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3
Unit 1.Ordinal and relation signs
Look through the table and try to memorize it.
signs reading examples
1. Firstly; or: in the first place
2. Secondly; or in the second
place

. Point; or: decimal point
And so on to 1, 2, 3 25 (read: one, two, three
and so on to twenty five


And so on to infinity 1, 2, 3 (read: one, two, three and
so on to infinity


I: since, because
1
x

x one, or : x sub one
x

x approaches infinity or: x
tends to infinity

= is equal to, or: does not equal a=b; a equals b or: a is equal to ; or:
a is b


is not equal to; or: does not
equal
b a
; a does not equal b; or: a is not
equal to b; or: a is not b

, ~ (is) directly proportional to p~ q


approximately equals
or : is approximately equal to

a=b;
a approximately equals b,
or ; a is approximately equal to b
:: as (in proportions) p:q :: s:t, read p(is) to q as s (is) to t

Is identical with, or is always
equal to
F(x)= 0 f of x(is) identical with zero
( )

Parentheses; or : round
brackets

| |

Brackets; or: square brackets
{ }

braces
< (is) less than p<q; p (is) less than q
> (is) greater than p>q; p (is) greater than q


(is) not greater than p, q stands for p=x=q
>
/

(is) greater than of equals The closed interval p q stands x not
less than


(is) not greater than of equals
b a
a (is) greater than or equals b
<
/
, ,
(is) not less than
; ; ' ; b a b a b a <
/

a is not less than b






4
1.1 Assignments
1.1.1Memorize the following words and word-groups.
ordinal sign [`O:dInl `saIn]
relation sign [rI`leIS(q)n `saIn ]
point; [poInt]
decimal [`desIm(q)l] n. ,
a
decimal point [`desIm(q)l poInt] ,


(
)
infinity [In`fInItI]
approximately [q`prOks(I)mItlI]
proportion [prq`pO:Sqn] ,

,
,
,
proportional [prq`pO:Sqnl]
identical with [aI`dentIk(q)l wID] -

round brackets /
parentheses
[`raund `brxkIts]
[pq`renTIsI:z]

square brackets / brackets [`skwFq `brxkIts]
braces [`breIsIz]
is equal to, equals [`I:kw(q)l] ,
less than [les Dxn]
greater than [`greItq Dxn]
since [sIns] ,
approach / tend [q`prouC] [tend] ;
,

1.1.2 Read the following signs:

| |

x

p:q :: s:t
a>b
1500 , 150 , 50
t s <
/
a b d <
/
+

1
y


5
1.1.3 Match the columns
1 x a) x approaches infinity or: x tends to infinity
2


b) Parentheses; or : round brackets
3
1
x

c) is not equal to
4 x

d) x and so on to infinity
5 x=1 e) x one, or : x sub one
6


f) X is equal to one, or: x does equal one
7

, ~ g) (is) directly proportional to


8 :: h) I: since, because
9

i) Is identical with, or is always equal to
10 ( )

j) as (in proportions)

1.1.4 Say whether the following expressions and signs are true or false:
a
2
+b
2
= c
2
a plus b is equal c
p>q; p is greater than q
; a does not equal b; or: a is not equal to b; or: a is not b
b a
F(x)= 0 f of x(is) identical with zero
a (is) greater than or equals b
b a
; a approximately equals b, b a
1, 2, 3, one, two, three and so on infinity

Unit 2.Operation signs and terms
Look through the table and try to memorize it.
Signs of operation operation
written read
examples Names of
components
addition + plus a+b=s
a plus b is equal to
s
a and b are
addends; or: items;
or: summands; s-
sum
subtraction - minus L-1=a
Capital L minus
small 1 is equal to
a
l-minuend
1 subtrahend
a- difference,
or: remainder
multiplication * multiplied by c ab b a b a = = =
a times b is equal
c; or: a multiplied
by b is equal to c;
or: ab equals c
a and b are factors
a- multiplicand
b- multiplier
c - product
division / Divided by;
or : over
c b a
b
a
b a = = = :
a divided by b
equals c; or: a
over b is equal to c
a - dividend
b - divisor
c quotient; or:
a numerator
b denominator
a/b a fraction
6

2.1 Assignments

2.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
operation sign [
`
Opq`reIS(q)n `saIn]
operation terms [
`
Opq`reIS(q)n `tq:mz ]
addition [q`dIS(q)n]
addend / item; [q`dend] [`aItem]
summand [`sAmqnd]
sum [sAm]
subtraction [sqb`trxkS(q)n]
minuend [`mInju(:)end]
subtrahend [`sAbtrqhend]
difference / remainder [`dIfr(q)ns] [rI`meIndq]
multiplication [
`
mAltIplI`keIS(q)n]
multiplicand [
`
mAltIplI`kxnd]
multiplier [`mAltIplaIq]
product [`prOdqkt]
division [dI`vIZ(q)n]
dividend / numerator

[`dIvIdend]
[`njHmqreItq]

divisor / denominator [dI`vaIzq] [dI`nqmIneItq]
quotient; [`kwouS(q)nt]
a fraction [`frxkS(q)n]


2.1.2. Give the names of components of these operations:
3 4 / 12 =
220 20 11 =
13-6=7
23+17=40

2.1.3. Match the columns
1 + a. over
2 - b. minus
3 * c. plus
4


d. multiplied by
5 = e. as (in proportions)
6 { }

f. Is identical with, or is always equal to
7 < g. is equal to, or: does not equal
8 :: h. is not equal to; or: does not equal
9

i. Braces
10 / j. (is) less than


7
2.1.4. Write these operations
add 5 times c 2 times d
multiply the sum of x and y by z
subtraction 0.5 times d 0.5 times l
divide v-w by r times s

2.1.5. Read these expressions
360 30 12 =

m
d
m d =
11 12 23 =
( ) 5 4 / 8 12 = +
( ) ( ) | | 40 7 12 3 5 = +
( ) ( ) | | ( ) | | 4 13 23 7 12 3 5 + > +

2.1.6. Translate into Russian
A can do a piece of work in 8 days. If B can do it in 10 days, in how many days can
both working together do it?

Solution
Let x= the required number of days, then =
x
1
the part of the work both can do in 1
day;
=
x
1
the part of the work A can do in 1 day; =
x
1
the part of the work B can do in 1
day:
10
1
8
1 1
+ =
x
, or
10

9
Solving,
9
4
4
9
40
= = x , the required number of days.














8




Unit 3.Operating with fractions

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
Examples
written read
Rules
1/2 One second; or: a half
1/3 one third; a third
2/3 Two thirds
1/4
One fourth; or: a fourth;
or: a quarter
1/100 A hundredth
5/16 Five sixteenths
; 1/3; ; 2/3; 1/100; and 5/16 are
proper fractions.
A proper fraction is one whose
numerator is less than denominator

23/6
9/9
Twenty three six
Nine ninths
23/6 and 9/9 are improper fractions. An
improper fraction is a fraction, whose
numerator is equal to or larger than the
denominator
7
5
3
Three and five sevenths
Three and five seventh is a mixed
number. A mixed number is a number
and a fraction written together
b
a
br
ar
=
ar over br equals a over
b
To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms,
divide the numerator and the
denominator by their highest common
factor (or: measure, or: divisor)
br
ar
b
a
=
a over b equals ar over
br

To reduce a fraction to higher terms,
multiply the numerator and the
denominator by the same number.
bd
bc ad
d
c
b
a
=
a over b, this fraction
followed by plus or
minus c over d equals ad
plus or minus bc this
sum or difference over
bd
To find the sum (the difference) of two
unlike fractions, change them to like
fractions (fractions having their least
common denominator) and combine the
numerators.
bd
ac
d
c
b
a
=
a over b, this fraction
multiplied by c over d
equals ac over bd
To find the product of two fractions,
multiply the numerators together and the
denominators together
9
3
2
1
3
5
2
1
*
6
5
= =
Five sixths divided by a
half equals one and two
thirds
To find quotient of two fractions,
multiply the dividend by the inverted
divisor
bc
ad
d
c
b
a
= /
a over b, this fraction
divided by c over d
equals ad over bc
To convert an improper fraction into a
mixed number, break it up into the sum
of an integer and a proper fraction:


3.1Assignments


3.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
proper fraction [`prOpq `frxkS(q)n]
improper fraction [ Im`prOpq frxkS(q)n]
mixed fraction [mIkst`frxkS(q)n]
to reduce a fraction [rI`djHs q `frxkS(q)n]
a) to its lowest terms [` louIst `tq:mz]

b) to its higher terms [`haIq ` tq:mz]

common factor / measure /
divisor
[`kOmqn` fxktq]
[`meZq] [dI`vaIzq]

combine [kOm`baIn]
to convert [kOn`vq:t]
an integer [`IntIGq]
integer solution
,

complex / Gaussian integer

ratio [`reISIou] ,
,
,

inverse ratio [[`In`vWs `reISIou]


3.1.2. Give the definitions:
a proper fractions
an improper fractions
a mixed fractions

3.1.3. Do these operations:
reduce a fraction to higher terms:
3
2

10
reduce a fraction to its lowest terms:
12
8

find the sum of two unlike fractions:
4
3
3
2
+
find the product of two fractions:
12
5
5
3

convert an improper fraction into a mixed number:
9
9
8
24

find quotient of two fractions :
2
12
*
6
45


3.1.4. Match the columns:
1 123/123 a. A proper fractions
2 23/9 b. a mixed fractions
3 1/8 c. Braces
4
5
2
2
d. An improper fractions
5 = e. Less than
6 { }

f. a mixed fractions
7 < g. is equal to, or: does not equal
8


h. Infinity
9

i. Because

3.1.5. Read these operations:

b
a
b
a
=
5
5


2 * 2
1 * 2 2 * 1
2
1
2
1
=

b
a
b
a
6
6
=

5 * 7
3 * 3
5
3
7
3
=

7 * 5
5 * 7
5
7
/
5
7
=

3
2
1
3
5
2
1
*
6
5
= =

3.1.6. Write these operations:
a over b, this fraction followed by plus or minus c over d equals ad plus or
minus bc this sum or difference over bd
a over b, this fraction divided by c over d equals ad over bc
ar over br equals a over b
Five sixths divided by a half equals one and two thirds
a over b, this fraction multiplied by c over d equals ac over bd
a over b equals 2a over 3b
11

3.1.7. Translate into Russian:
To convert an improper fraction into a mixed number, break it up into the
sum of an integer and a proper fraction
To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms, divide the numerator and the
denominator by their highest common factor (or: measure, or: divisor)
To find the sum (the difference) of two unlike fractions, change them to like
fractions (fractions having their least common denominator) and combine
the numerators
To find quotient of two fractions, multiply the dividend by the inverted
divisor
To find the product of two fractions, multiply the numerators together and
the denominators together
To reduce a fraction to higher terms, multiply the numerator and the
denominator by the same number.

Unit 4.Decimal fractions

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
writing reading
.2 Point two
0.2 O point two, or; two tenths
0.02 O point o two, or; two hundredths
12.707 Twelve point seven o seven
0 O, or: zero, or: nought; or: cipher; or: nil
(null)

4.1 TEXT (Read the text and do the tasks that follow.)
FRACTIONS
There are three methods of dealing with fractions:
1. by expressing each fraction as the sum of fraction as the sum of fractions
with unit numerators, e.g.
3
1
2
1
6
5
+ =
2. by diving the unit into sub-units which are given special names, e.g. the
foot is divided into twelve parts and each twelfth part called an inch;
3. by using fractions whose denominators are powers of the same number,
e.g.
100
5
10
7
4
3
+ =
12
The Egyptians used the first method and developed a high degree of skill in it.
The second method was used by the Romans, who divided their pound, their foot and
one of their coins into twelfths; these fractions were called unciae, from which we get
the words inch and ounce. The third method dates back to the Babylonians, who used
fractions with denominators which were powers of 60; the Greeks also this method in
scientific work.
It was not until Simon Stevin (1548-1620) published his essay on decimal
fractions in 1585 that the third method, with denominators which all powers of 10,
became generally adopted. Stevin was an important government official in the
Netherlands in the time of the struggle against Spain. Many authors had used decimal
fractions in particular problems, and decimal point first appeared in print as early as
in 1492, but Stevin was the originator of general rules for the use of decimal
fractions.

4.1.1Choose the best sentences ending which is true to the text:
1.The Egyptians used
a. the second method of dealing with fractions.
b. the first method of dealing with fractions and developed a high degree of
skill in it.
c. fractions called unciae.
d. fractions with denominators which were powers of sixty.
2.The third method dates back to
a. The Roman period.
b. 1585 when Simon Stevin published his essay on decimal fractions.
c. Ancient times
d. The Babylonians, who used fractions with denominators which were
powers of sixty

4.1.2 Choose the best reply to the sentences given.
1. What was Stevins contribution in mathematics?
a. He used decimal fractions in particular problems.
b. He was the originator of general rules for the use of decimal fractions.
c. He used decimal fractions in particular problems.
d. He developed the first method of dealing with fractions.
2. What times does the third method date back to?
a. It dates back to ancient Rome.
b. It dates back to the fourteenth century
c. It dates back to Babylonians.
d. It dates back to the twentieth century.

4.1.3 Rearrange the words to make sentences.
1.with three are methods of dealing There fractions.
2. method The used Egyptians the first.
3. in print decimal as early in as 1492 point appeared The first.

4.2 Assignments
4.2.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
decimal fraction [`desIm(q)l`frxkS(q)n]

13
Zero / nought / cipher /
nil / null
[`zIqrou] [nO:t] [`saIfq]
[nIl] [nAl]


4.2.2. Match the columns
1 .2 a) Two second
2 23/6 b) Twenty three sixth
3 2/2 c) Point two
4
7
5
3
d)
Twelve point seven nought seven
5 3.57 e) Three and five sevenths
6 0.02 f) naught; or: cipher;
7 12.707 g) Point; or: decimal point
8 0 h) nought point nought two,
9 . i) And so on to
10 j) three point fifty seven


Unit 5.Roots

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
symbols reading additional word
combinations
b c
n
=

(the) n-th root of c is equal to
b
To extract a root


radical To express a radical
by a power with

root sign, or: radical sign a fractional exponent
n index of a root
c radicand
b value of a root
x
square root of x
3
x
cube root of x
n
m
n m
C c =
The n-th root of c to the m-th
power equals c to the power
of m over n

L=
2 2
x R
Capital L equals the square
root of (out of) capital R
squared plus or minus x
squared





14


5.1 Assignments

5.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
To extract a root [Iks`trxkt q `rHt]
To express [Iks`pres ]
a fractional exponent
|`frxkSqnl
eks`pounqnt]


radical
|`rxdIk(q)l]
,
root sign, or: radical sign [`rHt `saIn] (
,
)
index of a root
(pl indexes)
[`Indeks Ov q `rHt]
pl [`IndeksIz]}

radicand
|`rxdIkqnd]
,

value of a root [`vxljH Ov q `rHt]

,

square root of [`skwFq `rHt Ov]
cube root of [`kjHb `rHt Ov]

5.1.2. Give the names to the components of these operations:


c
z a

=

5.1.3. Read these roots:
3 3 * 9
3
=
( )
n
m n
m
C b a = +
( ) ( )
2 4
b a b a + = +
2 64
6
=
y b a = +
4 2


5.1.4. Match the columns
1
5
2
2
a) radical
2 b) cube root of x
3 ( ) c) braces
4 { }

d) (the) n-th root of c is equal to b
5
b c
n
=
e) a proper fraction
6


f) a mixed fractions
15
7
3
x
g) Round brackets
Unit 6.Powers.

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
symbols Reading Additional word
combinations
c b
n
= b to the n-th power is
equal to c
b to the n-this equal to c
the n-th power of b is
equal to c
b to the power of n is
equal to c
b to the power n is equal
to c
To raise to a power to
square a number to cube
number
b base
n power exponent
c value of a power
b
n
power
3 2
, b b b squared, b cubed
n
b

b to the power of minus n


n m n m
a a =
/

The m over n-th power of
a equals the square root of
a to the m-th power


6.1 Assignments

6.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
power
|`pauq]

to raise to a power to [`reIz to q `pauq to]
base
|bqIs]

power exponent [`pauq] ,
value of a power [`vxljH Ov q `pauq ]


involution [
`
invq`lHSqn]

6.1.2. Read the following expressions.
d a
c
log
3
=
0
2
2
=
t
u



n m
a a =
4


216 6
3
=

16

6.1.3. Write the following expressions
c b
n
=
a 15 12
3
+ =

4 2 3
c a b = +

( )
a b
n
=
+ 1

216 6
3
=

6.1.4. Give the names to the components
Model: a+b=c a and b mean addends; c means a sum

c b
n
=



n
d

b =


Unit 7.Logarithms

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
symbols reading additional word
combinations
n c
b
= log the logarithm of c to the
base b is equal to n
natural logarithm of a
number (ln c)
c
b
log logarithmic expression (common) logarithm of a
number (log c; or: lg c)
B base
C antilogarithm
N value of a logarithm
d a
c
log
3
= a cubed equals the
logarithm of d to the base
c


7.1 Assignments
7.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
17
logarithm [`lOgqrITqm]
natural logarithm [`nxtSrql`lOgqrITqm]
common logarithm [`kOmqn `lOgqrITqm]
logarithmic expression [
`
lOgq`rITmIk
Iks`preSqn]


antilogarithm [`xntI` lOgqrITqm]
value of a logarithm [`vxljH Ov q `
lOgqrITqm]
()

lOgqrITqm]

7.1.2. Read the following symbols
m x
a
= log
d a
b
log
2
=
y b
a
= log

7.1.3. What does B, C, N mean in logarithmic expressions? Answer using the
following pattern:


7.1.4. Choose the correct definitions of the term logarithm
a) One of a series of numbers set out in tables which make it possible to work out
problems in multiplication and division by adding and subtracting.
b) Branch of mathematics that deals with the relations between the sides and
angles of triangles
c) Variable quantity, dependent in value on another.

7.1.5. Match the columns.
1
b c
n
=
a) radical
2 c
b
log b) Natural logarithm
3 ln
c
c) Common logarithm
4

d) (the) n-th root of c is equal to b
5
2
b e) Square root of b
6
n
b

f) b to the power of minus n


7
b
g) b squared,

Unit 8.Some algebraic expressions and formulas

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
symbols reading
a a prime
a a second prime; or; a double prime
a a triple prime
1
a a first prime
2
a a second second prime
c
a a second prime sub c; or: a c-th second prime
M or
modulus
Z
&

first derivative of z
Z
& &

second derivative of z
dx
dz

the first derivative of z with respect to x
B means the base
18
2
2
dx
z d

the second derivative of y with respect to x
n
n
dx
z d

the n-th derivative of y with respect to x
( ) x f y = y is a function of x ; or: y equals f of x
approaches; or: approaches the limit; or: tends to
a x x approaches the limit a
0
x x x approaches x nought; or: x tends to x naught


m
n

integral of from n to m; or: integral of between
limits n and m
2
2 x dx x =


the integral of 2x dx is x
2

x
x
lxdx
dx
d
0

d over dx of the integral from x sub 0 (or: from x zero-
th) to x of capital Lxdx
( )
( )
2 2
1 1 1
a x P
a x P x R m

=

m equals R sub one multiplied by x minus P sub one
round brackets opened, x minus a sub one, round
brackets closed, minus P sub two round brackets opened,
x minus a sub two, round brackets closed; or: m equals R
first x minus P first multiplied by the difference between
x and a sub one minus P second multiplied by the
difference between x and a sub two

the sum

=
n
n l
i
x
Summing over x sub i from one to n

8.1 Assignments

8.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
a prime [praIm] ,
a double prime [`dAbl `praIm] ;

a triple prime [`trIpl `praIm] ;

a first prime [`fq:st `praIm]
modulus
pl moduli
[`mOdjulqs]
[`mOdjulaI]


(),
derivative of [dI`rIvqtIv qv] ;

with respect to [wID rIs`pekt tq] ,
approach [q`prouC]YUU ,
;

integral of [`IntIgrql ]
19
limit [`lImIt]

8.1.2. Read the symbols.
a
( ) x f y =

a x

2
a

c
a


m
n

8.1.3. Read the following equations.

2
2 x dx x =

( ) x f y =

( )
( )
2 2
1 1 1
a x P
a x P x R m

=

8.1.4. Match the columns.
1 a x a) a double prime
2

b) second derivative of z
3
2
a

c) the sum
4
Z
& &

d) a second second prime
5 a e) x approaches the limit a

8.1.5. Write the symbols that are implied by the following definitions.
A. Line or point that may not or cannot be passed; greatest or smallest
amount, degree, etc. of what is possible.
B. Of, denoted by, an integer; made up of integers.
C. Total obtained by adding together items, numbers or amounts.











20
Unit 9.Fundamental symbols and expressions concerning the theory of sets

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
symbols Reading
a is an element of M; or: a belongs to M
a is not element of M; or: a does not belong to M
{ } 6 , 4 , 2 = M is the set with the elements 2,4,6
0/ = M is an empty set (or: a null set)
M is a subset of B

M is proper subset of B
the union of A and B
the intersection of A and B

the Cartesian product A and B are equivalent to each other

9.1 Assignments

9.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
fundamental symbols
|
`
fAndq`mentl
`sImbqlz]

fundamental expressions [
`
fAndq`mentl `
Iks`preSqnz]

the theory of sets [`TIqrI qv `sets]
the set [set] ; ;
;
()
an empty set [` emptI `set]
a subset [`sAb
`
set]
a proper subset [`prOpq `sAb
`
set]

union of sets [`jHnjqn ]
the intersection of sets [
`
Intq`sekSqn]
the Cartesian product [kR`tJzjqn `prOdqkt]
to be equivalent to [I`kwIvqlqnt]
(,
)
-

9.1.2. Translate into Russian:
a is an element of M; or: a belongs to M
a is not element of M; or: a does not belong to M
M is the set with the elements 2,4,6
M is an empty set (or: a null set)
M is a subset of B
M is proper subset of B
21
the union of A and B
the intersection of A and B
the Cartesian product A and B are equivalent to each other

9.1.3. Read these symbols:





9.1.4. Match the columns
1 a) a does not equal m
2 { } 6 , 4 , 2 = b) 2,4,6, and so on infinity
3

=
n
n l
i
A
c) the union of A and B
4
6 , 4 , 2
d) M is the set with the elements 2,4,6
5 m a e) a does not belong to M
6 f) Summing over A sub i from one to n

9.1.5. Insert a word instead of a symbol.
1. a)is an element; b) is a subset c) is proper subset of
2. a)is an element; b) is a subset of c) is proper subset of
3. 0/ = a) is an empty; b) does not belong to c) is proper subset of
4. a) the union of; b) are equivalent to each other; c) is proper
subset of
5. a) the union of; b) the intersection of; c) is proper subset of

















22
Unit 10.Classification of the elementary functions

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
functions reading
rational integral
functions

=
=
4
k
a k
k
ax y
y equals the sum of a (sub) K, x of the
power of k, taken k equal to zero to k equal
4
rational fractional
functions
2
2
7
x
x
y
+
+
=
y equal the fraction with the numerator 7
plus x and the denominator 2 minus x
squared
irrational
functions
2 2
x z y =
y equals the negative square root of the
difference z squared minus x squared
exponential
functions
x y ln =
y equals l n x
Y=sin x y equals the sine of x
Y=cos x y equals the cosine of x
Y=tg x y equals the tangent of x
Y=ctg x y equals the cotangent of x
Y=sec x y equals the secant of x
trigonometric
functions
Y=csc x y equals the cosecant of x
antitrigonometric
functions; or:
inverse
trigonometric
functions
x y
1
sin

= y equals: the inverse sine of x,


or: the arcsine of x
or: the angle whose sine is x




















23
10.1 Assignments

10.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
rational integral function [`rxSqnl `IntIgrql
`fANkSqn]


rational fractional
functions
[`rxSqnl `frxkSqnl
`fANkSqn]


irrational function [I`rxSqnl `fANkSqn]

exponential function [
`
ekspou`nenSql
`fANkSqn]

trigonometric function [
`
trIgqnq`metrikc c
`fANkSqn]


antitrigonometric
function
[` xntI
`
trIgqnq`metrikc c
`fANkSqn]



the sine [saIn]
the cosine [`kousain]
the tangent [`txnGqnt]
the cotangent [`kou`txnGqnt]
the secant [`sJkqnt]
the cosecant [`kousJkqnt]
the arc sine [
`
Rk`sain]
the arc cosine [
`
Rk`kousain]
the angle [`xNgl]
the inverse [`In`vWs] ,
,


10.1.2. Read the function

=
=
4
k
a k
k
ax y

2
2
7
x
x
y
+
+
=

2 2
x z y =
x y ln =
Y=sin x
Y=cos x
Y=tg x
Y=ctg x
Y=sec x
Y=csc x
x y
1
sin

=

24
10.1.3. Match the columns
1 a) the integral of 2x dx is x
2

2
2
2 x dx x =


b) exponential functions
3


c) y equals the negative square root of the
difference z squared minus x squared
4
2
2 2
7 11
+
+
= y
d) the intersection of Y and X
5
2 2
x z y =
e) y equals the sum of a (sub) K, x of the power of
k, taken k equal to zero to k equal 4
6
x y ln =
f) rational fractional functions
7

=
=
4
k
a k
k
ax y
g) radical

10.1.4. Give the examples of the functions:
Model: Trigonometric function is Y=sin x
rational integral functions
rational fractional functions
irrational functions
exponential functions
trigonometric functions
inverse trigonometric functions


Unit 11.Expressions concerning intervals and limits

Look through the table and try to memorize it.
Signs reading
(a, b) open interval a b
| | b a, closed interval a b
( | b a, half open interval a b, open on the left and closed on the
right
X = ( ) + ; Capital x equals the open interval minus infinite plus
infinite
X
0
x x approaches x nought; or x tends to x nought
L x f
x x
=

) ( lim
1
the limit of f x as x tends to x one is capital L
) ( ) ( lim
0
0
x f x f
x x

the limit of f of x tends to x nought is not equal to f of x


nought
0 lim =

n
x
a the limit of a sub n is zero as n tends to infinity




25

11.1 Assignments

11.1.1. Memorize the following words and word-groups:
open interval [`oupqn `Intqvql]
closed interval [`klouzd `Intqvql] ,
half open interval [`hRf `oupqn `Intqvql]

infinite [`InfInIt] ,

infinity [In`fInItI]

11.1.2. Read the signs
( | b a,
half open interval a b, open on the left and closed on the
right
X = ( 10 ;+ )
Capital x equals the open interval minus infinite plus ten
Y=tg x
y equals the tangent of x
L x f
x x
=

) ( lim
1
the limit of f x as x tends to x one is capital L


( ) ( lim
0
0
x f x f
x x

the limit of f of x tends to x nought is not equal to f of x


nought
0 lim =

n
x
a
the limit of a sub n is zero as n tends to infinity

11.1.3. Match the columns
1 23/6

a) x approaches x nought; or x tends to x
nought
2 | | b a, b) improper fraction
3 (a, b) c) closed interval
4 x= ( ) + ;
0
x d) x equals the open interval x nought plus
infinite
5 X
0
x e) open interval a b
6 L x f
x x
=

) ( lim
1
f) the limit of f x as x tends to x one is capital
L
7 ) ( ) ( lim
0
0
x f x f
x x

g) the limit of f of x tends to x nought is not


equal to f of x nought
8 0 lim =

n
x
a h) the limit of a sub n is zero as n tends to
infinity

11.1.4. Translate into Russian
m equals R sub one multiplied by x minus P sub one round brackets
opened, x minus a sub one, round brackets closed, minus P sub two
round brackets opened, x minus a sub two, round brackets closed
a is directly proportional to b
The limit for delta x tending to zero, of the sum of small f of x sub k
26
delta x taken from x sub k equal to a to x sub k equal to b minus delta x
equals the integral from a to b of small f of xdx equals capital F of x
between limits a and b equals capital F of minus capital F of a equals
capital A
x approaches x nought; or x tends to x nought
the logarithm of c to the base b is equal to n
the limit of f of x tends to x nought is not equal to f of x nought

11.1.5. Insert a proper word
1. Open interval can be shown by . . . .
a) parentheses
b) brace
c) point
2. Closed interval can be shown by . . . .
a) square brackets
b) brace
c) round brackets
3. Half open interval can be shown by . . . .
a) brackets
b) round brackets on the left and square brackets on the right
a) infinity

Tasks.
1. Analyse and memorize

( )
( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

1 2
1 / m m
m
c
z
b z

a) of z is equal to b, square brackets, parenthesis, z divided by c sub m plus
two, close parenthesis, to the power of m over m minus 1, minus 1, close
square brackets.
b) f z is equal to b, multiplied by the whole quantity: the quantity two plus z
over c sub m, to the power m over minus 1, minus 1.

( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

j
t
j
t t t
i i


2 1 2 1


The absolute value of the quantity sub j of t sub one, minus sub j of t sub two
is less than or equal to the absolute value of the quantity M of t sub one minus
over j, minus M of t sub two minus over j

( ) | | n j b a t t a k
n
i
ij
j
.... 2 , 1 ; , ; max
1
= =

=

27

K is equal to the maximum over j of the sum from i equals one to i equals n of the
modulus of a sub i j of t, where t lies in the closed interval a, b and where j from
one to n.

( ) | | ( ) { } | | ds s s f ds s s s f
t t
n n
n
= +



lim ( )

The limit as n tends to infinite of the integral of f of s and
n
of s plus delta sub n
of s, with respect to s, from to t, is equal to the integral of f of s and of s, with
respect to s, from to t.

( )
1 1 + +
+
=
s
s q
r n
t
s n
p e t r



sub n minus r sub s plus one of t is equal to p sub n minus r sub s plus 1 times e
to the power t times sub q plus s.

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) g a g a g a g
n
n n n n
n L
+ + + =
+ +
... 1 1
1 1
0


L sub n adjoint of g is equal to the minus one to the n, times the n-th derivative of
a sub zero conjugate times g, plus, minus one to the n minus one, times the n
minus first derivative of a sub one conjugate times g plus and so on to plus a sub n
conjugate times g.

( )
( )
( )
0
,
,
,
1 1
=
(

+
(

dt
t t i dF
t i
d
t t i dF



The partial derivative of F of lambda sub i of t and t with respect to lambda,
multiplied by lambda sub i prime of t plus the partial derivative of F with
arguments lambda sub i of t and t, with respect to t, is equal to zero.

( ) | | 0 1
2
2
= + + y s b
ds
y d


The second derivative of y with respect to s plus y times the quantity 1 plus b of s
is equal to zero

( ) ( ) ( ) = + =

z z z z f
mk
arg ; ; 0
1


f of z is equal to sub mk hat plus big O of one over the absolute value of z, as
absolute z becomes infinite, with the argument of z equals gamma.

28
( ) ( )
1
2
0
1
1

s
n
s
n
x x D

D sub n minus one prime of x is equal to the product from s equal zero to n of,
parenthesis, one minus x sub s squared, close parentheses, to the power epsilon minus
one.

( )
( )
( )
dw
k w w
z t K
i
x t
w

=
,
2
1
,
2
1



K of t and x is equal to one over two i times the integral of K of t and z, over w
minus w of x, with respect to w along curve of the modulus of w minus one half, is
equal to rho.


( ) 0 ; 0
4
2
2
> = + a u a
dt
u d


the second partial (derivative) of u with respect to t plus a to the fourth power, times
the Laplacian of the Laplacian of u, is equal to zero, where a is positive


( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ;
2
1
> =

+

c dw
w
x
w
i
x D
n i c
i c
k
k


D sub k of x is equal to one over two times integral from c minus infinity to c
plus i infinity of dzeta to the k of w, x to the w over (or: divided by) w, with
respect to w, where c is greater than one.


2. Practice reading the following expressions by yourself, check your answer
using the keys
a. ( ) x x
4
3
3
2
5 2 3
2
1
7 15
7
2
+ =
)
`

+ +

b. ( ) L x f
x
=

lim
1


c. ( )
( ) ( )
Sx
x f x S x f
x f
s
+
=

lim
0
'

d.
dt
ds
S =

29
e. ( ) ( ) c x F dx x f + =


f. ( ) + = ; x

g. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A a F b F b x F dx x f Sx x f
k
a
a
b
x b
a x
k
x
k
= = = =

=
lim
0


h.
c
n a
x a
n
2
3
lg lg lg = =

i. 0 ; , = g g P
g
p
M


Check your answer

a. Two seventh times brace open fifteen, plus seven times bracket
open one half plus three times parenthesis open x minus two
parenthesis, bracket, brace closed equals five and two thirds, plus three
quarters x
b. The limit of f of x as x tends to x sub one is capital l
c. f prime (or: as h) of x is limit of f of x plus delta x minus f of x over
delta x as delta tends to zero
d. S dot equals ds by dt
e. The integral of small f of x dx equals capital F of x plus capital O if
capital F prime is equal to small f of x
f. Capital X equals the open interval minus infinity; plus infinity
g. The limit for delta x tending to zero, of the sum of small f of x sub k
delta x taken from x sub k equal to a to x sub k equal to b minus delta x
equals the integral from a to b of small f of xdx equals capital F of x
between limits a and b equals capital F of minus capital F of a equals
capital A
h. The logarithm of a to the power of three n equals the logarithm of the
square root of x minus logarithm of the nth power of the fraction a
squared over c
i. Set of all fractions p/g where p and g are elements of the set of integers
and g cannot be zero

30

APPENDIX.

AGE PROBLEM

Once there lived a clever king. One day a scientist came to him and surprised him
with his knowledge. He amused the king by telling him many things that were new
and interesting. Finally, the king wanted to find out the age of the scientist but the did
not want to ask him.
Professor, said the king, I have an interesting problem for you. Think of the
number of the month of your birth, but dont tell me.
The scientist was 60 years old, and his birthday was in December. So he thought
of 12.
All right, he said.
Multiply it by two, said the king.
I have done it.
Add 5.
I have.
Now multiply by 50.
Yes.
Subtract 365.
Yes.
Add your age.
Yes.
Add 115.
Yes.
And now, said the king, tell me result.
Twelve hundred and sixty, answered the scientist.
Thank you, said the king. You were born in December and now you are sixty
years old.
How do you know that? asked the scientist.
From your answer, replied the king.
Oh! the professor said laughing, That is a polite way to find out ones age.
Can you find out your friends age in the same way?

FIND THE NUMBERS
Can you find two numbers composed only of ones which give the same result
when you add them and when you multiply them? I and 11 are very close, but they
are not the numbers which you must find, because if you add them, you will have
12, and if you multiply them, you will have only 11.

HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS.
1. Arrange 4 eights so that they will exactly equal 1.
2. Arrange 4 fives in one line to make 100.
31
3. Arrange the numbers 1,2,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8and 9 so that they will make exactly
100.

STRANGE FIGURES.

The father asked his three sons to write four numbers using five odd figures so
that they would equal fourteen.
Can you do it?

AT THE ZOO.

One day a man went to the Zoo with a bag of nuts. He stopped near three cages of
monkeys and decided to give them all the nuts in the bag.
If I divide the nuts equally among the eleven monkeys in the first cage, he
thought, one nut will remain. If I divide equally among the thirteen monkeys in
the second cage, eight nuts will remain. If I divide them among the seventeen
monkeys in the third cage , three nuts will remain. And if I divide the nuts equally
among the forty-one monkeys in all three cages or among the monkeys in any two
cages, some nuts will remain too. How can I I divide them so that none will
remain?
Could you help the man to divide his nuts among the monkeys?


MEASURE THEWATER.
A girl was sent to the well with two jugs. One of them contained 7 litres and the
other 11 litres. She had to bring back exactly 2 litres of water.
How could she do it? What is the smallest number of times she had to fill and
empty her jugs?


32

KEYS.
1.Find the Numbers
The two numbers are 11 and 1.1(one point one)/
2. Hundreds and hundreds
1. 1
8
8
8
8
=
2. ( ) ( ) 100 5 5 5 5 = + +
3. 1 ( ) 100 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 = + + + + + + +
4. Strange Figures
Write the following four numbers composed of five odd figures 11, 1, 1, 1.
After addition you will have 14.
5. At the Zoo.
The smallest number of nuts is 2.179. The best way to solve this problem is
to deal first with the first two cages and find that 34 will satisfy the case for 11
and 13 monkeys. Then you must find the smallest number which will satisfy the
condition for the 17 monkeys.
6.Measure the Water
The smallest number of times the girl had to fill and empty her jugs is 14.
Here is how she could do it: 7-litre jug: 7; 0; 7; 3;3;0;7; 6; 6; 0; 7; 2.
11-litre jug: 0; 7; 7; 11; 0; 3; 3; 10; 10; 11; 0; 6; 6; 11.
Keys
1. Learn to read ordinal and relation signs
1.1.3. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
D h e a f c j g i b

2.Operation signs and terms
2.1.3. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
c b d h g i j e f a

3. Operating with fractions
3.1.4. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A b c d e f g h i j

4. Decimal fractions
4.1.2.Choose the best sentences ending which is true to the text:
1 2




33
4.1.3. Choose the best reply to the sentences given.
1 2

4.2.2. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
c b a e j h d f g i

5. Roots
5.1.4. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
f e g c d a b

6. Powers
6.1.3Write the following expressions
b to the n-this equals to c
a to the cubed power is equal to 12hlus 15
b cubed power plus a squared power is equal to c forth power
b to the power of minus parentheses n plus one equals to a
six cubed power is equal to two hundred sixteen

7.Logarithms
7.1.4. Choose the correct definitions of the term logarithm- a

7.1.5. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
d c b a g f e

8.Some algebraic expressions and formulas
8.1.4. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5
e c d b a
8.1.5. Write the symbols that are implied by the following definitions
A B C



9. Fundamental symbols and expressions concerning the theory of sets
9.1.4. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6
E d f b a c
9.1.5. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5
A b a a b


34
10. Classification of the elementary functions
10.1.3. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
d a g f c b e
11. Expressions concerning intervals and limits
11.1.3. Match the columns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
a b c d e f g h i j
11.1.5. Insert a proper word
1 2 3
a a b
35

.

1. .. .
. ., , 1975-350.
2. .. -
., , 1973-197.
3. .., .. -
.,
, 1974-152
4. .. - . .:
, 1988
5. .., .., ..
- .,
, 1976-108
6. .., .. - .,
, 1983-143.
7. ..
, . , 2001-496.
8. .. . .: . ,
1976
9. .. . ( )
.: , 1991
10. Wise, GaryL., ; Hall, Eric B. Counterexamples in probability and real
analysis, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993
11. Longman Essential Activator, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1999, -
997p.
12. Alison Pohl, Test Your Professional English: Accounting, Penguin English,
2002, 106 p.
13. :
www.math-atlas.org
www.awl-elt.com
www.penguinenenglish.com
www.cambridge.org
www.oxford.org










36

()

Latin alphabet used in mathematics
Capital letter Small letter Reading
A a [ei]
B b [bi:]
C c [si:]
D d [di:]
E e [i:]
F f [ef]
G g [dZI:]
H h [eiC ]
I i [ai]
J j [dZei]
K k [kei]
L l [el]
M m [em]
N n [en]
O o [ou]
P p [pi:]
Q q [kju:]
R r [a:]
S s [es]
T t [ti:]
U u [ju:]
V v [vi:]
W w [`dAblju:]
X x [eks]
Y y [wai]
Z z [zed]
37

()
Greek alphabet used in mathematics.
Capital letter Small letter Name of the letter Reading of the letter
alpha [`xlfq]
beta [`bi:tq US : `beItq]
gamma [`gxmq]
delta [`deltq]
epsilon
[ep`saIlqn US:
`epsIlPn]
zeta [`zi:tq US : `zeItq]
eta [`i:tq US : `eItq]
theta [`Ti:tq US : `TeItq]
iota [aI`qVtq]
kappa [`kxpq]
lambda [`lxmdq]
mu [mju:]
nu [nju: US : `nH]
xi [ksaI]
omicron
[qV`maIkrqn US :
`PmIkrPn]
pi [paI]
rho [rqV]
sigma [`sIgmq]
tau [taV]
upsilon
[ju:p`saIlqn US :
`jHpsIlPn]
phi [faI]
chi [kaI]
psi [saI]
omega [`qVmIgq]

38

()

Glossary
addition process of adding; smth added or joined
quantity amount, sum or number
unknown quantity symbol (usually x) representing an unknown quantity in
an equations
sum total obtained by adding together items, numbers or
amounts
item single article or unit in a list
total complete, entire; amount
subtraction process of subtracting ; instance of this
subtract take (a number, quantity) a way from (another number,
etc )
difference amount, degree, manner, in which things are unlike
multiplication multiplying or being multiplied; instance of this
multiply add (a given quantity or number) a given number of
times
factor whole number (except 1) by which a larger number can
be divided exactly
product quantity obtained by multiplication
division dividing or being divided
divide (into, by) separate, find out how often one number is contained in
another
dividend number to be divided by another
divisor number by which another number is divided
quotient Number obtained by dividing one number by another
number 3.13.33 and 103 are numbers; (pl) arithmetic
natural Ordinary, normal; simple
numeral (word, figure or sign ) standing for a number; of number
Arabic numerals ,1,2,3, etc, roman numerals, I, II, III,
etc.
involution anything internally complex or intricate
power result obtained by multiplying a number or quantity by
itself a certain number of time
raise to power move from a lower to a higher level
exponent symbol that indicates what power of a factor is to be
taken
square of a number multiplied by itself; result when a number
or quantity is multiplied by itself; multiply a number by
itself
cube product of a number multiplied by itself twice; multiply
a number by itself twice
39
radical sign, radical relating to the root of number of quantity
root quantity which, when multiplied by itself a certain
number of times, produces another quantity
extract that which has been extracted; take or get out
index (indices) something that points to or indicates; pointer showing
measurement
fractions number that is not a whole number
numerator number above the line in a vulgar fractions
denominator number or quantity below the line in a fraction
integer whole number (contrasted with fraction )
integral of, denoted by, an integer; made up of integers
decimal of tens or one-tenths
decimal point the point in eg 15.61. NOTES: in most continental
countries a comma is used in places of the GB/US
decimal point. Thus 15.61 is written 15,61 in Russia.

ratio relation between two amounts determined by the
number of times one contains the other
proportion equality of relationship between to sets of numbers;
statement that two ratios are equal; relation of one thing
to another in quantity, size, etc; relation of a part to the
whole;
constant number or quantity that does not vary
term part of an expression joined to the rest by +or -
extreme either end of anything; highest degree; (pl) qualities
limit Line or point that may not or cannot be passed; greatest
or smallest amount, degree, etc of what is possible
equations statement of equality between two expressions by the
sign = as in : 2x +5 =11
identity state of being identical; absolute sameness
formula, formulas
(formulae)
statement of a rule, fact, etc especially one in signs or
numbers, as in mathematics













40

()

Vocabulary
accuracy n -
addition n ,
adjacent a ,
algebra n -
alter v , ,
altitude n -
amount n , ,
angle n -
apply v , ,
appropriate v , , a ,

approximately adv
area n ,
arrange v
arrangement n-
associate v , ,
average a -
axis n -

balance n , v
base n -
binary a ,
brackets n -

calculation n -
calculus n -
capability n -
capable a -
cell n
chord n -
cipher n v
circle n -
circumference n -
coefficient n -
combine with v -
comparatively adv ,
complete a , ; v
component n ,
compose v -
composition n -
cone n -
41
conclude v
condition n ,
conical a ,
consequently adv ,
constitute v -
contiguous a -
contract v ()
conversely adv .
count v -
cube n -
curve n -
decimal a -
decode v -
decomposition n -
decrease n , , v ,
deduce v (),
definite a -
degree n -
denominator n -
destination n -
determine n , , ,
diameter n -
difference n -
different a , ( )
differentiate v -
digit n ,
direction n -
discontinuous a -
discover v ,
divide v
division n -
domain n ,
dominant a ,
due a ,

enlarge (), ()
equal a , v ,
equation n -
equivalent n , a
even a -
exaggerate v -
exceed v ,
exception n -
excess n ,
expand v -
42
extent n , ,
extremely adv -

familiar a -
figure n -
fit v -
foundation n , , ,
fraction n -
frequency n -
function n -

geometry n -
give v ,

height n -
horizontal n -

identical a - ; ;
identity v - ,
imbalance n -
imply - ;
increase n - ; v - ,
indicate v - ,
infinity -
instability n - ,
instance n - ,
intensity n - ,
interaction n -
intermediate a -
introduce v -
invariably adv - ,
inversely adv - 1) 2)
involve v -
irregular a -
irrespective adv -

length n -
level n -
limit n , , v -
line n ,
literal a -

majority n -
make up v ;
mathematics n -
43
maximum n ;
mean n ,
measure n - v -
measurement n -
medium n a -
middle 1) a 2) n -
minimum n ,
minute a -
multiplication n .
multiply v .
mutual a ,

natural a ;
negative n a v -
negligible a -
notation n
number n -
numeration n ,
numerator n .
numerical a -

obvious -
occur v ;
odd a -
opposite a -
order n -
ordinary a -
otherwise adv 1) 2)
outcome n -
owing to prep ;

pattern n -
peak n ,
percentage n ,
permanent a ,
phenomenon n ,
positive a
possible a -
power n -
precisely adv -
prism n -
probability n -
probably adv -
proceed v 1) 2) 3) ()
produce v , ;
44
product n -
property n -
proportion n -
protect v ,
protractor n -
purely adv -
purpose n -

quantity n -
quarter n -

random a - at random
range n - 1); 2) 3) .
rate n v -
reaction n -
reason n , ,
reduce v ,
reflect v -
reflection n ,
relatively adv -
reorganization n ,
resemble v
residual n , ; -
result n ; v ; -
right-angled a -
ruler n -

scan v
score n -
separate a , ; v ,
set-square n -
several a -
shape n -
share n ,
signal n ;
signify v -
similar a ,
significance n 1) , 2)
size n -
strengthen v ()
structure n ; ;
subject n -
subtend v . ( ); (
)
subtraction n -
45
sufficiently adv -
supremacy n -
systematically adv -

tangent n 1) 2)
temporary a -
tend v ; ;
tensile a -
thence adv ;
theorem n -
theoretical a -
theory n -
therefore adv ,
thus adv ;
tiny a -
total a ;
transfer n , v ; ;
transmit v -
treble a ; v -
triangle n -
trigonometry n -
twice adv -

undoubtedly adv -
uneven a ,
uniformly adv -
unit n -

value n ,
variant n ;
variation n ,
vary v (), ()
vertex n -
virtually adv -
46


()

Abbreviations used in mathematics
a 1. [absolute] ( ) 2. [altitude] 3. [angle] 4.
[apothem] 5. [area]
AA [arithmetic average]
abs [absolute] ( )
absc [abscissa]
Abs. E [absolute error]
ad inf [ad infinitum] ,
AGP [arithmetic-geometrical progression] -

alt [alternation]
AM [arithmetic mean]
amt [amount] ,
anal [analysis] ,
ans [answer]
AP [arithmetic progression]
appr. [approximate] ,
asymp [asymptotic]
avg [average] //
B [base]
BCD [binary-coded decimal]
BFS [basic feasible solution]
BV [basic variable]
c 1. [circumference] 2. [correction]
CDF [cumulative distribution function] ()
char 1. [character] 2. [characteristic]
cir [circular]
ckw [clockwise]
cl [closure]
clopen [closed and open]
coeff [coefficient]
col [column]
CS [cumulative sum]
cyl [cylinder]
D 1. [data] 2. [decimal] // 3. [diameter]
4.
[discriminator] , 5. [distance] 6. [double]-
;
DE [differential equation]
def [definition]
deg [degree]
47
diag [diagonal]
diam [diameter]
diff [difference]
dim [dimension]
dom [domain]
doz [dozen]
DR [derived rule]
E, e [error]
EC [error correcting] ,
eff [efficiency]
EG [Euclidean geometry]
elim [elimination]
eq 1. [equal] 2. [equation]
est 1. [estimate] 2. [estimated]
est [estimate]
ETR [exponential function of trace] ()
ex 1. [exercise] 2. [exponential] //

ext [extension]
f [function]
fr [frontier] ()
GCD [greatest common divisor]
GM [geometric mean]
gp [group]
grad [gradient]
h [height]
hex 1. [hexagon] 2. [hexation]
hor [horizontal]
hyp [hypothesis]
i 1. [imaginary] 2. [intrinsic] ,
iff [if and only if] ,
im [image] 2. [imaginary]
inc [inclusively]
int [interior] ()
l 1. [length] 2. [lower]
LA [linear algebra]
LC [log-convex]
LCD [lowest common denominator]
LCM [lowest common multiple]
lev [level]
LHS [left-hand side]
lim [limit]
mat [matrix]
math 1. [mathematical] 2. [mathematics]
max [maximum]
48
med [median]
mpy [multiply]
MS 1. [mathematical system] 2. [mean square]
3. [more significant] , ( ) 4.
[multiplicative system]
NC [necessary condition]
neg [negative]
nhood [neighbourhood]
No [number] 1. , 2.
NSE [number of solutions of equation]
ob 1. [object] 2. [observation] ;
ODE [ordinary differential equation]
ord [order]
OTE [other things equal]
P 1. [perimeter] 2. [point] 3. [probability]
PCS [probability] of correct selection]
p. ct [per cent]
PE 1. [permissible error] 2. [probable error]

pop [population]
pr 1. [probability] 2. [proven]
PS [proportion of successes]
Q [quantity]
QED [quod erat demonstrandum]
QEI [quod erat inveniendum]
QT [quadratic transformation]
R 1. [radius] 2. [rate] ,
rad [radical]
rect [rectangle]
res [residue]
resp [respectively]
RF [random function]
RHP [right half-plane]
RHS [right-hand side]
rot [rotation]
S 1. [side] 2. [significant] 3. [surface]
sd [subdivision]
SE. [simultaneous equations]
seq [sequential]
sgn [signum]
SHM [simple harmonic motion]
sk [skew ness]
SM 1. [scatter matrix] 2. [simplex method]
, - 3. [stepwise maximization]
S of S [sum of squares]
49
sp 1. [space] 2. [spur]
T [total]
thm [theorem]
tran [translation]
TS [trigonometric series]
U 1. [unit] 1. // 2. () 2. [upper]
V [volume]
VAR [variable] () //
w [width] 1. 2.
WF [well-formed] ;
WRT [with respect to]
Z 1. [zero] 2. [zone] ;
50