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Q. 1 Sol.

Find the LCM of the numbers 13, 26 and 91 using prime factorisation. Prime factorization of 13 = 1 13 Prime factorization of 26 = 2 13 Prime factorization of 91 = 7 13 LCM of 13, 26 and 91 = 2 7 13 =14 13 = 182 (1/2 mark) State Euclid's division lemma. Given positive integers a and b, there exist unique integers q and r satisfying a = bq + r, (1 mark)

(1/2 mark)

Q. 2 Sol.

Q. 3 Write the condition to be satisfied by q so that a rational number decimal expansion. Sol. has a terminating

The prime factorisation of q is of the form 2n.5m, where n, m are non negativeintegers, then a rational number has a terminating decimal. (1 mark)

Q. 4 Sol. Q. 5 Sol.

Write 98 as product of its prime factors. 98 = 2 49 = 2 7 7=2 72. (1 mark)

State the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. The fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that "Every composite number can be expressed (factorised )as a product of primes, and their factorization is unique, apart from the order in which the prime factors occur". (1 mark) Write 156 as a product of its factors.

Q. 6

Sol.

156 = 2 = 22 3

2 3 13 13 (1 mark)

Q. 7 Sol.

Write 234 as a product of its prime factors. 234 = 2 = 2 32 3 3 13 13 (1 mark)

Q. 8 Write the condition satisfied by 3125 so that a rational number terminating decimal expansion. Sol. 3125 = 5 =5 = 53 Q. 9 Write the condition satisfied by 210 so that a rational number terminating repeating decimal expansion. Sol. has a non 5 625 125 (1 mark) has a

2o is of the form 2n5m where n and m are positive integers.

219 = 2 105 = 2 5 21 = 2 5 3 7 Which is not is of the form 2n5m where n and m are positive integers.

Q. 10 Write the condition satisfied by 1600 so that a rational number terminating decimal expansion. Sol. has a

1600 = 64 25 = 26 52 which is not is of the form 2n5m where n and m are positive integers. (1 mark)

Q. 11 Without actually performing the long division, state whether the rational number will have terminating or non terminating decimal expansion. Sol. (1/2 mark) Since. 455 cannot be written as 2n5m where n and m are positive integers, therefore,

will have non terminating decimal expansion. (1/2 mark) Q. 12 Without actually performing the long division, state whether the rational number will have terminating or non terminating decimal expansion. Sol. (1/2 mark)

(1/2 mark) 5 which is of the form 2n5m.

Since. 80 = 24

is a terminating decimal expansion. (1/2 mark) Q. 13 What can you say about the prime factorisation of the denominator of the rational number 36.12345? Sol. Since, the decimal expansion is terminating, therefore, prime factorization of the denominator is of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non negative integer. (1 mark)

Q. 14 What can you say about the prime factorization of the denominator of the rational . Sol. Since, the decimal expansion is non terminating, therefore prime factorization of the denominator is not of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non negative integers. (1 mark)

Q. 15 Write the condition to be satisfied by q so that a rational number decimal. Sol. The denominator q of the rational number has a terminating decimal when q is of the form 2n5m, where n and m are positive integers. (1 mark) Q. 16 Given that HCF (306, 657) = 9, find LCM (306, 657) has a terminating

Sol.

We know that, HCF (306, 657) LCM (306, 657) = 306 9 LCM (306, 657) = 306 657 LCM (306, 657) = = 34 657 = 22338 (1/2 mark)

657 (1/2 mark)

Q. 17 Explain why 7 Sol. 7 = = = = =

11

13 + 13 is a composite number.

11 13 + 13 (7 11 1 +1) 13 (77 +1) 13 78 13 (1/2 mark) 2 3 13 13 2 3 132 7 11 13 + 13 = 2 3 132 is a composite number as it can be written as product of powers of primes. (1/2 mark)

Q. 18 Write the condition to be satisfied by q so that a rational number expansion which is non terminating repeating. Sol. has a decimal

The prime factorization of q is not of the form 2n 5m, where n and m are non negative integers, then a rational number has a decimal expansion which is non terminating repeating. (1 mark)

Q. 19 By using Euclidian algorithm find the H.C.F. of 365 and 125. Sol. We need to find H.C.F of 365 and 125 using Euclid's algorithm Since 125 < 365 therefore applying division lemma to 365 and 125 We have 365 = 125 2 + 110 Now we apply division lemma to 110 and 125 125 = 110 1 + 15 (1/2 mark) Again applying division lemma to 125 and 15 15 8 + 5 = 125 So finally division lemma to 5 and 15. We get 15 = 5 3+0 Hence H.C.F is 5. (1/2 mark)

Q. 20 What can you say about the prime factorization of the denominator of the rational number ?

Sol.

Since has non terminating repeating decimal expansion. So, its denominator has factors other than 2 and 5. has non terminating repeating decimal expansion. So, its denominator has factors other than 2 and 5. (1 mark)

Q. 21 If a is the HCF of 20 and 6. Find x and y satisfying a = 20x + 6y using division lemma. Sol. Step 1: Since, 20 > 6, we apply the division lemma to 20 and 6, to get 20 = 6 3+2 (i) Step 2: Since, the remainder 2 0, we apply the division lemma to 6 and 2, to get 6=2 3 + 0. The remainder is now zero. (1/2 mark) Therefore, HCF (20, 6) = 2 Therefore, a = 2 from (i), we have, 2 = 20 - 6 3 = 20 + 6 (-3) = 20x + 6y (given) x = 1, y = -3 (1/2 mark)

Q. 22 Is the product of two distinct irrational numbers a rational number? Justify your answer with an example. Sol. No. The product of two distinct irrational numbers is not a rational number. (1/2 mark) Example: Let and be two irrational numbers. Their product again an irrational number. (1/2 mark) is

Q. 23 Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 6q + 1, 6q + 3 or 6q + 5 where q is some integer. Sol. Let a be any positive odd integer and b = 6. Then by Euclid's algorithm a = 6q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 Since, r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (1 mark) Therefore, a = 6q or 6q + 1 or 6q + 2 or 6q + 3 or 6q + 4 or 6q + 5 But a is odd, a cannot be 6q, 6q + 2, 6q + 4 Therefore, a = 6q + 1 or 6q + 3 or 6q + 5 (1 mark)

r < 6.

Q. 24 Use Sol.

Euclid's algorithm to find the HCF of 616 and 32.

Step 1: Since 616 > 32, we apply the division lemma to 616 and 32, to get 616 = 32 19 + 8 (1 mark) Step 2: Since the reminder 8 0 we apply the division lemma to 32 and 8, to get 32 = 8 4 + 0 The reminder has now become 0.

Therefore, HCF (616, 32) = 8 Q. 25 Use Sol.

(1 mark)

Euclid's algorithm to find the HCF of 1029 and 240.

Step 1: Since 1029 > 240, we apply the division lemma to 1029 and 240, to get 1029 = 240 4 + 69 Step 2: Since the reminder 69 0, we apply the division lemma to 240 and 69 to get 240 = 69 3 + 33 (1/2 mark) Step 3: Since the reminder 33 0, we apply the division lemma to 69 and 33, to get 69 = 33 2 + 3 (1/2 mark) We now consider the new divisor 33 and the new remainder 3 and apply the division lemma to get 33 = 3 11 + 0 (1/2 mark) The remainder has now become 0 Therefore, HCF (1029, 240) = 3 (1/2 mark)

Q. 26 Find the HCF of 96 and 336 and express it as a linear combination of 96 and 336. Sol. Step 1: Since 336 > 96, we apply the division lemma to 336 and 96, to get 336 = 96 3 + 48 (i) (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the reminder 48 96 = 48 2 + 0 (ii) 0, we apply the division lemma to 96 and 48, to get

The remainder has now become 0. Therefore, HCF (336, 96) = 48 (1/2 mark) Now 48 = 336 - 96 3 (from(i)) Therefore 48 = 336x + 96y where x = 1, y = -3 Which represents the HCF 48 as a linear combination of 336 and 96. Q. 27 Find the HCF and LCM of 512 and 90 by the prime factorisation method. Sol. Prime factorisation of 512 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 Prime factorisation of 90 = 2 3 3 5 = 2 32 Therefore, HCF (512, 90) = 2 (1/2 mark) LCM (512, 90) = 29 32 5 = 512 45 = 23040 2 2 5 2 = 29

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

(1/2 mark)

Q. 28 Given that LCM (32, 36) = 288, find HCF (32, 36). Sol. We know that HCF LCM = Product of two numbers HCF 288 = 32 36 (1 mark) HCF = Hence, HCF(32, 36) = 4 (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark)

Q. 29 There is a circular path around a sports field. Anu takes 21 minutes to drive one round of the field, while meenu takes 14 minutes for the same. Suppose they both start at the same point and at the same time, and go in the same direction. After how many minutes will they meet again at the starting point? Sol. To find the number of minutes when they again at the starting point, we need to find the LCM (21, 14) Prime factorisation of 21 = 3 7 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 14 = 2 7 (1/2 mark) Therefore LCM(21, 14) = 2 3 7 = 42 Hence, Anu and Meenu will meet again at the starting point after 42 minutes. (1 mark)

Q. 30 Without actually performing the long division, state whether the following rational numbers will have a terminating decimal expansion or a non terminating repeating decimal expansion. (a) (b) Sol. (a) Since, the denominator 125 of negative integers. Hence, is of the form 2m 5n where m and n are non

has terminating decimal expansion.

(1 mark)

(b) Clearly, 343 is not of the form 2m Hence, the decimal expansion of expansion. (1 mark)

5n is non terminating repeating decimal

Q. 31 Find whether the following real numbers are rational or not? If yes express them in the form .

(a) (b) 36.61234

Sol.

(a) Since, number.

has non terminating repeating decimal expansion. So it is a rational (1/2 mark)

Let x = x = 23.434343 (1) Multiply both sides of (1) by 100, we get, 100x = 2343.4343 (2) Subtracting (1) from (2), we get, 100x - x = (2343.4343 ...) - (233.4343 ...) 99x = 2110 (1 mark) (b) Since 36.61234 has terminating decimal expansion. So it is a rational number. 36.61234 = (1/2 mark)

Q. 32

If a is a rational and

is irrational, then prove that (a +

) is irrational.

Sol.

Let a be the rational and We need to prove that (a + If possible, let (a + Then (a + [(a + rational]

be irrational. ) is irrational.

) be rational. [since, difference of two rational numbers is (1 mark) is irrational. ) is rational. (1 mark)

) is rational and a is rational ) - a] is rational

is rational This contradicts the fact that Hence, (a +

The contradication arises by assuming that (a + ) is irrational.

Q. 33 In Maxfort School there are two sections in class X - section A and section B.There are 18 students in section A and 24 students in section B. Determine the minimum number of Mathematics books required for their class library so that they can be distributed equally among the students of section A or section B. Sol. Since the books needs to be distributed equally among the students of section A or section B, therefore the number of books must be the multiple of both 18 and 24.So required number of books will be the LCM of 18 and 24. Prime factorisation of 18 = 2 3 3 =2 32 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 24 = 2 2 2 3 = 23 3 (1/2 mark)

Therefore, LCM (24, 18) = (product of the primes raised to highest power) = 23 32 =8 9 = 72 Hence, required number of books is 72. (1 mark) Q. 34 Show that every positive even integer is of the form 2q, where q is some integer. Sol. Let a be any positive even integer b = 2 Then, by Euclid's algorithm, a = 2q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 r<2 (1 mark) Since, r = 0, 1 Therefore, a = 2q or 2q + 1 But a is even, a cannot be 2q + 1 a = 2q Hence, every positive even integer is of the form 2q.

(1 mark)

Q. 35 Show that every positive odd integer is of the form 2q + 1, where q is some integer. Sol. Let a be any positive odd integer and b = 2 Then, by Euclid's algorithm, a = 2q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 r < 2. (1 mark) Since, r = 0, 1 Therefore, a = 2q or 2q + 1 But a is odd, a cannot be 2q. a = 2q + 1 Hence, every positive odd integer is of the form 2q + 1. (1 mark)

Q. 36 A sweetsellers has 420 Gulabjamuns and 130 Rasagullas. He want to stack them in such a way that each stack has the same number and they take up the least area of tray. What is the maximum number of sweets that can be placed in each stack for the purpose? Sol. To find the maximum number of sweets in each stack so that they take up the least area of the tray, we need to find the HCF (420, 130) (1/2 mark) By using Euclid's algorithm, we have, 420 = 130 3 + 30 130 = 30 4 + 10 30 = 10 3+0 (1/2 mark) So, the HCF of 420 and 130 is 10. Therefore, the sweet sellers can make stacks of 10 for both kind of sweets. (1 mark)

Q. 37 An army contingent of 600 members is to march behind an army band of 32 members in a parade. The two groups are to march in the same number of columns. What is the maximum number of columns in which they can march?

Sol.

To find the maximum number of columns in which two group can march, we need to find the HCF (600, 32) (1/2 mark) Using Euclid's algorithm, we have, 600 = 32 18 + 24 32 = 24 1+8 24 = 8 3+0 (1/2 mark) So, the HCF of 600 and 32 is 8. Therefore, there are 8 columns in which two groups can march. (1 mark)

Q. 38 Show that any positive integer of the form 3q or 3q + 1 or 3q + 2 where q is some integer. Sol. Let a be any integer and b = 3 Then, by Euclid's algorithm, we have, a = 3q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 r<3 (1 mark) Since, r = 0, 1, 2 Therefore, a = 3q or 3q + 1 or 3q + 2 for some integer q. (1 mark)

Q. 39 Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 8q + 1 or 8q + 3 or 8q + 5 or 8q + 7 where q is some integer. Sol. Let a be positive odd integer and b = 8 By Euclid's algorithm, we have, a = 8q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 r < 8. Since, r = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (1/2 mark) Therefore, a = 8q or 8q + 1 or 8q + 2 or 8q + 3 or 8q + 4 or 8q + 5 or 8q + 6 or 8q + 7 (1 mark) Since, a is odd, a cannot be 8q, 8q + 2, 8q + 4, 8q + 6 Therefore, a = 8q + 1 or 8q + 3 or 8q + 5 or 8q + 7 (1/2 mark)

Q. 40 Two sets of Science and Mathematics books have to be stacked in such a way that all the books are stored subject-wise and the height of each stack is the same. The number of Science books is 18 and the number Mathematics books is 24. Assuming that the books are of the same thickness, determine the number of stacks of Science and Mathematics books. Sol. Here we need to find the HCF (24, 18) To find the HCF (24, 18) Step 1: Since, 24 > 18, we apply the division lemma to 18 and 24 to get 24 = 18 1+6 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since, the new remainder 6 0, we apply the division lemma to 18 and 6 to get 18 = 6 3+0 (1/2 mark) The remainder has now become 0. Therefore, HCF (24, 18) = 6 (1/2 mark)

Number of stacks of Science books =

=3 =4 (1/2 mark)

Number of stacks of Mathematics books =

Q. 41 Express each number as a product of its prime factors. (a) 14850 (b) 505 Sol. (a) Prime factorisation of 14850 = 2 3 3 3 5 5 11 =2 33 52 11 (1 mark) (b) Prime factorisation of 505 = 5 101 (1 mark)

Q. 42 Given that HCF (1664, 1152) = 128. Find LCM (1664, 1152). Sol. We know that HCF (1664, 1152) LCM (1664, 1152) = 1664 128 LCM (1664, 1152) = 1664 1152 (1/2 mark) LCM (1664, 1152) = = 14976 (1 mark) 1152 (1/2 mark)

Q. 43 Given LCM (306, x) = 22338 and HCF (306, x) = 9. Find x. Sol. We know that LCM (a, b) Therefore, LCM (306, x) 22338 9 = 306 x HCF (a, b) = a b HCF (306, x) = 306 (1 mark)

= 657

(1 mark) N can never end with the digit 0.

Q. 44 Show that any numbers of the form 4n, n Sol.

If 4n ends with 0, then it must have 5 as a factor. But we know that the only prime factor of 4n = (2)2n is 2. (1 mark) Also, we know that from the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, that the prime factorisation of each number is unique. Therefore, 4n can never end with 0. (1 mark)

Q. 45 The HCF of two numbers is 23 and their LCM is 1449. If one of the number is 161, find the other. Sol. We know that LCM (a, b) 1449 23 = 161 b HCF (a, b) = a b

= 207 (1 mark) Hence, the other number is 207.

(1 mark)

Q. 46 The HCF of two numbers is 4 and their product is 38784. Find their LCM. Sol. We know that HCF (a, b) LCM (a, b) = a 4 LCM (a, b) = 38784 (1 mark) b

= 9696

(1 mark)

Q. 47 Check whether 6n can end with the digit 0 for any natural number. Sol. If 6n ends with 0, it must have 5 as a factor. But we know that the only prime factors of 6n are 2 and 3. (1 mark) Also, we know from the fundamental theorem of arithmetic that the prime factorisation of each number is unique. Therefore, 6n can never end with 0. (1 mark)

Q. 48 There is a circular path around a sports field. Mr X takes 24 minutes to drive one round of the field, while Mr. Y takes 10 minutes for the same. Suppose they both start at the same point and at the same time and go in the same direction. After how many minutes will they meet again at the starting point? Sol. Required number of minutes is the LCM of 24 and 10. Prime factorisation of 24 = 2 2 2 3 = 23 3 Prime factorisation of 10 = 2 5 (1 mark) Therefore, LCM of 24 and 10 = 23 3 5 =8 3 5 = 120 Hence, Mr. X and Mr. Y will meet again at the starting point after 120 minutes. (1 mark)

Q. 49 There are 40 students in Section C and 45 students in Section D of Class X. Find the minimum number of books required for their class library so that they can be distributed equally among students of Section C or Section D. Sol. Since, the books are to be distributed equally among the students of Section C or Section D. Therefore, required number of books is the LCM of 40 and 45. Prime factorisation of 40 = 2 2 2 5 = 23 5 Prime factorisation of 45 = 3 3 5 = 32 5 (1 mark)

Therefore, LCM of 40 and 45 = 23 32 5 =8 9 5 = 360 Hence, required number of book is 360. (1 mark) Q. 50 In a morning walk three person steps off together, their steps measure 48 cm, 80 cm and 90 cm respectively. After how many minimum steps they will meet again provided they started at the same point and at the same time? Sol. The required distance is the LCM of 48, 80 and 90. Prime factorisation of 48 = 2 2 2 2 3 = 24 3 Prime factorisation of 80 = 2 2 2 2 5 = 24 5 (1 mark) Prime factorisation of 90 = 2 3 3 5 =2 32 5 Therefore, LCM 48, 80 and 90 = 24 32 5 = 16 9 5 = 720 Hence, the required distance is 720 m. (1 mark)

Q. 51

Show that

is irrational.

Sol.

If possible, let

be rational. where a and b are

Then, there exists positive integers a and b such that coprimes.

Since, a and 2b are non-zero integers. So, is rational is rational (1 mark) is irrational. is rational. (1 mark)

This contradicts the fact that Hence, Q. 52 is irrational.

The contradiction arises by assuming that

Show that

is irrational.

Sol.

If possible, let be rational. Then, there exists positive integers a and b such that where a and b are coprimes.

Since, a and 7b are non-zero integers. So, is rational. is rational This contradicts the fact that Hence, 7 Q. 53 is irrational. is irrational. is rational. (1 mark) The contradiction arises by assuming that 7 (1 mark)

If a is a non-zero rational and

is irrational, then show that a

is irrational.

Sol.

Let a be non-zero rational and Then, we have to show that a If possible let a be rational

be irrational. is irrational.

Then, there exists positive integers p and q such that coprimes. (1 mark) But p and aq are both rational and aq Therefore, is rational is irrational. (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) is rational.

where p and q are

0.

is rational. This contradicts the fact that Hence, a Q. 54 is irrational. The contradictions arises by assuming that a

Show that 2 -

is irrational.

Sol.

If possible, let (2 -

) be rational. ) is rational [As difference of rationals is rational] is irrational. ) is rational. (1 mark

Then, 2 is rational, (2 is rational is rational

(1 mark)

This contradicts the fact that Hence, (2 ) is irrational.

The contradiction arises by assuming that (2 -

Q. 55

Let a is rational and

is irrational then prove that (a -

) is irrational.

Sol.

Let a be rational and If possible, let (a Then, (a -

be irrational. ) is irrational. ) be rational.

Then, we have to prove that (a -

) is rational and a is rational. is rational [as difference of rationals is rational] is irrational. ) is rational. (1 mark)

is rational.

(1 mark)

This contradicts the fact that Hence, (a Q. 56 ) is irrational.

The contradiction arises by assuming that (a -

If a is rational and

is irrational, then prove that (a +

) is irrational.

Sol.

Let a be rational and If possible, let (a + Then, (a +

be irrational. ) is irrational. ) be rational.

Then, we have to prove that (a +

) is rational and a is rational. is rational [As difference of rationals is rational] is irrational. ) is rational. (1 mark)

is rational

(1 mark)

This contradicts the fact that Hence, (a + ) is irrational.

The contradiction arises by assuming that (a +

Q. 57 Give an example of the following: "Two irrational numbers whose sum is rational". Sol.

Let a = 2 + and b = 2 Here a and b are irrational numbers. Now, a + b = (2 + ) + (2 ) = 4 which is a rational (1 mark) (1 mark)

Q. 58 Given an example of the following: "Two irrational numbers whose product is rational"

Sol.

Let a = and b = are two irrational numbers. (1 mark) Now, ab = ( )( ) =3 5 = 15 which is a rational.

(1 mark)

Q. 59 State in each of the following cases, whether the given statement is true or false and give example where the statement is false. (a) The sum of two rationals is always rational. (b) The product of two rationals is always rational. (c) The sum of two irrationals is an irrational. Sol. (a) True (b) True (c) False (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) and b = be two irrationals numbers then is

Example: Let a = a+b=( )+( false. (1 mark)

) = 4 which is rational.Hence the given statement

Q. 60 State in each of the following cases, whether the given statement is true or false and give example when the statement is false. (a) The product of two irrationals is an irrational (b) The sum of a rational and on irrational is irrational. (c) The product of a rational and an irrational is irrational. Sol.

(a) False : example (b) True (c) True

Let a =

and b =

are two irrational numbers

then ab = (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark)

= 6 which is a rational. (1 mark)

Q. 61

Prove that -2 +

is irrational.

Sol.

If possible, the (-2 +

) be rational. be rational [As sum of rationals is rational] is irrational. ) is rational. (1 mark)

Then, 2 is rational and -2 + is rational is rational (1 mark) This contradicts the fact that Hence, (-2 + ) is irrational

The contradiction arises by assuming that (-2 +

Q. 62 Find without actual division whether each of the rational numbers given below is a terminating or non-terminating repeating decimal. (a) (b) Sol. (a) Here the denominator = 1000 = 23 53 m =2 5n where m = 3 and n = 3 So, the given rational is a terminating decimal. (1 mark) (b) Here, the denominator = 343 = 73 2m 5n So, the given rational is a non-terminating repeating decimal.

(1 mark)

Q. 63 Write down the decimal expansions of the following rational numbers by writing their denominators in the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non-negative integers. (a) (b) Sol. (a) = =

= .625 (b) = = = = .096

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Q. 64 What can you say about the prime factorisation of the denominators of the following rationals. (a) 36.1234 (b)

Sol.

(a) Since, 36.1234 has terminating decimal expansion. So, its denominator is of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non-negative integers. (1 mark) (b) Since, has non-terminating repeating decimal expansion, so its denominator has factors other than 2 or 5. (1 mark)

Q. 65 What can you say about the prime factorisations of the denominators of the following rationals: (a) 63.12345 (b) Sol. (a) Since, 63.12345 has terminating decimal expansion. So, its denominator is of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non-negative integers. (1 mark) (b) Since, has non-terminating repeating decimal expansion. So, its denominator has factors other than 2 or 5. (1 mark) Q. 66 Write each of the following in the form of factors of q. (a) 2.54 (b) 10.8713 Sol. (a) 2.54 = = in the simplest form and write the prime

Hence, the prime factors of denominator are 2 and 5. (b) 10.8713 =

(1 mark)

Hence, the prime factors of denominator are 2 and 5. Q. 67 Write each of the following in the form factor of q in each case: (a) 321.064 (b) 21.123456789

(1 mark)

in the simplest form and write the prime

Sol. (a) 321.064 = =

Hence, the prime factors of denominator are 5. (b) 21.123456789

(1 mark)

Hence, the prime factors of denominator are 2 and 5.

(1 mark)

Q. 68 Prove that x2 - x is divisible by 2 for every positive integer x. Sol. Let x be any positive integer and b = 2. Then, by Euclid's algorithm x = 2q + r where q Since r = 0, 1. Therefore x = 2q or 2q + 1. (1 mark) Case I: When x = 2q x2 - x = (2q)2 - 2q = 4q2 - 2q = 2q (2q - 1) = 2y where y = q(2q - 1) x2 - x is divisible by 2. (1 mark) Case II: When x = 2q + 1 x2 - x = (2q + 1)2 - (2q + 1) = 4q2 + 1 + 4q - 2q - 1 = 4q2 + 2q =2q(2q + 1) = 2y where y = q(2q + 1) x2 - x is divisible by 2 Hence, x2 - x is divisible by 2 for every positive integer x.

0 and 0

r<2

(1 mark)

Q. 69 Use Euclid's division algorithm to find the HCF of 867 and 255. And if the HCF is expressible in the form 867 3 + 255 y, find y. Sol. Step 1: Since 867 >255, we apply the division lemma to 867 and 255, to get 867 = 255 3 + 102 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the remainder 102 to get 255 = 102 2 + 51 Step 3: Since, the remainder 51 0, we apply the division lemma to 255 and 102, (1/2 mark) 0, we apply the division lemma to 102 and 51, to

get 102 = 51 2 + 0 (1/2 mark) The remainder has now become 0 Therefore. HCF (867, 255) = 51 Now, 51 = 867 3 + 255y 51 =2601 + 255y 255y = 51 - 2601 = - 2550 y y = -10

(1/2 mark)

(1 mark)

Q. 70 If q is the HCF of 56 and 72, Find a and b satisfying q = 56a + 72b. Sol. Step1: Since 72 > 56, we apply the lemma to 56 and 72, to get 72 = 56 1 + 16 (i) (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the remainder 16 get 56 = 16 3 + 8 (ii) 0, we apply the division lemma to 56 and 16, to (1/2 mark)

Step 3: Since the remainder 8 0, we apply the division lemma to 16 and 8, to get 16 = 8 2 + 0 (iii) (1/2 mark) The remainder has now become 0 Therefore, HCF (72, 56) = 8 (1/2 mark) From (ii), we get, 8 = 56 - 16 3 8 = 56 - (72 - 56 1) 3 (from (i)) 8 = 56 - 3 72 + 56 3 8 = 56 4 + ( - 3) 72 (1/2 mark) But it is given that 8 = 56a + 72 b Therefore 56 4+( -3) 72 = 56a + 72 b a = 4 and b = -3 (1/2 mark) Q. 71 Find the largest number which exactly divides 612 and 960 leaving remainder 3 in each case. Sol. It is given that required number when divides 612 and 960, the remainder is 3 in each case. 612 - 3 = 609 and 960 - 3 = 957 are completely divisible by the required number. And the required number is the HCF (957, 609) (1 mark) To find HCF of 957 and 609 Step 1: Since 957 > 609, we apply the division lemma to 957 and 609, to get 957 = 609 1 + 348 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the remainder 348 0, we apply the division lemma to 609 and 348,

to get 609 = 348

1 + 261

(1/2 mark)

Step 3: Since the remainder 261 0, we apply the division lemma to 348 and 261, to get 348 = 261 1 + 87 (1/2 mark) We now consider the new divisor 261 and the new remainder 87 and apply the division lemma, to get 261 = 87 3 + 0 The remainder has now become 0. Therefore, HCF (957, 609) = 87 Hence, the required number is 87. (1/2 mark) Q. 72 Two tankers contain 144 litres and 90 litres of petrol respectively. Find the maximum capacity of a container which can measure the petrol of either tanker in exact number of times. Sol. The maximum capacity of the container is the HCF of 144 and 90 in litres. (1/2 mark) To find the HCF of 144 and 90. Step 1: Since 144 > 90, we apply the division lemma to 144 and 90, to get 144 = 90 1 + 54 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the remainder 54 0, we apply the division lemma to 90 and 54, to get 90 = 54 1 + 36 (1/2 mark) Step 3: Since the remainder 36 0, we apply the division lemma to 54 and 36, to get 54 = 36 1 + 18 (1/2 mark) We consider the new divisor 36 and the new remainder 18 and apply the division lemma to get 36 = 18 2 + 0 The remainder has now become 0. Therefore, HCF (144, 90) is 18. Hence, capacity of the container must be 18 litres. (1 mark) Q. 73 In a seminar organized by CBSE on new evaluation scheme the number of participant teachers in the subjects Mathematics and Science are 84 and 120 respectively. Find the number of rows (minimum) of the auditorium required to make the seating arrangement for the participants if it is desired that each row has equal number of participants and of the same subject Sol. For minimum number of rows we must have maximum number of participants in each row. The required number of participants will be the HCF (84, 120). (1/2 mark) To find the HCF of 84 and 120 Step 1: Since 120 > 84, we apply the division lemma to 120 and 84, to get 120 = 84 1 + 36 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since the remainder 36 0, we apply the division lemma to 84 and 36, to get 84 = 36 2 + 12 Step 3: Since the remainder 12 0, we apply the division lemma to 36 and 12, to get 36 = 12 3+0

(1/2 mark) The remainder has now become 0 Therefore, HCF (120, 84) = 12 (1/2 mark) Therefore number of rows = = =17

(1 mark)

Q. 74 Verandah 10.6 m long and 3.6 m broad is to be paved with equal square tiles. Find the largest size of such a tile (in cm) and the number of tiles required to pave the verandah Sol. Length of the Verandah = 10.6 m Breadth of the verandah = 3.6 m Therefore, Area of the Verandah = 10.6 3.6 = 38.16m2 (1/2 mark) Side of the square tile will be HCF of 10.6 m and 3.6 m 10.6 m = 1,060 cm 3.6 m = 360 cm Prime factors of 1,060 = 2 5 2 53 = 22 5 53 3 2 Prime factors of 360 =2 3 5 (1/2 mark) Therefore, HCF(1060, 360) = product of common prime factors raised to least power 2 2 5 = 20 cm. (1/2 mark) Therefore, Area of the square tile = 20 20 = 400 cm2 (1/2 mark) Number of tiles required to pave the verandah

Therefore, 954 tiles are required to pave the verandah. Q. 75 Express each number as a product of its prime factors. (a) 294 (b) 32760 (c) 1275 Sol.

(1 mark)

(a) 294 = 2 3 7 7 = 2 3 72 (1 mark) (b) 32760 = 2 2 2 3 3 5 7 13 = 23 32 5 7 (c) 1275 = 3 5 5 17 = 3 52 17 (1 mark)

13

(1 mark)

Q. 76 Find the LCM and HCF of 90 and 144 and verify that LCM given numbers.

HCF = product of two

Sol.

Prime factorisation of 90 = 2 3 3 5 = 2 32 5 Prime factorisation of 144 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 =24 32 (1 mark) Therefore, HCF (90, 144) = 21 32 = 2 9 = 18 (1/2 mark) LCM (90, 144) = 24 32 5 =16 9 5 = 720 (1/2 mark) Verification: LHS = LCM HCF = 18 720 = 12960 Therefore, RHS = 90 144 = 12960 Hence, LCM HCF = 90 144 (1mark)

Q. 77 Three sets of Science, English and Mathematics books have to be stacked in such a way that all the books are stored topicwise and the height of each stack is the same. The number of Science books is 144, the number of English books is 180 and the number of Mathematics books is 192. Assuming that the books are of the same thickness, determine the number of stacks of Science, English and Mathematics books. Sol. In order to arrange the books, we have to find the HCF (144, 180, 192) (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 144 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 = 24 32 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 180 = 2 2 3 3 5 = 22 32 5 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 192 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 = 26 3 (1/2 mark) Therefore, HCF (144, 180, 192) = 22 3 = 4 3 = 12 (1 mark)

Q. 78

Prove that

is an irrational number.

Sol.

Let us assume that is a rational number. Then, there exist positive integers a and b Such that Now, (1/2 mark) a2 is divisible by 5. a is also divisible by 5 (ii) a = 5c for some integer c (1 mark) a2 = 25c2 5b2 = 25c2 (from (i)) b2 = 5c2 b2 is divisible by 5. b is divisible by 5 (iii) (1 mark) From (ii) and (iii) we observe that a and b have at least 5 as a common factor. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are co prime. This means that our assumption is not correct. Hence, is an irrational number. (1/2 mark) where a and b are co prime.

Q. 79

Prove that

is irrational.

Sol.

Let us assume on the contrary that is rational. Then there exist co prime positive integers a and b such that

(1/2 mark)

(1/2 mark) Since a, b are integers. (1 mark) Therefore is rational This contradicts the fact that So, our assumption is wrong. Hence, Q. 80 Show that Sol. If possible, let be rational. Then there exist positive co prime a and b Such that (1/2 mark) is irrational. is a irrational. (1 mark) is a rational.

is an irrational number.

b2 is divisible by 7 b is divisible by 7 (ii) (1/2 mark) b = 7c for some positive integer c b2 = 49c2 7a2 = 49c2 (by i) a2 = 7c2 a2 is divisible by 7 a is divisible by 7 (iii) (1 mark) From (ii) and (iii) we observe that a and b have at least 7 as a common factor. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are co prime.

Thus, our assumption is wrong. Hence, is a irrational number. (1 mark)

Q. 81 Find without the actual division whether each of the rational numbers is a terminating or a non-terminating repeating decimal. Write the decimal form of those which have terminating decimal expansion. (a) (b) (c) Sol. (a) = Now, 30 = 2 3 5 2m 5n So, the given rational is a non-terminating repeating decimal.

(1 mark)

(b) = Since, the denominator is in the form 2m 5n where m = 0 and n = 4. So, the given rational is a terminating decimal. Also, = (1 mark)

(c) = Since, denominator 90 = 2 Therefore,

32

2m

5n (1 mark)

is a non-terminating repeating decimal.

Q. 82 Show that every positive odd integer is of the form 4q + 1 or 4q + 3 for some integer q. Sol. Let a be a given positive odd integer on dividing a by 4. Let q be the quotient and r be the remainder. Then, by Euclid's algorithm, we have, a = 4q + r 0 r<4 (1 mark) a = 4q + r where r = 0, 1, 2, 3 a = 4q or 4q + 1 or 4q + 2 or 4q + 3 (1 mark) But a = 4q and a = 4q + 2 are even.

Thus, when a is odd. It is of the form a = 4q + 1 or 4q + 3 for some integer q. Q. 83 Use Euclid's algorithm to find the HCF of 2322 and 654 Sol.

(1 mark)

Step 1: Since, 2322 > 654, we apply the division lemma to 2322 and 654, to get 2322 = 654 3 + 360 Step 2: Since, the remainder 360 0, we apply the division lemma to 654 and 360, to get 654 = 360 1 + 294 (1 mark) Step 3: Since, the remainder 294 0, we apply the division lemma to 360 and 294, to get 360 = 294 1 + 66 Since the remainder 66 0, we apply the division lemma to 294 and 66, we get, 294 = 66 4 + 30 Since, the remainder 30 0, we apply the division lemma to 66 and 30, we get, 66 = 30 2+6 (1 mark) Since, the remainder 6 0, we apply the division lemma to 30 and 6, we get, 30 = 6 5+0 The remainder is now 0. Therefore, HCF (2322, 654) = 6 (1 mark)

Q. 84 Use Euclid's algorithm to find the HCF of 924 and 240. Sol. Step 1: Since, 924 > 240, we apply the division lemma to 924 and 240, to get 924 = 240 3 + 204. Step 2: Since, the remainder 204 0, we apply the division lemma to 240 and 204, to get 240 = 204 1 + 36 (1 mark) Step 3: Since, the remainder 36 0, we apply the division lemma to 204 and 36, to get 204 = 36 5 + 24 We consider the new divisor 36 and the new remainder 24 and apply the division lemma to get 36 = 24 1 + 12 (1 mark) We consider the new divisor 24 and the new remainder 12, apply the division lemma to get 24 = 12 2+0 The remainder has now become 0. Therefore, HCF (924, 240) = 12 (1 mark) Q. 85 Show that n2 - 1 is divisible by 4, if n is an odd positive integer. Sol. Let n be an odd positive integer and b = 2. Then, by Euclid's algorithm n = 2q + r for some integer q mark) Since, r = 0, 1

0 and 0

r<2

(1

Therefore, n = 2q or 2q + 1 But n is an odd positive integer Therefore, n = 2q + 1 (1 mark) 2 2 Now, n - 1 = (2q + 1) - 1 = 4q2 + 1 + 4q - 1 = 4q2 + 4q = 4(q2 + q) 2 n - 1 is divisible by 4. Hence, n2 - 1 is divisible by 4. (1 mark) Q. 86 Find the HCF of 240 and 1024 and express it as a linear combination of 240 and 1024. Sol. Step 1: Since, 1024 > 240, we apply the division lemma to 1024 and 240 to get 1024 = 240 4 + 64 (i) (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since, the remainder 64 get 240 = 64 3 + 48 (ii) 0, we apply the division lemma to 240 and 64, to (1/2 mark)

Step 3: Since, the remainder 48 0, we apply the divisior lemma to 64 and 48, to get 64 = 48 1 + 16 (iii) (1/2 mark) We consider the new divisior 48 and the new remainder 16 and apply the division lemma to get 48 = 16 3+0 (iv) (1/2 mark) The remainder has now hecome zero. Hence, HCF (1024, 240) = 16 From (iii), we have, 16 = 64 - 48 1 = 64 - (240 - 64 3) (By (ii)) = 64 - 240 + 64 3 = 64 4 - 240 (1/2 mark) = (1024 - 240 4) - 240 (Using (i)) = 1024 - 240 4 - 240 = 1024 - 240 5 = 1024x + 240y where x = 1, y = -5 (1/2 mark) Q. 87 If the HCF of 65 and 117 is expressible in the form 117 Sol. (-1) + 65x. Find x.

Step 1: Since, 117 > 65, we apply the division lemma to 117 and 65 to 117 = 65 1 + 52 (i) (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since, the remainder 52 0, we apply the division to 65 and 52, to get 65 = 52 1 + 13 (ii) (1/2 mark) Step 3: Since, the remainder 13 0, we apply the division lemma to 52 and 13, to get 52 = 13 4+0 (iii) (1/2 mark)

Now, the remainder has become 0. Therefore, HCF (117, 65) = 13 (1/2 mark) From (ii), we have, 13 = 65 - 52 1 13 = 65 - (117 - 65 1) [From (i)] 13 = 65 - 117 + 65 1 13 = 65 2 - 117 13 = 65 2 + 117(-1) (1/2 mark) But it is given that 13 = 117 (-1) + 65x Therefore, 117 (-1) + 65x = 117 (-1) + 65 2 x=2 (1/2 mark) Q. 88 Find the largest number which divides 255 and 1039 leaving remainder 5 in each case. Sol. Here we need to find the HCF of 255 - 5 = 250 and 1039 - 5 = 1034 i.e to find the HCF (1034, 250) Step 1: Since, 1034 > 250, we apply the division lemma to 1034 and 250, to get 1034 = 250 4 + 34 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since, the remainder 34 0, we apply the division lemma to 250 and 34, to get 250 = 34 7 + 12 (1/2 mark) Step 3: Since, the remainder 12 0, we apply the division lemma to 34 and 12, to get 34 = 12 2 + 10 (1/2 mark) We consider the new divisor 12 and the new remainder 10 and apply the division lemma to get 12 = 10 1+2 (1/2 mark) Again we consider the new divisor 12 and the new remainder 2 and apply the division lemma to get 10 = 2 5+0 Remainder is now zero. Therefore, HCF (1034, 250) = 2 Hence, the required number is 2. (1 mark) Q. 89 Find the largest number that divides 436 and 542 leaving remainders 11 and 15 respectively. Sol. The required number is the HCF of the numbers. 436 - 11 = 425 and 542 - 15 = 527 To find the HCF of 425 and 527 Step 1: Since, 527 > 425, we apply the division lemma to 527 and 425 to get 527 = 425 1 + 102 (1 mark) Step 2: Since, the new remainder 102 0, we apply the division lemma to 425 and

102 to get 425 = 102

4 + 17

(1/2 mark) 0, we apply the division lemma to 102 and

Step 3: Since, the new remainder 17 17 to get 102 = 17 6+0 (1/2 mark) The remainder is now zero. Therefore, HCF (527, 425) = 17 Hence, the required number is 17.

(1 mark)

Q. 90 Express each number as product of its prime factors. (a) 510 (b) 432 (c) 1001 Sol. (a) Prime factorisation of 510 = 2 3 5 17 (1 mark) 3

(b) Prime factorisation of 432 = 2 2 2 = 24 33 (c) Prime factorisation of 1001 = 7 11

2 3 3 (1 mark) 13

(1 mark) HCF =

Q. 91 Find the HCF of 144 and 152 using prime factorisation and verify that LCM product of numbers. Sol. Prime factorisation of 144 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 = 24 32 Prime factorisation of 152 = 2 2 2 19 = 23 19 (1 mark) Therefore, HCF (152, 144) = 23 = 8 LCM (152, 144) = 24 32 19 = 16 9 19 = 2736 (1 mark) Verification: HCF (152, 144) LCM (152, 144) = 8 2736 = 21888 Product of 152 and 144 = 152 144 = 21888 Hence, LCM HCF = Product of two numbers. (1 mark)

Q. 92 In a conference, the number of participants in IT sector, Telecome sector are 96 and 240 respectively. Find the minimum number of rooms required if in each room the same number of participants are to be seated and all of them being in the same sector. Sol. Since, in each room the same number of participants are to be seated and all of then must be of the same sector.

Therefore, the number of participants in each room must be the HCF of 96 and 240. (1 mark) Prime factorisation of 96 = 2 2 2 2 2 3 5 =2 3 Prime factorisation of 240 = 2 2 2 2 3 5 = 24 3 5 Therefore, HCF (240, 96) = 24 3 = 16 3 = 48 (1 mark) Number of rooms required =

=7

(1 mark)

Q. 93 Three sets of Hindi, Science and Mathematics books have to be stacked in such a way that all the books are stored topic wise and the height of each stack is the same. The number of Hindi books is 144, the number of Science books is 180 and the number of Mathematics books is 192. Assuming that the books are of the same thickness, determine the number of stacks of Hindi, Science and Mathematics books. Sol. In order to arrange the books as required, we 192. Prime factorisation of 144 = 2 2 2 2 = 24 32 Prime factorisation of 180 = 2 2 3 3 = 22 32 5 Prime factorisation of 192 = 26 3 HCF of 144, 180 and 192 =4 3 = 12 (1/2 mark) So, there must be 12 books in each stack. Number of stacks of Hindi books = Number of stacks of Science books = Number of stacks of Mathematics books = = 12 = 15 = 16 (1.5 marks) have to find the HCF of 144, 180 and 3 3

5 (1 mark)

Q. 94 A, B and C starts cycling around a circular path in the same direction at same time. Circumference of the path is 360 km. If the speed of A is 40 m/min, speed of B is 60 m/min and that of C is 72 m/min and they start from the same point, then after what time interval they will be together at the starting point? Sol. Time taken by A to cyclic one round =

= 9 minutes Time taken by B = 6 minutes

Time taken by C = = 5 minutes (1 mark) The three cyclist will meet at the starting point again after = LCM (9, 6, 5) minutes. Prime factors of 9 = 3 3 = 32 Prime factors of 6 = 2 3 Prime factors of 5 = 1 5 (1 mark) Therefore, LCM (9, 6, 5) = 2 32 5 =2 9 5 = 18 5 = 90 minutes So, they will meet after 90 minutes. (1 mark) Q. 95 Find the largest positive integer that will divide 430 and 398 leaving remainder 5 and 8 respectively. Sol. It is given that on dividing 430 by the required number, there is a remainder of 5. This mean that 430 - 5 = 425 is exactly divisible by required number. ie. required number is a factor of 425. Similarly, required positive integer is a factor of 398 - 8 = 390 (1 mark) We need to find the HCF (425, 390) Prime factorisation of 425 = 5 5 17 = 52 17 (1 mark) Prime factorisation of 390 = 2 3 5 13 Therefore, HCF (425, 390) = 5 Hence, the required number = 5. (1 mark)

Q. 96 Find the smallest number that, when divided by 40, 64 and 104 leaves remainder of 8 in each case. Sol. It is given that on dividing 40 by the required number, there is a remainder of 8. This means that 40 - 8 = 32 is exactly divisible by the required number. Similarly 64 - 8 = 56 is exactly divisible by the required number and 104 - 8 = 96 is exactly divisible by the required number. (1 mark) Clearly, required number is the LCM of 32, 56 and 96. Prime factorisation of 32 = 2 2 2 2 2 = 25 Prime factorisation of 56 = 2 2 2 7 = 23 7 (1 mark) Prime factorisation of 96 = 2 2 2 2 2 3 = 25 3 Therefore, LCM of 32, 56 and 96 = 25 3 7 = 32 3 7 = 672 Hence, the required number = 672. (1 mark)

Q. 97

Prove that

is an irrational number.

Sol.

If possible let

be rational. where a and b are

Then, there exist positive integers a and b such that coprimes.

(On squaring both sides) 11b2 = a2 (i) 11 divides a2 [since, 11 is prime and 11 divides a2 11 divides a] (1 mark) a = 11c for some integer c a2 = 121c2 11b2 = 121c2 (Using (i)) 2 2 b = 11c 11 divides b2 11 divides b [since, 11 is prime and divides b2 11 divides b] (1 mark) Thus, 11 is a common factor of a and b. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are coprime. The contradiction arises by assuming that Hence, Q. 98 is irrational. (1 mark) is rational.

If p is a prime number then prove that

is irrational.

Sol.

Let p be a prime number and if possible let

be rational. where a and b are

Then, there exists positive integers a and b such that coprimes.

(On squaring both sides) pb2 = a2 (i) p divides a2 p divides a [since, p is prime and p divides a2 p divides a] a = pc for some integer c a2 = p2c2 pb2 = p2c2 (using (i)) b2 = pc2 p divides b2 p divides b (since, p is prime and p divides b2 p divides b) Thus, p is common factor of a and b. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are coprime. Thie contradiction arises by assuming that Hence, Q. 99 is irrational. (1 mark) is rational.

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Prove that

is irrational.

Sol.

Let us assume that

is rational. = where a and b are

Then, there exist positive integers a and b such that co-primes. (1 mark)

Since, a and b are integers is rational. Hence, 5 + Q. 100 (1 mark) This contradicts the fact that

is a rational. is irrational. So our assumption is wrong. (1 mark)

is an irrational number.

Prove that

is irrational.

Sol. If possible, let be rational. where a and b are co-

Then there exist positive integers a and b such that primes. (On squaring both sides) (i)

b2 = 5a2

5 divides b2. 5 divides b (As 5 is prime and divides b2 5 divides b) (1 mark) b = 5c for some positive integer c. b2 = 25c2 5a2 = 25c2 (Using (i)) a2 = 5c2 5 divides a2 5 divides a (As 5 is prime and divides a2 5 divides a) (1 mark) Thus, 5 is a common factor of a and b. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are co-primes. The contradiction arises by assuming that Hence, is irrational. (1 mark) is rational.

Q. 101

Find with out actual division whether each of the rational numbers given below is a terminating or non-terminating repeating decimal. (i) (ii) (iii)

Sol.

(i) We have,

Here denominator 90 = 2 32 5 m 2 5n Therefore, is a non-terminating repeating decimal. (1 mark)

(ii) Here denominator = 50 =2 Therefore,

52 which is of the form 2m

5n where m = 1 and n = 2.

is a terminating decimal.

(1 mark)

(iii) Here denominator = = 23 32 52 2m 5n So, the given rational is a non-terminating repeating decimal. Q. 102

(1 mark)

Write down the decimal expansions of the following rational numbers by writing their denominators in the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non-negative integers. (a) (b) (c)

Sol. (a)

= .21375

(1 mark)

(b)

= .008125

(1 mark)

(c)

= .135 Q. 103

(1 mark)

Write down the decimal expansions of those rational numbers which have terminating decimal expansions. (a) (b)

Sol. (a)

Since, the denominator is in form of 2m 5n where m = 2, n = 4 Therefore, given rational is terminating decimal. (1 mark) Now,

= .0068

(1 mark)

(b) Since, the denominator is not in the form of 2m 5n. Therefore, given rational is a non-terminating repeating decimal. Q. 104

(1 mark)

Write down the decimal expansions of those rational numbers which have terminating decimal expansion. (a) (b)

Sol. (a) Since, the denominator is in form of 2m 5n where m = 6, n = 1. Therefore, given rational is terminating decimal. (1 mark) Now,

= .053125 (b)

(1 mark)

Since, the denominator is not in the form of 2m 5n. Therefore, given rational is non-terminating repeating decimal.

(1 mark)

Q. 105

Use Euclid's division algorithm to find the HCF of 3375 and 4550. Express the HCF as the linear combination of 3375 and 4550. OR Show that square of every odd natural number is of the form 8q + 1 for some integer q. Given integers are 3375 and 4550 such that 4550 > 3375. Applying Euclid's division lemma to 4550 and 3375, we get 4550 = 3375 1 + 1175 (1) Since, the remainder 1175 0. So, Apply the division lemma to 3375 and 1175, to get 3375 = 1175 2 + 1025 (2) (1/2 mark) We consider the new divisor 1175 and the new remainder 1025 and apply the division lemma to get 1175 = 1025 1 +150 (3) We consider the new divisor 1025 and the new remainder 150 and apply the division lemma to get 1025 = 150 6 + 125 (4) (1/2 mark) Again, consider the new divisor 150 and the new remainder 125 and apply the division lemma to get 150 = 125 1 + 25 (5) Now, consider the new divisor 125 and the new remainder 25 and apply the division lemma to get 125 = 25 5+0 The remainder is now 0. So the HCF of 3375 and 4550 is 25 (1/2 mark) Now from (5) 25 = 150 - 125 1 25 = 150 - (1025 - 150 6) (using (4)) 25 = 150 - 1025 + 150 6 25 = 150 7 - 1025 (1/2 mark) 25 = (1175 - 1025) 7 -1025 25 =1175 7 - 1025 7 -1025 (Using (3)) 25 =1175 7 - 1025 8 25 = 1175 7 - (3375 - 1175 2) 8 (using (2)) 25 = 1175 7 - 3375 8 + 1175 16 25 = 1175 23 - 3375 8 (1/2 mark) 25 = (4550 - 3375) 23 - 3375 8 (Using (1)) 25 = 4550 23 - 3375 23 - 3375 8 25 = 4550 23 - 3375 31 25 = 4550x + 3375 y , where x = 23 and y = -31 (1/2 mark) OR Let a be a given positive odd integer. On dividing a by 4, let q be the quotient and r be the remainder. then, by Euclid's algorithm, we have a = 4q + r, where 0 r < 4 a = 4q + r, where r = 0, 1, 2, 3. (1/2 mark) a = 4q or 4q +1 or 4q +2 or 4q + 3. But a = 4q, a = 4q +2 give even values of a. Thus, when a is odd, it is of the form 4q + 1 or 4q + 3 for some integer q. (1/2 mark) Now, (4q + 1)2 = 16q2 + 1 + 8q

Sol.

= 8q (2q + 1) + 1 = 8q' + 1 where q' = q (2q + 1) (1 mark) (4q + 3)2 = 16q2 + 9 + 24q = 8q(2q + 3) + 9 = 8q(2q + 3) + 8 + 1 = 8[q(2q + 3) + 1] + 1 = 8q' + 1 where q' = q(2q + 3) + 1 Hence, square of every odd positive integer is of the form 8q + 1 for some integer q. (1 mark) Q. 106 Show that 8n cannot end with the digit 0 for any OR Prove that Sol. is an irrational number.

Consider the prime factorisation of (8)n = (2)3n So, by fundamental theorem of arithmetic 23n is the only prime factorisation of 8n. (1 mark) If 8n is to end with 0 it must contain the prime 5 which is not possible as 2 is the only prime which it contains. Hence, 8n will not end with zero for any value of n where n N. (2 marks) OR If possible let ( be rational. Then integers, having no factor other than 1. , where a and b are non-zero

(1 mark) But a and 3b are non-zero integers Therefore, Also is rational

is rational is rational [as difference of rational is rational] is rational . (1 mark) is irrational. The contradiction arises by assuming

This contradicts the fact that that (7 + 3 ) is rational. Hence, 7 + 3 Q. 107

is an irrational number.

(1 mark)

Using Euclid's division algorithm, find the HCF of 56, 96 and 404. OR

Prove that Sol.

is an irrational number.

In order to find the HCF of 56, 96 and 404, we first find the HCF of 96 and 404 by Euclid's division algorithm. By applying Euclid's division lemma to 404 and 96, we get 404 = 96 4 + 20 (1) Since the remainder is 20 0, therefore, we apply Euclid's division lemma to 96 and 20, to get 96 = 20 4 + 16 (2) (1 mark) Again the remainder is 4 0. So, we apply Euclid's division lemma to 20 and 16, to get 20 = 16 1 + 4 (3) Further, the remainder is 4 0. So we apply Euclid's division lemma to 16 and 4, to get 16 = 4 4 + 0 (1 mark) We observe that the remainder at this stage is zero. Therefore, the HCF of 404 and 96 is 4 Now, we find the HCF of 4 and 56 56 = 4 14 + 0 Again the remainder is zero. HCF of 4 and 56 is 4 Hence, the HCF of 56, 96 and 404 is 4 (1 mark) OR Let us assume, to the contrary, that 0) such that is rational, we can find coprime a and b(b

(1 mark) Rearranging this equation, we have

Since a and b are integers, we get, But this contradicts the fact that

is rational and so is irrational. (1 mark)

is rational is

This contradiction has arisen because of our incorrect assumption that rational. So, we conclude that is irrational. (1 mark)

Q. 108

Show that

is an irrational number.

Sol.

Let us assume to contrary, that is irrational. That is, we can find coprime a and b(b 0) such that

Therefore, (1 mark) Rearranging this equation, we get

(1 mark) Since a and b are integers, we get is rational and so is rational. is

But this contradiction has arisen because of our incorrect assumption that rational. Hence, Q. 109 Sol. is irrational. (1 mark)

Prove that

is irrational.

Let us assume, to the contrary, that (b 0) such that = (1 mark) Rearranging this equation, we have

is rational, we can find coprimes a and b

Since a and b are integers, we get contradication. (1 mark) So, we conclude that Q. 110 is irrational.

is rational, and so (1 mark)

is rational, which is

The traffic lights at three different road crossings change after every 48 sec, 72 sec and 108 sec respectively. If they all changes simultaneously at 8:20:00 hours at what time will they again change simultaneously. OR The circumference of a circular field is 360 km. Three men cycle around it at a speed of 36, 60 and 72 km per day respectively, if they start cycling on same day from

same place then after how many days will they meet again at the starting point? Sol. The three lights will change simultaneously after LCM(48, 72, 108)sec. (1/2 mark) Prime factors of 48 = 2 2 2 2 3 = 24 3 Prime factors of 72 = 2 2 2 3 3 = 23 32 2 Prime factors of 108 = 2 2 3 3 3=2 33 (1/2 mark each) LCM (48, 72, 108) = 432 sec (1/2 mark) The three lights will change again at 8 : 27 : 12 hours (1/2 mark) OR No. of days taken by 3 men A, B and C to cover 360 km are (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) (1/2 mark) So they will meet each other at the same starting point after = L.C.M of ( , 6,5) days (1 mark) LCM (10, 6, 5) days = 60 days (1/2 mark) Therefore, after 6 days they will meet at the starting point. Q. 111 The traffic lights at three different road crossings change after every 48 sec, 72 sec and 108 sec respectively. If they all changes simultaneously at 8:20:00 hours, at what time will they again change simultaneously? OR There is a circular field whose circumference 360 km. Three men by bicycles revolving around it with 40, 60 and 72 km per day respectively, if they are starting on same day from same place, after how many days they meet at the starting point? Sol. Prime factoriation of 48 = 2 2 3 2 2 = 24 3 Prime factorisation of 72 = 2 2 3 3 2 = 22 32 2 Prime factorisation of 108 = 2 2 3 3 3 = 2 33 (1 mark) L.C.M of 48, 72, and 108

= 432 (1 mark) Therefore, L.C.M of 48, 72, and 108= 432sec i.e after 432 sec from 8:20:00 hours, they will change simultaneously at 8:27:02 hours (1 mark) OR First we have to find the number of days taken by 3 men A, B and C to cover 360 km.

So, they will meet each other at the same starting point after LCM (9, 6, 5) days. Prime factorization of 9 = 32 Prime factorization of 6 = 3 2 Prime factorization of 5 = 5 1 (1 mark) Therefore, LCM(9, 6, 5) = 32 2 5 = 9 10 = 90 Hence, they will meet each other at the same starting point after 90 days. (1 mark) Q. 112 Sol. Prove that n2 - n is an even integer for every positive integer n.

Let n be any positive integer and b = 2. Then, by Euclid's algorithm n = 2q + r where q Since, r = 0, 1. Therefore x = 2q or 2q + 1. (1 mark) Case I: When n = 2q n2 - n = (2q) 2 - 2q = 4q2 - 2q = 2q (2q - 1) = 2m where m = q (2q - 1) n2 - n is divisible by 2. (1 mark)

0 and 0

r < 2.

Case II: When n = 2q + 1 n2 - n = (2q + 1)2 - (2q + 1) = 4q2 + 1 + 4q - 2q - 1 = 4q2 + 2q =2q (2q + 1) = 2m where m = q (2q + 1) n2 - n is divisible by 2 Hence, n2 - n is an even integer for every positive integer n. Q. 113 Sol.

(1 mark)

Prove that the square of any positive integer is of the form 4m or 4m + 1 for some integer m. Let a be any positive integer and b = 4 Then, by Euclid's algorithm a = 4q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 Since, r = 0, 1, 2, 3 Therefore, a = 4q or 4q + 1 or 4q + 2 or 4q + 3 (1 mark) Case I: When a = 4q Squaring both sides, we have, a2 = (4q)2

r<4

a2 = 16q2 = 4(4q2) = 4m where m = 4q2.

(1 mark)

Case II: When a = 4q + 1 Squaring both sides, we have, a2 = (4q + 1)2 a2 = 16q2 + 1 + 8q = 4(4q2 + 2q) + 1 = 4m + 1 where m = 4q2 + 2q Case III: When a = 4q + 2 Squaring both sides, we have, a2 = (4q + 2)2 = 16q2 + 4 + 16q = 4(4q2 + 4q + 1) = 4m where m = 4q2 + 4q + 1

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Case IV: When a = 4q + 3 Squaring both sides, we have, a2 = (4q +3)2 = 16q2 + 9 + 24q = 16 q2 + 24q + 8 + 1 = 4(4q2 + 6q + 2) +1 = 4m +1 where m = 4q2 +7q + 2 Hence, a is of the form 4m or 4m + 1 for some integer m. Q. 114

(1 mark)

Find the LCM and HCF of following integers by applying the prime factorisation method. (a) 60, 84 and 108 (b) 8, 9 and 25 (a) Prime factorisation of 60 = 2 2 3 5 = 22 3 5 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 84 = 2 2 3 7 = 22 3 7 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 108 = 2 2 3 3 3 = 22 33 (1/2 mark) Therefore HCF (60, 84, 108) = 22 3 = 4 3 = 12 LCM (60, 84, 108) = 22 33 5 7 =4 27 5 7 = 108 35 = 3780 (1 mark) (b) Prime factorisation of 8 = 2 2 2 = 23 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 9 = 3 3 = 32 (1/2 mark) Prime factorisation of 25 = 5 5 = 52 (1/2 mark) Therefore, HCF (8, 9, 25) = 1 LCM( 8, 9, 25) = 23 32 52 = 8 9 25 = 1800 (1 mark) Find the largest positive integer that will divide 398, 436 and 542 leaving remainder 7, 11 and 15 respectively by using the Euclid's division algorithm.

Sol.

Q. 115

Sol.

It is given that on dividing 398 by the required number there is a remainder of 7. Therefore, 398 - 7 = 391 is exactly divisible by required number. Similarly, 436 - 11 = 425 is exactily divisible by required number. and 542 - 15 = 527 is exactly divisible by required number. Hence, the required number is the HCF of 391, 425 and 527. (1 mark) To find the HCF (425, 391) Step 1: Since, 425 > 391, we apply the division lemma to 425 and 391 to get. 425 = 391 1 + 34 (1/2 mark) Step 2: Since, the remainder 34 0 we apply the division lemma to 391 and 34 to get 391 = 34 11 + 17 (1/2 mark) Step 3: Since, the remainder 17 0, we apply the division lemma to 34 and 17, to get 34 = 17 2+0 (1/2 mark) Since, the remainder is now 0. Hence, HCF (425, 391) = 17 (1/2 mark) To find the HCF of 17 and the third number 527 Step 1: Since, 527 > 17, we apply the Euclid's algorithm to 527 and 17 to get. 527 = 17 31 + 0 Since, the remainder is 0. (1.5 marks) Therefore, HCF (527, 17) = 17 Hence, the HCF of 391, 425 and 527 is 17 Therefore, the required number is 17. (1/2 mark)

Q. 116 Sol.

Use Euclid's division lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the form 3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m. Let a be any positive integer and b = 3 Then, by Euclid's algorithm, we have, a = 3q + r for some integer q 0 and 0 Since, r = 0, 1, 2 Therefore, a = 3q or 3q + 1 or 3q + 2 Case I: When a = 3q On squaring, we have, a2 = 9q2 = 3(3q2) = 3m where m = 3q2 Case II: When a = 3q + 1 On squaring, we have, a2 = (3q + 1)2 = 9q2 + 1 + 6q = 3q(3q + 2) + 1

r < 3.

(1 mark)

(1/2 mark)

(1 mark)

= 3m + 1 where m = q(3q + 2)

(1 mark)

Case III: When a = 3q + 2 On squaring, we have, a2 = (3q + 2)2 a2 = 9q2 + 4 + 12q = 9q2 + 12q + 3 + 1 = 3(3q2 + 4q + 1) + 1 = 3m + 1 where m = 3q2 + 4q + 1 (1 mark) Hence, a is of the form 3m or 3m + 1 for some integer m. Q. 117 Sol.

(1/2 mark)

Use Euclid's division lemma to show that the cube of any positive integer is of the form 9m, 9m + 1 or 9m + 8 for some integer m. Let a be any positive integer and b = 3. By Euclid's algorithm, we have, a = 3q + r where q 0 and 0 r < 3. Since, r = 0, 1, 2 Therefore, a = 3q or 3q + 1 or 3q + 2. Case I: Whena = 3q a3 = (3q)3 = 27q3 = 9(3q3) = 9 m where m = 3q3

(1 mark) (1/2 mark)

(1 mark)

Case II: When a = 3q + 1 a3 = (3q + 1)3 = 27q3 + 27q2 + 9q + 1 = 9q(3q2 + 3q + 1) + 1 = 9m + 1 where m = q(3q2 + 3q + 1)

(1 mark)

Case III: When a = 3q + 2 a3 = (3q + 2)3 = 27q3 + 54q2 + 36q + 8 = 9q(3q2 + 6q + 4) + 8 = 9m + 8 where m = q(3q2 + 6q + 4) (1 mark) Hence, a3 is either of the form 9m or 9m + 1 or 9m + 8. Q. 118

(1/2 mark) HCF = Product

Find the LCM and HCF of the following integers and verify that LCM of two numbers. (i) 120 and 385 (ii) 9240 and 444 (i) Prime factorisation of 120 = 2 2 2 3 5 = 23 3 5 (1 mark) Prime factorisation of 385 = 5 7 11 (1/2 mark) HCF (385, 120) = 5

Sol.

LCM (385, 120) = 23 3 5 7 11 =8 5 3 7 11 = 9240 (1/2 mark) Verification: LCM HCF = 9240 5 = 46200 Product of 120 and 385 = 120 385 = 46200 (1/2 mark) Hence, LCM HCF = Product of two numbers (ii) Prime factorisation of 9240 = 2 2 2 3 5 7 11 = 23 3 5 7 11 Prime factorisation of 444 = 2 2 3 37 = 22 3 37 (1/2 mark) HCF (9240, 444) = 22 3 =4 3 = 12 LCM (9240, 444) = 23 3 5 7 11 37 =8 3 5 7 11 37 = 341880 (1 mark) Verification: LCM HCF = 341880 12 = 4102560 Product of 9240 and 444 = 9240 444 = 4102560 Hence, LCM HCF = Product of two numbers. Q. 119

(1/2 mark)

(1/2 mark)

Find the LCM and HCF of the following integers by applying the prime factorisation method. (i) 30, 72 and 432 (ii) 8, 72 and 120 (i) Prime factorisation of 30 = 2 3 5 Prime factorisation of 72 = 2 2 2 3 3 = 23 32 Prime factorisation of 432 = 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 = 24 33 (1.5 marks) HCF (30, 72, 432) = 2 3=6 LCM (30, 72, 432) = 24 33 5 = 16 27 5 = 2160 (1 mark) (ii) Prime factorisation of 8 = 2 2 2 = 23 Prime factorisation of 72 = 2 2 2 3 3 = 23 32 3 Prime factorisation of 120 = 2 3 5 (1.5 marks) HCF (8, 72, 120) = 23 = 8 LCM (8, 72, 120) = 23 32 5 =8 9 5 = 360 (1 mark)

Sol.

Q. 120 Sol.

Prove that

is irrational.

Let us assume on the contrary that

is a rational number. where a and b are

Then, there exist positive integers a and b such that co-primes (1 mark)

(Squaring both sides)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Since, a and b are integers. Therefore, is a rational. (1 mark) is irrational. (1 mark)

is a rational number. This contradicts the fact that So, our assumption is wrong. Hence, Q. 121 Sol. is irrational.

Prove that

is an irrational number.

Let us assume that and b such that

is a rational number. Then there exist positive integers a where a and b are co-primes. (1 mark)

(Squaring both sides)

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Since, a and b are integers. Therefore, is a rational. (1 mark) is irrational. (1 mark)

This contradicts the fact that So, out assumption is wrong. Hence, Q. 122 Sol. is irrational.

Prove that

is irrational.

Let us assume on contrary that

is a rational number. where a and b are

Then, there exist positive integers a and b such that co-primes. (1 mark)

Squaring both sides, we get,

(1 mark)

(1 mark)

Since, a and b are integers. Therefore, is a rational. (1 mark)

is a rational number. This contradicts the fact is irrational. So, our assumption is wrong. Hence, Q. 123 is irrational. (1 mark)

Prove that

is irrational.

Sol. If possible, let be rational. where a and b are co-

Then, there exist positive integers a and b such that primes. (1 mark)

(Squaring both sides)

(1 mark) (i) divides b2 divides b where c is some positive integer (1 mark)

(Using (i))

divides a2 divides a (1 mark)

Thus, is a common factor of a and b. But this contradicts the fact that a and b are co-primes. The contradiction arises by assuming that Hence, is irrational. (1 mark) is rational.