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Industrial automation is the end of this century paradigm for automating manufacturing processes. The technology applied in this field, however, is present in our everyday life more than ever. In a process industry we have many non-electrical parameters like Temperature, pressure, humidity among others. Each parameter will have some set Point; if the value goes below the limit (set point) the micro controller will Automatically control the parameters such that it matches the set point. For example take a flow pipe having withstand capacity of 1000 bars, then The whole system will collapse; to overcome these kind of problems we use a Microcontroller, which controls the pressure and brings back to the set point. Also manual intervention is possible

1.1 What Is Automation


Automation is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and process, reducing the need for human intervention. Automation is basically the delegation of human control function to technical equipment for Processes and systems can also be automated.

1.2 Automation impacts

It increases productivity and reduces cost. It gives emphasis on flexibility and convertibility in the manufacturing process. Automation is often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. Automation reduces power consumption and reduces man power requirement. Automation provides safer working conditions.

1.3 History of Automation

The various methods used for Process Control and Automation are as follows Manual Control Hard Wired Logic Control Electronic Control Through logic gates Programmable logic Control

1.1.1 Manual Control

All the actions related to process control are taken by the operators. Drawbacks : Likely human errors and consequently its effect on quality of final product. The production, safety, energy consumption and usage of raw material are all subject to the correctness and accuracy of human action.

1.1.2 Hard Wired Logic Control

The contactor and Relays together with hardware timers and counters were used in achieving the desired level of automation. Drawbacks Bulky panels. Complex wiring. Longer project timing. Difficult maintenance and troubleshooting.

1.1.3 Electronic Control Using Logic Gates

In 1960s with the advent of electronics, the logic gates started replacing the relays and auxiliary contactors in the control circuits. The hardware timers & counters were replaced by electronic timers.

Advantages Reduced space requirements. Energy saving. Less maintenance & greater reliability. Disadvantages Changes in control logic not possible. More project time.

1.1.4 Programmable Logic Controller

In 1970s with the coming of microprocessors and associated peripheral chips, the whole process of control and automation underwent a radical change. Instead of achieving the desired control or automation through physical wiring of control devices, in PLC it is achieved through a program or says software. The programmable controllers have in recent years experienced an unprecedented

Fig.1.1 Industrial Automation Robotic Arm



2.1 What Is PLC

A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an electronic device that controls machines and processes. It uses a programmable memory to store instructions and execute specific functions that include ON/OFF control, timing, counting, sequencing and arithmetic. PLC is microprocessor based microcontroller device which is used to control the electronic device or machine using the specific language which is Reprogrammable.

2.2 Advantages of PLCs

Some of the additional advantages of PLCs are as follows:

Flexibility: One single Programmable Logic Controller can easily run many machines.

Correcting Errors : In old days, with wired relay-type panels, any program alterations required time for rewiring of panels and devices. With PLC control any change in circuit design or sequence is as simple as retyping the logic. Correcting errors in PLC is extremely short and cost effective. Space Efficient: Today's Programmable Logic Control memory is getting bigger and bigger this means that we can generate more and more contacts, coils, timers, sequencers, counters and so on. We can have thousands of contact timers and counters in a single PLC. Imagine what it would be like to have so many things in one panel.

Low Cost: Prices of Programmable Logic Controllers vary from few hundreds to few thousands. This is nothing compared to the prices of the contact and coils and timers that you would pay to match the same things. Add to that the installation cost, the shipping cost and so on.

Testing : A Programmable Logic Control program can be tested and evaluated in a lab. The program can be tested, validated and corrected saving very valuable time. Visual Observation: When running a PLC program a visual operation can be seen on the screen. Hence troubleshooting a circuit is really quick, easy and simple. Some Other advantages of PLC:

Time Saving and Energy Saving. Have a long life. Can be troubleshooting through Software. Zero human error. Its Reprogrammable. Takes less time for download the program. Easier and faster to make changes. Applications can be performed faster and less expensively.

2.3 Inside A PLC

The Central Processing Unit (CPU), contains an internal program that tells the PLC how to perform the following functions: Execute the Control Instructions contained in the User's Programs. Communicate with other devices, which can include I/O Devices, Programming Devices, Networks, and even other PLCs. Perform Housekeeping activities such as Communications, Internal Diagnostics, etc.

Fig 2.1- Constituents Of PLC & Working

2.3.1 The CPU

The microprocessor or processor module is the brain of a PLC system. The Central Processing Unit or CPU basically consists following blocks Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Program Memory Process Image Memory Internal timers and counters Flags The heart of CPU is its Microprocessor/Microcontroller chip.

2.3.2 Input Module

These modules act as interface between real-time status of process variable and the CPU. This acts as interface between the field control inputs and the CPU. The voltage or current signals generated by the sensors, transducers, limit switches, push buttons. Etc. is applied to the terminals of the input modules. If required, it isolates the field signals from the CPU. It sends one input at a time to CPU by multiplexing action thus helping in serial communication. Depending upon the nature of input signal coming from the field, the input module could be Analog Input Module Digital Input Module

2.3.3 Output Module

This acts as a link between the CPU and the output devices located in the field. The field devices could be relays, contactors, lamps, actuators, etc. These devices actually control the process. The output Module converts the output signal delivered by CPU into an appropriate voltage level suitable for output field device. Like Input Module the Output module also be digital or analog. The selection depends on the voltage rating of the field output device. if the output device is Analog then the Analog Output Module is required.

2.3.4 Power Supply

The power supply gives the voltage required for electronics module (I/O Logic signals, CPU, memory unit and peripheral devices) of the PLC from the line supply is SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply). As I/O is expanded, some PLC may require additional power supplies in order to maintain proper power levels.

2.3.5 Bus System

It is path for the transmission of the signal. Bu system is responsible for the signal exchange between processor and I/O modules. The bus system comprise of several single line i.e. wires / tracks . Address Bus:-Enable the selection of memory location or a module. Data Bus:- Carries data from module to processor and vice versa. Control Bus:- Transfers control and timing signal for the synchronization of the CPU activities within the programmable controller.

2.3.6 Field Input

Analog Inputs are Temperature, Presser, Level, etc. It is also called Full duplex Digital Inputs are sensor, switches, push-button, wireless, telegraph. It is also called half duplex.

2.3.7 Additional Modules

In addition to the above listed modules, the other frequently used modules in a PLC system are interfacing Module, Communication processor Module.


Fig 2.2 PLC Block Diagram

2.4 PLC Operation

There are five basic steps in the operation of all PLCs: which continually take place in a repeating loop. Input Scan Execution Communication Request Self Tracking Save The Output


2.4.1 Scan Cycle

1. CPU reads signal from the field input. 2. Executes the logic according to instruction and the input signal. 3. CPU sends the communication request to outside devices such as MPI, PPI ports. 4. Now the CPU makes a self test. It will check that all the expansion modules are in working condition or not. For this it sends signal to expansion module and check the output signal. 5. It will write RLO to the output module. It is a repetitive cycle.

2.4.2 Process of PII, PIQ, RLO:

Fig. 2.3 PLC Working


This process is repetitive and called scan cycle. PII Process Image Input. PIQ Process Output Image. RLO Result of Logic Operator.

2.5 Communications
There are several methods to communicate between a PLC and a programmer or even between two PLCs. Communications between a PLC and a programmer (PC) are provided by a cable from your PC to the programming port on the PLC. This communication can be RS232 for PC and RS485 for PLC. There are many types of interface between PC and PLC like PPI, MPI, PROFIBUS, etc. The Mainly Used PPI and MPIs characteristics are-

Characteristics of PPI (Point to Point Interface)

This cable communicates serially. This cable is half duplex. The frequency range of PPI is 3kbps to 19.2kbps. Baud rate for the cable is 9.6kbps. Maximum 32 stations can be connected with PPI.


Characteristics of MPI (Multi Point Interface)

This cable communicates serially. This cable is half duplex. The frequency range of PPI is 3kbps to 1.3mbps. Baud rate for the cable is 187.5kbps. Maximum 32 stations can be connected with PPI.

2.6 Programming Languages For PLC

Various languages are used for programming of PLCs:

2.6.1 Ladder diagram (LD):Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLC's. As mentioned before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and trades people was greatly reduced. This language uses electrical symbols to formulate the control task. Its easy to use. This language uses two coils mostly: 1. Normally Open 2. Normally Closed

2.6.2 Function Block Diagram (FBD) / Control System Flowchart (CSF)

This language uses graphical symbols to formulate the control task. This method is preferred by those users who are familiar with the logic symbols / logical machine and process sequence. Basically the program written in CSF can be convertible into LAD language.


2.6.3 Statement List Language (STL)

The Statement List method (STL) uses mnemonic abbreviations in programming. The Statement consists of: An operation which specifies what is to be done. A indicates AND operation to be done O indicates OR operation to be done.

2.7 Contacts And Coils

With just the Normally Open Contact and Normally Open Coil - a surprising array of basic logical conditions can be represented.


Normally Open Contact:This can be used to represent any input to the control logic - a switch or sensor, a contact from an output, or an internal output. When "solved" the referenced input is examined for an ON (logical 1) condition. If it is ON, the contact will close and allow power (logic) to flow from left to right. If the status is OFF (logical 0), the contact is Open, power (logic) will NOT flow from left to right.


Output Coil.
This can be used to represent any discrete output from the control logic. When "solved" if the logic to the left of the coil is TRUE, the referenced output is ON (logical 1).


2.7.3 Solving a Single Instruction

Fig 2.4 Single instruction Suppose a switch is wired to Input1, and a light bulb is wired through Output1 in such a way that the light is OFF when Output1 is OFF, and ON when Output1 is ON.

When Input1 is OFF (logical 0) the contact remains open and power cannot flow from left to right. Therefore, Output1 remains OFF (logical 0). When Input1 is ON (logical 1) then the contact closes, power flows from left to right, and Output1 becomes ON (the light turns ON)

2.7.4 The AND Gate

The AND is a basic fundamental logic condition that is easy to directly represent in Ladder Logic.

Fig 2.5 The AND Gate Suppose a switch is wired to Switch1, a second switch is wired to Switch2, and a light bulb is wired through Light1 in such a way that the light is OFF when Light1 is OFF, and ON when Light1 is ON.


In order for Light1 to turn ON, Switch1 must be ON, AND Switch2 must be ON.

If Switch1 is OFF, power (logic) flow from the left rail, but stops at Switch1. Light1 will be OFF regardless of the state of Switch2. If Switch1 is ON, power makes it to Switch2. If Switch2 is OFF, power cannot flow any further to the right, and Light1 is OFF.

If Switch1 is ON, AND Switch2 is ON - power flows to Light1 solving its state to ON.

2.7.5 The OR Gate

The OR is a logical condition that is easy to represent in Ladder Logic.

Fig. 2.6 The OR Gate Suppose a switch is wired to Switch1, a second switch is wired to Switch2, and a light bulb is wired through Light1 in such a way that the light is OFF when Light1 is OFF, and ON when Light1 is ON. In this instance, we want to the light to turn ON if either Switch1 OR Switch2 is ON.


If Switch1 is ON - power flows to Light1 turning it ON.

If Switch2 is ON - power flows through the Switch2 contact, and up the rail to Light1 - turning it ON. If Switch1 AND Switch 2 are ON - Light1 is ON.

The only way Light1 is OFF is if Switch1 AND Switch2 are OFF. * Another set of basic contacts and coils that can be used in Ladder Logic are the Normally Closed Coil. This work just like their normally open counterparts - only in the opposite.


Normally Closed Coils.

When "solved" the referenced input is examined for an OFF condition. If the status is OFF (logical 0) power (logic) will flow from left to right. If the status is ON, power will not flow.




Its software name is V4.0 step7 microwin. No Build Simulator. Mode rate is 9.6 kbps. Maximum value of output is 32767(integer). Integer is 16 Bit (2 byte) and Real no. 32 Bit (4 byte). It has 14 output and 10 input. Working with for DC supply, using CPU 221 DC DC DC. For Ac or as well as DC supply, using CPU 221 AC DC Relay (Output is depend upon input signal level).


Fig 2.7 View of CPU 224XP It has possible 9 devices. it has 256KB external memory We working with CPU 224XP in S7 200.


Examples: Basic Ladder Logic Programming: In words:

Y is on when (A is on and B is on and C is off) of D is on or E is Off. Boolean logic equation:

Fig 2.8 Basic Ladder Logic Program


Push Button is design in Ladder language:

Fig 2.9 Push Button

2.8.1 TIMERS
Timers are used for 1. Count time Interval 2. Produce delay 3. Generate Pulses There are three types of timers 1. ON delay timer ( T on ) 2. OFF delay timer ( T off ) 3. ON delay timer Retentive ( T onR )

22 On-Delay Timer (Ton) It produces delay to get ON the output.

Characteristics: 1) ON delay timer starts its working as the input switch is made ON. 2) Output connected with this timer will get high only when preset value will get expire. 3) ON delay timer will get clear or will be zero if the input switch is made off. 4) ON delay timer will continue counting up to its maximum value 32767 even the preset value is over. 5) Timer can be reset using RESET instruction or using NC.

Fig. 2.10 On-Delay Timer

23 Off-Delay Timer (Toff) This timer produced delay to get the off the

Characteristics: 1) It starts working as the input switch is made OFF. 2) Output connected with this timer will get OFF after the preset value is over. 3) It doesnt keep continue counting after the preset time. 4) It can be reset by using RESET instruction or using NC. 5) OFF delay timer will be zero if the input switch is made ON during counting.

Fig. 2.11 OFF Delay Timer

On-Delay Retentive Timer ( T onR ) This timer works as ON delay

timer with one difference that it retain the time counting when the switch is made OFF. As the switch is made ON again, the timer starts counting from its previous value.


Example: When input I0.0 is made ON, conveyer should start From 2 to 5 sec, filling of Bottle should be done. From 6 to 8 sec, capping of Bottle should be done. From 10 to 12 sec, packing of Bottle should be done.

Fig 2.12 PLC Program


2.8.2 Counters
A counter simply counts the number of events that occur on an input. Means it counts the electric pulses. There are two basic types of counters 1. Up counter 2. Down counter 3. Up Down counter Up Counter
It counts upwards whenever it gets pulse from 0 to 1. Counters can counts up to +32767 as the counters are integer. It doesnt counts negative. Output connected with up counter will get high when Preset Value (PV) will get over or equal. Counter can reset by using RESET (R) Pin.

Fig. 2.13 Up Counter

26 Down Counter

The Counter counts downwards whenever it will get pulse from 0 to 1. Output connected with the counter will get high when counter is equal to zero. Down counter can be reset using load (LD) pin. This counter will count minimum up to 0.

Fig. 2.14 Down Counter Up Down Counter

It has two separate pins 1. CU (For UP Counting) 2. CD (For DOWN Counting) Output connected with this counter will get high when the counts are equal to or more then Preset Value (PV).


Fig. 2.15 Up Down Counter






EDUCATION PROGRAMME Series 7): Its software name is SIMATIC Manager. Simulator in built. Mode rate is 187.5 kbps. It has 16 Input /16 outputs. In 300 Micro Memory Card (MMC) is necessary. It has 11 devices possible. This working with CPU 313-C-2-DP.

Version of 313 series Decentralized Process Compact Internal Battery backup 100 hours (2 standard capacitor). External Battery backup 200 hours.


Simulator: simulator is a hardware/software device which helps us acknowledgment of the appropriate output then we have and incoming input. It is also judges the condition of memory bits and special memory bits.

The Main Modules In the s7-300 are 1. Power Supply 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Interface Module 4. Signal Module 5. Function Module 6. Communication



It is faster than 200 due to frequency rang. It has inbuilt simulation. It is modular PLC (increase I/O) what should we want. We can design PLC dependent our requirements. 1024 input / 1024 output PLC-300.


128 input / 128 output PLC-200. More communication source such as protocol, profinet. Mode rate of profibus is 12mbps. Provide inbuilt HMI services. S7-300 is used in experimentally harsh conditions. e.g. Chemical factory: dust, temperature handle. its allows malty tearing with one CPU 4 rack used in S7-300 but in S7-200 only one rack is used. The S7-300's range of CPUs provides the right solution for every application, and customers only pay for the performance actually required for a specific task. The S7-300 can be set up in a modular configuration without the need for slot rules for I/O modules.



Human Machine Interface (HMI)

3.1 What Is HMI

Human Machine Interface (HMI) aim at a better Human-machine interaction. Any automation system is said to be blind without HMI. HMI gives the ability to the operator, and the management to view the plant in real time. Add to that the ability to have alarm management that can warn the operator of a problem. It cam even log and print all the alarms in real time, which can help the management to improve the production and efficiency. Today there exists many Human Machine Interface software that could be used to monitor, supervise and control process. What we are presenting here is just an overview of what could be achieved with most of this software. So what are the main functionalities of an HMI. Well the HMI's main functionality is to monitor, supervise, and control processes. This could be used in a variety of industries such as food processing, sawmills, bottling, semiconductors, oil and gas, automotive, chemical, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, transportation, utilities, an more. HMI software provides the process knowledge and control needed to perfect the products companies make and the processes they manage. It is said that a control without an HMI is a blind control. Human Machine Interface can display texts, pictures, bar graphs, bitmap and animated pictures. More importantly it can also display System messages, reports, alarms, trends and manipulate string values and calculate Boolean operations and more complex math operations. This flexibility reduces the task that the PLC


More and more manufacturing designers are recognizing the benefits of using Human Machine Interface to control and to operate their controls.

3.2 Typical Applications

Machine monitoring and control Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Control Center Monitoring, Tracking, and Control Building Automation and Security Electrical Substation Monitoring Pipeline Monitoring and Control Transportation Control Systems Batch Process Monitoring and Control Continuous Process Monitoring and Control Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Statistical Process Control (SPC) Telecommunications Discrete Manufacturing and more...

3.3 Functionality Representation of a plant in real time. Trending (Real-time / Historical) Alarms (Real-time / Historical) SPC (Statistical Process Control) Recipes Reports


Lop Events Historical Data Logging and Browsing SQL Server 2000, Oracle, Sybase, ODBC support Networking and Redundancy Math and Logic

Fig. 3.1 HMI Component Its software name is SIMATIC winCC flexible. Tag: internal (data type) External (data type +address) connected with PLC. Alt+f4 used for exit from Run time.




Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily life. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for expanding range of application and human activities. Industrial automation is very compulsory need of industries in todays scenario to meet market competition. Automation provides 100% accuracy all time. So the failure and mismatch in production completely eliminates. It makes the systems efficiency higher then manual as well as It controls wastages. So the overall savings increases. It Provides safety to the Human Being. By that Industry can achieves the safety majors ad ISO and OHSAS reputation. It makes the operation faster than manual which causes higher production by which the cost of each product decreases and industry profit decreases. It increase repeatability, so that the same kind of products can be manufacture easily at different stages without wasting times. It provides integration with business system. It can reduce labor costs, so the final profit Increases.


[1] Automation and HMI, http://www.automation.siemens.com [2] PLC, HMI, SCADA, http://www.wikipedia.com [3]Introduction to Automation, Author/Publisher: IATC Siemens,http://www.iatc.in [4] PLC & HMI : NOTES, Author: Ms. Shalja, Trainer at IATC Siemens [5] PLC & HMI , http://www.kronotech.com/