this section is to indicate the four legacy multiplexing dimensions that are used in todays mobile communication. This section continues in the next section. Key point of this section is that there seems to be yet another multiplexing dimension in addition to SDMA, TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:


Code Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiple Access Global System for Mobile Communication Interim Standard (ANSI Standard) SDMA TDMA TV UTRA Space Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Television UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access

CDMA FDMA GSM IS

IS-95

Interim Standard - 95 (Qualcomm CDMA)

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2.2.2 Multiplexing Dimensions

The objective of this section is to indicate the four legacy multiplexing dimensions that are used in todays mobile communication. This section continues from the previous section. Key point of this section is that there seems to be yet another multiplexing dimension in addition to SDMA, TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:


Code Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiple Access Interim Standard (ANSI Standard) Interim Standard - 95 (Qualcomm CDMA) SDMA TDMA TV UTRA Space Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Television UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access

CDMA FDMA IS IS-95

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2.2.3 The Multipath Dimension

The objectives of this section are to illustrate the radio propagation of different antennas of the same base station. Key point of this section is that even though the antenna of a base station are quite close to each other the radio paths can differ than much that their multiple path profile is different.
Multipath is caused by the various fading events (Scattering, Reflection, Diffraction and Refraction) that the signal is exposed to on its way from transmitter to receiver due to the various obstacles on this way. Multipath and fading cause the original signal to arrive at the receive antenna in different versions. Each version is due to scattering, reflection, diffraction and refraction differently phased, timed and attenuated. As illustrated in the figure, two transmit antennas, sufficiently spaced apart from each other, will each cause a unique and independent reception pattern ( fingerprint) at the receive antenna. Technically speaking, the relative positions of antennas TX 1 RX 1 and TX 2 RX 1 allow for an uncorrelated multipath pattern at the receiver antenna RX 1. Depending on the distance between the antennas, one achieves microdiversity (distance between TX-antennas 0.5 wavelengths) or macrodiversity (distance between TX-antennas >> wavelength). MIMO only works with macro diversity or polarization diversity approaches. With micro-diversity, only fast fading issues can be tackled. Macro-diversity is required to address also slow fading.

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Room for your Notes


2

Abbreviations of this Section:


Receive TX Transmit

RX

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2.2.6 MIMO General Operation

The objective of this section is to explain the principles of MIMO-systems. Key point of this section is that MIMO-systems transmit different information over the same resources, frequency and time but are differentiated by the receiver through the specific multipath between each transmit antenna and the receive antennas.

Image Description The illustrated example shows a 2 x TX and 2 x RX MIMO system for the two cases that the transmitter and the receiver are connected by means of a cable and that both of them are communicating with 2x2 antennas. In case there are no cables used each RX antenna receives information from each TX antenna. Sophisticated receivers need to separate the different transmit antennas from each other, e.g. based on pilot bits. MIMO systems therefore require sophisticated processing at the receiver side and they require a unique multipath morphology between TX and RX.

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The larger the number of TX-antennas and RX-antennas, the higher the theoretical throughput rate. The larger the number of RX-antennas, the better the diversity decision at the receiver. For linear receivers like the LMMSE MIMO can increase the max. throughput by the minimum of RX and TX antennas. E.g. once there are 3 TX and 2 RX antennas the max. throughput can be increased by 2 times.

In LoS condition MIMO can fail even though it usually works. In this case it is not possible to separate the two data streams at the receiver. Once there is real multiple path propagation (non LoS) the probability that MIMO works fine is higher.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Linear Minimum Mean Square Error receiver Line of Sight Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) RX TX Receive Transmit

LMMSE LoS MIMO

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Lessons Learned / Conclusions:


2

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Chapter 3:
The Physical Layer of E-UTRAN

Objectives
Some of your questions that will be answered during this session How the physical frame structure is facilitating the use of a flexible bandwidth allocation? What is the structure of uplink and downlink physical channels in detail? How do the digital signal processing chains of uplink and downlink look like and what is their difference with respect to conventional mobile radio systems? How do the physical layer procedures of the air interface work? How does LTE keep aligned in timing and transmission power? What is the foundation of LTEs antenna technology? How do initial cell search and random access work? How the throughput of the UE categories can be calculated?

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3.1 The Use of OFDM/OFDMA in LTE


3.1.1 Frame Structure

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the downlink frame structure and the uplink frame structure of the LTE burst. Key point of this section is that uplink and downlink are using essentially the same frame structure only the DMA scheme is different.

Image description This picture is giving both a view on the overall LTE frame structure and it is showing the structure of the uplink and downlink slots.

3.1.1.1 The generic frame structure The generic frame is consisting of 20 slots of 0.5 ms length each. Its length of 10 ms is made up of 307200 sample periods of length T(sample). This means a sampling frequency of 30.72 MHz which is corresponding to exactly 2048 carriers with 15 kHz carrier spacing. Since this would lead to a bandwidth of 30 MHz it is obvious that not all these 2048 subcarriers are indented to be used. Two slots constitute a subframe. For FDD LTE this frame structure is applying for both UL and DL. For TDD LTE the slots length is staying the same, too and subframe 0 and 5 are always downlink subframes. - 126 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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3.1.1.2 The downlink slots The downlink slots are containing 3, 6, or 7 OFDM symbols with N(CP) samples for the cyclic prefix and N samples for the useful part of the OFDM symbol. The table below the picture will give details of the possible configurations. Some OFDM symbols are containing reference signals or pilots on some subcarriers. 3.1.1.3 The uplink slots Even though the UL is not using OFDMA the UL signals also have a cyclic prefix. Since no OFDM is applied the symbol in the middle is used as a pilot symbol or reference symbol. Later this reference symbol will be used for channel estimation. In different configurations 2 or 3 symbols can be used as a pilot. 3.1.1.4 The frame structure type 2 There is also frame structure type 2 which is not shown in this picture. It will be compatible to LCR TDD frame structure. It is likely that this standard and the alternative frame structure will be mainly used in mainland China. The alternative frame structure is not treated closer in this book. [3GTS 36.211 (4.1, 5.2, 6.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Downlink Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Duplex Low Chip Rate TDD Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) MHz OFDM OFDMA TDD UL kHz Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Duplex Uplink Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTS CP DL DMA FDD LCR LTE

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3.1.2 LTE Parameters

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the downlink frame structure, the uplink frame structure, and the variable parameters of the LTE burst. Key point of this section is that uplink and downlink are using also the same detailed parameters.

Table description This table is giving the LTE parameters for both the uplink and downlink slots. There are 3 different configurations to parameterize the lengths of the different fields in the slots and symbols. These configurations are relating to different deployment scenarios of LTE. The UE has to identify which of these 3 configurations is used during initial cell search by try and error. 3.1.2.1 The normal configuration The normal configuration is using 7 symbols in each slot. Here the subcarrier spacing is 15 kHz. The cyclic prefix of the first OFDM symbol is a bit longer in order to make 7 symbols fit exactly to 0.5 ms slot length. Since the guard period is rather short this configuration is fitting for most deployments but for usage in tough conditions (mountains, big cities) it is not suited. Once SFN is used in that section of the network the cells should not be bigger then about 1-2 km because each 300 m difference in distance of the UE to e.g. two base stations will add 1 s to the length of the channel impulse response and thus to the length requirements for CP. 3.1.2.2 The extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier separation The extended configuration with 15 kHz carrier separation is solving the problems mentioned for the normal configuration. It can be well deployed for SFN and for hilly terrain and in cities like in New York. With respect to the user density it usually does not make much sense to create very big cells for pure mobile radio applications with bidirectional services. Since the cyclic prefix is now making up for 20 % of the OFDM symbol time, there is 20 % throughput loss for this case. This is the penalty to let the OFDM system operated in harsh conditions.

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3.1.2.3 The extended configuration with 7.5 kHz subcarrier separation The extended configuration exists for DL only. Here the subcarrier spacing is only 7.5 kHz and the cyclic prefix is twice a long as for the extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing. This is indicating quite well that this configuration is intended for broadcast operation of e.g. TV programs. [3GTS 36.211 (4.1, 5.2, 6.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Downlink Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing SFN TV UE kHz Single Frequency Network Television User Equipment Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTS CP DL LTE OFDM

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3.1.2 Resource Element and Resource Block Definition

The objective of this section to provide the definition of the downlink resource elements and resource blocks within the OFDMA access scheme. Key point of this section is that the resources can be distributed in form of resource blocks of subcarriers and OFDMA/SC-FDMA symbols instead of individual subcarriers and OFDM symbols.

Image description The picture above is showing how the LTE carrier is split up in downlink resource blocks.

3.1.2.1 Definition Resource Element A resource element is a subcarrier on a OFDMA/SC-FDMA symbol. 3.1.2.2 Definition Resource Block The resource blocks are bundles of 1 slot and 180 kHz bandwidth of either 12 x 15 kHz subcarriers or 24 x 7.5 kHz subcarriers (only DL). These resource elements or subchannels can be assigned to the UE having the best performance on this frequency and subchannel pair. This is of essential importance for a good scheduling performance. It can be seen the DC carrier is not used (DL only) and that guard bands of several carriers are not used in order to ease both the RF implementation and the separation of different carriers, cells, and operators. 3.1.2.3 Definition Subframe The resource blocks are grouped in two slots to form a subframe carrying the TTI. In different slots of the same subframe the allocation to resource blocks can be different. Frequency hopping might be applied a sub frame. [3GTS 36.211 (5.2, 6.2)] - 130 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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The picture is showing a distribution of resources being consecutive. In LTE there is also a distributed configuration of the resources possible (DL only).

3.1.2.4 Number of resource blocks in a given bandwidth Due to the upper and lower guard bands only 25 resource blocks can be used per 5 MHz band. These resource blocks make up for 4.5 MHz carrier bandwidth. Consequently there are 0.5 MHz guard bands. Once the band is 20 MHz wide this ratio does not change. Only 100 resource blocks or 18 MHz can be used for the LTE carrier. Question No 2: Why the ratio of guard bands versus used bands goes not change for bigger carriers? Why 0.5 MHz is not enough here always?

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Direct Current Downlink Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) OFDM OFDMA RF UE kHz Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Radio Frequency User Equipment Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTS DC DL LTE MHz

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3.1.3 Choice of the UL Transmission Scheme (UL Data Symbols only)

The objective of this section is to provide the reasoning behind the decision for SC-FDMA as the UL transmission technology. Key point of this section is that SC-FDMA has been chosen because of the reduced AM requirements on the power amplifier of the UE compared to OFDM technology (cost reasons).

Image description The picture shows the distribution of 16-QAM modulation symbols on the OFDM subcarriers and the resulting time signal for OFDMA technology being used in the UL on the left hand side. The picture shows the distribution of 16-QAM modulation symbols on the SCFDMA subsymbols and the resulting time signal for SC-FDMA technology being used in the UL on the right hand side.

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3.1.3.1 What would happen if OFDM would be used in the UL Once OFDM would be used in the UL there would be the same RB structure as in the DL. Consequently multiple of 12 subcarriers would be used to map the UL bits of e.g. 16-QAM symbols on the subcarriers. Since all the subcarriers signals superimpose on the time signal of the OFDM symbol, very severe AM would be the result. For high data rate UEs this AM would result in very expensive power amplifiers. 3.1.3.2 SC-FDMA is used for the UL The advantage of a single carrier signal would be that the AM at the power amplifier is mainly determined by the modulation alphabet and not additionally by the number of subcarriers. Thus the AM and consequently also the power amplifiers price is much more favorable than for OFDM signals. In order to enjoy still the benefit of low processing power requirements of OFDM signals the SC- signal has been designed to fit into the corset of the would be UL OFDM signal by means of the following measures: 1. Choose the same amount of modulation symbols in the RB 2. Choose the same bandwidth occupied by the RB 3. Choose the same duration of SC-FDMA symbols (cluster of n x 12 modulation symbols) 4. Adding the same CP period as for an OFDM signal 5. Choosing the same sampling grid for the processed signals. (The modulation symbols are interpolated to sampling grid.) All these measures ensure that effectively the same subcarriers are used, that orthogonality is kept amongst the subcarriers and that a similar way to process the SC-FDMA symbols as for OFDM symbols is kept. Please note that SC-FDMA is strictly speaking only applied for the payload data in the UL. The L1 signaling channels, the pilots and the sounding reference symbols are created in the frequency domain and they also have almost constant amplitude in the time domain.

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation Cyclic Prefix Downlink Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA RB Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Resource Block

16-QAM AM CP DL OFDM

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access UE UL User Equipment Uplink

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3.1.4 FDD and TDD Operation in E-UTRAN 3.1.4.1 Reciprocity

The objective of this section is to highlight the difference in reciprocity inbetween FDD and TDD. Key point of this section is that in FDD UL and DL have different mobile radio channels and in TDD whilst the mobile radio channel is the same for TDD.

Image description The picture is showing the most important difference of FDD and TDD operation: The channel reciprocity. LTE can be operated both with the FDD and in the FDD mode. The generic frame structure is used in both modes. However the characteristics of FDD and TDD lead to very distinct differences in the system behavior of these modes. In the following the main differences should be described. 3.1.4.1.1 Reciprocity of the mobile radio channel In the TDD mode the mobile radio channel of UL and DL is the same. This means that once the UE is having a low mobility the eNB can conclude from the behavior of the UL signals how the downlink channel will behave. This is very beneficial for beamforming and MIMO algorithms. Then the UE is not in need to transmit a CSI any more in order to give the eNB hints how to do the beamforming in the downlink. For FDD UL and DL are always different - only their long term behavior is the same. However, this is not allowing for very powerful algorithms. This is why CSIs are needed especially for closed loop MIMO.

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3.1.4.1.2 Speed of scheduling decisions Since in TDD the mobile radio channel is used for both DL and UL, UL and DL have to follow one another. This means that the UE cannot transmit the CSI and the CQI whilst it is receiving the DL signals. It as to wait until it is the turn of the UL and then transmits its signaling. The same applies for the DL signaling which cannot take place whilst the UL is to be transmitted. This is lowering the performance of the scheduling algorithms. In FDD both UL and DL are transmitted simultaneously. This is used in order to optimize the timing of the scheduling algorithms. LTE is putting big emphasis on the FDD bands while for WiMAX TDD is the focus of the work recently.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Channel Quality Indicator Channel State Information Downlink TDD UE UL UTRAN Time Division Duplex User Equipment Uplink UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (IEEE 802.16) Enhanced Node B

3GTS CQI CSI DL

FDD LTE

Frequency Division Duplex Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

WiMAX eNB

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3.1.4.2 UL / DL Asymmetry and Others

The objectives of this section are to show how both FDD and TDD operation is enabled with the frame structures of the pervious sections and to list the special advantages and disadvantages of using TDD. Key point of this section is that both FDD and TDD have their distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Image description The picture is showing the other very important differences of FDD and TDD operation: The different UL / DL symmetry and the new interference scenarios in TDD.

3.1.4.2.1 UL/DL symmetry The FDD mode is using UL and DL in a symmetrical way. This means UL and DL use the same portion of bandwidth. TDD can adjust a different amount of slots to the DL than to the UL. This is allowing for asymmetrical usage of UL and DL resources for asymmetrical UL/DL traffic. 3.1.4.2.2 Interference scenarios Unfortunately the TDD advantage of the tunable UL/DL symmetry cannot be used freely because of the interference situation. Once in FDD the interference is only coming from eNB to UE and from UE to eNB and is thus following the normal signal flow, the interference in TDD can also be eNB eNB interference and UE UE interference. Since in-between two same network elements the mobile radio channel can be very good there is a very high potential of strong interference once the once cell is allocating UL to a slot and at the same time the neighbor cell is using DL. - 136 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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This interference situation is requiring to decouple the cells by means of radio network planning or very effective interference coordination. In a macro deployment it is very difficult to circumvent this problem. 3.1.4.2.3 TRX architecture For TDD the TRX architecture is requiring a switch and FDD is using a filtering here. The switch is in general smaller and cheaper then the filter architecture. 3.1.4.2.4 Deployment in a given frequency band Of course it is easier to deploy a TDD system in a given frequency band. FDD always needs a paired frequency band (one band for UL and another band for the DL). Thus TDD can also fit in unoccupied niches of the overall spectrum. However, in some case the interference problems described earlier will lead to challenging co-existence problems with neighboring systems. [3GTS 36.211 (4.1, 4.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Channel State Information Downlink Frequency Division Duplex Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) TDD TRX UE UL UTRAN Time Division Duplex Transmitter / Receiver User Equipment Uplink UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

3GTS CSI DL FDD LTE

MIMO

Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system)

eNB

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3.1.4.3 Summary FDD vs. TDD

The objective of this section the advantages of TDD and FDD discussed in the previous 2 sections. Key point of this section is that it depends on the deployment and service what duplex mode might be more suitable than the other.

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Since the details are already discussed in the pervious sections only the conclusion should be given here: 1. The usage of FDD and TDD in a given scenario should be well thought over. 2. It depends on what services / service mix the operator wants to offer and what deployment is suitable for the operators business case whether this or the other duplex mode is more favorable than the other.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Downlink Frequency Division Duplex Layer 1 (physical layer) MBMS Single Frequency Network Time Division Duplex TRX UE UL eNB Transmitter / Receiver User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

DL FDD L1 MBSFN TDD

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3.2 The DL Physical Channels and their Frame Structures


3.2.1 Allocation of DL Physical Channels to Resource Elements

The objective of this section is to show how the different DL physical channels are mapped on the resource elements in their frame structures. Key point of this section is that size and position of the DL physical channels is highly flexible.
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Image description The picture shows the allocation of the DL physical channels and signals on RB and SC level. The picture shows the allocation for the case that normal CP is configured, the LTE carriers has only 6 RBs, subchannel 0 is taken, that 3 OFDM symbols are configured for L1 signaling, and that only 1 PHICH is configured.

The thick black lines are marking the boundaries of the RB and slots. They do not represent unused subcarriers. In the following the allocation of the physical channels and physical signals is discussed according to their allocation priority. This means a physical channel or physical signal can only assume described positions once this position has not been claimed by physical channels and physical signals described before.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Cyclic Prefix Direct Current Downlink Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Broadcast Channel PCFICH PDCCH PDSCH PHICH RB SC Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Resource Block Subcarrier

CP DC DL L1 LTE OFDM PBCH

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3.2.1.1 Not used subcarriers The DC subcarriers are never used in DL. They are also not counted in the subcarrier numbering. 3.2.1.2 Primary Synchronization Signal The Primary Synchronization Signal only exists on the last OFDM symbol on slots 0 and 10. In the other slots these OFDM symbols will be used for the PDSCH or PMCH. Note that this signal is only existing on the 6 middle RBs of the LTE carrier and that the 5 outermost SCs are reserved for this signal but not used. 3.2.1.3 Secondary Synchronization Signal Here the last but one OFDM symbol on slots 0 and 10 is used. Apart from that the same other rules apply as for the primary synchronization signal. 3.2.1.4 Pilot or Reference Signal The reference signal is using subcarriers distributed in time and frequency in order to access the mobile radio channel completely. Please note that in formal operation the reference signal is belonging to the eNB and is not individual to the UE getting a packet on the regarded RBs. In this case the number of pilot subcarriers assigned is varying with the number of antennas. It is also possible to assign the reference signals individual to the UEs in the case of plain beam forming. 3.2.1.5 PBCH The PBCH is taking OFDM symbols in the middle 6 RBs of the LTE carrier at the beginning of slot 1. In the other RBs and slots these symbols are claimed by the PDSCH or the PMCH. 3.2.1.6 PCFICH The PCFICH is indicating how many OFDM symbols of the subframe are allocated to the PCFICH, the PHICH, and the PDCCH. This is only one PCFICH for subframe. There are 4 group of 4 SC which are equally distributed on the complete LTE subcarrier. The position of the PCFICH is depending on the cell ID and the bandwidth of the LTE carrier. 3.2.1.7 PHICH The PHICH is clustered in groups of 2 or 4. 12 SCs (3 groups of 4 SCs each) of the PHICH group are distributed in the L1 signaling OFDM symbols of the subframe. More than 1 PHICH group can be configured. The exact allocation rules are not clear yet. 3.2.1.8 PDCCH The PDCCH is using the SCs and being not used by the PCFICH and the PHICH. More than 1 PDCCH can be configured. 3.2.1.9 PDSCH (and PMCH) All the remaining subcarriers and symbols can be used by the PDSCH or PMCH. [3GTS 36.311 (6.3 - 6.9)]

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For all the control channels MIMO is not allowed and the PMCH. They might be transmitted with a single antenna or use TX diversity (not the PMCH). Only the PDSCH might be used with MIMO.

Question No 3: What is the reason for this restriction?

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Direct Current Downlink Identity Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Broadcast Channel PCFICH PDCCH PDSCH PHICH PMCH RB SC UE eNB Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Physical Multicast Channel Resource Block Subcarrier User Equipment Enhanced Node B

3GTS CP DC DL ID L1 LTE OFDM PBCH

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3.2.2 System Information on PBCH and PDSCH

The objective of this section is to show the structure of the PBCH and the work split in between the PBCH and the PDSCH. Key point of this section is that the PBCH is only carrying the MIB - other system information messages are transmitted on the PDSCH.

Image description The picture shows the distribution of system information MIB, SIB, and SU on the different physical cannels carrying the BCH.

3.2.2.1 Split of the BCH on the PBCH and the PDSCH The PBCH is just carrying very limited information. The term MIB is reused from UMTS here. The MIB carries very basic information which is quite close to a physical layer signaling. It also indicates with the SFN the presence of the most important SU in the concerned frame. The MIB is transmitted very 40 ms. Once the SU-1 is present it is located at a fixed position in the frame. It is repeated every 80 ms and contains most important system information as cell and network specific codes and IDs. It is as well scheduling other SUs, SBs, and SIBs. In general the SU is containing more than one system information. It is grouping system information having the same periodicity for their transmission and can be thus transmitted together. [3GTS 36.300 (7.4), 3GTS 36.331(5.1.1.2, 6.2.1)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Downlink For Further Study Identity Management Information Base Physical Broadcast Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel PLMN SB SFN SIB SU TA TX UMTS Public Land Mobile Network Scheduling Block System Frame Number System Information Block Scheduling Unit Tracking Area Transmit Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

3GTS BCH DL FFS ID MIB PBCH PDSCH

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3.2.3 PCFICH, PDCCH, and PHICH

The objective of this section is to show the structure of the PCFICH, the PDCCH, and the PHICH. Key point of this section is that with the physical control channels the functions of the HS-SCCH, the E-AGCH, the E-RGCH and the E-HICH in HSPA are followed.

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Image description The picture shows what HSPA physical channels are replaced by the LTE physical control channels and how the related information is transmitted.

3.2.3.1 The PCFICH Since the PDCCH is sharing the RB with the PDSCH it has to be communicated how much of the RB is taken for the PDCCH. This is done by the CFIs transmitted on the PCFICH. The PCFICH is using 16 data subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol of the subframe. Their position is depending of cell ID and used bandwidth for the cell. Since the size of the PDCCH is depending on the signaling needs there are 3 different CFI values possible. They are signaling whether the first 1, 2, or 3 OFDM symbols are used of the subframe are used for the PDCCH. In case less then 10 RB's are used for the DL carrier the numbers are 2, 3, or 4. Abbreviations of this Section:
Acknowledgement Control Format Indicator Downlink Control Indicator Downlink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (3GTS 25.211) MIMO NACK OFDM PC PCFICH PDCCH PDSCH Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Negative Acknowledgement Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Power Control Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Resource Block Single In / Multiple Out (antenna system) User Equipment Uplink

ACK CFI DCI DL DPCCH E-AGCH E-HICH E-RGCH HI

E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (3GTS PHICH 25.211) HARQ Indicator RB SIMO

HS-SCCH High Speed Shared Control Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.214) HSPA ID LTE

High Speed Packet Access (operation UE of HSDPA and HSUPA) Identity Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) UL

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3.2.3.2 The PDCCH The PDCCH is transmitting the information about the resource allocation, the HARQ info, the transport format and implicitly the RNTIs for the DL transmission. This has been taken care of by the HS-SCCH in HSDPA. Due to the advanced antenna technology there is also some additional information transmitted: the codebook entry and the transmission rank of the following DL packet. Here it is specified how the TX antenna system is used. This information is needed in order to detect the data packet in the UE. The PDCCH can also transmit the scheduling grant for the UL. Since no CDMA is used in LTE here the explicit resources have to be granted. Multiple UEs cannot access the same subcarriers in an uncontrolled manner. In the UL it is possible to choose also the TX antenna to use. The scheduling grant has been managed by the E-AGCH and the E-RGCH in HSUPA. It is also possible to perform UL power control with the PDCCH. In this sense the PDCCH is also taking functions of the DPCCH of UMTS. Since the PDCCH has a lot of functions and not all of them are used at the same time it is obvious that the PDCCH is in need to be configured flexibly. The L1 signaling is done with DCI. These DCIs can have 10 formats following the different functions: 1 format for UL scheduling, 5 formats for DL scheduling (no MIMO), 2 formats for DL scheduling (MIMO), and 2 formats for UL power control only. 3.2.3.3 The PHICH Once the UE is transmitting data in the UL it will listen to the PHICH for the acknowledgements. This function is taken over from the E-HICH in HSPA. The several PHICHs are forming a PHICH group using the same resource elements. With this group depending on the CP configuration and MBSFN usage 1,2, or 3 OFDM symbols will be configured by higher layers. The PHICHs are spread using spreading factor of 2 or 4 depending on the CP configuration. Each HI (ACK or NACK) is repetition encoded in order to have 3bits on the physical layer

In order to prevent a hen and egg situation both the PCFICH and the PDCCH and the PHICH are restricted to single antenna transmission and TX diversity with 2 or 4 antennas MIMO is not allowed. [3GTS 36.211 (6), 3GTS 36.212 (5.3.3, 5.3.4, 5.3.5)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Code Division Multiple Access Cyclic Prefix Downlink Control Indicator Downlink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (3GTS 25.211) HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.309, 25.401, 3GTR 25.896) Layer 1 (physical layer) Negative Acknowledgement MBMS Single Frequency Network Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Negative Acknowledgement Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Transmit User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

3GTS

ACK CDMA CP DCI DL DPCCH E-AGCH E-HICH E-RGCH HARQ HI

L1 LTE MBSFN MIMO NACK OFDM PCFICH PDCCH

E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (3GTS PHICH 25.211) Hybrid ARQ HARQ Indicator TX UE UL UMTS

HS-SCCH High Speed Shared Control Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.214) HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) High Speed Packet Access (operation of HSDPA and HSUPA)

HSPA

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3.2.4 The Downlink Processing Chain

The objective of this section is to illustrate the structure and use of the downlink processing chain. Key point of this section is that for of the processing is already associated with the individual antennas.

Image description This picture is showing the basic steps of the DL signal processing chain. In the following the individual steps are described closer. The path of the second TB is shown as a dotted line.

3.2.4.1 Encoded transport block bits The encoded transport block bits are the input of the scrambler. 3.2.4.2 Scrambling Scrambling is serving two purposes: Signal separation and signal randomization. Scrambling is done by XORing the input bits with a PN scrambling code. In order to ensure the separation of different signals in different cells different scrambling codes are applied in different cells. The scrambling code is also necessary to randomize long sequences of bits being the same (e.g. once a transport block is zero padded). These sequences can evoke very severe AM in the signals to be transmitted. Without a scrambler a very expensive RF would be required to deal with this AM.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Acknowledged Mode operation Amplitude Modulation Cyclic Delay Diversity Cyclic Prefix Downlink Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation MIMO OFDM PN RF TB TX Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Pseudo Noise Radio Frequency Transport Block Transmit

AM AM CDD CP DL IFFT

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3.2.4.3 Modulator In the next step the bits are used in order to create complex modulated symbols according to the chosen modulation alphabet of this channel (QPSK, 16-QAM, 64QAM). 3.2.4.4 Layer Mapper In the layer mapper these modulated symbols are then demultiplexed to the different antennas. Form then on the modulated symbols are processed differently on different antennas. 3.2.4.5 Precoding In case smart antenna technology is applied the precoding is preparing the modulated symbols to give optimum performance in the given antenna system. There are several methods to do that: E.g. to apply beamforming coefficients in order to ensure optimum SIR in the receiver or to use CDD which is randomizing the phases of the transmitted signals also for better quality in the receiver. 3.2.4.6 OFDM signal generation For the OFDM signal generation the modulated and precoded symbols are finally mapped on the subcarriers of the OFDM signal. Possibly also reference or pilot symbols are inserted on selected carriers. In case of multiple antenna operation the pilot symbols are inserted differently for the different antennas. Later on these reference signals are allowing for channel estimation of the individual antennas CIRs 3.2.4.7 CP and IFFT The IFFT and the addition of the cyclic prefix are creating the final signal to be transmitted on each antenna. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 3rd Generation Technical Specification 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Cyclic Delay Diversity Channel Impulse Response CP IFFT OFDM QPSK SIR Cyclic Prefix Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Signal to Interference Ratio

16-QAM 3GTS 64-QAM CDD CIR

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3.3 The UL Physical Channels and their Frame Structures


3.3.1 Overview UL Physical Channels (RRC_CONNECTED)

The objective of this section is to show the conditions for the usage of the UL physical channels in RRC_CONNECTED mode. Key points of this section are that the PUCCH only used once the PUSCH is not transmitted and that the PUSCH is also carrying L1 signaling data.

Image description The picture shows in the top part the conditions when the UL physical channels are used how. The picture shows in the bottom part what data is demultiplexed on the physical channels.

3.3.1.1 Scheduling Request (SR) on the PUCCH There are special SR resources on the PUCCH. Here the UE can request to be scheduled UL data. In case an a DL transmission has to be acknowledged at the same time this will happen on the same resource. Otherwise the acknowledgement will be on the following resources:

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3.3.1.2 Small amount of L1 information on the PUCCH A UE will get some UL resources assigned semi statically for the PUCCH for other L1 signaling than SR. These resources can be used for acknowledging the DL TBs, for transmitting CQI, PMI, RI and other DL feedback information. Since it is not transmitted once a PUSCH is transmitted it not not contain any further UL related information. 3.3.1.3 Big amount of L1 information on the PUSCH In case a lot of CQI, PMI, and RI have to be transmitted this L1 information is transmitted on the PUSCH. 3.3.1.4 L1 information on the PUSCH multiplexed with the TrCH data Since SC-FDMA is used only a single carrier signal is allowed which cannot be ensured once the UE would transmit on both the PUSCH and the PUCCH. Consequently, in case a PUSCH is transmitted for data it will also contain the L1 signaling which would elsewise have been transmitted on the PUCCH/PUSCH. Then the PUCCH is not in need to be transmitted. The L1 signaling information is distributed on the SC-FDMA symbols and follows the same modulation scheme as the other PUSCH data. 3.3.1.5 Sounding reference symbols PUSCH resources A similar issue is also valid for the transmission of the SRS. The SRS is used for a detailed assessment of the mobile radio channel. With the SRS the eNB can decide where best to allocate the UL resources and how the timing advance has to be set for this UE. In order to keep the single carrier guideline it can only be transmitted together with the PUSCH. Only 1 position is possible: the last symbol of the subframe. [3GTS 36.212 (5.4), 3GTS 36.212 (5.2.2.7), 3GTS 36.213 (7.2.2, 10)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Channel Quality Indicator Downlink Enhanced Node B Frequency Division Multiple Access Hybrid ARQ Layer 1 (physical layer) Negative Acknowledgement Precoding Matrix Indicator Physical Uplink Control Channel PUSCH RI Physical Uplink Shared Channel Rank Indicator

3GTS ACK CQI DL eNB FDMA HARQ L1 NACK PMI PUCCH

RRC_CO RRC state in E-UTRA NNECTED SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SR SRS TB TrCH UE UL Scheduling Request Sounding Reference Symbol Transport Block Transport Channel (UMTS) User Equipment Uplink

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3.3.2 Overview PUCCH

The objective of this section is to show that both possible uplink physical channels are using the same frame structure but that they differ how it is used. Key point of this section is that the PUCCH is combining the functions of the HS-PDCCH and some functions of the E-DPCCH in HSPA.

Image description The picture compares the physical channels in HSPA with the PUCCH. Since the PUCCH is not transmitted in presence of a PUSCH no L1 information regarding the transmitted UL TBs is transmitted in the PUCCH. Like the PDCCH the PUCCH is tailored from the start to the use in LTE: This is why it is combining the function^s of two HSPA channels. However the function is also enhanced with respect to the HSPA usage. The information elements are grouped in UCIs.

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For example not only one bit ACK/NACK can be transmitted but also two. The reason for this configuration is that the downlink can transmit two data streams with MIMO. Each data stream has it own TB. In case 4x4 antennas are used in the DL the number of TBs stays with 2. Next to the CQI other parameters are transmitted. Here codebook entries creating a favorable receive performance in the UEs receiver are transmitted as PMI as well as the TX rank (how many parallel data streams the UE can take). This information is as in HSPA - not binding for the eNB. This is why the eNB has to transmit the chosen codebook entry and the TX rank in the PDCCH as well. Another function of the PUCCH is to transmit the scheduling request which is needed in order to get UL resources assigned for transmission. This function corresponds quite well to the Happy Bit in HSUPA. There is a dilemma with the PUCCH: Not all the functions and transmitted information is needed all the time this is why the PUCCH has 6 different format which are restring the use of the PUCCH. [3GTS 36.211 (5.4), 3GTS 36.300 (5.2.3)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Channel Quality Indicator Downlink Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (3GTS 25.211) High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (3GTS 25.211) NACK PDCCH PMI PUCCH PUSCH TB Negative Acknowledgement Physical Downlink Control Channel Precoding Matrix Indicator Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Transport Block Transmit Uplink Control Indicator

3GTS ACK CQI DL E-DPCCH HSDPCCH HSPA HSUPA

High Speed Packet Access (operation TX of HSDPA and HSUPA) High Speed Uplink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.309, 25.401, 3GTR 25.896) Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) UCI

L1 LTE MIMO

UE UL eNB

User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

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3.3.3 PUCCH Mapping for ACK/NACK only and Scheduling Request

The objective of this section is to show how ACKs, NACKs and scheduling requests are transmitted on the PUCCH with slot formats 1(x). Key point of this section is that for these 5 formats both CDMA and cyclically shifted Zadoff-Chu sequences are used to multiplex different UEs to use the same UL resources for the PUCCH.

Image description The picture visualizes the different 1(x) formats of the PUCCH. In the foreground the picture shown the normal CP configuration. Below the second slot the extended CP configuration is shown. Since the PUCCH is using a single RB and waste of resources needs to be prevented, this single RB is in need to be shared in-between more than 1 UE. The following 3 methods help to achieve this goal. 3.3.3.1 Usage of Zadoff-Chu sequences There the 12 SC's on each SC-FDMA symbol are used in order to create a ZadoffChu sequence in the time domain. These symbols are modulated with information of the PUCCH.

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These sequences process almost ideal autocorrelation properties such that different UE can use the same sequence but with a different cyclic shift in the time domain. Then these UE have almost orthogonal signals.

Room for your Notes


3

Abbreviations of this Section:


Acknowledgement Code Division Multiple Access Cyclic Prefix Frequency Division Multiple Access Negative Acknowledgement Physical Uplink Control Channel RB SC Resource Block Subcarrier

ACK CDMA CP FDMA NACK PUCCH

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access UE UL User Equipment Uplink

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3.3.3.2 Spreading of repeated data Zadoff-Chu symbols In order to improve the protection the modulated Zadoff-Chu sequences are repeated 3 or 4 times. In order to increase the number of UE's sharing these resources a spreading code overlays this repetition. Different UE's can then be separated by different spreading codes. 3.3.3.3 Spreading of reference Zadoff-Chu symbols 2 or 3 reference Zadoff-Chu Symbols used for chanel estimation. These symbols are modulated according to a spreading code of SF 2 or 3. In order to allow different UE's to share these resources, again different spreading codes and cyclic shifts are assigned to different UE's. 3.3.3.3 PUCCH Format 1 Format 1 is used to transmit SR's in absence of acknowledgements. It is not modulated. The presence of a Zadoff-Chu sequence on a certain resource is indicating a SR. This is why it can be combined with acknowledgements, but then it would be format 1a or format 1b. Like all the format 1(x) formats there are 3 reference symbols for the normal CP and 2 reference symbols for the extended CP. 3.3.3.4 PUCCH Formats 1a and 1b The difference with respect to format 1 is that these two formats are modulated in order to convey an acknowledgement for 1 TB (1a) or and acknowledgement for 2 TB's (1b). In order to do so they are modulated with BPSK (1a) or with QPSK (1b). 3.3.3.5 Shortened PUCCH Formats 1a and 1b These formats cut the last data symbol of the second slot in order to support the transmission of a SRS at this position. This is not possible for the extended CP. 3.3.3.6 Multiple access of the PUCCH In theory 12 cyclic shifts can be used for the Zadoff-Chu sequences. The SF codes would allows for 4 different codes. However since there are only up to 3 symbols for the reference signals the number of spreading codes is limited to the number of reference symbols such that the theoretical maximum of simultaneous UE's would be 36 for the normal CP and 24 for the extended CP. Since this operation is vulnerable to long channel impulse responses usually 6 instead of 12 cyclic shifts are used only. This is reducing the amount of UE's to be served in parallel by 50 %. Once the extended cyclic prefix is used for the UL there are 2 pilot symbols for a slot only. Compared to the normal cyclic prefix 1 symbol is missing (6 instead of 7 symbols).

[3GTS 36.211 (5.4)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying Cyclic Prefix Physical Uplink Control Channel Spreading Factor SR SRS TB UE UL Scheduling Request Sounding Reference Symbol Transport Block User Equipment Uplink

3GTS BPSK CP PUCCH SF

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3.3.4 Shared usage of Resources with CAZAC Sequences

The objective of this section is to show how resources can be shared with CAZAC sequences (in LTE Zadoff-Chu sequences). Key point of this section is that cyclic shifts combined with the good auto correlation features of the Zadoff-Chu sequences are allowing have more than one UE using the same physical resource.

Image description The top part of the picture visualizes the features which make Zadoff-Chu sequences CAZAC sequences. The bottom part of the picture shows how these features are used to allocate two or more UEs on the same physical resource.

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3.3.4.1 Zadoff-Chu sequences are CAZAC sequences CAZAC means Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation. These features are exhibited by Zadoff-Chu sequences being used in LTE. Consequently they have an almost constant amplitude over the complete symbol duration and their autocorrelation function is 1 at 0 and almost 0 everywhere else over the length of the useful part of the SC-FDMA symbol. 3.3.4.2 Separation of different UEs with cyclic shifted Zadoff-Chu sequences. These features can be used in order to multiplex different UEs using the same subcarriers e.g. on the PUCCH. This is done by applying different cyclic shifts to different UEs. Please note that for the PUCCH there are 12 sub-symbols in the time domain for each SC-FDMA symbol. In the picture the sequence of UE 2 is cyclically shifted by 2 of these sub-symbols against the sequence of UE 1. Once both UEs are transmitting on the same RB their signals superimpose at the eNBs receiver. Then the eNB can run the cyclical cross-correlation of UE 1s not shifted basic sequence with the received signal. Then there are correlation peaks corresponding to the CIR and modulation of the two UEs in different windows of the cross correlation function. This output can either be used for channel estimation or for demodulation of the PUCCH messages. Since the CIR of the UE has to fit inside the windows the number of different UEs which can be put on the same RBs is limited by the expected CIR length. Since for the PUCCH only 1 RB is used the limited bandwidth is allowing only two independent CIR samples to be measured in each of the 6 windows shown in the picture. Hence 6 UEs can be separated by means of the usage of Zadoff-Chu sequences alone. For high data rate transmissions on the PUSCH more RBs are used and hence a more exact channel estimation is possible.

Abbreviations of this Section:


Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation Code Channel Impulse Response Frequency Division Multiple Access Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel RB RX Resource Block Receive

CAZAC CIR FDMA LTE PUCCH PUSCH

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access UE eNB User Equipment Enhanced Node B

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3.3.5 PUCCH mapping of CQI and other information

The objective of this section is to show how CQI and other information are transmitted on the PUCCH with format 2. Key point of this section is by means of omitting the spreading and slot repetition used for the formats 0-1 20 bits can be transported on the PUCCH.

Image description The picture visualizes the procedure of mapping CQI and other information on the subframe of the PUCCH. In the foreground the picture shown the normal CP configuration. Below the second slot the extended CP configuration is shown.

3.3.5.1 PUCCH Format 2 For the case that CQI and other information are in need to be transmitted more data rate than 1-2 bit per subframe is needed. This is why for format 2 on the PUCCH the individual Zadoff-Chu sequences are modulated individually with the QPSK symbols and the repetition of the slot as well as the spreading inside a slot are omitted. There is also no spreading for the pilots. The advantage of this scheme is that still the UL resources can be shared by different UEs by means of applying different cyclic shifts on the Zadoff-Chu sequences of the data symbols and on the Zadoff-Chu sequences of the pilot symbols.

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Please note that there are two pilot symbols for slot format 2. This leaves 5 symbols per slot for the normal CP configuration. For the extended CP configuration there is one symbol less. Consequently there is only 1 pilot symbols to keep 5 symbols per slot for the extended CP configuration. 3.3.5.2 PUCCH Formats 2a and 2b These formats allow to transmit an acknowledgement and a CQI together. Here the first pilot symbol is modulated according to BPSK and QPSK modulation needed to transmit 1 or 2 acknowledgements. Since there is only 1 reference symbol for the extended CP configuration these formats are only applicable for the normal CP configuration. [3GTS 36.211 (5.4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Channel Quality Indicator Physical Uplink Control Channel QPSK RB UE UL Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Resource Block User Equipment Uplink

3GTS CP CQI PUCCH

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3.3.6 The Uplink Processing Chain

The objective of this section is to illustrate the structure and use of the uplink processing chain. Key point of this section is beginning and end of the UL processing chain is the same as for the DL processing chain.

Image description As the picture above shows the UL signal processing chain is very similar to the DL signal processing chain. With respect to the difference of OFDM and SCFDMA there are only few differences. In the following the individual stages are revisited.

3.3.6.1 Transport block bits There is no difference with respect to the DL signal processing. 3.3.6.2 Scrambling There is no difference with respect to the DL signal processing. 3.3.6.3 Modulator There is no difference with respect to the DL signal processing. 3.3.6.4 DFT pre-coder According to the number of allocated subcarriers the sequence of modulated symbols is segmented in block with the name number of symbols than the number of sub carriers. Then each segment is undergoing a DFT. - 166 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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3.3.6.5 Demultiplexing of signals other than data As explained before the pilots symbols, the PUCCH symbols, and the sounding reference symbols (SRS) are created separately in the frequency domain and do not follow the DFT. PUSCH, PUCCH, and SRS have their own power control and thus their own scaling factor. The pilot symbols are following the scaling of their physical channels. The PRACH is created different form the other physical channels and is not discussed here. 3.3.6.6 Resource element mapper According to the allocated subcarriers and the frequency hopping sequence the DFT transformed symbols are allocated on the subcarriers. 3.3.6.7 IFFT Here the modulated symbols are interpolated in the frequency domain. Some SCFDMA symbols are prepared to transmit reference or sounding signals. Sounding signals are needed to test a wide range of UL spectrum. Once the eNB is receiving them is has valuable information on which carriers inside the eNBs receive band there is a good opportunity to schedule the UE next. 3.3.6.7 CP There is no difference with respect to the DL signal processing. [3GTS 36.211 (5.3)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Discrete Fourier Transformation Downlink Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Random Access Channel PUCCH PUSCH Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel

3GTS CP DFT DL IFFT OFDM PRACH

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SRS UE UL eNB Sounding Reference Symbol User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

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3.4 Overview all Physical Channels

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the structure and channel coding of all physical channels. Key point of this section is that especially in the DL several physical channels are sharing the subframes.

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Table description The upper section of the table is describing the DL physical channels and the DL physical signals where as the lower half of the table is doing the same for the UL. In the following the channels and signals are described closer which are not treated in very much details in the other sections of this book. 3.4.1 Special usage of the 6 RB around the DC carrier These RBs are shared in-between all DL physical channels and physical signals. In the first subframe the some symbols are dedicated to the PBCH. Please note here that the 2 last symbols of the 1st and 10th slot are used by the primary and secondary synchronization signal. Abbreviations of this Section:
16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Broadcast Channel Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying Cyclic Redundancy Check Direct Current Downlink Downlink Shared Channel For Further Study Layer 1 (physical layer) Multicast Channel Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Physical Broadcast Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Paging Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel PDSCH PHICH PMCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH QPSK RACH RB RNTI Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Physical Multicast Channel Physical Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Random Access Channel Resource Block Radio Network Temporary Identifier

16-QAM 64-QAM BCH BPSK CRC DC DL DL-SCH FFS L1 MCH OFDM OFDMA PBCH PCFICH PCH PDCCH

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SCH TrCH UL UL-SCH XOR Synchronization Channel Transport Channel (UMTS) Uplink Uplink Shared Channel Exclusive-Or Logical Combination

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3.4.2 Multiplexing of the PCFICH, PDCCH and the PDSCH/PMCH in the normal DL subframe. In the normal DL subframe the PDSCH is used together with the PCFICH and the PDCCH. The first OFDM symbol is (partially) be used by the PCFICH. The PCFICH is indicating how big the PDCCH will be: Whether it uses 1, 2, or 3 (+1 each number in case of less than 10 RB's) first OFDM symbols of the DL sub frame. The remaining symbols of the OFDM subframe are used by the PDSCH. The PMCH can be treated in the same way as the PDSCH. The different is that it is used on one special antenna port for SFN transmissions only. The PRACH isexplained in a later section. 3.4.3 Sounding reference signal The sounding reference signal is requested by the UE once it is in need to access the UL channel in order to decide which resources to schedule to the regarded UE. Once the UE is performing regular UL transmission there is no need to have this sounding signal. This is why there will be a special procedure to schedule this signal to the UE. The sounding signal may be mapped on the last symbol of an UL subframe and it will likely be a broadband signal. The PUCCH has been explained already in an earlier section. 3.4.4 Modulation of the physical channels The PDSCH, PMCH and the PUSCH are carrying payload thus they are able to carry QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. For the signaling channels mostly QPSK is used. The PUCCH is the only exemption. 3.4.5 Channel coding The PDSCH, PMCH and the PUSCH are using turbo coding like in HSPA. For the signaling channels another approach than in UMTS has been taken. The signaling channels are only carrying few bits compared to the payload carrying channels. With the block sizes the tails bits for the convolutional encoding can take a significant portion of the overall input of the channel encoder. This is why in LTE tailbiting convolutional coding is used. This has the advantage that the tailbits are spared. As some DL signaling channels in HSPA the PDCCH is using as well a 16 bit CRC which is masked wit the 16 bit RNTIs used for indication for which user the DL signaling is intended for. The PDCCH may also indicate which TX antenna the UE is supported to use (format 0). This will also be done using a CRC masking code.

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Cyclic Redundancy Check Downlink PMCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH Physical Multicast Channel Physical Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Radio Network Temporary Identifier Single Frequency Network User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

16-QAM 64-QAM CRC DL HSPA LTE OFDM PCFICH PDCCH PDSCH

High Speed Packet Access (operation QPSK of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel RNTI SFN UE UL UMTS

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3.5 Physical Layer Procedures

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the following physical layer procedures.

Timing advance control Here the way how timing advance control is performed and the way possible timing advance control commands are signaled should be covered.

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Channel estimation Here the differences of UL and Downlink channel estimation should be tackled. Especially how to achieve that individual channel estimation can be performed for the individual transmit antennas. Power control Here the way how power control is performed and the way possible power control commands are signaled should be covered. MIMO Here the details of how the signals are prepared for MIMO transmission should be covered: the codebook, closed loop MIMO, and CDD. As well some background of MIMO technology should be given in order to achieve understanding of the applied methods. Initial cell search Here the detailed procedure of synchronizing on the primary synchronization signal, secondary, synchronization signal, and finally on the BCH should be described. Random access Here the details of the random access procedure should be given. Inter Cell Interference Mitigation Here the way how the different cells are coordinating their interference in the network is described. [3GTS 36.211, 3GTS 36.213]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Cyclic Delay Diversity MIMO UL Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Uplink

3GTS BCH CDD

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3.5.1 Timing Advance Control 3.5.1.1 Principle

The objectives of this section are to show the principle operation of timing advance control in LTE and to state to what degree the time synchronization by means of timing advance control is in need to be maintained. Key point of this section is that since LTE is a TDMA system like GSM TA like in GSM becomes necessary.
Image description This picture is stating the basic synchronization requirements for OFDM and is visualizing the behavior of the system in the synchronized and in the unsynchronized case. In UTRA the downlink signals are synchronized to a 256 chip grid whereas the uplink signals are asynchronous amongst each other. This is a rather relaxed synchronization requirement. However in LTE, due to the special nature of the applied OFDM and SC-FDMA technology even tougher synchronization requirements have to be followed.

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Like in GSM there is the TDMA structure to be followed. This is requiring that the UL frames of all the UEs are synchronized to the eNBs timing grid. As well the usage of OFDMA and SC-FDMA technology is implying that signals for multiple UEs are received or transmitted at the same time. In order to allow for a good separation of the signals for the different UEs this is requiring that the cyclic prefixes are coinciding. For the downlink this is quite simple to implement because the eNB is aligning the CPs of the signals for the different UEs automatically. For the UL however this is more difficult to achieve. As shown in the picture once the UEs CPs are not arriving in a synchronous manner in the eNB the distortions caused by the changing symbol modulation in the CP interfere with the UEs signals on the neighboring carriers. This inference will make a successful detection impossible. Only once the SC-FDMA symbols are synchronized such that their CPs are coinciding the interference is falling into the CP. Since the CP is not processed for the detection process it is not harmful in the synchronized case.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Cyclic Prefix Downlink Global System for Mobile Communication Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access TA TDMA UE UL UTRA Timing Advance Time Division Multiple Access User Equipment Uplink UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Enhanced Node B

CP DL GSM LTE OFDM

OFDMA

eNB

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

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Like in GSM this synchronization is achieved by means of timing advance control. The UE has to apply a timing advance which is shifting the gird of the UL timing against the downlink grid of the DL at the UE. Since both the downlink needs a propagation delay to arrive at the UEs position and the uplink needs a propagation

delay as well to arrive at the eNB the uplink timing grid has to advance twice to propagation delay at the UEs position to arrive in the eNBs timing grid at the eNBs position. The eNB is controlling the timing advance of the UEs by means of timing advance control commands. In general the average CIR profile is controlled since the control algorithm is too slow to follow the instantaneous changes of the mobile radio channels propagation delay. Since the CP can have a length of only about 5 s the accuracy of the timing advance control has to be for sure better than 1 s. It has to be highlighted here the timing advance inaccuracy is shortening the maximum length of the channel impulse response tolerated by the system. It is open until now whether the timing advance control is an open or closed loop, and whether it is performed suing physical layer power control commands or using higher layer commands. [3GTR 25.814 (9.1.2.6)]

Room for your Notes

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Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report Channel Impulse Response Cyclic Prefix Downlink GSM UE UL eNB Global System for Mobile Communication User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

3GTR CIR CP DL

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3.5.1.2 Procedure

The objectives of this section are to show how in detail the timing advance control algorithms work. Key point of this section is that the timing advance control is operating differently for the unsynchronized and the synchronized state.

Image description This picture is showing the operation of TA control as a flow chart in the unsynchronized and in the synchronized state.

3.5.1.2.1 TA while the UE is not synchronized to the eNB Once the UE is not synchronized the UE will send a random access preamble until it gets a response from the network. After that the eNB will transmit a message with the TA. The length of the TA message and the physical channel the TA message will be transmitted is not clear now. In any case the granularity of the TA is 0.52 s. This is 16 T(sample) which would correspond to the sampling grid of a 1.25 MHz carrier which is the smallest bandwidth discussed for LTE so far. 0.52 s is corresponding to a distance of 75 m.

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This TA update is transmitted on the DL-SCH using a special LCID in the MAC-PDU header is reserved for the RACH message 2. 3.5.1.2.2 TA while the UE is synchronized to the eNB Once the UE is in the synchronized state the eNB will listen to the physical channels being transmitted by the UE. It is not clear which physical channel can be listened to: PUCCH, PUSCH, or sounding signals. Once the UE has not transmitted something after a given time the eNB will ask the UE to issue a sounding signal. With the analysis of the sounding signal then the TA update can be determined. Once of the key differences to GSM TA update is that a TA update will only be performed once it is needed. This is typically the case every two seconds. Once the eNB is recognizing that the UE is not very mobile it will not issue a new TA very often. In case a TA update is needed the eNB will transmit a TA update relative to the old timing advance possibly on the PDCCH. This TA update is transmitted on the DLSCH using a special LCID in the MAC-PDU header is reserved for timing advance transmissions. Once an UL signal with a bandwidth of 1080 kHz (72 subcarriers) or more is transmitted the TA can be determined without interpolation techniques. Once the bandwidth is reduced to e.g. 1 resource block (180 kHz) then the TA can only be determined with a granularity comparable to GSM (5 s) and then interpolation techniques will have to be applied to come to a better resolution. Some mobile radio channels might then not support a reasonable TA performance any more. [3GTR 25.814 (9.1.2.6), 3GTS 36.211 (8), 3GTS 36.213 (4.2.4), 3GTS 36.221 (6.2.1)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Global System for Mobile Communication Logical Channel ID Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Physical Downlink Control Channel PDU PUCCH PUSCH RACH TA UE UL eNB kHz Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Physical Uplink Control Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Random Access Channel Timing Advance User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTR 3GTS DL DL-SCH GSM LCID LTE MAC MHz PDCCH

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3.5.2 Channel Estimation DL 3.5.2.1 Channel Estimation Principle of LTE

The objective of this section is to show the background and the necessity of channel estimation in LTE. Key point of this section is that the mobile radio channel essentially behaves the same in multiple dimensions: frequency and time (space).

Image description 3.5.2.1.1 The description of the mobile radio channel In OFDMA technology the mobile radio system is dimensioned that the mobile radio channel is flat on the individual subcarriers. This means that the mobile radio channels influence can simply be described by means of a multiplication with a complex number. This complex number is introducing distortions on the transmitted data symbol i.e. the amplitude and the phase of the received symbols are different than the amplitude and phase of the transmitted symbols. Once the mobile radio channel is known then this distortion can be undone by means of dividing by the estimated complex number.

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This picture is showing the basic behavior of the mobile radio channel. Since the mobile radio channel is changing with time and also with frequency selectively, the channel estimate is in need to cover these changes and also to provide a channel estimates for data symbols on subcarriers where there are no reference or pilot symbols transmitted.

Room for your Notes


3

Abbreviations of this Section:


Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio Channel Impulse Response Fast Fourier Transformation Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) OFDM OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

CINR CIR FFT IFFT LTE

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access UE User Equipment

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3.5.2.1.2 Coping with a frequency selective mobile radio channel At first the mobile radio channel is showing different behavior on different subcarrier. This means that the phase shift and attenuation of the mobile radio channel is different for different subcarriers. The background is that the CIR is creating a frequency selective mobile ratio channel. The longer the CIR the more frequency selectivity is created. The Fourier Transformation of the CIR is the subcarrier spectrum. In order to space possible pilots or reference signals on the subcarriers with the right spacing in-between each other the sampling theorem has to be adhered to in the frequency domain. This means that the pilot subcarrier spacing has to follow at least the following equation: f(pilot)1/ With fpilot being the subcarrier spacing of the pilots and being the max. length of the CIR (note that for SFN the CIR is lengthening due to the big difference of distance of the eNBs). Here the longer the CIR has to be expected the more dense the pilot signals have to be spaced. 3.5.2.1.3 Coping with the time variance of the mobile radio channel Secondly the mobile radio channel is changing with time. This is mainly cased by the UEs movements. Each movement is causing a small frequency shift being called Doppler shift. The maximum Doppler frequency is proportional to the velocity of the UE. In order to cover this, the pilots have also to be repeated from time to time in order to follow the time variations of the mobile radio channels. Mathematical speaking the inverse Fourier Transformation of the Doppler spectrum is giving the behavior over time of the individual subcarriers. For the right spacing of the pilots in time the following equation has to be adhered to in order to fulfill the sampling theorem in the time domain: t(pilot)1/(2 f(d, max))=c/(2 f(c) v) With t(pilot) being the time spacing of consecutive pilot symbols, f(D, max) being the maximum Doppler shift, c the speed of light v the velocity of the UE and f(c) the carrier frequency. Of course the time variance and frequency selectivity are working on the mobile radio channels independently from each other.

Room for your Notes

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Abbreviations of this Section:


Channel Impulse Response Single Frequency Network UE eNB User Equipment Enhanced Node B

CIR SFN

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3.5.2.2 Channel Estimation Downlink

The objective of this section is to show how the reference symbols are distributed in time and subcarrier space and how it is ensured that the signals from different TX antennas can be separated in the downlink. Key point of this section is that the special arrangement of the pilot symbols is enabling the receiver to estimate the channel impulse response belonging to the individual transmit antennas.

Image description The picture is focusing on the 15 kHz sub carrier spacing and is showing how the pilot subcarriers are distributed.

3.5.2.2.1 Normal configuration with 4 TX antennas Here the pilot symbols have to enable the differentiation of 4 antennas. This is done by means of having exclusively reserved positions of pilot symbols for the individual antennas. If one antenna is transmitting on one subcarrier this subcarrier will not be used by the other antenna neither for pilot symbols nor for data symbols. - 184 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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This has the advantage that no interference is coming from the other antennas for the channel estimation of the regarded antenna. The disadvantage obviously is that the throughput to be transmitted for each antenna is suffering the more antennas are used. For the 3rd and the 4th antenna the pilot symbols are less dense in the time domain, because 4 antennas would lead to an extremely high data rate and this is only less likely to successfully happening with a high UE mobility. So the UE speed to be supported can be lower from the channel estimation point of view also. 3.5.2.2.2 Normal configuration with less than 4 TX antennas If the above allocation would be used for less than 4 antennas (2 and 1 antenna) there would be some positions which are never used. In order to gain throughout these positions will be used for data symbols again. 3.5.2.2.3 Extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing Here the difference is that there are only 6 OFDM symbols instead of the 7 symbols shown in the picture. The change here is that the symbols with the number 2 or 3 in the normal configuration is omitted. 3.5.2.2.4 Extended configuration with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing for MBSFN This configuration is used for MBMS transmission combined with SFN only. Here the channel impulse responses can be very long. This is the reason why the pilots a more dense in the frequency domain. Since the MBMS services are expected to be associated with less mobility for the UE there are more OFDM symbols as for the other configurations. 3.5.2.2.5 Extended configuration with 7.5 kHz subcarrier spacing for MBSFN This configuration is existing only in the DL thus for broadcast operation. As shown in the lower part of the picture, optionally the channel impulse response can be interpolated in-between the pilot symbols for equalizing the data symbols. [3GTS 36.211 (6.10)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Downlink Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service MBMS Single Frequency Network Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing SFN TX UE kHz Single Frequency Network Transmit User Equipment Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTS DL MBMS MBSFN OFDM

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3.5.3 Power Control Principle (PUSCH)

The objective of this section is to show the principle operation of UL power control in LTE. Key point of this section is that in LTE there is no clear distinction in-between open loop and closed loop power control. It is rather a matter of parameterization and implementation what scheme is followed.
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The PC mechanism will be a mixture in-between open loop and closed loop power control. It will take both advantage of scheduling grants or corrections being sent on PDCCH (closed loop power control) and adjustment of the TX power according to a measured path loss in-between eNB and the UE (open loop power control). From time to time the eNB will adjust the parameters for the PUSCH power control. For a FDD system this scheme will result in a rather slow power control compared to UMTS because 1. Since UL and DL are different the path loss has to be averaged in order to get a reliable figure. This will make the algorithms slow. 2. Due to the packet nature of the complete traffic there will be a delay for the UL transmissions needed for the eNB to correct the UL power and the DL signals communicating the new power. Since UL and DL are reciprocal in TDD it can be expected that PC control will happen faster than in FDD. In TDD for slow UE mobility there is no averaging for the path loss needed. [3GTR 25.814 (7.1.2.5, 9.1.2.4), 3GTS 36.213 (5)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Frequency Division Duplex Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Modulation and Coding Scheme Power Control PDCCH TB TDD TX UE UL UMTS eNB Physical Downlink Control Channel Transport Block Time Division Duplex Transmit User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS BCH DL DL-SCH FDD LTE MCS PC

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3.5.4 Antenna Processing 3.5.4.1 The Transmission Diversity Problem

The objective of this section is to show the essential problem to be solved for successfully applying transmission diversity. Key point of this section is the problem to be overcome by transmission diversity is that uncontrolled superimposition of the signals in the mobile radio channel leads to destructive superimposition at the receiver antennas.
Image description The left side of the picture is showing the receive diversity case: one transmission antenna is received by two receive antennas. It is shown how the mobile radio channels are altering the pilot signals. The right side of the picture is showing a bad example for transmit diversity: two transmission antennas are received by a single receive antenna. It is shown how the mobile radio channels are altering the pilot signals.

3.5.4.1.1 Receive diversity With receive diversity the not modulated carrier (pilot) is altered in amplitude and rotated differently by the two mobile radio channels. Since two signals are arriving at the receiver the receiver can rotate them back and add them up such that they superimpose constructively in the receiver. Here the receiver has to control about the superimposition. This controlled superimposition is also called maximum ration combining. - 188 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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3.5.4.1.2 Unsuccessful transmit diversity Once the transmitter is just plainly transmitting the same signal on two antennas, there are two mobile radio channels towards the same receive antenna. Once this scheme would be applied the receiver would not know how the mobile radio channels have alerted the amplitude and rotated the phase. The data subcarrier will arrive with an uncontrolled superimposition created at the received antenna. Here it is not possible for the receiver to intervene. This random superimposition is of same nature as the fading in the fading channel. Effectively this scheme would create very unpleasant fast fading even for a LoS channel. Consequently the key problem with transmit diversity is how to deal with the controlled superimposition on the mobile radio channel.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Recieve

RX

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3.5.4.2 AAS in LTE

The objective of this section is to how the transmission diversity problem is solved by AAS. Key point of this section is that the UE is measuring the responses of the mobile radio channel and is informing the eNB. Then the eNB can exploit this knowledge.

Image description The picture is showing the AAS case: two transmission antennas are received by one receive antenna. It is shown how the mobile radio channels are altering the pilot signals.

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Here the eNB is transmitting pilot subcarriers. These pilots are analyzed by the UE. The key issue here is that one antennas is transmitting its pilot subcarriers where the other antenna is silent. Then the UE can determine each antennas mobile radio channel exactly. Then the UE determines how the data signal should be rotated in the transmitter such that they are superimposing constructively at the antenna of the receiver. This knowledge is signaled in FDD systems to the eNB. Then the eNB can apply the beamforming weights to the data subcarriers whilst leaving the pilot subcarriers unchanged. For TDD systems no signaling is necessary the eNB can just analyze the uplink signal and apply the reciprocity of the mobile radio channel in order to get the right beamforming coefficients.

Once the UE moved too fast (10 20 km/h) then the signaling is too slow to follow the changes of the mobile radio channel. Then AAS will not work with high performance in the DL any more. UL AAS will still be possible.

Since the transmit antennas are only half a wavelength apart from each other they are not independent form each other. Consequently only beamforming gain but no diversity gain can be exploited. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3.4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Adaptive Antenna Systems Frequency Division Duplex Time Division Duplex UE eNB User Equipment Enhanced Node B

AAS FDD TDD

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3.5.4.2.1 Practical Exercise: Draw the Antenna Diagram of AAS

The objective of this section is to enable the students to understand how the directional antenna diagram of AAS works.

Image Description This picture shows the situation that 2 antennas are spaced with a distance d being half a wavelength. The top part of the picture shows the geometry of the antenna system. It shows how to calculate for a direction the difference in path length of the two antennas (p). Once the path length is differing by a wavelength then the phase difference in-between two paths is 360 degree. The table next to the top drawing leads to the phase differences fitting to some directions . The middle section of the picture is adding up the 2 antennas phasors such that amplitude and power of the sum-phasor can be determined and filled into the table next to the middle picture.

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The lower part of the picture gives the antenna diagram of the two antennas together. On the lobes we can see later on from the distance to the origin of the coordinate system how much power is radiated in what direction . This picture is using polar coordinates. Your tasks: 1. At first the vector addition of the two antenna phasors is performed inside the middle drawing. In order to do this it is assumed that the antenna weights are 1 for both antennas. The path of the antenna two can be longer than the path of antenna 1. This leads to the fact that both antenna phasors do not add up with the same phase. The first phasor (belonging to the first antenna) is always the same. Whilst the second phasor has to be added up with the angle calculated before. For each angle b draw a second phasor and connect beginning of the first phase with the end of the second phasor. This is already done for equals 0 degree. 2. Measure the lengths of the sum vectors with a ruler and enter the measured amplitude in cm in the table next to the drawing. 3. Square the amplitude value and enter the resulting power in the power column of the table. 4. For the lower drawing there are already rays with the angle given in 15 degree grid. For each of the rays with angle draw a vector on the ray having the length of the power (in cm) calculated before. If you like calculate the value for 15 degree. Finally connect the tips of the vectors to a lobe. 5. Think about how the antenna diagram will look like for a complete 360 degree circle of . 6. How many lobes the antenna diagram would have for a distance of d = 10 . Answer: __ lobes.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Adaptive Antenna Systems

AAS

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3.5.4.3 CDD

The objective of this section is to how the transmission diversity problem is solved by CDD. Key points of this section are that the two antennas signals can be resolved once they are transmitted with a delay against each other and that this is enabling MIMO to work in an open loop fashion.

Image description The picture is showing the CDD case: two transmission antennas are received by one receive antenna. It is shown how the UE can resolve the two signals.

3.5.4.3.1 Delay diversity For UMTS the Node B is transmitting the two antennas signals with a delay which could last for several samples. For the UE this seems like it received two independent paths which can be resolved by the rake receiver. In a way the space diversity at the individual antennas is transformed into multiple path diversity in the receiver. 3.5.4.3.2 Cyclic delay diversity In OFDM systems CDD is used. Before the CP is applied the useful part of the symbol is cyclically shifted. This means the parts of the delayed signal which would be outside the useful symbol will be reintroduced at the beginning. Finally the CP is applied.

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With CDD a very big shift can be implemented such that the performance can almost reach the performance of 2 way diversity with receive diversity. In a way the space diversity at the individual antennas is transformed into frequency diversity in the receiver. However, since multiple path propagation on its own is leading to inter symbol interference and frequency selective fading there are performance penalties. 3.5.4.3.3 Cyclic delay diversity and MIMO The key application area of CDD is that it can be used once close loop MIMO is not working any more. Then MIMO work with less performance in an open loop fashion. This will enable to provide a big throughput gain wherever there is a strong channel with a bad condition of the channel matrix. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3.4.2.1, 6.3.4.2.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Delay Diversity Cyclic Prefix Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing RF UE UMTS Radio Frequency User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

3GTS CDD CP OFDM

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3.5.4.4 SFBC

The objective of this section is to how the transmission diversity problem is solved by SFBC. Key point of this section is that the eNB is transmitting 2 subcarriers with different order and according to a different code on the 2 transmit antennas.

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Image description The picture is showing the SFBC case: two transmission antennas are received by one receive antenna. It is shown how the mobile radio channels and the SFBC are altering the constellation diagrams of BPSK modulated signals.

3.5.4.4.1 Space Frequency Block Codes With SFBC the signals on two subcarriers from the same OFDM symbol are transmitted with different orders and altered differently on the different transmission antennas. The result is that the two symbols look like a higher order modulation scheme at each of the receive antennas. The SFBC decoder is able to reconstruct the two subcarrier signals completely regardless how they superimposed on the mobile radio channel. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3.3.3, 6.3.4.3)] 3.5.4.4.2 Space Time Block Codes STBC are applying the same codes by to symbols at different times instead of subcarriers on different frequencies. STBCs are not used in LTE. However STBC is used in UMTS for BCCH transmission. STBC and SFBC for two antennas can apply 2-way transmit diversity. They are existing only since 1998. There is no SFBC (STBC) for N>2 antennas which is able to provide N-way diversity.

SFBC and STBC on their own are not suitable to double the peak throughput. They only improve the receiver performance.

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing SFBC STBC eNB Space Frequency Block Codes Space Time Block Coding Enhanced Node B

3GTS BPSK LTE OFDM

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3.5.4.5 MIMO

The objective of this section is to how the MIMO signals are propagating through the system. Key point of this section is that the data rate can be enhanced by using multiple antennas in the eNB and in the UE.

Image description The picture is showing the MIMO case: two transmission antennas are received by two receive antennas. It is shown how the mobile radio channels are altering the signals and how the equalizer in the UE is able to separate the signals again. For an easier understanding this picture assumes that the mobile radio channels which go over cross are much weaker than the direct mobile radio channels. MIMO is applying different data streams on different transmission antennas. Once the UE is having multiple antennas to receive these signals then the UE is able to separate the data stream again by using an equalizer. In order to increase the data rate by N times both the eNB and the UE need to have at least N antennas. - 198 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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In order to prepare the equalizer the UE needs to estimate all the mobile radio channels created by every combination of TX and RX antenna. In this example this would be 4 channel estimations. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3.3.2, 6.3.4)] 3.5.4.5.1 MIMO and AAS combined = multiple rank beamforming LTE is combining MIMO with AAS then each data stream can be beamformed using all TX antennas. Since for MIMO the TX antennas are very distant form each other in order give good performance no distinct beans as in the original AAS will be formed. The rank of the transmission describes how many data streams are transmitted together. If multiple rank beamforming is applied the UE has to feedback to the eNB what set of beamforming weights has to be applied. 3.5.4.5.2 When MIMO fails The performance of MIMO is strongly dependent on the instantaneous combination of the mobile radio channels. It could be that the individual mobile radio channels are excellent but that MIMO fails nevertheless. In this case the equalizer is not able to process ambiguous signals and is creating a lot of noise. The following measures are used in order to reduce the probability of failure: 1. The TX and RX antennas are placed far enough to create a decorrelated behavior: eNB several wave lengths and UE about half a wavelength. 2. MIMO should be applied in the presence of multiple path propagation. 3. The UE is giving feedback to the eNB that the rank of the MIMO transmission has to be reduced. In the extreme case the eNB is switching back to simple AAS or SBFC.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Adaptive Antenna Systems Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) RX TX UE eNB Receive Transmit User Equipment Enhanced Node B

3GTS AAS LTE MIMO

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3.5.4.6 The Codebook

The objective of this section is to how the UE and eNB are communicating about the best set of beamforming weights for AAS and MIMO. Key point of this section is that the UE is just providing the number of to be transmitted streams and the number of the set of beamforming weights according to a codebook.

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Image description The picture is showing basic use of the codebook for LTE and the codebook entries for simple AAS in detail.

3.5.4.6.1 Optimum beamforming weights The optimum set of beamforming weights for the case that the receiver has just 1 antenna is a set of weights which is maximizing the SIR at this receive antenna. Mathematically speaking this is the solution of a generalized Eigenvalue problem. Once for MIMO multiple data streams are transmitted each received antenna will have a set of optimum weights which is applicable to all the data streams. The task here is that the best combination of weight sets has to be found which is separating as much as possible the different data streams at the receive antennas already. This is leading to a generalized Eigenvalue problem taking the transmission of the other data stream as interference. The exact treatment of these problems would go far beyond the scope of this training. The reason why the mathematical terms are mentioned here is to illustrate two problems: 1. It will take a very big computational effort to determine the optimum sets of beamforming weights for each data stream 2. To signal these sets will consume a very big data rate. 3.5.4.6.2 Signaling of sub-optimum beamforming weights For this reasons both eNB and UE have a codebook which will contain the codes to be used during the AAS and the MIMO operation. Then the UE only needs to signal the code number and the number of data streams it can take. This is reducing the signaling load. Another advantage is that now the UE does not need to calculate (backward) the optimum sets of beamforming weights. It will just take the entries of the codebook to calculate (forward) the SIRs of the codebook entries and the different numbers of dada streams. This is requiring a lot less computational effort. Then the UE will select the number of data streams and the number of the codebook entry and transmit it to the eNB. Of course the result will be not optimum but it is a good compromise in-between good performance, high data rate, and low signaling effort. [3GTS 36.211 (6.3.4.2.3)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Adaptive Antenna Systems Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) SIR UE eNB Signal to Interference Ratio User Equipment Enhanced Node B

3GTS AAS LTE MIMO

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3.5.5 Initial Cell Search 3.5.5.1 Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signals

The objective of this section this section is to provide the details and the function of the primary sand secondary synchronization signals. Key point of this section is primary and secondary synchronization signals are used similar to UMTS but the details are differing a lot.

Image description This picture is showing how the primary and secondary synchronization signals are fitted on the DL carrier and on the DL frame together with the PBCH. As well their structure inside their OFDM symbol is shown. The primary and secondary synchronization signals a located together with the PBCH (carriers the BCH) on the 72 subcarriers around the DC subcarrier of every LTE carrier. Thus they occupy a bandwidth of 1080 kHz. On the 72 carrier the normal 10 ms radio frame with its 20 slots is mapped. The primary synchronization signal is the last OFDM symbol on slot 0 and on slot 10. The secondary synchronization signal is located on the same slots as the primary synchronization signal but is transmitted one symbol earlier.

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Presumably the rest of the symbols of these 72 subcarriers are occupied by the PBCH with holds the BCH and thus partly the BCCH. The Primary and Secondary Synchronization signal are governing the synchronization process. The time grid of modulation on these signals is 0.52 s which is 16 times the LTE sampling frequency. This grid is the same as for the TA algorithm. Sequences and codes for these signals are still discussed in the standardization bodies. The primary synchronization sequence will have 3 sequences and it is likely that the secondary synchronization signal will have 336 different sequences. There are 504 = 3 * 168 L1 cell IDs in the LTE system they are grouped in 168 groups of 3 IDs each. The members of the group are distinguished by the P-SCH and the groups are distinguished by the Secondary Synchronization Signal. The Secondary Synchronization Signal is transmitted twice per radio frame 336 = 2 * 168 sequences are needed in order to distinguish finally the radio frame and the L1 cell IDs. [3GTR 25.814 (7.1.2.4), 3GTS 36.211 (6.11), 3GTS 36.213 (4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Cyclic Prefix Direct Current Downlink Identity Layer 1 (physical layer) LTE OFDM PBCH PCFICH PDCCH PDSCH TA UMTS kHz Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Physical Broadcast Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Timing Advance Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz)

3GTR 3GTS BCCH BCH CP DC DL ID L1

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3.5.5.2 Procedure

The objective of this section is to show how primary and secondary synchronization signal are used together with the BCH in order to achieve perform initial cell search. Key point of this section is that the sequence of events for the initial cell search is exactly the same as for UMTS.
Image description On the boxes of this picture the flow of events is shown. The right of the boxes there is a description of what information the UE knows once it has completed the individual steps successfully. The initial cell search begins with the UE being switched on. Soon after that the USIM card will issue a cell search request. At this time the UE does not know anything about the cells around it and it begins to look for strong cells in the DL band. Once it has found a good candidate with strong 72 carriers looking like they might carry the synchronization sequences and the BCH it has performed rough frequency synchronization already. The UE will look for the Primary Synchronization Signal. Once it has found it, it knows the exact carrier frequency and the timing of the slot 0 or 10. At this point the UE might already have a few hints regarding the CP configuration. It will also have performed the first step to find the L1 cell ID of that cell. Each of the 3 Primary Synchronization Signal sequences is linked to one group member of the 168 different L1 cell ID groups.

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The next step would be to detect the Secondary Synchronization Signal. The Secondary Synchronization Signal is transmitted 1 OFDM symbol before the Primary Synchronization Signal. Once the Secondary Synchronization Signal is detected the radio frame and the L1 cell ID are perfectly known. As well the UE now knows the CP configuration exactly. Then the UE is ready to read the BCH to get the master information block. This will inform the UE about the SFN, the antenna configuration and the DL bandwidth of that cell. Then the UE will read the SIB 1 and will know the PLMN ID and other valuable system information on the BCCH. Once the PLMN ID is suiting the USIM cards needs the UE will register in the cell. [3GTR 25.814 (7.1.2.4), 3GTS 36.211 (6.11), 3GTS 36.213 (4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Cyclic Prefix Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Identity L1 OFDM PLMN SFN SIB UE UMTS USIM Layer 1 (physical layer) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Public Land Mobile Network System Frame Number System Information Block User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Universal Subscriber Identity Module

3GTR 3GTS BCCH BCH CP DL DL-SCH ID

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3.5.6 Random Access 3.5.6.1 PRACH Structure Format 0

The objective of this section is to introduce the structure of the PRACH. Key point of this section is the PRACH can be configured freely on frequency and subframe in the UL carrier and in the UL frame structure.

Image description This picture is showing how the PRACH is fitted on the UL carrier and on the UL frame. As well the PRACH structure inside the subframe is shown. 72 consecutive subcarriers (1080 kHz) are used for the PRACH. This means that the PRACH is fitting on the smallest discussed bandwidth for LTE. The PRACH can be configured any of the 10 subframes on the given 72 subcarriers. Inside the PRACH there is a long Zadoff-Chu sequence which is occupying 800 s of the PRACH subframe. This RACH preamble is created in the frequency domain. In the time domain then a cyclic shift may be applied and a CP is added. The detection grid of the PRACH is 16 T(sample) being the same grid applied for the TA control algorithm. The UE is transmitting the PRACH with 0 TA. The guard time at the end of the PRACH is allowing for an interference free reception of the PRACH at the eNB up to a cell radius of 14.6 km. Once the distance inbetween the UE and the eNB is exceeding that distance interference in the following subframe has to be expected. However since the PRACH preamble is very long and the interference is the lower the bigger the cells become the inference is tolerable. [3GTS 36.211 (5.7), 3GTS 36.213 (6), 3GTS 36.300 (10.1.5)] There are other PRACH structure formats defined for bigger cells and for TDSCDMA harmonized LTE. Those are not discussed in the LTE from A-Z scope.

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Cyclic Prefix Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Physical Random Access Channel Random Access Channel TA TDSCDMA UE UL eNB Terminal Adapter (ISDN) Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

3GTS CP LTE PRACH RACH

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3.5.6.2 Random Access Procedure

The objective of this section is to how the PRACH is used in the random access procedure. Key point of this section is that the random access response and the random access message are transmitted on ordinary physical channels.

Image description This picture is visualizing the random access procedure. At the beginning of the random access procedure the UE has to be informed about the parameters and the location of the PRACH. Then like in UMTS it will choose randomly in-between the root sequences and their cyclically shifted versions and will transmit each time according to a power ramping procedure until it gets a response from the eNB. Unlike in UMTS the eNB does not have an AICH. It will respond on the DL-SCH (on PDSCH) using a RA-RNTI and will provide sequence number, TA and the allocated resources on the PUSCH and the UE will respond on the ordinary PUSCH with the random access message. Consequently the RACH messages are scheduled almost like the normal UL packets and no special physical channels are used for the RACH messaging. [3GTS 36.213 (6)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Acquisition Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Common Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Enhanced Node B Layer 1 (physical layer) Layer 2 (data link layer) Layer 3 (network layer) Physical Downlink Shared Channel PRACH PUSCH RA RA-RNTI RACH RNTI TA UE UL UMTS ZC Physical Random Access Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Routing Area Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Random Access Channel Radio Network Temporary Identifier Timing Advance User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Zadoff-Chu

3GTS AICH C-RNTI CCCH DL DL-SCH eNB L1 L2 L3 PDSCH

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3.5.7 Inter Cell Interference Mitigation 3.5.7.1 Traditional frequency reuse in LTE

The objective of this section is to show what are the potential problems with traditional frequency reuse schemes in LTE. Key point of this section is that with traditional frequency reuse schemes the network performance is either lower because a high frequency reuse has to be applied or lower than it could be once a frequency reuse of 1 is applied.
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Image description This picture is visualizing the concept and performance for various frequency reuse situations. The pictures show TX power levels, load, IoT and TX power for the different cells the UEs are shown in form of dots with colors depending on their frequencies. Only two cells and two frequencies are shown only in order to ease the understanding.

3.5.7.1.1 Frequency reuse bigger than 1 This case is the most traditional frequency reuse scheme. In this case there are some carriers which are not used within a given cell. By means of not using these carriers in some cells and using them in some other cells interference in-between the different cells is avoided. However the utilization of the carriers is restricted and the spectrum efficiency is low. In OFDM systems there is the possibility to apply this reuse not only on the OFDM carriers but also on the OFDM subcarriers. 3.5.7.1.2 Frequency reuse 1 with low initial load With a frequency reuse of 1 it is possible to reuse all the OFDM carriers (subcarriers) within all cells. Once the load of the cells is low there is no interference problem. 3.5.7.1.3 Frequency reuse 1 strongly increased load Once suddenly the load of the network is increased the interference (IoT) rises beyond the critical level. As a consequence there is a very high TX power in the cells in order to compensate for this high IoT. This behavior is called party. 3.5.7.1.4 Frequency reuse 1 after the party Only a few UEs can transmit strong enough to combat the interference. The others will lose their radio link. Finally the IoT level normalizes but there are only very few UEs left. This behavior is very unfavorable and needs to be combated with a strict limitation of the cells load towards a comparatively low level. In the OFDM case no CDMA technology available on the subcarriers. The subcarriers will interfere amongst each other in the same way as narrowband systems will do. Consequently a high reuse factor should be applied. To solve this dilemma interference coordination is the method of choice for LTE. Abbreviations of this Section:
Code Division Multiple Access Interference over Thermal noise Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) OFDM TX UE Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Transmit User Equipment

CDMA IoT LTE

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3.5.7.2 Fractional Frequency Reuse with Intercell Interference Coordination.

The objective of this section is to show how a tight frequency reuse can be achieved with intercell interference coordination. Key point of this section is that intercell interference coordination the LTE system is exchanging load and interference levels and is coordinating the TX power in the network and can thus avoid from bad interference scenarios to happen.

Image description This picture is visualizing the concept and performance of intercell interference coordination. The pictures show TX power levels, load, IoT and TX power for the different cells the UEs are shown in form of dots with colors depending on their frequencies.

Two cells and two frequencies are shown only in order to ease the understanding. Compared to the situation in the last section the two cells are using the X2 interface in order to exchange the load and the IoT values for the two sections of their OFDM carrier they are using. The orange and green subcarriers of their OFDM carrier are used in a fractional frequency reuse. This fractional frequency reuse is using sections with a lower TX power than other sections. This has the consequences that this lower TX power section can only be used for UEs which are close to the eNB. Since there should always be UEs being closer and more far from the eNB this is not a big restriction.

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Thus, the coordination of the TX power in-between the eNBs such that adjacent cells are not using the same subcarriers with high TX power is allowing both cells to use the complete OFDM carrier and enjoy a high spectral efficiency at the same time. This system is especially advantageous for the UEs at the cell boundaries. The fractional frequency reuse is allowing them to have both a more secure radio link and a higher throughput at the same time. [3GTR 25.814 (7.1.2.6.3, 9.1.2.7.1), 3GTS 36.300 (16.1.5)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Interference over Thermal noise Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) OFDM TX UE eNB Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Transmit User Equipment Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS IoT LTE

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3.6 UE Classes
3.6.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to give an overview of the UE classes used in LTE. Key point of this section is that LTE is using significantly less UE classes than HSPA.

Table description This tables relates the UE classed to the number of MIMO stream, the number of RBs and the peak data rates in UL and DL.

3.6.1.1 Classes 1-4 UE class 1 is the basic UE class. Here the data rates are comparable with typical HSPA UEs. On contrast to the UE classes 2-4 the codes rate never reaches 1 for UE class 1. UE class 5 is limited to 5 MHz and this class is not capable to perform MIMO. UE classes 2-4 are able process 2 MIMO streams this is the expected limit for the first implementations.

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Please keep in mind that even though some UE categories do not support a 20 MHz allocation all the UE categories have to have a RF frontend of 20 MHz in order to receive their allocation anywhere the eNB would like to schedule it.

3.6.1.2 UE class 5 For later implementations there is a UE class defined to have up to 4 MIMO streams and which is also using 64-QAM in the UL.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Downlink Enhanced Node B MIMO QAM RB Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Resource Block Radio Frequency User Equipment Uplink

64-QAM DL eNB HSPA LTE MHz

High Speed Packet Access (operation RF of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) UE UL

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3.6.2 Calculation of the DL Peak Throughput for LTE UE Class 5

The objective of this section is to give the detailed calculation of the UE class 5s DL max. throughput. Key point of this section is that all UE categories have to assume 4 TX antennas to be used..

Detailed Version: According the previous section the max throughput for UE classes 4 is 299.6 Mbit/s in the DL. This is assuming 4 data streams used with 4x4 antennas on 100 resource blocks.

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Since for all UE categories 4 TX antennas have to be assumed pilot sub carriers for 4 antennas have to be assumed. The normal CP configuration is assumed such that there are 14 OFDM symbols in a subframe. A resource block (RB) has 12 subcarriers as shown. Now the number of data symbols on a RB for a complete subframe has to be calculated. There are 6 OFDM symbols with 8 data subcarriers (these carry pilot subcarriers on 4 subcarriers) and 8 OFDM symbols with 12 data subcarriers (these carry no pilot subcarriers). So the number of data symbols is 8x12 + 6x8 = 144. If it is assumed that in each subframe the first OFDM symbol (8 data subcarriers) is used for signaling, 136 data symbols are left. With 64-QAM there are 6 bit per symbol: This provides 6x136 bit = 816 bit per subframe. For 100 RBs each TB can have 100x816 = 81600 bit on L1. For these bits turbo coding with a max code rate of 92 % is assumed. This gives 74888 bit. Please note that no UE is obliged to be able to decode a TB once the code rate is bigger than 92%. in tis case the outcome is undefined! Once 2 data streams per TB are assumed 149776 bit per transport block are available. There are 1000 subframes per second with 2 TB's in parallel such that the throughput can be calculated as: 149776 bit x2x 1000/s = 299.6 Mbit/s Please note that up to 110 RB's can be assigned to ease the the channel decoding at a lower code rate. These 10 access RB's cannot be used to increase the throughput beyond 299.6 Mbit/s.

Abbreviations of this Section:


64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Broadcast Control Channel Cyclic Prefix Downlink Layer 1 (physical layer) LTE OFDM RB TB UE Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Resource Block Transport Block User Equipment

64-QAM BCCH CP DL L1

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Lessons Learned / Conclusions:

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Chapter 4:
The Higher Layers of E-UTRAN

Objectives
Some of your questions that will be answered during this session What are the tasks of the higher layer protocol entities and functions of the enhanced node B: MAC, RLC, PDCP, and RRC? What is the structure of the protocol entities PDUs? What are the used concepts for mobility in LTE? What is changing for QoS and security in LTE?

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4.1 Overview
4.1.1 E-UTRAN Architecture Control Plane

The objectives of this section are to show the evolution of the UTRAN architecture to the E-UTRAN architecture and to highlight the degree of protocol modifications for the control plane. Key point of this section is that quite significant parts of the protocols and concepts in the higher layer domain are retained for LTE.

Image description This picture is visualizing the degree of change in-between UMTS and LTE on the control plane. The stronger red the items are the stronger the change. The NAS signaling new because of the new core in LTE. For the RRC both the new air interface and the new network architecture have to be supported. This is why most of it is new even though vital concepts are taken over from UMTS. The PDCP is new for the control plane. This change is due to the introduction of ciphering in the PDCP.

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RLC is staying mostly intact even though some functionality like ciphering is elsewhere now. The most significant change the of the RLC is the RLC PDU size is variable. The MAC has changed a lot because with the new air interface the chance has taken to tailor the MAC from the start to the needs of a PS-only environment. L1 and transport channels used are totally new. On the transport plane the S1-AP is new. The other parts of the transport plane are also run like this in UMTS. [3GTR 25.813, 3GTS 36.300]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report PS Packet Switched Radio Link Control Radio Resource Control

3GTR 3GTS HSDPA

3rd Generation Technical Specification RLC High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Layer 1 (physical layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum Packet Data Convergence Protocol RRC

IP L1 LTE MAC MME NAS PDCP

RRM S1-AP SCTP SDH TrCH UMTS UTRAN

Radio Resource Management S1 Application Part Stream Control Transmission Protocol (RFC 2960) Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Transport Channel (UMTS) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

eNB

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4.1.2 E-UTRAN Architecture User Plane

The objectives of this section are to show the evolution of the UTRAN architecture to the E-UTRAN architecture and to highlight the degree of protocol modifications for the user plane. Key point of this section is that quite significant part of the protocols and concepts in the higher layer domain are retained for LTE.

Image description This picture is visualizing the degree of change in-between UMTS and LTE on the user plane. The stronger red the items are the stronger the change. For the user plane there is the same picture as in the control plane with the following exemptions: The PDCP has been included in the user plane already in UMTS - even though the ciphering is changing from the RLC/MAC to the PDCP. It is new that the GTP-U is terminated in the eNB. [3GTR 25.813, 3GTS 36.300]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Downlink Downlink Shared Channel GPRS Tunneling Protocol (3GTS 29.060) GTP User Plane Gateway High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control PDP PDSCH PUSCH RLC SAE SDH UDP UL Packet Data Protocol Physical Downlink Shared Channel Physical Uplink Shared Channel Radio Link Control System Architecture Evolution Synchronous Digital Hierarchy User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768) Uplink

3GTR 3GTS DL DL-SCH GTP GTP-U GW HSDPA

IP LTE MAC

UL-SCH UMTS UTRAN

Uplink Shared Channel Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

PDCP PDH

Packet Data Convergence Protocol Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

eNB

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4.2 Features of MAC


4.2.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to introduce the key features of the medium access control layer. Key point of this section is that for the MAC the chance has been taken to tune many concepts such that they fit to PS services from the start.

4.2.1.1 Data transfer logical channels transport channels This function is similar to HSPA. The big difference it that two TBs per UE can be transferred at the same time. It is FFS whether this is also the case for more than two TBs. 4.2.1.2 Radio resource allocation For the radio resource allocation there is a very significant change for the RACH. Here there is not the possibility to map user plane data on the RACH. For HARQ the basic concepts of HSPA are retained however the HARQ is a lot faster then in HSPA. Also the parameters and implementation details will differ. For the priority concept a quite similar approach than in HSPA will be taken. However detains are not specified yet. [3GTR 25.813 (5.3.1), 3GTS 36.300 (6.1), 3GTS 36.321 (4.4)] - 224 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification For Further Study Hybrid ARQ MAC PS QoS RACH Medium Access Control Packet Switched Quality of Service Random Access Channel Transport Block

3GTR 3GTS FFS HARQ HSPA

High Speed Packet Access (operation TB of HSDPA and HSUPA)

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4.2.2 MAC Random Access Procedure

The objective of this section is to show the random access procedure from the MAC perspective. Key point of this section is that for the random access procedure there are two versions: the contention based (collisions are possible and have to be resolved) and non-contention based (collisions are not possible.)

Image description This picture is visualizing the contention based random access procedure the non-contention based random access procedure with two different colors. Common elements are shown in black color.

4.2.2.1 Contention based random access procedure Here collisions are possible because the UE decides when exactly a random access is initiated. Then it is possible that two UEs transmit the same preamble at the same time. The chosen preamble is 1 out of 64 preambles and is thus encoding 6 bits. 5 bits are for the ID and one other bit (group of random access preambles) signals the length of the following scheduled transmission in the UL.

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The UE has to wait with the transmission of the random access message until it has received the random access response on the DL-SCH. The response is using the RA-RNTI. This response identifies the random access preamble, gives a TA value and the UL grant for the UL scheduled transmission which is following then. Once the eNB discovers a collision on the random access preambles it will not respond to either of the preambles. However once the two same preambles arrive so close to each other that hat a collision is not detected the eNB will grant the preambles and two UEs will transmit on the same UL resources at the same time. With the UL scheduled transmission the UE will provide its NAS UE ID (IMSI or STMSI), an AS message, and possibly a NAS message (e.g. TA update etc.) At last the eNB is answering with the contention resolution message giving the ID of the UE it would like to address. Here any collision will be finally resolved. The UE not getting this response with its ID will start the random access procedure again. 4.2.2.2 Non-contention based random access procedure The difference to the non-contention based random access procedure is that the UE gets assigned a specific random access preamble for a random access window (e.g. during handover, etc.). Then the UE will use the preamble assigned and will get an UL grant related to its service directly together with its TA. Here, of course, a contention resolution is not necessary. The UE will have a C-RNTI already. [3GTS 36.300 (10.1.5), 3GTS 36.321 (5.1)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Access Stratum (UMTS) Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Enhanced Node B Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Medium Access Control Non-Access-Stratum RA-RNTI RNTI S-TMSI TA TA TMSI TX UE UL UL-SCH Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Radio Network Temporary Identifier SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Timing Advance Tracking Area Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Transmit User Equipment Uplink Uplink Shared Channel

3GTS AS C-RNTI DL DL-SCH eNB ID IMSI MAC NAS

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4.2.3 Structure of MAC-PDU

The objective of this section is to provide the structure of the MAC PDU. Key point of this section is that the LTE MAC PDU does usually only contain 1 SDU per logical channel.
Image description This picture is visualizing the structure of the header and the sequence of SDUs in the MAC PDU. The MAC PDU is transmitting with its SDUs one or several RLC-PDUs at a time. Unlike in UMTS standards (prior to R7) the size of the RLC PDU is flexible such that it can fit the size of the MAC PDU it is mapped to. Since both MAC and RLC are located in the eNB, the MAC knows the size of the TB it can transmit (transmission opportunity). In case there are more than one logical channel active for the corresponding user, the MAC has to multiplex the different logical channels on the TB. Most likely it could e.g. map the highest priority logical channels SDU on the TB. For this it will ask for an SDU with fitting size such that no or only minimum padding is necessary. In case the RLC cannot fill the TB fully the MAC will add the next lower priority logical channel on the TB and so forth until the TB is full.

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The structure of the MAC PDU and its header are accomplishing this function. First the MAC header is structured in sub headers in order to indicate several MAC SDUs. Since MAC in LTE is also fulfilling control functions there are two sub-header formats and SDU structures: 4.2.3.1 MAC control element Some LCIDs are reserved for control elements and 1 LCID is indicating padding. The MAC control elements are explained in the next section. None and more then 1 MAC Control field are also possible. 4.2.3.2 Normal MAC SDU In order to do transport normal MAC PDUs the MAC sub header has triplets of information elements: 1. The LCID (Logical Channel ID) which is indicating the logical channel used in a similar fashion than the C/T field in UMTS (4 bits). 2. There are two reserved bits. 3. The F field is indicating the length of the following length field (7 or 15 bit) 4. The L (Length) field indicating the length of the corresponding SDU. F and L field are very close to RLC PDU in UMTS. 5. The E (End) field which is indicating the end of the MAC header (1) or more triplets following (0). Padding will only be used if no further SDU can be filled in or if no more RLC data is ready to be transmitted and there is still space in the TB. In order to avoid unnecessary extensive padding MAC may reduce the TB size in order to reduce interference in the network. [3GTS 36.321 (6)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Logical Channel ID Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit RLC SDU TB UMTS eNB Radio Link Control Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Transport Block Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

3GTS LCID LTE MAC PDU

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4.2.4 MAC Control Elements

The objective of this section is to provide different kinds of MAC control elements. Key point of this section is functions like RACH response, buffer status report and timing advance are dealt with in MAC control elements.

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Image description These two tables are showing the MAC control elements in UL and DL. Part of the LCIDs are reserved for MAC control elements which are serving physical layer or MAC functions. The length of some MAC control elements is still under discussion but the purpose is quite clear. Please keep in mid that some LCIDs are to be reserved for yet unknown MAC control elements. 4.2.4.1 Contention resolution ID This is the response of the Random Access Burst sent by the UE. It contains the NAS ID of the UE. 4.2.4.2 Timing Advance This MAC control element is used for timing advance updates. 4.2.4.3 DRX With this MAC control element the DRX is configured similar like in the HS-DSCH orders in UMTS R7. Since only DRX is to be commanded here this MAC control element contains no data. Just a header field is used here. 4.2.4.4 Padding Padding is no MAC control element but is also indicated with a special LCID value. 4.2.4.5 Short, long and truncated buffer status reports Here the UE can report the occupancy of its UL buffer. There are two formats long and short buffer reports. With the long buffer report multiple logical channel groups buffer status is reported. [3GTS 36.321 (6)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Downlink Discontinuous Reception MAC RACH UE UL Medium Access Control Random Access Channel User Equipment Uplink

3GTS DL DRX

HS-DSCH High Speed Downlink Shared Transport Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.212, 25.308) ID LCID Identity Logical Channel ID

UL-SCH UMTS

Uplink Shared Channel Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

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4.3 Features of RLC


4.3.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to introduce the key features of the radio link control layer. Key point of this section is the RLC stays intact to the most part once it is compared to HSPA operation.
4.3.1.1 Data transfer At the first glance the RLC is only not altered very significantly. However that the second glace it could be noticed that for RLC the ciphering is missing and that compared the HSPA LTE can provide TM data transmission again. Another special point is the duplicate deletion in case of a handover. During the handover the received buffer is exchanged in-between source and target eNB (AM only). In HSPA duplicates for the UL are deleted in MAC-es whereas the duplicates are deleted as well in the RLC for the legacy UMTS traffic. The variable RLC PDU size has to be mentioned here again. 4.3.1.2 Error detection and recovery There is nothing to be added to what is stated in the picture.
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4.3.1.3 Reset There is nothing to be added to what is stated in the picture. [3GTR 25.813 (5.3.2), 3GTS 36.300 (6.2), 3GTS 36.322 (4.4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledged Mode operation Automatic Repeat Request PDCP RLC TM UL Packet Data Convergence Protocol Radio Link Control Transparent Mode operation Uplink Unacknowledged Mode operation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS AM ARQ HSPA LTE MAC MAC-es

High Speed Packet Access (operation UM of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control MAC-E-DCH SRNC (3GTS 25.321) UMTS eNB

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4.3.2 Structure of RLC PDU

The objective of this section is to provide the structure of the RLC PDU. Key points of this section are that the LTE RLC PDU can contain segmented PDCP PDUs and that the RLC PDU size fits to the individual TB size to be transmitted.
Image description This picture is visualizing the structure of the header and the sequence of SDUs in the RLC PDU. Like in UMTS there are 3 transmission modes for the RLC: TM, UM, and AM. For the TM the structure of the RLC PDU is simple: It is transparent for the PDCP data. For the UM and AM mode there is a header and one or more PDCP PDUs being the RLC SDUs. Note here that the PDCP PDUs can be segmented in the RLC. Optionally, like in UMTS for AM only, a Status PDU can be at the end of the RLC PDU.

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The header comprises the following information elements: 1. The D/C field is a reserved bit in UM. In AM it is indicating the presence of a RLC control PDU (status report). A status report might also be piggy backed at the end of the RLC PDU. Then the D/C field will indicate data. The presence of the piggy packed status PDU is indirectly indicated by header and SDU not completely filling out the length of the RLC PDU. 2. The RF field is a reserved bit in UM. In AM it is indicating the presence of resegmentation. This occurs once an already segmented PDCP PDU is in need to be retransmitted and further segmented. 3. The polling flag is a reserved bit in UM. In AM it is encouraging the RLC of the receiver side to sent status PDUs. 4. In case of a 5 bit SN version UM PDU the first 3 fields are missing. 5. The FI filed exists in both AM and UM. It is indicating the presence of PDCP PDU segment in the RLC PDU. In case of the presence of segments and AM the header is extended by two bytes as described in the next section. 6. The SN (Sequence Number) which is indicating the RLC sequence number of the RLC PDU. The length of this field can be the same in AM and UM. However there is also an UM mode with 1 byte header and 5 bit SN filed and no reserved bits. 7. An E field (Extension) which is indicating with (0) that data is following and with (1) that an extension of LI (Length Indicator) and another E filed is following. 8. The LI field (Length Indicator) of yet unknown length is indicating the length of the PDCP PDU. Please note since there is also a length indication in the MAC PDU one LI field in the RLC PDU is redundant. 9. Padding in the header is necessary since the E and LI field to not fill two bytes. In case of an even number of RLC SDUs 4 bit padding is needed to fill up the RLC header to the byte boundary. [3GTS 36.322 (6)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledged Mode operation Framing Info Length Indicator Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Packet Data Convergence Protocol RF RLC SDU SN TB TM UM Radio Frequency Radio Link Control Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Sequence Number Transport Block Transparent Mode operation Unacknowledged Mode operation

3GTS AM FI LI LTE MAC PDCP

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4.3.3 Structure of RLC AM with PDCP PDU Segments

The objective of this section is to provide the structure of the RLC AM PDU segment. Key point of this section is that only for PDU segments the header is extended for carrying the additional information about RLC PDU segments.

Image description This picture is visualizing the structure of the header and SDU in the RLC AM PDU segment PDU. Since the sequence numbers of RLC and PDCP are different the RLC AM needs means to identify details about the PDCP PDU segments for correct ARQ. In this case the RLC AM PDU is containing two additional header information elements: 1. The LSF (Last Segment Flag) is set once the PDCP PDU segment is the last segment of the PDCP PDU. 2. The SO (Segment Offset) is determining the offset in the PDCP PDU segment inside the PDCP PDU. [3GTS 36.322 (6)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledged Mode operation Automatic Repeat Request Last Segment Flag Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Packet Data Convergence Protocol PDU RLC SN SDU SO Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Radio Link Control Sequence Number Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Segment Offset

3GTS AM ARQ LSF LTE PDCP

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4.4 Features of PDCP


4.4.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to introduce the key features of the packet data convergence protocol. Key point of this section is that encryption and PDCP for the control plane are the functions which have been added to the PDCP compared to UMTS.

4.4.1.1 RoHC It is still for further study whether to take RoHC or another scheme. 4.4.1.2 Numbering of PDCP PDUs The numbering of the PDCP PDUs is very important because during the handover it is the PDCP which will forward the data in the buffer to the target eNB. 4.4.1.3 In-sequence delivery of PDUs Once the data is forwarded during handover it can happen that data is coming in already in the target eNB and there might still come some data in form the source eNB. The data is then not in sequence and there might be some duplicates in the buffer of the PDCP. 4.4.1.4 Duplicate deletion See above.

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4.4.1.5 Encryption The encryption algorithms have been located in the MAC and in the RLC for UMTS and HSPA operation. In LTE they are transferred to the PDCP. This is due to the fact that every eNB is equipped with its own keys and that the PDCP has to combine the packets coming in from the other eNBs during handover. 4.4.1.6 Integrity Protection This is a feature only valid for the control plane in UTRA this was in the RRC layer. This involves to calculate the MAC according the same principle but possibly with a different algorithm. [3GTR 25.813 (5.3.3), 3GTS 36.300 (6.3), 3GTS 36.323 (4.4)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification RLC RRC Radio Link Control Radio Resource Control Robust Header Compression Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS HSPA LTE MAC

High Speed Packet Access (operation RoHC of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Message Authentication Code UMTS UTRA

PDCP PDU

Packet Data Convergence Protocol Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit

eNB

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4.4.2 Structure of PDCP PDU

The objective of this section is to provide the structure of the PDCP PDU. Key point of this section is that the LTE PDCP PDU can also carry control plane information.

Image description This picture is visualizing the structure of the header and the sequence of SDUs in the PDCP PDU. In contrast to UMTS the PDCP is also existing in the control plane. Consequently also for control plane the PDCP PDU has to be defined. For both control plane and user plane the PDCP PDU is exhibiting a SN (Sequence Number) and an SDU field. For the user plane there can be optionally a RoHC (Robust Header Compression) which is compressing the e.g. 40 byte header to a 2-3 byte compressed header. In order to control RoHC in the user plane, user plane PDCP PDU contain a D/C field indicating control or data.

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For the control plane for integrity protection purposes the MAC field might be added at the end. The MAC field is calculated according to similar guidelines as the MAC in UMTS. [3GTS 36.323 (6)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Message Authentication Code Packet Data Convergence Protocol Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit RoHC SDU SN UMTS Robust Header Compression Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Sequence Number Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

3GTS LTE MAC PDCP PDU

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4.5 Features of RRC


4.5.1 Overview

The objective of this section is to introduce the key features of the radio resource control layer. Key point of this section is that the tasks of the RRC stay mostly the same as UMTS and HSPA, but since the air interface is different there are significant changes in the implementation.

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4.5.1.1 Transmission of broadcast information Here is it very important to know that only the MIB is transmitted on the BCH. All the other SIBs are grouped in SUs according to their transmission periodicity and are transmitted on the DL-SCH. 4.5.1.2 Establish and maintain services Here the basic concepts are very different. The RRC connection setup procedure has been extended to the initial context setup procedure. RRC and NAS link are established in parallel. Moreover since there is a new air interface technology (OFDMA and SC-FDMA) used the message contents are different. Another very significant change is the drastic reduction of RRC states mentioned earlier. 4.5.1.3 QoS control Nothing to add to what is stated in the picture. 4.5.1.4 Transfer of dedicated control information Nothing to add to what is stated in the picture. [3GTR 25.813 (5.4), 3GTS 36.300 (7), 3GTS 36.331 (4.4)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Frequency Division Multiple Access NAS OFDMA QoS RRC Non-Access-Stratum Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Quality of Service Radio Resource Control

3GTR 3GTS BCH DL DL-SCH EPC FDMA HSPA MIB

SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SIB SU System Information Block Scheduling Unit User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

High Speed Packet Access (operation UE of HSDPA and HSUPA) Master Information Block UMTS

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4.5.2 State Characteristics of RRC

The objective of this section is to introduce the key features of the radio resource control states. Key point of this section is that there are only 2 (3) RRC states in LTE.

Image description The picture is shows the RRC states in LTE and their main characteristics. It focuses on the processes of the E-UTRAN.

4.5.2.1 RRC_IDLE During RRC_IDLE the UE can be paged and will listen to the PCH and the BCH, but it is not known by the eNB it will perform cell reselections. Keep also in mind that this state will also assumed once the UE is switched on and will perform initial cell search. 4.5.2.2 RRC_CONNECTED Here the UE is fully connected to the eNB. That means it has a C-RNTI and it is known on cell level. It will do neighbor cell measurements and handover. This state is also assumed to be used for MBMS services. [3GTR 25.813 (5.4.2), 3GTS 36.300 (7.2)]

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Room for your Note

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) RACH RNTI RRC Random Access Channel Radio Network Temporary Identifier Radio Resource Control

3GTR 3GTS BCCH BCH C-RNTI LTE

RRC_CO RRC state in E-UTRA NNECTED RRC_IDL E RRC_MB MS_CON NECTED UE UTRAN RRC state RRC state in E-UTRA for UEs with MBMS service only User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

MBMS NAS

Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service Non-Access-Stratum

PCH

Paging Channel

eNB

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4.6 NAS Protocol States and Transitions

The objective of this section is to provide an overview about the functionality supported in the different LTE-states. Key point of this section is that there is a one to one relationship in-between the RRC states and the NAS states.

Image description The picture is shows the NAS states in LTE and their main characteristics. It focuses on the processes in the EPC.

4.6.1 EMM-DEREGISTERED & ECM-IDLE Here the UE has only its IMSI and it is not known by the network all. Once it selects the PLMN it will go to EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED during registration. 4.6.2 EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE Here is UE has the full set of IDs: S-TMSI, TAI and an IP address. Its position is known on TA level and has a context prepared in the EPC which can be activated very fast. The UE has to perform TA updates.

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4.6.3 EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED In this state the UE has a full context for data transmission and data reception. It is known by the EPC on eNB level. In case there in an inter MME handover the EPC will be involved in this handover. [3GTR 25.813 (5.5.2), 3GTS 36.300 A.2)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3GTR 3GTS DL DRX EMMREGISTERE D & ECMCONNECTE D 3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Downlink Discontinuous Reception Enhanced Mobility Management state for active packet transmission MME NAS PLMN RRC RRC_CO NNECTE D Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum Public Land Mobile Network Radio Resource Control RRC state in E-UTRA

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management RRC_IDL RRC state DEREGISTE state for UE not being registered E RED & ECM- in the network IDLE
EMMREGISTERE D & ECMIDLE EPC ID IMSI IP LTE

Enhanced Mobility Management S-TMSI state for non active packet transmission
Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) TA UE UL eNB

SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

Tracking Area User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

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4.7 Mobility
4.7.1 Mobility Management in the EMM-DEREGISTERED & ECMIDLE State

The objective of this section is to give the characteristics of the mobility management procedure in the EMM-DEREGISTERED & ECM-IDLE state with special emphasis of what changes with respect to UTRAN. Key point of this section is that the cell selection is basically following the same principle as in UTRA.

Image description The picture is visualizing the steps and the decisions taken for the cell selection process. Like in UTRA the cell selection process is running in two steps:

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The first step the UE is looking for a suitable cell. A suitable cell fulfills the cell selection criteria is not barred and belongs to the selected PLMN. The selected PLMN is given by the SIM card which is initiating the cell selection procedure. Once there is no suitable cell found the UE is looking for acceptable cells. These cells belong to another PLMN and fulfill the cell selection criteria and are not barred. Barred cells are in the list forbidden tracking areas for roaming. These might be trail networks of the related operators. [3GTR 25.813 (9.1.2), 3GTS 36.300 10.1.1.1]

Room for your Notes


4

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel PLMN SIM UE Public Land Mobile Network Subscriber Identity Module User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

3GTR 3GTS BCH

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management UTRA DEREGISTE state for UE not being registered RED & ECM- in the network IDLE
FFS For Further Study UTRAN

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

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4.7.2 Mobility Management in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE State

The objective of this section is to give the characteristics of the mobility management procedure in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE state with special emphasis of what changes with respect to UTRAN. Key point of this section is that for the cell reselection procedure in contrast to UTRA the neighbor cells are only given by their carrier frequency (band). The UE will look for the neighbor cells on it own.

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Image description The picture is visualizing the steps and the decisions taken for the cell reselection process. For the cell reselection process there are quite a few changes compared to UTRA: 1. The UE can omit to do neighbor cell measurements once the selected cells can be received with very high quality. This will prolongate the battery lifetime of the UEs being close to the eNB. 2. The neighbor cells are only given by their frequency or frequency bands. This is also applying for other RAT systems. This has the consequence that the UE needs to look for the neighbor cells on its own and will not get cell specific reselection criteria from the old cell but has to read the BCCH (MIB) of the neighbor cells for this information. However, optionally a neighbor cell list can be transmitted. 3. The Location Area updates, Routing Area updates and the URA updates are now all covered by the TA updates. As in UTRA periodical updates and updates relating to the change of the TA can be performed. [3GTR 25.813 (9.1.3), 3GTS 36.300 10.1.1.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Control Channel RAT TA UE Radio Access Technology (e.g. GERAN, UTRAN, ...) Tracking Area User Equipment UTRAN Registration Area

3GTR 3GTS BCCH

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management URA REGISTER state for non active packet ED & ECM- transmission IDLE FFS For Further Study UTRA

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

ID

Identity

UTRAN

MIB

Master Information Block

eNB

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4.7.3 Mobility Management in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECMCONNECTED State

The objective of this section is to give the characteristics of the mobility management procedure in the EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED state with special emphasis of what changes with respect to UTRAN. Key point of this section is that the key difference to UTRA is that most handovers are negotiated in-between the eNBs directly.

Image description The picture is visualizing the steps and the decisions taken for the handover process. For the neighbor cell measurements the same changes apply as in the idle mode. However here the neighbor cells measurement need to be performed according to the measurement control messages of the eNB. Since the RNC does not exist in LTE the source eNB decides whether a handover is required.

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Then the source eNB will coordinate the handover with the target eNB (or the EPC). In case of success the handover command will be sent to the UE and another new concept of LTE will be used: DL data forwarding. Since the core network does not now about the handover yet it will still send the user plane data to the source eNB. Since for a handover there should not be data loss or delay, the source eNB will forward the DL data to the target eNB whilst keeping the UL user plane to the core. After the handover command the UE will be busy to synchronize) with the target eNB (using a contention free random access procedure and will get some DL data from it immediately. Once the UE is synchronized the target eNB will redirect the user plane to itself and will stop the data forwarding. Then the source eNB will flush its buffers to the target eNB and will also provide the UL TBs which cannot be transmitted to the core because of retransmissions are blocking an in sequence delivery of these TBs to the core directly. In case of an inter MME handover the eNBs do not coordinate the handover directly. Instead the coordination is done using the MMEs. [3GTR 25.813 (9.1.5), 3GTS 36.300 10.1.2.1)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification 3rd Generation Technical Specification Broadcast Channel Downlink QoS RACH RNC TB TX Quality of Service Random Access Channel Radio Network Controller Transport Block Transmit

3GTS 3GTS BCH DL

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTERED state for active packet & ECMtransmission CONNECTED EPC FFS HO Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) For Further Study Handover

UE UL UTRA

User Equipment Uplink UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Enhanced Node B

LTE

Long Term Evolution (of UMTS)

UTRAN

MME

Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

eNB

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4.7.4 Inter RAT Mobility Management

The objective of this section is to give the characteristics of the mobility management procedures for inter-RAT mobility. Key point of this section is even though the neighbor cell information is also minimized for inter RAT mobility the basic concepts have been taken from UTRA.
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4.7.4.1 Cell Reselection (EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-IDLE) Here as well the neighbor cell information is kept to a minimum. Once the LTE cell is received very good then all the neighbor cells measurements can be omitted. 4.7.4.2 Handover (EMM-REGISTERED & ECM-CONNECTED) As in UTRA the handovers are backward handovers. That means the handovers are negotiated with the target network before they are communicated to the UE. Like this unnecessary call drops and delays in the user plane are avoided. There is a similar procedure for an inter MME handover. For the inter RAT handover like in UTRAN the handover messages sent to the UE will encapsulate the handover messages from the target network. [3GTR 25.813 (9.2 3GTS 36.300 10.2)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification LTE MME QoS Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Quality of Service

3GTR 3GTS

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTERED state for active packet & ECMtransmission CONNECTED

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management RAT REGISTERED state for non active packet & ECM-IDLE transmission E_UTRA FFS Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Access For Further Study UE UTRA

Radio Access Technology (e.g. GERAN, UTRAN, ...) User Equipment UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

HO

Handover

UTRAN

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4.8 QoS in LTE


4.8.1 Bearer Architecture

The objective of this section is to provide bearer structure of LTE. Key point of this section is that the UMTS bearer architecture has been generalized to the EPS bearer architecture.

Image description The picture shows how the different bearer services used in LTE or better said SAE. The bearer architecture looks similar to the UMTS bearer architecture. Due to the changes of the SAE architecture, i.e. new network elements the structure of the bearer architecture is different. As well there are new SAE related bearers. Since services are a core network issue the naming is coming from the core network (SAE) and not from the cases network (LTE or E-UTRAN). [3GTR 25.813 (8), 3GTS 36.300 (13), 3GTS 23.401 (4.6)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification GW LTE SAE Gateway Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) System Architecture Evolution

3GTR 3GTS

E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network EPC EPS Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

UMTS eNB

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

Evolved Packet System

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4.8.2 QoS Parameters

The objective of this section is to provide the procedures how QoS is handled in LTE. Key point of this section is that the basic QoS concept is the same as in UTRAN however there are some optimizations done.
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4.8.2.1 ARP This concept is like in UTRAN. 4.8.2.2 Label To differentiate different QoS profiles with labels is new for LTE and it is easing the setup of a service. 4.8.2.3 GBR Same as in UTRAN. 4.8.2.4 MBR Same as in UTRAN. 4.8.2.5 AMBR Multiple services together cannot surpass the AMBR. [3GTR 25.813 (8), 3GTS 36.300 (13), 3GTS 23.401 (4.7)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Aggregated Maximum Bit Rate Allocation and Retention Priority Guaranteed Bit Rate Layer 2 (data link layer) LTE MBR PDB PLR QoS UTRAN Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Maximum Bit Rate Packet Delay Budget Packet Loss Rate Quality of Service UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network

3GTR 3GTS AMBR ARP GBR L2

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4.8.3 QoS Classes Identifier

The objective of this section is to provide an overview of the QCI indicated by the labels in LTE. Key point of this section is that the QCI are replacing the QoS classes used previously.

Table description The table is relating the different QCI characteristics to L2 packet delay budget, L2 packet loss rates and gives examples for the services. The QCIs can be grouped into two groups the GBR and the non-GBR QCIs. Both groups lave low, medium, and high L2 packet delay budgets.

[3GTS 23.203 (6.1.7)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Guaranteed Bit Rate QoS Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Voice over IMS

GBR IMS L2 LTE QCI

Internet Protocol Multimedia Core TCP Network Subsystem (Rel. 5 onwards) Layer 2 (data link layer) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) QoS Classes Identifier UMTS VoIMS

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4.9 Security in LTE

The objective of this section is to describe to different security procedures and their location in LTE. Key point of this section is that the security algorithms are the same as for UTRAN. However the EPC transforms the keys such that different keys are applied for encryption and integrity protection and for the different individual network elements.

Image description The picture shows how the different security keys in LTE are derived from one another. As it can be seen in the picture there is still an USIM used in LTE. This USIM is generating the keys in the same way as in UTRAN. The authentication is following the same procedure as in UTRAN. For the encryption and the integrity protection the HSS will create a new key KASME. This key will be used by the EPC to create 3 specific keys for the MME: once key for encryption of NAS messages and another key for integrity protection for the NAS messages. Each individual eNB will also get its own master key KeNB. How the network entity specific keys are created exactly is FFS. - 262 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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The eNB will then create 3 different keys from its master keys: 1. An encryption key for the RRC messages 2. An integrity protection key for the RRC messages 3. An encryption key for the user plane messages (integrity protection for the user plane is not necessary) The UE is aware of all theses keys and will change the eNB specific keys upon handover or cell change. The usage of the integrity protection and ciphering keys will most likely be the same as in UTRAN again. [3GTR 25.813 (10), 3GTS 36.300 (14)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Anonymity Key (3GTS 33.102) Authentication management field (3GTS 33.102) Authentication Center Ciphering Key (3GTS 33.102) Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) For Further Study Home Subscriber Server (3GTS 23.002). HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5 Integrity Key (3GTS 33.102) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) MAC MME NAS RAND RRC SQN UE USIM UTRAN Medium Access Control Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum Random Number Radio Resource Control Sequence number (used in UMTSsecurity architecture / 3GTS 33.102) User Equipment Universal Subscriber Identity Module UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Expected Response (3GTS 33.102) Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS AK AMF AuC CK EPC FFS HSS

IK LTE

XRES eNB

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Lessons Learned / Conclusions:

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Chapter 5:
Selected E-UTRAN Scenarios

Objectives
Some of your questions that will be answered during this session How an initial context setup is performed? How the UE is performing a tracking area update? How a PDP context is established? How an intra MME handover works in the LTE network? How an inter MME handover works in the LTE network? How in detail the TCP packets travel to the UE?

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5.1 Initial Context Setup Procedure

The objective of this section is to show the information flow during initial context setup procedure. Key point of this section is that for the initial context setup procedure the UTRA RRC connection establishment procedure and the initial NAS messages have been merged on order to save setup time.
In LTE there is no RRC connection establishment procedure. The reason is that there is no RNC any more and in order to save time the RRC establishment procedure has been merged with the initial NAS messaging and the S1 resource establishment.

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As shown in the picture there id the random access procedure which can together with the RRC connection request also sent a NAS message. What is send depends on what the mobile station wants: TA updates, service request, attachment etc. In the next step the eNB is initializing with the INITIAL UE MESSAGE the establishment of the S1 connection for the UE. The MME is answering with the INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP REQUEST which is also carrying already the NAS response messages being the reaction to whatever the UE requested from the core before. The eNB reacts with packing the whole NAS information inside the RRC radio bearer setup message. The response of the UE the RRC Radio Bearer Setup Complete is containing again some NAS messages. The reaction of the eNB is the INITIAL CONTEXT SETUP COMPLETE message which will forward the UEs NAS messages to the MME and will terminate the initial context setup procedure. From then on the communication with the core is handled by UPLINK NAS TRANSPORT and DOWNLINK NAS TRANSPORT messages on the S1-MME interface. [3GTS 36.300 (19.2.2.3)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Access Preamble Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum RA-RNTI RACH RNC RNTI RRC S-TMSI S1-AP TA UE UL UL-SCH UTRA Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier Random Access Channel Radio Network Controller Radio Network Temporary Identifier Radio Resource Control SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity S1 Application Part Timing Advance User Equipment Uplink Uplink Shared Channel UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Enhanced Node B

3GTS AP C-RNTI CCCH DCCH DL DL-SCH ID IMSI LTE MME NAS

PDCCH PUCCH

Physical Downlink Control Channel Physical Uplink Control Channel

eNB

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5.2 Tracking Area Update

The objective of this section is to show the information flow for a TA update of a UE. Key point of this section is that for a TA update quite similar procedures are used as for the RA updates in UMTS and GPRS networks.

5.1.1 Inter MME tracking area update The first step of the tracking area update is that a UE has selected a new cell found a new cell with a different TAI. Then it will initiate the TA update procedure and will send a tracking area registration message. This message will contain the old S-TMSI and the old TAI. For the inter MME TA update procedure the MME which is connected to the eNB will find out that it has not administered the UE before and will contact the old MME which has previously administered that UE. This will be done by means of a request for transfer of the contexts which is accompanied by the old S-TMSI. By means of the old S-TMSI the old MME will initiate the transfer of the UEs contexts to the new MME and the new Serving GW. Since old and new Serving GW are not logically interconnected the relaying of Serving GWs part of the UE context will involve S11 messaging on both sides. Once the new MME has received the UEs contexts it might ask for UE authentication and for ciphering of the remaining procedure. Then it will register as the MME responsible for the UE with the UEs HSS. The HSS will initiate the de-registration of the UEs contexts with the old MME and will then confirm the registration with the new MME. Then the UE is informed that the TA registration is complete. Finally the Serving GW will perform the user plane rout update with the PDN GW. [3GTS 23.882 (7.7.2.3)] - 268 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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5.1.2 Intra MME tracking area update Once the TA update is necessary within the service area of the MME the TA update procedure become quite simple. Only the two MM messages indicated in the picture will be exchanged. [3GTS 23.882 (7.7.2.2)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Evolved Mobility Management General Packet Radio Service Gateway Home Subscriber Server (3GTS 23.002). HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5 Identity Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Packet Data Network RA SAE S-TMSI TA UE Routing Area System Architecture Evolution SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Tracking Area User Equipment

3GTS EMM GPRS GW HSS

ID MME PDN

UMTS eNB

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Enhanced Node B

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5.3 PDP Context Establishment

The objective of this section is to show the information flow during a PDP context establishment of an UE. Key points of this section are that the PDP context establishment is embedded in the initial context setup procedure and that for LTE the Serving GW starts already to forward data to the eNB even though the PDP context establishment procedure has not finished.
Precondition for the PDP context establishment procedure is that the UE is in EMMREGISTERED & ECM-IDLE and default IP-connectivity has already been established. In this example the PDP context is establishment is initiated by the network the difference to the UE initiated PDP context establishment procedure is that paging is used in order to reach the UE and that the UE might be requested to perform a noncontention based random access procedure. In case of a UE initiated initial context procedure the random access is always contention based. The first step of the network initiated PDP context establishment procedure is that the PDN GW has data for the UE. By means the default IP connectivity already established it knows which Serving GW is responsible for that UE and it will send the data to the Serving GW. The Serving GW will discover that it has no S1-U resources for that UE and it will request the MME to get these resources established. The MME will then issue a paging message to the eNBs responsible for the UEs TA. Optionally the eNB can assign RA resources being non-contention based to the UE and will indicate this by the RA preamble to be used.

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The next step is the RA procedure initiated by the UE. With the CCCH it will transmit the RRC connection request containing the service request. This service request will be forwarded with the INITIAL UE MESSAGE to the MME. The MME knowing that it relates to the paging it has initiated before - will trigger the Serving GW to start to transmit data to the eNB. [3GTR 23.882 (7.14), 3GTS 36.300 (19.2.2.3)]

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Common Control Channel PDP RA RACH RRC Packet Data Protocol Routing Area Random Access Channel Radio Resource Control

3GTR 3GTS CCCH

EMMEnhanced Mobility Management REGISTER state for non active packet ED & ECM- transmission IDLE GW ID IP LTE MME NAS PCCH PCH PDN Gateway Identity Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum Paging Control Channel Paging Channel Packet Data Network

S1-AP SAE TA TX UE UL UL-SCH eNB

S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution Timing Advance Transmit User Equipment Uplink Uplink Shared Channel Enhanced Node B

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5.3 PDP Context Establishment

Key point of this section is that while the PDP context establishment procedure continues with the Serving GW is already transmitting data to the eNB.
The steps taken on this picture are that in order to save time many NAS messages are issued at the same time such as the SAE bearer setup, the security context setup, the service accept and the PDP context activation message. The eNB will process these messages and translate/forward them to the UE with the RRC radio bearer setup message. The UE will accept the PDP context and will signal to the eNB that it also completes the security mode command (ciphering) and the RAB assignment. The eNB will then inform the MME that the PDP context has been accepted and confirm the SAE bearer setup whilst it will start already to transmit ciphered data to the UE. [3GTR 23.882 (7.14), 3GTS 36.300 (19.2.2.3)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Access Stratum (UMTS) Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel For Further Study Gateway Identity MME NAS PDP RAB RB RRC S1-AP SAE UE eNB Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Non-Access-Stratum Packet Data Protocol Radio Access Bearer Radio Bearer Radio Resource Control S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution User Equipment Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS ACK AS DCCH DL DL-SCH DTCH FSS GW ID

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5.4 Intra MME Handover

The objective of this section is to show the information flow for an intra MME handover. Key points of this section are that the eNBs are finalizing the intra MME handover by themselves before they inform the MME and that data forwarding like in the core is introduced in-between the eNBs.
The precondition of this procedure is that the source eNB is informed about the area restrictions that means to which eNB it can handover through the intra MME handover. In order to prepare possible handovers the eNB is issuing measurement control messages to the UE and the UE is providing measurement reports back. Once the source eNB has come to the conclusion that a handover is necessary it will issue a handover request on the X2 interface to the target eNB. This handover request is negotiating the handover in-between the two eNBs. The target eNB will verify whether a handover can be supported and will give back a handover request ACK in case it will support the inter eNB handover. With this acknowledgement the target eNB will also give some parameters e.g. the C-RNTI, and the preamble it would like to the UE to use. The source eNB is then transmitting the handover command to the UE and starts to forward the DL data it receives from the Serving GW to the target eNB.

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The eNBs are arranging the handover in-between themselves and the MME or the Serving GW does not know about the handover. They expect that the source eNB still receives the DL data and that it still transmits UL data to them. Data forwarding is necessary to keep delay sensitive services alive and to prevent data loss. UL data forwarding is not necessary at this point. The eNB will send the UL data to the Serving GW as normal. According to the opinion of the author the source eNB keeps the data it has forwarded in the buffer. In case the handover is not successful the UE will come back to the source eNB. From the time of the handover command onwards the UE will only communicate with the target eNB. It will only come back to the source eNB in case the handover is not successful. The UE will send its assigned preamble in a non-contention based random access procedure and will get new TA and an UL grant in response. Then it can transmit the HANDOVER NOTIFY message to the target eNB. After that it will address the target eNB with the UL data and the target eNB will request that the data path is switched to it. It is unclear to the author whether the HANDOVER NOTIFY message is then still necessary. Now the target eNB will inform the MME about the handover being successful already in the RAN. This is done in order to initiate that the MME and the Serving GW send their messages and the data to the target eNB from then on. The MME will initiate a user plane update together with the Serving GW. [3GTS 36.300 (10.1.2.1.1)] Abbreviations of this Section:
3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Gateway Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Physical Uplink Shared Channel Random Access Channel Radio Access Network RNTI RRC S1-AP SAE TA UE UL UL-SCH X2-AP eNB Radio Network Temporary Identifier Radio Resource Control S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution Timing Advance User Equipment Uplink Uplink Shared Channel X2 Application Part Enhanced Node B

3GTS ACK C-RNTI DCCH DL DL-SCH GW MME PUSCH RACH RAN

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5.4 Intra MME Handover

Key point of this section is that the UL data is only forwarded in the last step of the handover from the source to the target eNB. Once the target eNB will receive the HANDOVER COMPLETE ACK form the MME then it will initiate to empty its DL buffer complete and also forward the UL data still being in the buffer and waiting of successful transmission of earlier TBs to the target eNB. The other UL data it will forward to the Serving GW.

Then the Handover will be complete and the UE will communicate with the new MME and the new Serving GW. [3GTS 36.300 (10.1.2.1.1)]

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Downlink Gateway Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) S1 Application Part SAE TB UE UL X2-AP eNB System Architecture Evolution Transport Block User Equipment Uplink X2 Application Part Enhanced Node B

3GTS ACK DL GW MME S1-AP

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5.4.1 Practical Exercise: Intra eNB Handover

The objective of this section is to let the students develop the flow for the intra eNB handover.

Image Description The picture shows the to be completed flow for the intra eNB handover.

Your tasks: 1. Complete the flow with the communication in-between source cell, target cell and UE.

Room for your Notes

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Dedicated Control Channel Gateway Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) S1-AP SAE UE UL eNB S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

DCCH GW MME MME PUSCH RRC

Physical Uplink Shared Channel Radio Resource Control

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5.5 Inter MME Handover

The objective of this section is to show the information flow for an inter MME handover. Key point of this section is that for the inter MME handover there is no data forwarding in-between the eNBs but inside the core.
Here the procedure is exactly the same as the intra MME handover until the source eNB decided to ask for a handover. Since this is an inter MME handover the source eNB will not address the target eNB directly but it will address its MME and will inform it that it should prepare a handover together with the target MME. The source MME will then contact the target MME with the hand over request. Then the target MME will first clarify with the target eNB whether a handover is possible. Once this is successful the target MME will inform the target Serving GW about the handover. Once all that is successful the target MME will inform the source MME that the handover can commence now. The source MME will then trigger the data forwarding in-between the source Serving GW and the target Serving GW. Instead of a data forward also bicasting is possible for the core. Since there is no interface in-between the Serving GWs it is unclear to the author how exactly the data forward will be done. Whether there will be an interface inbetween the Serving GWs or whether the forwarding will take place using the S11 and S10 interfaces. [3GTR 23.882 (7.15.2.2), 3GTS 36.300 (19.2.2)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Acknowledgement Dedicated Control Channel Gateway Identity Mobility Management Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Packet Data Network PUSCH RRC S1-AP SAE SM UE UL eNB

3GTR 3GTS ACK DCCH GW ID MM MME PDN

Physical Uplink Shared Channel Radio Resource Control


S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution Session Management (3GTS 23.060, 3GTS 24.008) User Equipment Uplink Enhanced Node B

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5.5 Inter MME Handover

Key point of this section is for the second part of the handover in the inter MME handover the route update is also involving the PDN GW.
Once the source MME is informed that the rest of the network is prepared for the inter MME handover it will issue the handover command to the source eNB which will then issue the handover command to the UE. For then on the procedure will be the same as for the intra MME handover until the handover complete will be issued to the target MME. There is one exemption: the source eNB will not forward any data to the target eNB. This is already done in the core. The target MME will then trigger a route update with the target Serving GW and the PDN GW. Once this is done the target MME will trigger the source MME to stop the data forwarding to release the resources. The discussion for the inter MME handover is not finished. Other possibilities in the discussion are to do mobility management like in the idle mode (TA updates and cell updates) for low delay constraint data services or having overlapping coverage areas for the MMEs. [3GTR 23.882 (7.15.2.2), 3GTS 36.300 (19.2.2)]

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Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Gateway Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) Packet Data Network RACH RRC S1-AP SAE TA UE UL UL-SCH eNB Random Access Channel Radio Resource Control S1 Application Part System Architecture Evolution Timing Advance User Equipment Uplink Uplink Shared Channel Enhanced Node B

3GTR 3GTS C-RNTI DCCH DL DL-SCH GW MME PDN

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5.6 How a TCP/IP MTU is reaching the UE / the Internet

The objective of this section is to show the stations and the transformations of a TCP/IP MTU in the LTE network until it reaches the UE. Key point of this section is that with respect to the very high data rate for LTE and the protocol development from the scratch there are a few differences to HSPA.
Image description The picture is showing the CDD case: two transmission antennas are received by one receive antenna. It is shown how the UE can resolve the two signals.

5.6.1 TCP/IP layer A TCP/IP MTU can have up to 1500 byte including 40 byte header. 5.6.2 PDCP layer In the PDCP first RoHC can be applied this would reduce 40 byte TCP/IP header to typically 3 byte header. In the user plane PDCP needs 2 byte own header. 5.6.3 RLC layer According to the transport block size the RLC can assume variable RLC PDU size. Either the TB is so small that the PDCP PDU needs to be segmented or it is that big that multiple PDCP PDUs fir in. For the RLC header it can be configured to have 1 or 2 byte in UM. - 284 INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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For AM and 1 RLC SDU the header size is 2 byte in case of no segmentation and 4 byte in case of segmentation. For RLC AM each additional RLC SDU will add 1.5 byte header. In case a byte header is not filled completely 4 bit header padding has to be added. Flexible RLC PDUs and multiple RLC SDUs are new to LTE and are not used in UMTS RLC until. R7 5.6.4 MAC layer In case the MAC is transporting only 1 MAC SDU the header length will be 1 byte only in case more MAC SDUs are transmitted the header will increase by 2-3 byte. Please also take into account that padding and MAC Control Elements will be unavoidable. The use of MAC control elements is new in LTE. 5.6.5 PHY layer The physical layer has to deal with very huge TBs. TBs of 150000 bit cannot be protected with a single CRC check any more. This is why there is a own 3 byte CRC foreseen for every of the up to 6144 bit long Code Block Segments.

Room for your Notes

Abbreviations of this Section:


Acknowledged Mode operation Cyclic Delay Diversity Cyclic Redundancy Check PHY RLC RoHC Physical Layer Radio Link Control Robust Header Compression Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Transport Block Transmission Control Protocol over IP User Equipment Unacknowledged Mode operation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

AM CDD CRC HSPA LTE MAC MTU PDCP PDU

High Speed Packet Access (operation SDU of HSDPA and HSUPA) Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) Medium Access Control Maximum Transmit Unit (IP) Packet Data Convergence Protocol Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit TB TCP/IP UE UM UMTS

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Lessons Learned / Conclusions:

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Solutions
Solutions for Practical Exercises

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Chapter 2 / Section 2.1.2: Physical Basics of OFDM

Your way to the resolution:

Question No 3: We know that the throughput rate is R = 6bit/s which means that each subcarrier transmits 2 bits per second. This provides us the response for question No 3: 2 x T(b) = 1 s and therefore T(b) = 500 ms. Another way to view this is to take into account the number of subcarriers. Consider we would have used six subcarriers. In this case T(b) = 1 s. This relationship between number of subcarriers and symbol duration is inherent to OFDM. Question No 4: When you look at your own drawing, it becomes obvious that the BPSK-signal needs to complete a full period (2 PI) during T(b) on the lowest numbered subcarrier 0 which also uses the lowest frequency. Consequentially, f(0) = 1/T(b) = 2 Hz Question No 5: Since in OFDM-systems all subcarriers are harmonics (integer multiples of the base frequency f(0)) the response is obvious: f(1) = 2 x f(0), f(2) = 3 x f(0) and therefore: f = f(0) = 2 Hz.

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This relationship between base frequency f(0), subcarrier spacing f and symbol duration T(b) is crucial for OFDM.

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Chapter 2 / Section 2.1.3: Scaling Issues of OFDM-Systems

Remarks on the Resolution:

Question No 1: Option 1: no remarks Option 2: please refer to question No 2.

Question No 2: LTE might later operate at frequencies of about 2 3.5 GHz. At 3.5 GHz the wavelength is LAMBDA = 8.6 cm. Deep fading effects known as Rayleigh fading (see image on next page) will impact the related signal at distances of app. LAMBDA / 2 = 4.3 cm along the path of the mobile station.

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At 3.5 GHz the radio channel changes its conditions quite rapidly within very small distances of only a few centimeters (app. 4.3 cm). Mobile receivers shall be simple and shall assume equal radio conditions during one symbol duration (even while moving). Therefore, the maximum moving distance of a mobile station during one symbol duration must be much shorter than this LAMBDA/2. Consequentially, the symbol duration must be short enough to accommodate these fading conditions.

Accordingly: If the subcarrier spacing is selected with f = 1 kHz we get a symbol duration of 1 ms (T(b) = 1 / f). At a speed of 120 km/h, the mobile station will move 3.3 cm within this 1 ms which is obviously too far to maintain an equal channel condition during one symbol duration. Much better is a subcarrier spacing of f = 10 kHz with a symbol duration of 0.1 ms and a moving distance of only 3.3 mm at 120 km/h.

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Chapter 3 / Section 3.5.4.2.1: Draw the Antenna Diagram of AAS

Your way to the resolution:

Question No 1 - 4: Strictly follow the instruction.

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Question No 5: For the angles ranging from 0 to -90 degree the angles will be negative all amplitudes and power have the same value as for the positive angles. Consequently the lobe has to be mirrored on the I-axis. Angles being bigger than 90 degree the circle in the middle drawing is continued. Again mirror the lobe already got on the Q-axis to get the two lobe picture being typical for the two antenna AAS case. All in all the circle is gone though two times and two lobes are generated. Question No 6: For a distance of 10 (20 x 0.5 ) in-between the two antennas the circle is gone through for 40 times. Consequently 40 lobes are constructed. This is typical for the antenna diagram for antenna diversity use. This is the reason why the antennas as always spaced multiple of 0.5 to form a single distinct beam in the AAS approach.

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Chapter 5 / Section 5.4.1: Intra eNB Handover

Your way to the resolution:

Question No 1: Basically the intra eNB handover is looking like the inter eNB handover. The difference is that the X2 interface communication and the data forwarding is not necessary because this is handled by the eNB internally.

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List of Acronyms

List of Acronyms
Term (V)ASSI 16-APK 16-QAM 16VSB 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV 2B1Q 3G ... 3GPP Explanation Visited Alias Short Subscriber Identity 16 symbols Amplitude Phase Keying 16 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 16-level vestigial sideband modulation One Carrier (1.25 MHz) Evolution - Data Only (cdma2000) One Carrier (1.25 MHz) Evolution - Data and Voice Two Binary One Quaternary (Line Coding used on the ISDN UInterface) 3rd Generation ... Third Generation Partnership Project (Collaboration between different standardization organizations (e.g. ARIB, ETSI) to define advanced mobile communications standards, responsible for UMTS) Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (similar to 3GPP, but consisting of ANSI, TIA and EIA-41, responsible for cdma2000, EvDO and EVDV) 3rd Generation Technical Report 3rd Generation Technical Specification 4 symbols Pulse Amplitude Modulation 4th Generation ... 64 symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 8 Symbol Phase Shift Keying 8-level Vestigial Sideband Modulation (ATSC) Applications & Services domain or server Acknowledgement Request Bit (used in LLC-protocol Logical Link Control) Audio / Video Anonymous Access Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Authorize Authenticate Answer (DIAMETER message type) Access Assignment CHannel Access Assignment CHannel, QAM ATM-Adaption Layer ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (for real-time services) (ITU-T I.363.2) ATM-Adaptation Layer 5 (non-real time) (ITU-T I.363.5)

3GPP2

3GTR 3GTS 4-PAM 4G 64-QAM 8-PSK 8VSB A&S A-Bit A/V AA AAA AAA AACH AACH-Q AAL AAL-2 AAL-5

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LTE from A-Z

AAR AAS ABM ABNF AC ACC ACCH ACELP ACK ACM ACS ADCH ADM ADPCM ADSL2 AES AESA AF AG AGA AGCH AGS AGV AH AI AI AICH AIPN AJAX AK AK AKA AKD AL

Authorize Authenticate Request (DIAMETER message type) Adaptive Antenna Systems Asynchronous Balanced Mode Augmented Backus Naur Form (RFC 2234) Alternate Current Access Control Class (3GTS 22.011) Associated Control Channel (GSM / can be an SACCH or an FACCH) Algebraic Codebook Excited Linear Prediction Acknowledgement Address Complete Message (ISUP-message type) Active Codec Set Associated Dedicated Channel (3GTS 45.902) Asynchronous Disconnected Mode Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line 2 (ITU-T G.992.3) Advanced Encryption Standard / Cipher Key Lengths: 128 bit, 192 bit or 256 bit ATM End System Address Assured Forwarding (DiffServ Term) Absolute Grant (3GTS 25.309) Air - Ground - Air service Access Grant Channel (GSM) Absolute Grant Scope ('All' or 'Single' HARQ process) Absolute Grant Value (INACTIVE or Zero_Grant or EDPDCH/DPCCH power ratio) Authentication Header (RFC 4302) Acquisition Indicator Air Interface Acquisition Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) All IP Network Asynchronous Javascript and XML Anonymity Key (3GTS 33.102) Authentication Key (IEEE 802.16) Authentication and key agreement (3GTS 33.102) Authentication Key Distribution Advanced Link

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List of Acronyms
AL ALC ALCAP ALG AM AM AMBR AMC AMD AMF AMI AMPS AMR AMR-WB AMR-WB+ AMR_HR ANSI AP AP AP-AICH APCO API API APK APN APP AR ARFCN ARIB ARP ARP ARPU ARQ AS Ambience Listening Asynchronous Layered Coding Access Link Control Application Part (ITU-T Q.2630.1 / Q.2630.2) Application Layer Gateway Acknowledged Mode operation Amplitude Modulation Aggregated Maximum Bit Rate Adaptive Modulation and Coding Acknowledged Mode Data (UMTS RLC PDU-type) Authentication management field (3GTS 33.102) Alternate Mark Inversion (Line Coding) Advanced Mobile Phone System Adaptive Multirate Encoding (3GTS 26.090) Adaptive Multi-Rate - WideBand speech codec (3GTS 26.273, ITU-T G.722.2) Extended Adaptive Multi-Rate - WideBand speech codec (3GTS 26.304, 26.410, ITU-T G.722.1) Adaptive Multi Rate with Half-Rate Codec American National Standards Institute Access Point (IEEE 802.11, 802.16) Access Preamble CPCH Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Association of Police Communications Officers Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Application Programming Interface Amplitude Phase Keying Access Point Name (Reference to a GGSN) A Posteriori Probability (Turbo Decoding) Assured Rate PDB (DiffServ Term) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japanese) Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 826) Allocation and Retention Priority Average Revenue Per User Automatic Repeat Request Access Stratum (UMTS)

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AS AS AS-ILCM AS-OLCM ASC ASCA ASCI ASCII ASIC ASN ASN-GW ASN.1 ASP ASSI AT-Command ATCA ATID ATIS ATM ATSC ATSI AT_MAC AUTN AV AVC AVL AWGN AoD AuC B2BUA B2DA B8ZS BAS BAT

Application Server application specific (within SDP-bandwidth specification / bline) Application Server - Incoming Leg Control Model Application Server - Outgoing Leg Control Model Access Service Class Adjacent Subcarrier Allocation Advanced Speech Call Items (GSM-R) American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ANSI X3.4-1986) Application Specific Integrated Circuit Access Service Network Access Service Network-Gateway Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ITU-T X.680 / X.681) Application Server Process Alias Short Subscriber Identity Attention-Command Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture Address Type Identifier in Demand Alliance of Telecommunications Industry Solutions Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ITU-T I.361) Advanced Television System Committee Alias TETRA Subscriber Identity Message Authentication Code Authentication Token (3GTS 33.102) Authentication Vector (3GTS 33.102) Advanced Video Coding Automatic Vehicle Location Additive White Gaussian Noise Audio on Demand Authentication Center Back-to-Back User Agent (SIP term / RFC 3261, RFC 3725) Back-to-Back Dynamic Allocation Bipolar with Eight-Zero Substitution (Line Code used at the T1-Rate (1.544 Mbit/s)) Basic rate access ISDN-user interface for single lines (2 Bchannels plus one D-Channel with 16 kbit/s) Bouquet Association Table (MPEG, DVB-SI)

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List of Acronyms
BB BBK BC BCAST BCC BCC BCCH BCCH-Q BCD BCH BCMCS BCTP BE BEC BEG BER BFCP BFI BG BGCF BIB BIC BICC BKN1 BKN2 BL BLCH BLER BM-IWF BM-SC BMC BN BNCH BNCH-Q BNF BPSK Base Band module Broadcast BlocK Broadcast Broadcast Base Station Color Code Broadcast Call Control (3GTS 44.069) Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Control CHannel, QAM Binary Coded Decimal Broadcast Channel Broadcast and Multicast Services (CDMA-2000 Rev. D) Bearer Control Tunneling Protocol (ITU-T Q.1990) Best Effort Backward Error Correction BEGin Message (TCAP) Bit Error Rate Binary Floor Control Protocol (draft-ietf-xcon-bfcp-05) Bad Frame Indication Border Gateway Breakout Gateway Control Function Backward Indicator Bit Blind Interference Cancellation Bearer Independent Call Control (ITU-T Q.1902.1 - Q.1902.6) Broadcast blocK 1 Broadcast blocK 2 Basic Link Base station Linearization CHannel Block Error Rate Broadcast Multicast Interworking Function Broadcast Multicast Service Center (3GTS 23.346) Broadcast / Multicast Control (3GTS 25.324) Bit Number Broadcast Network CHannel Broadcast Network CHannel, QAM Backus Naur Form (RFC 2234) Binary or Bipolar Phase Shift Keying

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BQA BQB BQRB BQTF BR BRA BRAN BS BSC BSCH BSD BSIC BSN BSS BSSAP BSSAP-LE BSSGP BSSMAP BS_CV_MAX BS_EIRP BTAB BTC BTS BTTI BU BVCI BW C-RNTI C-SAP C/I C/N C/R-Bit C/T-Field CAI

Bluetooth Qualification Administer Bluetooth Qualification Body Bluetooth Qualification Review Board Bluetooth Qualification Test Facility Bandwidth Request (WiMAX Term) Bit Rate Adaptation Broadband Radio Access Network Base Station (IEEE 802.16) Base Station Controller Broadcast Synchronization CHannel Berkeley Software Distribution Base Station Identity Code Block Sequence Number (RLC) / Backward Sequence Number (SS7) Base Station Subsystem Base Station Subsystem Application Part Base Station System Application Part - Location Based Services Extension Base Station System GPRS Protocol Base Station Subsystem Mobile Application Part (3GTS 48.008) Maximum Countdown Value to be used by the mobile station (Countdown Procedure) Base Station Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Bluetooth Technical Advisory Board Block Turbo Coding Base Transceiver Station Basic Transmission Time Interval Bad Urban BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier Bandwidth Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier Control Service Access Point Carrier-to-Interference Ratio (like SNR) Carrier/Noise power ratio Command / Response Bit logical Channel / Transport channel identification Field Channel Assignment Indicator

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List of Acronyms
CAMEL CAN CAP CAPEX CAT CATV CAZAC CB CBC CBC CBC CBCH CBMS CC CC CCC CCCH CCF CCH CCH-Q CCIR601 CCITT Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic Connectivity Access Network CAMEL Application Part (CCS7) Capital Expenditure Conditional Access Table (MPEG2-TS PSI) Cable TV Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation Code Control uplink Burst Cell Broadcast Center Cipher Block Chaining (DES-Operation Mode) Committed Burst Size Cell Broadcast Channel (GSM) Convergence of Broadcast and Mobile Services Call Control Convolutional Coding CPCH Control Command Common Control Channel Charging Collection Function Control Channel Control CHannel, QAM Comit consultatif international pour la radio, a forerunner of the ITU-R, specification 601 Comitéonsultatif International Tégraphique et Téphonique (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) Common Cipher Key Common Channel Management (Protocol Part on the GSM Abis-Interface / 3GTS 48.058) Counter with CBC-MAC (RFC 3610) Combined Authentication and Encryption with AES-Algorithm Cell Change Notification (related to Network Assisted Cell Change / 3GTS 44.060) Common Control Physical Channel (see also P-CCPCH and SCCPCH) Common Channel Signaling System No. 7 (ITU-T Q-series of specifications, in particular Q.700 - Q.703) Coded Composite Transport Channel (UMTS) Channel Codec Unit Compact Disc

CCK CCM CCM-Mode CCN CCPCH CCS7 CCTrCH CCU CD

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CD/CA-ICH CDCH CDD CDI CDMA CDMA2000 CDR CELL_DCH CELL_FACH CELL_PCH CEO CEPT CESoP CFI CFN CG CGF CGI CHAP CI CIC CIC CID CID CIDR CIF CINR CIO CIR CIR CIR CK CKSN CLCH

Collision Detection / Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Control-plane Dedicated Channel (3GTS 45.902) Cyclic Delay Diversity Collision Detection Indicator Code Division Multiple Access The 3G Standard 3GPP2 Call Detail Record RRC Dedicated State RRC FACH State in UTRA RRC PCH State in UTRA Chief Executive Officer Conférence Européne des Postes et Técommunications Circuit Emulation Services over Packet Control Format Indicator Connection Frame Number Charging Gateway Charging Gateway Function Cell Global Identification Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (RFC 1334) Cell Identity Call Instance Code (BICC) Circuit Identity Code (ISUP) Channel Identity (ATM) Connection Identifier (WiMAX) Classless Inter-Domain Routing (RFC 1519) Common Intermediate Format (352 x 240 pixels / ITU-T H261 / H263) Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio Cell Individual Offset (3GTS 25.331) Carrier-to-Interference Ratio Channel Impulse Response Committed Information Rate Ciphering Key (3GTS 33.102) Ciphering Key Sequence Number Common Linearization CHannel

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List of Acronyms
CLCH-Q CMC CMC CMCE CMD CMI CMIP CMIS/P CMR CMTS CN CNM CNMI CNR COA CODEC COFDM COMSEC CON CONS COO COPS CORBA CP CP CPC CPCH CPCS CPE CPICH CPICH_Ec/No CPIM CPS CPS CPTI CPU Common Linearization CHannel, QAM Codec Mode Command Connection Mobility Control Circuit Mode Control Entity Circuit Mode Data Codec Mode Indication Client Mobile IP Common Management Information System/Protocol Codec Mode Request Cable Modem Termination System Core Network Central Network Management Central Network Management Interface Carrier to Noise Ratio Change Over Acknowledge message (CCS7) Coder-decoder Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communications Security CONtinue Message (TCAP) Connection Orientated Network Service Change Over Order message (CCS7) Common Open Policy Service Protocol (RFC 2748) Common Object Request Broker Control Physical channel Cyclic Prefix Continuous Packet Connectivity Common Packet Channel (UMTS Transport Channel) FDD only Common Part Convergence Sublayer Customer Premises Equipment Common Pilot Channel (UMTS Physical Channel / see also PCPICH and S-CPICH) Common Pilot Channel Energy per Chip to Noise Radio Common Presence and Instant Messaging (RFC 3862) Coding and Puncturing Scheme Common Part Sublayer Calling Party Type Identifier Central Processing Unit

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CQI CQICH CRC CRC_HS CRNC CRSC CS CS CS CS CS-X CSCF CSD CSI CSICH CSMA-CA CSN CSN.1 CSPDN CSRC CSS CT CTC CTCH CTFC CUB CV CV CVO CW CmCH-PI CoA CoU D-CT D-CTT D-MCCTT

Channel Quality Indicator Channel Quality Indicator Channel Cyclic Redundancy Check CRC of High Speed Channel (HS-DSCH) Controlling RNC Contributing Source Circuit Switched Class Selector (DiffServ Term / RFC 2474) Coding Scheme Convergence Sublayer Coding Scheme (1 - 4) Call Session Control Function (SIP) Circuit Switched Data Channel State Information CPCH Status Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Carrier-Sense Multiple Access - Collision Avoidance Connectivity Service Network Code Syntax Notation 1 (3GTS 24.007) Circuit Switched Public Data Network Synchronisation Source (RTP) Carrier Specific Signalling Core Network and Terminal (Technical Specification Group within 3GPP) Convolutional Turbo Coding Common Traffic Channel (Logical) PTM Calculated Transport Format Combination (3GTS 25.331) Control Uplink Burst Constellation Version Countdown Value Clear Voice Override Code Word Common Channel Priority Indicator Care of Address (MIP) Class of Usage Downlink-Continuous Transmission Downlink-Carrier Timesharing Transmission Downlink - Main Control Channel Timesharing Transmission

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List of Acronyms
D-TxAA DAB DARP DAS-X DASS DBC DBP DBPSCH DBS-X DC DCCH DCD DCF DCH DCI DCK DCM DCOMP DCS DDDS DDI DEC DEMUX DES DF DF DFT DGNA DHCP DHCPv4 DHCPv6 DIA DIUC DL Double Transmit Antenna Array Digital Audio Broadcasting Downlink Advanced Receiver Performance (3GTS 45.015, 3GTS 24.008) egprs2 Downlink level A modulation and coding Scheme (x = 5..12) Digital Access Signaling System Dynamic Bearer Control Diameter Base Protocol (RFC 3588) Dedicated Basic Physical SubCHannel egprs2 Downlink level B modulation and coding Scheme (x = 5..12) Direct Current Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Channel Descriptor (WiMAX Message) DRM Content Format Dedicated Channel (Transport) Downlink Control Indicator Derived Cipher Key Dedicated Channel Management (Protocol Part on the GSM Abis-Interface / 3GTS 48.058) Data COMpression Protocol Digital Communication System Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (RFC 3401 - RFC 3404) Data Description Indicator (3GTS 25.309, 25.331, 25.321) Decision (COPS message type) De-Multiplexer Data Encryption Standard Default Forwarding (DiffServ Term / RFC 2474) Do not Fragment (bit in IPv4 header) Discrete Fourier Transformation Dynamic Group Number Assignment Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (RFC 2131) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Version 4 (RFC 2131) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Version 6 (RFC 3315) Diameter Protocol (RFC 3588, RFC 3589) Downlink Interval Usage Code (WiMAX Term) Downlink

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LTE from A-Z

DL-MAP DL-SCH DLCI DLFP DLL DLR DLS DMA DMB DMO DMR DNS DOCSIS DPC DPCCH DPCH DPDCH DPDCH_P DPNSS DPSK DQPSK DRA DRM DRNC DRX DS-CDMA DSCA DSCH DSCP DSL DSLAM DSM-CC DSN DSP

Downlink-Medium Access Protocol (MAC-Message in WiMAX / IEEE 802.16) Downlink Shared Channel Data Link Connection Identifier Downlink Frame Prefix Data Link Layer Destination Local Reference (SCCP term) Downloadable Sounds Division Multiple Access Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Direct Mode Operation Digital Mobile Radio Domain Name System Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (defined by CableLabs) Destination Point Code Dedicated Physical Control Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Dedicated Physical Channel (UMTS / Term to combine DPDCH and DPCCH) Dedicated Physical Data Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) DPDCH_Power or DPDCH_Pwr: Transmit power of DPDCH Digital Private Network Signaling System Differential Phase Shift Keying Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Dynamic Resource Allocation Digital Rights Management Drift Radio Network Controller Discontinuous Reception Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access Diversity / Distributed Subcarrier Allocation Downlink Shared Channel (UMTS Transport Channel) Differentiated Services Code Pointer Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer Digital Storage Media Call Control Digital Switching Network Digital Signal Processor

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List of Acronyms
DSR DSS DSS1 DSSS DT1 DTAP DTCH DTM DTMB DTMF DTS DTX DUA DVB DVB-C DVB-H DVB-S DVB-T Digit DoS E-AGCH E-DCH E-DCH-FP E-DPCCH E-DPDCH E-GSM E-HICH E-OTD E-RGCH E-RNTI E-TFC E-TFCI E-UTRA Dual Symbol Rate Downlink sync Sequence Set Digital Subscriber Signaling System No.1 (also referred to as LAPD-signaling / ITU-T Q.931) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Data Form 1 (SCCP message type) Direct Transfer Application Part Dedicated Traffic Channel Dual Transfer Mode [3GTS 43.055] Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Decode Time Stamp Discontinuous Transmission DPNSS 1 / DASS 2 User Adaptation Layer (RFC 4129) Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable TV Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial 4 bit Denial of Service attack E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Transport Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.309) E-DCH Frame Protocol (Enhanced Dedicated Channel) Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (3GTS 25.211) Enhanced Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (3GTS 25.211) Extended GSM (GSM 900 in the Extended Band) E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (3GTS 25.211) Enhanced Observed Time Difference E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (3GTS 25.211) E-DCH Radio Network Temporary Identifier (3GTS 25.401) E-DCH Transport Format Combination (3GTS 25.309) E-DCH Transport Format Combination Identifier (Enhanced Dedicated Channel) Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
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E-UTRAN EAP EAP-AKA EAP-SIM EAP-TLS EAP-TTLS EAPOL ECC ECCH ECN ECSD EDGE EDR EF EFR EGAN EGPRS EGPRS2 EGPRS2-A EGPRS2-B EIA EIR EIRENE EIRP EIT EMSK EN END ENUM EPC

Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network Extensible Authentication Protocol (RFC 3748) Extensible Authentication Protocol method for 3rd generation Authentication and Key Agreement (RFC 4187) Extensible Authentication Protocol method for gsm Subscriber Identity Module (RFC 4186) Extensible Authentication Protocol - Transport Layer Security (RFC 2716) Extensible Authentication Protocol - Transport Layer Security (draft-funk-eap-ttls-v0-01.txt) EAP encapsulation Over Lan or wlan (IEEE 802.1X) Electronic Communications Committee Extended Control CHannel Explicit Congestion Notification Enhanced Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD + EDGE) Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution Enhanced Data Rate (more speed with Bluetooth 2.0 (2.0 - 3.0 Mbit/s) Expedite Forwarding (DiffServ Term) Enhanced Full Rate speech codec Evolved Generic Access Network Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Enhanced GPRS phase 2 [3GTS 43.064] Enhanced GPRS Phase 2 Level A [3GTS 43.064, 3GTS 44.060] Enhanced GPRS Phase 2 Level B [3GTS 43.064, 3GTS 44.060] Electronic Industries Alliance (US-organization to support US industry) Equipment Identity Register European Integrated Railway Radio Enhanced Network (GSMR) Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Event Information Table (MPEG, DVB-SI) Extended Master Session Key European Norm END Message (TCAP) E.164-telephone number to URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) translation (RFC 3761) Evolved Packet Core (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards)

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List of Acronyms
EPS EPT EQ200 ERO ES ES-Id ESCR ESG ESN ESP ETS ETSI EUL EV-DO EV-DV EVM E_UTRA Ec/No Es/No Ethernet F-DPCH FA FACCH FACH FANR FBI FBI FBSS FCB FCC FCCH FCH FCS FDD FDDI FDM Evolved Packet Switched ETSI Project TETRA Equalizer Test 200 km/h European Radiocommunications Office Elementary Stream Encoding Symbol-Id Elementary Stream Clock Reference Electronic Service Guide Electronic Serial Number (North American Market) Encapsulating Security Payload (RFC 4303) European Telecommunication Standard European Telecommunications Standard Institute Enhanced Uplink Evolution Data Only or Evolution Data Optimized (cdma2000) Evolution Data/Voice (cdma2000) Error Vector Magnitude Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Access Received energy per chip / power density in the band Energy per symbol / Noise power spectral density Layer 2 Protocol for IP (IEEE 802.3) Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (3GTS 25.211) Foreign Agent (Mobile IP / RFC 3344) Fast Associated Control Channel (GSM) Forward Access Channel (UMTS Transport Channel) Fast Ack/Nack Reporting Feedback Information (UMTS) Final Block Indicator Fast Base Station Switching Frequency Correction downlink burst Federal Communications Commission Frequency Correction Channel (GSM) Frame Control Header Frame Check Sequence (CRC-Check) Frequency Division Duplex Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect (optical Layer 2) Frequency Division Multiplexing

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FDMA FDPS FDT FEC FER FFH FFRS FFS FFT FH-CDMA FIB FIPS FISU FLO FLUTE FM FMC FN FP FPB FQDN

Frequency Division Multiple Access Full-slot Downlink Pilots Set File Delivery Table Forward Error Correction Frame Error Rate Fast Frequency Hopping Fractional Frequency Reuse Scheme For Further Study Fast Fourier Transformation Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access Forward Indicator Bit Federal Information Processing Standard Fill In Signal Unit Flexible Layer 1 (3GTS 45.902) File Delivery over Unidirectional Transport (RFC 3926) Frequency Modulation Fixed Mobile Convergence Frame Number Frame Protocol First Partial Bitmap Fully Qualified Domain Name. Fully qualified domain names consist of a host and a domain name whereas the domain name needs to include a top-level domain (e.g. 'de' or 'org'). Examples: 'www.inacon.de' and 'PC10.inacon.com' are fully qualified domain names. 'www' and 'PC10' represent the host, 'inacon' is the second-level domain, 'de' and 'com' are the top level domain. Fullrate or Frame Relay Frame Reject Frequency Reuse Scheme Forward Sequence Number File Transfer Protocol (RFC 959) Full-slot Uplink Pilots Set Full Usage of Subchannels Fixed Wireless Access Filler Set A Filler Set B Frequency Correction Set Gateway MSC

FR FRMR FRS FSN FTP FUPS FUSC FWA FiSA FiSB FrCS G-MSC

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List of Acronyms

G-PDU G-RNTI GA GA-CSR GA-PSR GA-RC GAA GAN GANC GBA GBR GCC GCF GCK GEA GERAN GGSN GHz GIAT GIF GITI GK GMLC GMM GMSC GMSC-S GMSK GNU GOP GPCS GPRS GPRS-CSI GPRS-SSF GPS GRA

T-PDU + GTP-Header GERAN Radio Network Temporary Identifier Generic Access (3GTS 43.318) Generic Access - Circuit-Switched Resources (3GTS 43.318) Generic Access - Packet-Switched Resources (3GTS 43.318) Generic Access - Resource Control (3GTS 43.318) Generic Authentication Architecture (3GTS 33.220) Generic Access Network Generic Access Network Controller (3GTS 43.318) Generic Bootstraping Architecture (3GTS 33.220) Guaranteed Bit Rate Generic Call Control General Certification Forum Group Cipher Key GPRS Encryption Algorithm GSM EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node Giga Hertz (109 Hertz) Group Identity Address Type Graphics Interchange Format Group Identify Type Identifier Gatekeeper Gateway Mobile Location Center GPRS Mobility Management Gateway MSC Gateway MSC Server Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying recursive acronym for GNU is Not Unix. Today a synonym for free Sourcecode Software. Group of Pictures Generic Packet Convergence Sublayer (IEEE 802.16) General Packet Radio Service GPRS CAMEL Subscription Information GPRS Service Switching Function (CAMEL) Global Positioning System GERAN Registration Area

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LTE from A-Z

GRE GRX GSM GSM-R GSMS GSN GSSI GTP GTP-C GTP-U GTSI GTT GTTP GUMMEI GUP GUTI GW GZIP GoS H-PLMN H-RNTI HA HARQ HB HBDC HC-SDMA HCS HDB3 HDLC HDTV HE HFC HFC-Network HI HIPERLAN/2

Generic Routing Encapsulation (RFC 2784) GPRS Roaming Exchange (GSM-Association IR.34) Global System for Mobile Communication GSM for Railways GPRS Short Message Service GPRS Support Node Group Short Subscriber Identity GPRS Tunneling Protocol (3GTS 29.060) GTP Control Plane GTP User Plane Group TETRA Subscriber Identity Global Title Translation (ITU-T Q.714 (2.4)) GPRS Transparent Transport Protocol (3GTS 44.018) Global Unique MME Identity Generic User Profile Global Unique Terminal Identity Gateway GNU ZIP (compression format) Grade of Service Home PLMN HS-DSCH Radio Network Transaction Identifier (3GTS 25.331, 25.433) Home Agent (Mobile IP / RFC 3344) Hybrid ARQ Heartbeat Happy Bit Delay Condition (3GTS 25.309) High Capacity - Spatial Division Multiple Access Hierarchical Cell Structure High Density Bipolar Three (Line Coding used for E1 (PCM 30) High level Data Link Control High Definition Television Header Extension Field Hxbrid Fiber Cable (relates to the layer 1 of CableTVoperators) Hybrid Fiber- / Coaxial-cable HARQ Indicator High Performance Radio Local Area Network type 2

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List of Acronyms
HLR HMAC HO HOM HOMTC HOT HP HPLMN HR HS HS-DPCCH HS-DSCH HS-HARQ HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH HSCSD HSDPA HSPA HSPA+ HSR HSS HSUPA HT200 HTML HTTP HTTPS HUGE HUMAN HUPS HW HiperMAN HoA I+S Home Location Register Keyed Hashing for Message Authentication (RFC 2104) Handover Higher Order Modulation Higher Order Modulation and Turbo Coding Higher Order modulation and Turbo coding for downlink High Priority Path (MPEG, DVB) Home Public Land Mobile radio Network Halfrate High Speed High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (3GTS 25.211) High Speed Downlink Shared Transport Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.212, 25.308) High Speed Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (3GTS 25.211) High Speed Shared Control Channel (3GTS 25.211, 25.214) High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Downlink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.308, 25.401, 3GTR 25.848) High Speed Packet Access (operation of HSDPA and HSUPA) Enhanced High Speed Packet Access (operation of enhanced HSDPA and enhanced HSUPA) Higher Symbol Rate Home Subscriber Server [3GTS 23.002]. HSS replaces the HLR with 3GPP Rel. 5 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (3GTS 25.301, 25.309, 25.401, 3GTR 25.896) Hilly Terrain 200 km/h Hypertext Markup Language HyperText Transfer Protocol (RFC 2616) Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure Higher Uplink performance for Geran Evolution High-speed Unlicensed Metropolitan Area Network Half-slot Uplink Pilots Set Hardware High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network Home Address Information + Supervisory

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LTE from A-Z

I-CSCF I-WLAN IAM IANA IBS IC ICANN ICH ICIC ICM ICMP ICS ID IDEA IDFT IDNNS IE IEC IEEE IETF IFFT IGMP IHOSS IIR-Filter IK IKE IKEv2 IKMP ILCM IM IMEI IMEISV IMM IMPI

Interrogating Call Session Control Function (SIP) Interworking WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) (3GTS 23.234) Initial Address Message (ISUP ISDN User Part) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Integrated Base Station Interference Cancellation Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel / see also PICH, AICH, CD/CA-ICH) Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Initial Codec Mode Internet Control Message Protocol (RFC 792) Implementation Conformance Statement Identity International Data Encryption Algorithm Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation Intra-Domain NAS Node Selector Information Element International Electrotechnical Commission Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force (www.ietf.org) Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation Internet Group Multicast Protocol (RFC 1112, RFC 2236) Internet Hosted Octet Stream Service Infinite Impulse Response Filter Integrity Key (3GTS 33.102) Internet Key Exchange (RFC 2409) Internet Key Exchange protocol / version 2 (RFC 4306) Internet Key Management Protocol Incoming Leg Control Model Instant Messaging International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Equipment Identity - amended by Software Version number IMMediate access parameter IP Multimedia Private Identity; the private user identity of an IMS-subscriber, formatted as an NAI (3GTS 33.203)

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IMPU IP Multimedia Public Identity; the public user identity of an IMS-subscriber, formatted as SIP-URI or TEL-URI (3GTS 33.203) Internet Protocol Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (Rel. 5 onwards) IMS-Access Gateway IP Multimedia Subsystem - Service Switching Function International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Telecommunications International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000 Intelligent Networking Intelligent Network Application Part (CCS7) IP-MAC Notification Table (DVB-H SI) Interoperability (of TETRA equipment) Input / Offset Variable [3GTS 44.064] Input Offset Variable for I+S and UI-Frames (for ciphering in GPRS) Internet Protocol (RFC 791) Internet Protocol - Connectivity Access Network (e.g. DSL, TVCable, WiMAX, UMTS) IP-Convergence Sublayer IP Bearer Control Protocol (ITU-T Q.1970) Internet Protocol Control Protocol (RFC 1332) IP Datacast IP-packet delay variation (ITU-T Y.1540) IP-packet error ratio (ITU-T Y.1540) IP-packet loss ratio (ITU-T Y.1540) Intellectual Property Rights IP-packet transfer delay (ITU-T Y.1540) Internet Protocol Television Internet Protocol / secure (RFC 4301) Internet Protocol (version 4) Internet Protocol (version 6) Inphase and Quadrature Incremental Redundancy (ARQ II) Interim Standard (ANSI Standard) Interim Standard - 95 (Qualcomm CDMA) Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol

IMS IMS-AG IMS-SSF IMSI IMT IMT-2000 IN INAP INT IOP IOV IOV-I / IOV-UI IP IP-CAN IP-CS IPBCP IPCP IPDC IPDV IPER IPLR IPR IPTD IPTV IPsec IPv4 IPv6 IQ IR IS IS-95 ISAKMP

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(RFC 2408) ISBN ISC ISCP ISCTI ISDB ISDN ISI ISI ISIM ISM ISO ISP ISPC ISSI ISUA ISUP IT ITSI ITU ITU-R ITU-T IUA IUT IoT Iu-FP Iub-FP Iub_HS Iur-FP JD JPEG KEK KMC International Standard Book Number IP multimedia subsystem Service Control-Interface Interference Signal Code Power (3GTS 25.215 / 3GTS 25.102) Istituto Superiore delle Comunicazioni e delle Tecnologie dell'Informazione Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting Integrated Services Digital Network Inter-Symbol Interference Inter-System Interface IMS capable Subscriber Identity Module Industrial, Scientific and Medical (term for license-free frequencies) International Standardization Organization Internet Service Provider International Signaling Point Code (ITU-T Q.708) Individual Short Subscriber Identity ISDN User Adaptation Layer ISDN User Part (ITU-T Q.761 - Q.765) Information Technology Individual TETRA Subscriber Identity International Telecommunication Union International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunications International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Sector ISDN Q.921 User Adaptation Layer (RFC 4233) Implementation under Test Interference over Thermal noise Iu-Frame Protocol (3GTS 25.415) Iub-Frame Protocol (3GTS 25.427 / 25.435) Iub Interface with High Speed connection Iur-Frame Protocol (3GTS 25.424, 3GTS 25.425, 25.426, 25.435) Joint Detection Joint Picture Expert Group Key Encryption Key (IEEE 802.16) Key Management Centres

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List of Acronyms
KSG L1 L2 L2TP L3 LA LA LAC LACC LAI LAN LANC LAPB LAPD LAPDm LAPV5 LATRED LB LB LBS LCH LCH-Q LCID LCMC-SAP LCP LCR LCS LCT LDAP LDB LDPC LE LER LEX LI Key Stream Generator Layer 1 (physical layer) Layer 2 (data link layer) Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (RFC 2661) Layer 3 (network layer) Link Adaptation Location Area Location Area Code Location Area Country Code Location Area Identification (LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC) [3GTS 23.003] Local Area Network Location Area Network Code Link Access Procedure Balanced Link Access Protocol for the ISDN D-Channel Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel / modified for the GSM air interface (3GTS 44.006) Link Access Protocol for V5-interface Latency Reduction (Work item within GERAN-Evolution) Linearization Burst Load Balancing Location Based Service Logical Channel (3GTS 25.321 MAC-ehs) Linearization CHannel, QAM Logical Channel ID Link entity Circuit Mode Control entity - Service Access Point Link Control Protocol (PPP) Low Chip Rate TDD LoCation Service Layered Coding Transport Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (RFC 3928) Linearization Downlink Burst Low Density Parity Check Lower Effort PDB (DiffServ Term) Label Edge Router (MPLS) Local Exchange Carrier Length Indicator

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LIP LIP-SAP LLC LLME LMDS LMM-SAP LMMSE LMU LNET LNM LOG10 LOS LP LPC LPD LR LS LSB LSF LSI LSP LSR LSSU LTE LTE_ACTIVE LTE_DETACHED LTE_IDLE LTPD-SAP LUPR LZS M-TMSI M-bit M2PA M2UA M3UA MAC

Location Information Protocol Location Information Protocol - Service Access Point Logical Link Control-Protocol Lower Layer Management Entity Local Multipoint Distribution Services Link entity Mobility Management - Service Access Point Linear Minimum Mean Square Error receiver Location Measurement Unit ORF ATM Network Local Network Management Logarithm of basis 10 Line Of Sight Low Priority Path (MPEG, DVB) Linear Predictive Coding Link Protocol Discriminator Location Register Line Station Least Significant Bit Last Segment Flag Line Station Interface Label Switched Path (MPLS) Label Switch Router (MPLS) Link Status Signal Unit Long Term Evolution (of UMTS) LTE State for active packet transmission LTE State for UE not being registered in the network LTE State for non active packet transmission Link entity TETRA Packet Data - Service Access Point Last User Power Ratio Linearisation downlink Zeroed Set MME - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity More bit MTP-2 user Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer (RFC 4165) MTP-2 User Adaptation Layer (RFC 3331) MTP-3 User Adaptation Layer (RFC 4666) Medium Access Control

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List of Acronyms
MAC MAC-d MAC-e MAC-ehs MAC-es MAC-hs MAN MAP MAP-B MAP-X MAR MASF MBMS Message Authentication Code Medium Access Control for the Dedicated Transport Channel (3GTS 25.321) MAC-E-DCH (3GTS 25.321) MAC-Evolved High Speed MAC-E-DCH SRNC (3GTS 25.321) MAC-High Speed (3GTS 25.321) Metropolitan Area Network Mobile Application Part (3GTS 29.002) Mobile Application Part - B-interface protocol between MSC and VLR Mobile Application Part - various interface protocols like B-, C-, D-, E-, F- or G-interface Minimum to Average power Ratio Minimum Available Spreading Factor Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service (3GTS 23.246, 3GTS 43.846)

MBMS_RRC_CONN RRC state for E-MBMS in LTE ECTED MBR MBS MBSAT MBSFN MBWA MBZ MBit MCC MCCH MCCH MCH MCM MCS MCS-X MCU MD MD-X MDHO Maximum Bit Rate Multicast Broadcast Services Mobile Broadcast Satellite MBMS Single Frequency Network Mobile Broadband Wireless Access [IEEE 802.20] Must Be Zero Mega Bit Mobile Country Code [ITU-T E.212] MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel Main Control CHannel Multicast Channel Minimum Control Mode Modulation and Coding Scheme Modulation and Coding Scheme (1 - 9) and for HSDPA / HSUPA Multipoint Control Unit (H.323 equipment) Message Digest algorithm (e.g. MD-5) Message Digest Algorithm (MD-2, 4, 5 are defined) (MD-5 RFC 1321) Macro-Diversity Handover

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MDSR ME MEGACO MELPe MER MEX MExE MGC MGCF MGCK MGCP MGT MGW MHP MHz MIB MIB MICH MIDI MIH MII MIKEY MIME MIMO MIN MINA MIP MIPv4 MISO MLD MLE MLP MLPP MM MMCC

Modified Dual Symbol Rate Mobile Equipment (ME + SIM = MS) Media Gateway Control Protocol (ITU-T H.248 incl. Annex F - H and IETF RFC 3015) Mixed Excitation Linear Predictive Message Erasure Rate Multimedia Exchange Layer Mobile Station Application Execution Environment Media Gateway Controller Media Gateway Control Function Modified Group Cipher key Media Gateway Control Protocol (RFC 2705) MPEG PSI tables for ARIB Media Gateway Multimedia Home Platform Mega Hertz (106 Hertz) Management Information Base Master Information Block MBMS Notification Indicator Channel Musical Instrument Digital Interface Media Independent Handover (IEEE 802.21) Ministry of Information Industry Multimedia Internet KEYing (RFC 3830) Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Multiple In / Multiple Out (antenna system) Mobile Identity Number (North American Market) Mobile Internet Network Architecture Mobile IP (RFC 2002, 3344, 3775) Mobile IP Version 4 Multiple In / Single Out (antenna system) Multicast Listener Discovery (RFC 2710) Mobile Link Entity MAC Logical Channel Priority Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption (ITU-T Q.85 / Clause 3) Mobility Management Multimedia Call Control

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List of Acronyms
MMD MMDS MME MMEC MMEGI MMEI MMI MMS MN MNC MNI MNRG MO MOBIKE MOC MOPS MORE MOS MP3 MPCC MPE MPEG MPEG2-TS MPLS MPN MPRACH MRC MRF MRFC MRFP MRU MRW MS MS MS-ISDN MS-PD IP Multimedia Domain (name of the IMS in 3GPP2) Multipoint Microwave Distribution System or Multi-channel Multi-point Distribution System Mobility Management Entity (3GTS 23.401) (Rel. 8 onwards) MME Code MME Group Identity MME Identity Man-Machine-Interface Multimedia Messaging Service (3GTS 22.140, 3GTS 23.140) Multiframe Number Mobile Network Code Mobile Network Identity Mobile Not Reachable for GPRS flag Mobile station Originating IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming Protocol (RFC 4555) Mobile Originating Call Million Operations Per second Modulation Order and symbol Rate Enhancement Mean Opinion Score MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 Multiparty Call Control Multi Protocol Encapsulation (DVB-H) Motion Picture Expert Group MPEG-2 Transport Stream (DVB) Multi Protocol Label Switching Monitoring Pattern Number MBMS Packet Random Access Channel ((E)GPRS) Maximum Ratio Combining Multimedia Resource Function Multimedia Resource Function Controller Multimedia Resource Function Processor Maximum Receive Unit (PPP) Move Receiving Window Mobile Station Mobile Subscriber Station [IEEE 802.16] Mobile Subscriber - International Service Directory Number Multislot Packet Data

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MSB MSC MSC-S MSCH MSK MSRD MSRN MSRP MSS MST MSU MT MT0 MT2 MTBF MTC MTCH MTK MTP MTP-3b MTTR MTU MUD MUX MVNO Max [X, Y] Mcps Min [X, Y] MitM N(R) N(S) N-PDU N-SAW NACC

Most Significant Bit Mobile Services Switching Center MSC-Server MBMS point-to-multipoint Scheduling Channel Master Session Key Mobile Station Receive Diversity Mobile Station Roaming Number Message Session Relay Protocol (draft-ietf-simple-messagesessions-XX) Maximum Segment Size (TCP) Multiple Slot Transmission Message Signal Unit Mobile Terminal or Mobile Terminating Mobile station Termination type 0 Mobile station Termination type 2 Mean Time Between Failure Mobile Terminating Call MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel MBMS Traffic Key Message Transfer Part (ITU-T Q.701 - Q.709) Message Transfer Part level 3 / broadband (ITU-T Q.2210) Mean Time To Repair Maximum Transmit Unit (IP) Multi-User-Detection unit Multiplex Mobile Virtual Network Operator The value shall be the maximum of X or Y, which ever is bigger Mega Chip Per Second The value shall be the minimum of X or Y, which ever is smaller Man in the Middle (attack) Received SDU (TL-SDU) Number Sent SDU (TL-SDU) Number Network-Protocol Data Unit (IP-Packet, X.25-Frame) N-Channel Stop and Wait (3GTS 25.309, 3GTR 25.848) Network Assisted Cell Change (3GTS 44.060)

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List of Acronyms
NACK NAF NAI NAP NAPT NAPTR NAS NASS NAT NATO NBAP NBNS NC NC NCC NCM NCP NDB NDI NGMN NGN NI NIC NIT NLOS NMS NMT NNI NOM NPB NPM NRA NRI NS Negative Acknowledgement Network Application Function (part of the Generic Authentication Architecture (GAA)) Network Access Identifier (RFC 2486) Network Access Provider Network Address Port Translation (RFC 3022) Naming Authority Pointer (RFC 2915) Non-Access-Stratum Network Attachment SubSystem (part of the TISPAN NGNarchitecture) Network Address Translation (RFC 1631) North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NodeB Application Part (3GTS 25.433) NetBios Name Service Neighbor Cell Network Connection Network Color Code Normal Control Mode Network Control Protocol (PPP) Normal Downlink Burst New Data Indicator Next Generation Mobile Networks Next Generation Networks Network Indicator Network Interface Card Network Information Table (MPEG2-TS PSI, DVB-SI) Non Line Of Sight Network Management Subsystem Nordic Mobile Telephone (analog cellular standard, mainly used in Scandinavia) Network-to-Network Interface Network Operation Mode [3GTS 23.060] Next Partial Bitmap Non-Persistent Mode National Regulatory Administration Network Resource Identifier Network Service

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NS-VC NS-VCG NS-VL NSAP NSAPI NSE NSF NSIS NSLP NSP NSPC NSR NSS NT NTSC NUB NWG O&M O-bit OCNS OFDM OFDMA OFUSC OLCM OMA OMAC OMAP OMC OOK OP OPC OPEX OPUSC OPWA ORF

Network Service - Virtual Connection Network Service - Virtual Connection Group Network Service - Virtual Link Network Service Access Point Network Service Access Point Identifier Network Service Entity NAS Node Selection function Next Steps in Signaling (RFC 4080) NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (e.g. for resource reservation) Network Service Provider National Signaling Point Code Normal Symbol Rate Network Switching Subsystem Network Termination National Television System Committee (video standard for North America) Normal Uplink Burst Network Working Group (WiMAX Forum) Operation and Maintenance Optional bit Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Optional FUSC (Full Usage of Subchannels) Outgoing Leg Control Model Open Mobile Alliance (http://www.openmobilealliance.org/) One-Key CBC-MAC (NIST standard: SP 800-38B and http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/modes/proposedmodes/) Operation & Maintenance Application Part Operation and Maintenance Center On OFF Keying Optional Originating Point Code Operational Expenditure Optional PUSC (Partial Usage of Subchannels) One Pass With Advertising (Term in RSVP) Oesterreichischer Rundfunk

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List of Acronyms
OSA OSA-SCS OSCP OSI OSP OTAR OTDOA OVSF Octet OoBTC P-CCPCH P-CPICH P-CSCF P-SCH P-TMSI P/F-Bit P/S PA PA PA PABX PACCH PACQ PACS PAD PAGCH PAL PAMR PAN PAP PAPR PAR PAT PB PBCCH PBCH Open Service Access Open Service Access - Service Capability Server Online Certificate Status Protocol (RFC 2560) Open System Interconnection Octet Stream Protocol Over The Air Re-keying Observed Time Difference Of Arrival Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor 8 bit Out of Band Transcoder Control (3GTS 23.153) Primary Common Control Physical Channel (UMTS / used as bearer for the BCH TrCH) Primary Common Pilot Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Proxy Call Session Control Function (SIP) Primary Synchronization Channel Packet TMSI Polling/Final - Bit Parallel to Serial Pedestrian A mobile radio channel Power Amplifier Presence Agent (RFC 3856) Private Automatic Branch Exchange Packet Associated Control Channel ((E)GPRS) Probability of synchronization burst ACQuisition Personal Access Communication System Packet Assembly Disassembly Packet Access Grant Channel ((E)GPRS) Phase Alternating Line (TV Norm) Public Access Mobile Radio Piggybacked Ack/Nack Password Authentication Protocol (RFC 1334) Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Peak to Average power Ratio Program Assocation Table (MPEG2-TS) Pedestrian B mobile radio channel Packet Broadcast Control Channel ((E)GPRS) Physical Broadcast Channel

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PBS PC PC PC PC PCCC PCCCH PCCH PCFICH PCH PCI PCI PCM PCN PCOMP PCPCH PCR PCRF PCS PCU PD PD PDA PDB PDB PDBF PDC PDCCH PDCH PDCP PDF PDF PDG PDH

Peak Burst Size Paging Controller Power Control Protocol Class (SCCP) Protocol Control Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Code (possible Turbo Coding Scheme) Packet Common Control Channel ((E)GPRS) Paging Control Channel Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Paging Channel Peripheral Component Interconnect (computer bus standard to interconnect peripherals to the CPU) Precoding Control Indication Pulse Code Modulation Personal Communication Network Protocol COMpression Protocol Physical Common Packet Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Program Clock Reference (MPEG) Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (3GTS 23.203) (Rel. 7 onwards) Personal Communication System Packet Control Unit Packet Data Protocol Discriminator Personal Digital Assistant Packet Delay Budget Per Domain Behavior (DiffServ Term) Profile DataBase Function (TISPAN term / ETSI ES 282 004) Personal Digital Communication (ARIB-Standard) Physical Downlink Control Channel Packet Data Channel Packet Data Convergence Protocol Policy Decision Function (Part of the IP Multimedia Subsystem) Probability Density Function Packet Data Gateway Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

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PDN PDO PDP PDS PDS PDSCH PDSN PDTCH PDU PEAP PEI PEP PER PES PES PFC PFI PG PHB PHICH PHS PHS PHY PHz PI PI PICH PICMG PICS PID PIDF PIR PIXIT PKCS PKMv2 Packet Data Network Packet Data Optimised Packet Data Protocol Packet Data Subsystem (3GPP2) Power Density Spectrum Physical Downlink Shared Channel Packet Data Support Node (the SGSN in 3GPP2) Packet Data Traffic Channel ((E)GPRS) Protocol Data Unit or Packet Data Unit Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol Peripheral Equipment Interface Policy Enforcement Point (3GTS 23.209) Packed Encoding Rules (ITU-T X.691) PSTN/ISDN Emulation Subsystem (part of the TISPAN NGNarchitecture) Packetised Elementary Stream (DVB) Packet Flow Context Packet Flow Identifier Processing Gain: 10 * LOG10 (3.84 Mcps / user_data_rate) Per Hop Behavior (DiffServ Term) Physical HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel Payload Header Suppression (IEEE 802.16) Personal Handy phone System Physical Layer Peta Hertz (1015 Hertz) Paging Indicator Priority Indicator Page Indicator Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (http://www.picmg.org/) Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement Packet Identifier (MPEG2-TS) Presence Information Data Format (RFC 3863) Peak Information Rate Protocol Implementation Extra Information for Testing Public Key Cryptography Standard Privacy Key Management Version 2

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PL PL PL-SAP PLC PLMN PLR PLmax PLnon-max PMCH PMI PMIP PMM PMR PMT PMTU PN PNCH PNG PO POP POP3 POTS PPCH PPP PRA PRACH PRACH PRACK PRD PRF PRI PS PS PS PS

Physical Layer Puncturing Limit (3GTS 25.212) Packet link Layer Service Access Point Power Line Communications Public Land Mobile Network Packet Loss Rate E-DCH maximum Puncturing Limit (3GTS 25.212) Puncturing Limit not requiring maximum physical channels (3GTS 25.212) Physical Multicast Channel Precoding Matrix Indicator Proxy Mobile IP Packet Mobility Management Private Mobile Radio Program Map Table (MPEG2-TS) Path MTU Pseudo Noise Packet Notification Channel ((E)GPRS) Portable Network Graphics Power Offset Post Office Protocol (RFC 1939) Post Office Protocol version 3 Plain Old Telephone Service Packet Paging Channel ((E)GPRS) Point-to-Point Protocol (RFC 1661) PCPCH Resource Availability Packet Random Access Channel Physical Random Access Channel Provisional Response Acknowledgement (SIP-method type) Bluetooth Qualification Program Reference Document Pseudo Random Function Primary rate access ISDN-user interface for PABX's (23 or 30 B-channels plus one D-Channel) Packet Switched Physical Slot (IEEE 802.16) Program Stream Puncturing Scheme

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List of Acronyms
PSC PSD PSI PSIP PSK PSPDN PSS 1 PSTN PT PTCCH PTCCH/D PTCCH/U PTM PTP PTS PTT Primary Synchronization Code or Primary Scrambling Code (both used in UMTS) Power Spectral Density (3GTS 25.215 / 3GTS 25.102) Program Specific Information (MPEG2-TS) MPEG PSI tables for ARIB, similar to DVB-PSI Phase Shift Keying Packet Switched Public Data Network Private integrated Signalling System No. 1 Public Switched Telephone Network Protocol Type (GTP or GTP') Packet Timing Advance Control Channel ((E)GPRS) Packet Timing Advance Control Channel / Downlink Direction ((E)GPRS) Packet Timing Advance Control Channel / Uplink Direction ((E)GPRS) Point to Multipoint Point to Point Presentation Time Stamp Post, Telephone & Telegraph (abbreviation for the former government owned organizations that were responsible for all three services) Presence User Agent (RFC 3856) Physical Uplink Control Channel Probability of Undetected Erroneous Message Partial Usage of Subchannels Physical Uplink Shared Channel Permanent Virtual Circuit Physical Channel Push to talk over Cellular (3GTR 29.979 and various OMAspecifications) Power over Ethernet n symbols Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (n = 16, 32, 64, ...) QoS Classes Identifier Quarter Common Intermediate Format (176 x 144 pixels ITU-T H261 / H263) Quality Estimate Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Q-interface signaling protocol

PUA PUCCH PUEM PUSC PUSCH PVC PhCH PoC PoE QAM QCI QCIF QE QPSK QSIG

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QoS R-GSM RA RA RA-RNTI RAA RAB RAB RAC RAC RACC RACH RACS RADIUS RAI RAM RAN RANAP RAND RAR RAT RATSCCH RB RB RB RBB RBC RBPSCH RCPC RDC RDC-NC RDC-Q RED RED REJ REQ

Quality of Service Railways-GSM Registered Area Routing Area Random Access - Radio Network Temporary Identifier RE-Auth-Answer command (Diameter BASE, RFC 3588) Radio Access Bearer Random Access uplink Burst Radio Admission Control Routing Area Code Routing Area Color Code [3GTS 44.018 (10.5.2.34)] Random Access Channel Resource and Admission Control Subsystem (part of the TISPAN NGN-architecture) Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RFC 2865) Routing Area Identification Random Access Memory Radio Access Network Radio Access Network Application Part (3GTS 25.413) Random Number RE-Auth-Request command (Diameter BASE, RFC 3588) Radio Access Technology (e.g. GERAN, UTRAN, ...) Robust AMR Traffic Synchronized Control CHannel Radio Bearer Receive Block Bitmap (EGPRS) Resource Block Receive Block Bitmap (GPRS) Radio Bearer Control Shared Basic Physical SubCHannel Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional Radio Downlink Counter Radio Downlink Counter - Non Conforming channel Radio Downlink Counter, QAM REduced symbol Duration Random Early Detection Reject Request (COPS message type)

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List of Acronyms
RES RF RFC RFID RG RL RL-TBF RLC RLM RLP RLS RM RM RMS RNC RNL RNR RNS RNSAP RNSN RNTI ROHC ROI RPE/LTP RPID RPLMN RPR RR RR RRA RRBP RRC RRC-Filter Response Radio Frequency Request for Comments (Internet Standards) Radio Frequency Identification Relative Grant (3GTS 25.309) Radio Link (3GTS 25.433) Reduced Latency Temporary Block Flow [3GTS 43.064] Radio Link Control Radio Link Management (Protocol Part on the GSM AbisInterface / 3GTS 48.058) Radio Link Protocol (3GTS 24.022) Radio Link Set (3GTS 25.309, 25.433) Rate Matching Reed-Muller Root Mean Square Radio Network Controller Radio Network Layer Receive Not Ready Radio Network Subsystem Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (3GTS 25.423) Radio Network Serving Node Radio Network Temporary Identifier Robust Header Compression Return On Invest Regular Pulse Excitation / Long Term Prediction (Speech Codec) Rich Presence Information Data Registered PLMN Resilient Packet Ring (IEEE 802.17) Radio Resource Management Receive Ready (LAPD/LLC/RLP-Frame Type) Radio Resource Agent Relative Reserved Block Period Radio Resource Control Root Raised Cosine Filter

RRC_CONNECTED RRC state in E-UTRA RRC_IDLE RRC state

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RRC_MBMS_CONN RRC state in E-UTRA for UEs with MBMS service only ECTED RRLP RRM RS RSA RSADP RSAEP RSAES-OAEP RSC RSCP RSN RSRP RSRQ RSSI RST RSTD RSVP RT RTCM RTCP RTG Radio Resource LCS Protocol Radio Resource Management Reference Signal Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman-algorithm (Public Key Encryption / PKCS #1) RSA-Decryption Primitive (RFC 3447 (5.1.2) or PKCS #1 (5.1.2); PKCS = Public Key Cryptography Standard) RSA-Encryption Primitive (RFC 3447 (5.1.1) or PKCS #1 (5.1.1); PKCS = Public Key Cryptography Standard) RSA Encryption Scheme - Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (PKCS #1 / RFC 3447) Recursive Systematic Convolutional Coder (Turbo Coding, 25.212) Received Signal Code Power (3GTS 25.215) Retransmission Sequence Number (3GTS 25.309, 25.212) Reference Signal Received Power Reference Signal Received Quality Received Signal Strength Indicator Running Status Table (DVB-SI) Reference Signal Time Difference Resource Reservation Protocol (RFC 2205) Real Time Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services Real-time Transport Control Protocol Receive transmit Transition Gap (IEEE 802.16 (3.45)) the time between an uplink subframe and the subsequent downlink subframe in a TDD-system Retransmission Time Out Real-time Transport Protocol (RFC 3550, RFC 3551) Real-time Transport Protocol / Audio Video Profile (RFC 3551) (used in SDP-descriptions) Real-time Transport Protocol / extended Audio Video Profile for rtcp Feedback (used in SDP-descriptions)(draft-ietf-avt-rtcpfeedback-11.txt) Real-time Transport Protocol / Secure Audio Video Profile (RFC 3711) (used in SDP-descriptions) Real Time Streaming Protocol (RFC 2326) Round Trip Time Reduced Transmission Time Interval

RTO RTP RTP/AVP RTP/AVPF

RTP/SAVP RTSP RTT RTTI

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RTTVAR RTWP RUIM RV RX RoHC RoT Roope53vISO Rx S(R) S(S) S-CCPCH S-CPICH S-CSCF S-SCH S-TMSI S/P S1-AP SA SA SA SAAL-NNI SAB SABM(E) SABP SACCH SACCH/MD SACK SAE SAI SAIC SANC SAP SAPI Round Trip Time Variation Received Total Wideband Power Removable User Identity Module Redundancy and Constellation Version (3GTS 25.212) Receive Robust Header Compression Rise over Thermal (interference rise relative to zero load) International Organization for Standardization Receive(r) Received segment Sequence number Sent segment Sequence number Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (used as bearer for the FACH and PCH TrCH's / UMTS Physical Channel) Secondary Common Pilot Channel (UMTS Physical Channel) Serving Call Session Control Function (SIP) Secondary Synchronization Channel (physical) SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Serial to Parallel S1 Application Part Security Association Service Area System Architecture Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer - Network Node Interface Service Area Broadcast Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (Extended for Modulo 128 operation) (LAPD/LLC/RLP-Frame Type) Service Area Broadcast Protocol (3GTS 25.419) Slow Associated Control Channel (GSM) SACCH Multislot Downlink (related control channel of TCH/FD/ GSM) Selective Acknowledgement System Architecture Evolution Service Area Identifier Single Antenna Interference Cancellation Signaling Area Network Code (ITU-T Q.708) Service Access Point Service Access Point Identifier

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SAR SAR SAT SAW SB SB SBC SBN SBPSCH SC SC SC-FDMA SCCH SCCP SCF SCH SCH SCH-P8/F SCH-P8/HD SCH-P8/HU SCH-Q SCH-Q/D SCH-Q/HU SCH-Q/RA SCH-Q/U SCH/F SCH/HD SCH/HU SCK SCLNS SCN SCP SCR SCTP SD SDCCH

Segmentation And Reassembly (ATM-sublayer) Specific Absorption Rate Satellite Stop and Wait Machine Scheduling Block Synchronization downlink Burst Session Border Controller (SIP term, usually a B2BUA with NAT-function and media gateway) Source Block Number Shared Basic Physical SubCHannel Serving Cell Subcarrier Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access Secondary Control CHannel Signaling Connection Control Part (ITU-T Q.711 - Q.714) Service Control Function (CAMEL) Signalling CHannel Synchronization Channel Signalling CHannel, p/8-D8PSK, Full size Signalling CHannel, p/8-D8PSK, Half size Downlink Signalling CHannel, p/8-D8PSK, Half size Uplink Signalling CHannel, QAM Signalling CHannel, QAM Full size Downlink Signalling CHannel, QAM Half size Uplink Signalling CHannel, QAM Random Access Uplink Signalling CHannel, QAM Full size Uplink Signalling CHannel, Full size Signalling CHannel, Half size Downlink Signalling CHannel, Half size Uplink Static Cipher Key Specific ConnectionLess Network Service Switching Control Node Service Control Point (IN) Source Controlled Rate Stream Control Transmission Protocol (RFC 2960) Sample Duration Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel

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SDH SDK SDMA SDP SDS SDT SDTI SDTV SDU SEG SEP SF SF SFBC SFH SFID SFN SFN SFPG SG SG SGLUPR SGSN SGW SGi SHA SHCCH SHO SI SI SI SI SIB SIB Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Software Development Kit Space Division Multiple Access Session Description Protocol (RFC 2327, RFC 3266, RFC 3264) Short Data Service Service Description Table (DVB-SI) Short Date Type Identifier Standard Definition TV Service Data Unit (the payload of a PDU) Security Gateway Signaling End Point (CCS7) Slot Flag Spreading Factor Space Frequency Block Codes Slow Frequency Hopping Service Flow Identity Single Frequency Network System Frame Number Security and Fraud Prevention Group Security Gateway (IPsec / RFC 2401) Serving Grant respectively Power Grant (3GTS 25.213, 25.309, 25.321) Last Used Power Ratio according to SG table index (3GTS 25.321) Serving GPRS Support Node Signaling Gateway Reference Point in LTE Secure Hash Algorithm Shared Channel Control Channel (UMTS Logical Channel / TDD only) Soft Handover (UE is having more than one radio link at the same time and combines them) Scheduling Info Segment Indicator Service Indicator Service Information LSSU with status indication busy System Information Block

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SIC SICH-Q SICH-Q/D SICH-Q/U SID SID SIE SIF SIG SIGTRAN SIM SIMO SIN SIO SIO SIOS SIP SIP-AS SIP-B SIP-I SIP-T SIPO SIQ SIR SISO SLA SLC SLF SLR SLS SLTA SLTM SM SM-SC SME SMG

Serial Interference Cancellation Slot Information CHannel, QAM Slot Information CHannel, QAM Downlink Slot Information CHannel, QAM Uplink Silence Insertion Descriptor Size InDex (3GPP 25.321) LSSU with status indication emergency alignment Signaling Information Field Special Interest Group (e.g. Bluetooth) Signaling Transport (RFC 2719) Subscriber Identity Module Single In / Multiple Out (antenna system) LSSU with status indication normal alignment LSSU with status indication out of alignment Service Information Octet LSSU with status indication out of service Session Initiation Protocol (RFC 3261) SIP-Application Server SIP for Businesses (abbreviation for a set of PABX-specific SIPextensions) SIP with encapsulated ISUP (ITU-T Q.1912.5) SIP for Telephones (RFC 3372, RFC 3398) LSSU with status indication processor outage Service Information Query Signal to Interference Ratio Single In / Single Out (antenna system) Service Level Agreement Signaling Link Code Subscriber Locator Function Source Local Reference Signaling Link Selection Signaling Link Test Acknowledge Signaling Link Test Message Session Management (3GTS 23.060, 3GTS 24.008) Short Message Service Center Small and Medium size Enterprises (Type of Business) Special Mobile Group

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SMI SMIL SMLC SMS SMS-G-MSC SMS-IW-MSC SMSCB SMTP SN SN SN-PDU SN-Q SN-SAP SNA SND SNDCP SNEI SNIR SNM SNN SNR SNTM SNTP SNU SO SOAP SOHO SP SPC SPI SQCIF SQN SRB Short Management Identity Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language Gateway Mobile Location Center Short Message Service (3GTS 24.011, 3GTS 23.040) SMS Gateway MSC (for Short Messages destined to Mobile Station) SMS Interworking MSC (for Short Messages coming from Mobile Station) Short Message Services Cell Broadcast Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (RFC 2821) Sequence Number Symbol Number or SNDCP Segmented N-PDU (SN-PDU is the payload of SNDCP) Symbol Number in QAM SNDCP-Service Access Point Short Number Address Sequence Number Downlink (GTP) Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol SNDCP Network Endpoint Identifier Signal to Noise and Interference Ratio Signaling Network Management Protocol (ITU-T Q.704 (3)) SNDCP N-PDU Number Flag Signal to Noise Ratio Signaling Network Test & Maintenance (ITU-T Q.707) Simple Network Time Protocol (RFC 2030) Sequence Number Uplink (GTP) Segment Offset Simple Object Access Protocol (http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/NOTE-SOAP-20000508) Small Office Home Office (Type of Business) Signaling Point Signaling Point Code Security Parameter Index (RFC 2401) Semi Quarter Common Intermediate Format (128 x 96 pixels ITU-T H261 / H263) Sequence number (used in UMTS-security architecture / 3GTS 33.102) Signaling Radio Bearer

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SRES SRF SRNC SRNS SRS SRTP SRTT SRV SS SS SS7 SSC SSCF SSCF/NNI SSCF/UNI SSCOP SSCOPMCE SSCS SSDT SSF SSI SSID SSN SSN

Signed Response Service Resource Function (CAMEL) Serving Radio Network Controller Serving Radio Network Subsystem Sounding Reference Symbol Secure RTP (RFC 3711) Smoothed RoundTrip Time Service Location (DNS-related / RFC 2782) Subscriber Station (IEEE 802.16) Supplementary Service Signaling System No 7 Secondary Synchronization Code Service Specific Co-ordination Function Service Specific Coordination Function - Network Node Interface Protocol (ITU-T Q.2140) Service Specific Coordination Function - User Network Interface Protocol (ITU-T Q.2130) Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (ITU-T Q.2110) Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol in a Multi-link or Connectionless Environment (ITU-T Q.2111) Service Specific Convergence Sublayer Site Selection Diversity Transmission Service Switching Function (CAMEL) Short Subscriber Identity Service Set Identifier (IEEE 802.11) Send Sequence Number (GSM MM and CC-Protocols) Start Sequence Number (related to ARQ-Bitmap in GPRS / EGPRS) or Send Sequence Number (GSM MM and CCProtocols) or Sub-System Number (SCCP) SubSlot Number Service Switching Point (IN) Contributing Source (RTP) Subscriber Station Receive to transmit Turnaround Gap (IEEE 802.16 (3.53)) Time that the SS needs to switch from receive to transmit. Secondary sync Sequence Set Service Specific Segmentation And Reassembly (ITU-T I.366.1) Subscriber Station Transmit to receive Turnaround Gap (IEEE 802.16 (3.54)) Time that the SS needs to switch from transmit

SSN SSP SSRC SSRTG

SSS SSSAR SSTTG

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List of Acronyms
to receive. SSVE ST STANAG STBC STC Sum Square Vector Error Stuffing Table (DVB-SI) Standardisation Agreement (NATO) Space Time Block Coding Signaling Transport Converter on MTP-3 and MTP-3b (ITU-T Q.2150.1) / Signaling Transport Converter on SSCOP and SSCOPMCE (ITU-T Q.2150.2) Space Time Coding STealing CHannel Signaling Transfer Point Space Time block coding based Transmission Diversity Simple Traversal of UDP through Network Address Translators (RFC 3489) Scheduling Unit SCCP User Adaptation Layer (RFC 3868) Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor (ITU-T Q.703 (10)) Super Field (RLC-Protocol) Originally stood for Stanford University Network Switched Virtual Circuit Scalable Vector Graphics Shared Wireless Access Protocol (Home RF) Synchronization protocol in LTE for E-MBMS Switching and Management Infrastructure Payload of a G-PDU which can be user data, i.e. possibly segmented IP-frames, or GTP signaling information (GTP) Fax Specification Terminal Adapter (ISDN) Timing Advance Tracking Area Tracking Area Code Total Access Communication System Terminal Adopter Function (3GTS 27.001) Timing Advance Index Transport Block Talk Burst Control Protocol Temporary Block Flow Transport Block Set

STC STCH STP STTD STUN SU SUA SUERM SUFI SUN SVC SVG SWAP SYNC SwMI T-PDU T.38 TA TA TA TAC TACS TAF TAI TB TBCP TBF TBS

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TC TC TCAP TCB TCH TCH-AFS TCH-AHS TCH-P8/10,8 TCH/2,4 TCH/4,8 TCH/7,2 TCH/FD TCH/S TCP TCP/BFCP TCP/IP TCP/RTP/AVP

Technical Committee Turbo Coding (3GTS 25.212) Transaction Capabilities Application Part (Q.771 - Q.773) Transmission Control Block Traffic Channel Traffic CHannel Adaptive Full rate Speech Traffic Channel Adaptive Half rate Speech Traffic CHannel, p/8-D8PSK, net rate = 10,8 kbit/s Traffic CHannel, net rate = 2,4 kbit/s Traffic CHannel, net rate = 4,8 kbit/s Traffic CHannel, net rate = 7,2 kbit/s Traffic Channel / Fullrate Downlink Speech Traffic CHannel Transmission Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol / Binary Floor Control Protocol (draft-ietf-xcon-bfcp-05.txt) Transmission Control Protocol over IP Real-time Transport Protocol / Audio Video Profile over TCP (used in SDP-descriptions)(draft-ietf-avt-rtp-framing-contrans06.txt) Transmission Control Protocol / Transport Layer Security / Binary Floor Control Protocol (draft-ietf-xcon-bfcp-05.txt) Target Channel Type Field Transport Channel Traffic Volume Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiple Access Time Difference of Arrival Time and Date Table (DVB-SI) Terminal Equipment TE presenting a TETRA interface TETRA Encryption Algorithm(s) 1,2,3 and 4 Total E-DCH Buffer Status TETRA Enhanced Data Service Terminal Equipment Identity Tunnel Endpoint Identifier (GTP / 3GTS 29.060) Traffic Encryption Key (IEEE 802.16) Terrestrial Trunked Radio

TCP/TLS/BFCP TCTF TCTV TDD TDM TDMA TDOA TDT TE TE2 TEA1/2/3/4 TEBS TEDS TEI TEID TEK TETRA

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TETRA V+D TF TFC TFCI TFCS TFI TFI TFO TFRC TFRI TFS TFT TFTP TGD TGL TGPRC TGSN TH-CDMA THIG THP THz TI TIA TID TIP TIPHON TISPAN TETRA Voice + Data Transport Format Transport Format Combination Transport Format Combination Identifier Transport Format Combination Set Temporary Flow Identity ((E)GPRS) Transport Format Indication (UMTS) Tandem Free Operation (3GTS 22.053) Transport Format and Resource Combination (3GTS 25.308) Transport Format and Resource Indicator (3GTS 25.308, 25.321) Transport Format Set Traffic Flow Template Trivial File Transfer Protocol (RFC 1350) Transmission Gap start Distance (3GTS 25.215) Transmission Gap Length (3GTS 25.215) Transmission Gap Pattern Repetition Count (3GTS 25.215) Transmission Gap Starting Slot Number (3GTS 25.215) Time Hopping Code Division Multiple Access Topology Hiding Inter Network Gateway Traffic Handling Priority (DiffServ Term) Tera Hertz (1012 Hertz) Transaction Identifier Telecommunications Industry Association Tunnel Identifier TETRA Interoperability Profile Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks (ETSI Project) Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks (ETSI Working Group to define IMS for fixed broadband access networks) TETRA LLC TETRA LLC Service Access Point A TETRA LLC Service Access Point B TETRA LLC Service Access Point C TETRA LLC Service Access Point E Temporary Logical Link Identifier Transport Layer Security (RFC 2246 / RFC 3546 / formerly

TL TLA-SAP TLB-SAP TLC-SAP TLE-SAP TLLI TLS

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known as SSL or Secure Socket Layer) TLV TM TM TM TM TMA-SAP TMB-SAP TMC-SAP TMD TMD-SAP TMGI TMN TMSI TMV-SAP TN TNCC-SAP TNL TNMM TNP TNSDS-SAP TNSS-SAP TOI TOM TOM2 TOM8 TOS TOT TP TP-UD TPC TPS TPTI TQI Tag / Length / Value Notation TETRA MAC Transmission Modules Transparent Mode operation Trunked Mode TETRA MAC Service Access Point A TETRA MAC Service Access Point B TETRA MAC Service Aaccess Point C Transparent Mode Data (UMTS RLC PDU-type) TETRA MAC Service Aaccess Point D Temporary Mobile Group Identity (3GTS 23.003 (15.2)) Telecommunication Management Network Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity TETRA MAC Virtual SAP Timeslot Number TETRA Network layer Call Control - Service Access Point Transport Network Layer (3GTS 25.401) TETRA Network Mobility Management TETRA Network Protocol TETRA Network layer Short Data Service - Service Access Point TETRA Network layer Supplementary Services - Service Access Point Transport Object Identifier Tunneling Of Messages [3GTS 44.064] Tunneling Of Messages over LLC-SAPI 2 (for high priority signaling messages)[3GTS 44.064] Tunneling Of Messages over LLC-SAPI 8 (for low priority signaling messages)[3GTS 44.064] Type of Service Time Offset Table Traffic Physical channel Transfer Protocol - User Data (in GSM) Transmit Power Command Transmission Parameter Signaling (DVB-H) Transmitting Party Type Identifier Temporary Queuing Identifier

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TRAU TRX TS TS TS TSC TSI TSN TSTD TTA TTG Transcoder and Rate Adaption Unit Transmitter / Receiver Time Sharing Timeslot Transport Stream Training Sequence Code TETRA Subscriber Identity Transmission Sequence Number Time Switched Transmit Diversity Telecommunications Technology Association (South Korean standards organization) Transmit receive Transition Gap (IEEE 802.16 (3.63)) the time between a downlink subframe and the subsequent uplink subframe in a TDD-system Tunnel Termination Gateway Transmission Time Interval Time To Live (IP-Header / RFC 791) TETRA Association Technical Report Typical Urban 50 km/h TCAP User Adaptation Layer Telephone User Part Tile Use of Subchannels Television Transmit Explanation Text over IP Transport Channel (UMTS) Transcoder Free Operation Transition Gateway (IPv4 IPv6) (3GTS 23.228 (5.18)) Transmit(ter) Transmit Adaptive Arrays Uplink Multiple Slot Transmission User Service Access Point Unnumbered Acknowledgement (LAPD/LLC/RLP-Frame Type) User Agent (SIP-Term / RFC 3261) User Agent Client (SIP-Term / RFC 3261) UMTS Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number

TTG TTI TTL TTR TU50 TUA TUP TUSC TV TX Term ToIP TrCH TrFO TrGw Tx TxAA U-MST U-SAP UA UA UAC UARFCN

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UART UAS UAS-X UBS-X UCD UCI UCS UCS-2 UDCH UDH UDP UDPTL UE UEA UGS UHF UI UIA UICC UIUC UL UL-MAP UL-SCH UL_DTX UM UMA UMAN UMB UMD UMS UMTS UNC UNC-SGW

Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter User Agent Server (SIP-Term / RFC 3261) egprs2 Uplink level A modulation and coding Scheme (x = 7..11) egprs2 Uplink level B modulation and coding Scheme (x = 5..12) Uplink Channel Descriptor (WiMAX Message) Uplink Control Indicator Universal Character Set Universal Character Set coded in 2 octets User-plane Dedicated Channel (3GTS 45.902) User Data Header User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768) UDP Transport Layer (used in SDP-description for T.38 faxapplications) User Equipment UMTS Encryption Algorithm (3GTS 33.102) Unsolicited Grant Service (IEEE 802.16 Traffic Class) Ultra High Frequency Unnumbered Information (LAPD) / Unconfirmed Information (LLC) / Frame Type UMTS Integrity Algorithm (3GTS 33.102) Universal Integrated Circuit Card (3GTS 22.101 / Bearer card of SIM / USIM) Uplink Interval Usage Code (WiMAX Term) Uplink Uplink-Medium Access Protocol (MAC-Message in WiMAX / IEEE 802.16) Uplink Shared Channel Uplink Discontinuous Transmission Unacknowledged Mode operation Unlicensed Mobile Access (3GTS 43.318) Unlicensed Mobile Access Network Ultra Mobile Broadband (3GPP2's EV-DO Rev C) Unacknowledged Mode Data (UMTS RLC PDU-type) User Mobility Server (HSS = HLR + UMS) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMA Network Controller UMA Network Controller Security Gateway

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UNI UP URA URA_PCH URB URI URL US USA USAT USB USCH USD USF USIM USS USSI UTF-16BE UTF-8 UTRA UTRAN UUI UUS UV UWB UWC V+D V-PLMN V5UA VA VAD VBS VC

User-to-Network Interface Unallocated Physical channel UTRAN Registration Area RRC URA State in UTRA User Radio Bearer Uniform Resource Identifier Uniform Resource Locator (RFC 1738) United States United States of America USIM Application Toolkit Universal Serial Bus Uplink Shared Channel (UMTS Transport Channel TDD only) User Service Description Uplink State Flag Universal Subscriber Identity Module Uplink sync Sequence Set Unexchanged Short Subscriber Identity Unicode Transformation Format serialized as two bytes in BigEndian format Unicode Transformation Format-X (Is an X-bit) lossless encoding of Unicode characters UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network User to User Information User-User-Signaling (3GTS 23.087) Ultra Violet Ultra-Wide Band (IEEE 802.15.3) Universal Wireless Convergence (Merge IS-136 with GSM) Voice plus Data Visited PLMN V5.2-User Adaptation Layer (RFC 3807) Vehicular A mobile radio channel Voice Activity Detector Voice Broadcast Service (GSM-R) Virtual Circuit

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VCI VCO VCT VDSL VE VGCS VHE VHF VLAN VLR VPI VPLMN VPN VSRB VW VoD VoIMS VoIP W-AMR W-AMR+ W-APN WAG WAN WAP WCDMA WEP WG WI WINS WLAN WMAN WMAX WPA WRED WS

Virtual Circuit Identifier (ATM) Voltage Controlled Oscillator MPEG PSI tables for ARIB Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line (ITU-T G.993.1) Virtual Engine Voice Group Call Service (GSM-R) Virtual Home Environment (3GTS 22.121, 3GTS 23.127) Very High Frequency Virtual LAN Visitor Location Register Virtual Path Identifier (ATM) Visited Public Land Mobile radio Network Virtual Private Network Variable Sized Radio Blocks Virtual Wire PDB (DiffServ Term) Video on Demand Voice over IMS Voice over IP Wideband AMR-Codec (Adaptive Multirate) (3GTS 26.190) Extended Wideband AMR-Codec (Adaptive Multirate) (3GTS 26.290) WLAN-APN (Wireless Local Area Network - Access Point Name) (3GTS 23.234) WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) Access Gateway Wide Area Network Wireless Application Protocol Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access Wired Equivalent Privacy Working Group Work Item Windows Internet Name Service Wireless Local Area Network (IEEE 802.11) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network Alliance of IEEE-802.11-Standard Manufacturers WiFi Protected Access Weighted Random Early Detection Window Size

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WSN WWW WiBro WiFi WiMAX X-CSCF X2-AP XHTML XID XMAC XMF XOR XRES XUA XXX_PCH ZF cwnd dBm Window Size Number World Wide Web Wireless Broadband, Korean WiMAX Version Wireless Fidelity (www.wi-fi.org) Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (IEEE 802.16) Call Session Control Function (any, there is I-CSCF, P-CSCF and X-CSCF) X2 Application Part Extensible Hypertext Markup Language Exchange Identification (LAPD/LLC-Frame Type) Expected Message Authentication Code Extensible Music Format Exclusive-Or Logical Combination Expected Response (3GTS 33.102) Any User Adaptation Layer (M2UA, M3UA, SUA) RRC States: CELL_PCH or URA_PCH Zero Forcing Congestion window The unit dBm measures a power. The conversion of a power value from Watt [W] to dBm is done in the following way:X [dBm] = 10 x log10(X [W] / 0.001 [W]) End-to-End Enhanced Broadcast and Multicast Service Center Evolved HSPA enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption (3GTS 23.067) Enhanced Node B Extended Real-Time Polling Service (WiMAX Traffic Class) Extended Real-Time Polling Service (IEEE 802.16 Traffic Class) Data Communication Standards Internet Low Bitrate Codec (RFC 3951 / RFC 3952) Kilo Hertz (103 Hertz) kilo-bits per second modulo (base for counting) p/4-shifted Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying p/8-shifted Differential 8 Phase Shift Keying Slow start threshold (RFC 2001, RFC 2960)

e2e eBM-SC eHSPA eMLPP eNB ert-PS ertPS iBurst iLBC kHz kbps mod p/4-DQPSK p/8-D8PSK ssthresh

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Index

Index
16-QAM....................................................................................................................170 3G.................................................................................................................................2 4G.................................................................................................................................2 64-QAM....................................................................................................................170 ACK..........................................................................................................................158 Adaptive antenna systems.................................................................................22, 190 AIPN.................................................................................................................8, 32, 80 AM............................................................................................................................232 AMC............................................................................................................................14 bandwidth...................................................................................................................13 Bandwidth...................................................................................................................28 BCCH.................................................................................................................66, 205 BCH....................................................................................................................68, 205 Broadcast information...............................................................................................243 CAZAC sequences...................................................................................................162 CCCH.........................................................................................................................66 CDMA.......................................................................................................................116 Cell ID.........................................................................................................................50 Cell reselection.................................................................................................251, 255 Channel estimation...................................................................................................180 Channel mapping.......................................................................................................74 Codebook.................................................................................................................200 CQI...........................................................................................................................164 Cyclic prefix..............................................................................................110, 152, 167 DC-subcarrier...........................................................................................................113 DCCH.........................................................................................................................67 Delay diversity..........................................................................................................194 Delay spread............................................................................................................108 DFT...........................................................................................................................166 Different....................................................................................................................262 Direct Tunnel..............................................................................................................36 DL-SCH......................................................................................................................69 Downlink processing chain.......................................................................................150 Downlink reference signal..................................................................................72, 142 DTCH..........................................................................................................................67 E-UTRAN....................................................................................................................54 ECM-CONNECTED..................................................................................................246 EMM.........................................................................................................................246 EMM-DEREGISTERED............................................................................................246 EMM-IDLE................................................................................................................246 EMM-REGISTERED.................................................................................................246 eNB.............................................................................................................................38 eNB ID........................................................................................................................50 eNB S1-AP UE ID.......................................................................................................52 EPC............................................................................................................................34 EPS bearer ID............................................................................................................50 Extended configuration.............................................................................................128 fast scheduling............................................................................................................14 FDD..........................................................................................................134, 136, 138 FDMA.......................................................................................................................116 FFT ..........................................................................................................................102

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FMC..............................................................................................................................4 Fractional frequency reuse.......................................................................................212 Frame structure................................................................................................126, 140 Frequency reuse.......................................................................................................210 GTP-U......................................................................................................................222 GUMMEI.....................................................................................................................50 GUTI...........................................................................................................................52 Handover..........................................................................................252, 255, 274, 280 HARQ.......................................................................................................................224 I / Q plane.................................................................................................................100 IFFT..........................................................................................................102, 152, 167 IMEI............................................................................................................................52 IMSI............................................................................................................................52 Initial cell search.......................................................................................................204 Initial context setup procedure..................................................................................266 Intercell interference coordination............................................................................212 interference coordination............................................................................................14 ISI.............................................................................................................................108 Latency.................................................................................................................82, 84 Layer mapper...........................................................................................................152 LMMSE.....................................................................................................................123 Logical channel...........................................................................................................66 LTE...............................................................................................................................8 MAC..........................................................................................................................224 MAC control element................................................................................................230 MAC PDU.................................................................................................................228 MBMS.........................................................................................................................24 MCCH.........................................................................................................................66 MCH...........................................................................................................................69 MIMO................................................................................19f., 114, 122, 143, 198, 201 MISO..........................................................................................................................19 MME...........................................................................................................................42 MME S1-AP UE ID.....................................................................................................52 MMEGI.......................................................................................................................50 MMEI..........................................................................................................................50 Mobility management.......................................................................248, 250, 252, 254 Modulation........................................................................................104, 106, 152, 166 MTCH.........................................................................................................................67 Multiple rank beamforming.......................................................................................199 NACK........................................................................................................................158 Normal configuration................................................................................................128 OFDM...........................................................................................................16, 90, 112 OFDMA.......................................................................................................16, 112, 130 Orthogonality..............................................................................................................90 PBCH............................................................................................29, 70, 142, 144, 169 PCCH.........................................................................................................................66 PCFICH......................................................................................................71, 146, 170 PCH............................................................................................................................68 PDCCH...............................................................................................70, 142, 146, 170 PDCP........................................................................................................................238 PDCP PDU...............................................................................................................240 PDN GW.....................................................................................................................46 PDP context establishment......................................................................................270 PDSCH...............................................................................................72, 142, 144, 170

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Index
PHICH........................................................................................................72, 142, 146 Physical channel.........................................................................................................70 PLMN ID.............................................................................................................50, 205 PMCH.........................................................................................................72, 142, 170 Power control............................................................................................................186 PRACH.......................................................................................................71, 206, 208 Precoding.................................................................................................................152 Protocol stack.............................................................................................................54 PUCCH.....................................................................................................71, 155f., 170 PUCCH format........................................................................................................164f. PUCCH format .........................................................................................................160 PUSCH...............................................................................................................72, 170 QCI...........................................................................................................................260 QoS..........................................................................................................................258 QPSK........................................................................................................................170 Quadruple play services.............................................................................................10 RA-RNTI.............................................................................................................50, 227 RACH.........................................................................................................................68 Random access preamble..........................................................................................72 Random access procedure.......................................................................................226 Random access response........................................................................................208 Receive diversity......................................................................................................188 Resource block.........................................................................................................130 Resource element....................................................................................................130 Resource element mapper.......................................................................................167 RLC..........................................................................................................................232 RLC AM PDU segment.............................................................................................236 RLC PDU..................................................................................................................234 RNC............................................................................................................................32 RNTI...........................................................................................................................50 Roaming.....................................................................................................................36 RRC....................................................................................................................32, 242 RRC_CONNECTED.................................................................................................244 RRC_IDLE ...............................................................................................................244 S-TMSI.......................................................................................................................52 S1-AP.......................................................................................................................221 S1-flex........................................................................................................................36 SAE............................................................................................................................34 SC-FDMA.........................................................................................................130, 132 Scheduling..................................................................................................................76 Scrambling........................................................................................................150, 166 SDMA.......................................................................................................................116 Serving GW................................................................................................................44 SIM card...................................................................................................................205 SIMO..........................................................................................................................18 Single frequency network...........................................................................................24 SISO...........................................................................................................................18 Smart antenna technology..........................................................................................18 Smart Antenna Technology........................................................................................14 soft handover..............................................................................................................14 Sounding reference signal........................................................................................170 Sounding reference symbol......................................................................................155 Space frequency block code....................................................................................196 Space time block code.............................................................................................197

INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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Use only for participants of NSN LTE from A-Z Training

LTE from A-Z

Spectral efficiency........................................................................................................6 Subchannel...............................................................................................................130 Subframe..................................................................................................................130 Synchronization signal........................................................................................72, 202 Synchronization Signal.............................................................................................142 Synchronization signals..............................................................................................29 TAI..............................................................................................................................50 TCP/IP......................................................................................................................284 TDD..........................................................................................................134, 136, 138 TDMA...............................................................................................................116, 174 Timing advance control............................................................................................174 TM............................................................................................................................232 Tracking area update................................................................................................268 Transmission diversity..............................................................................................188 Transport channel.......................................................................................................68 Turbo coding.............................................................................................................170 UE class...................................................................................................................214 UL-SCH......................................................................................................................68 UM............................................................................................................................232 Uplink reference signal...............................................................................................72 Uplink sounding signal................................................................................................72 UTRAN.......................................................................................................................36 WiMAX....................................................................................................................8, 27 X2...............................................................................................................................60 Zadoff-Chu sequence...............................................................................................162 .....................................................................................................................................8 bearer......................................................................................................................256

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INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

Index

INACON GmbH 1999 - 2009. All rights reserved. Reproduction and/or unauthorized use of this material is prohibited and will be prosecuted to the full extent of German and international laws. Version Number 2.030

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