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Important Terms, Definitions & Formulae
01. Distance formula:
The distance between two points ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z and ( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z is given by the expression
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
AB units x x y y z z = + + .

02. Section formula:
The coordinates of a point Q which divides the line joining the points ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z and
( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z in the ratio : m n
a) internally, are
2 1 2 1 2 1
, ,
+ + +
| |
|
+ + +
\ .
mx nx my ny mz nz
m n m n m n

b) externally i.e., internally in the ratio ( ) : ( ) m n , are
2 1 2 1 2 1
, ,

| |
|

\ .
mx nx my ny mz nz
m n m n m n
.

03. Direction Cosines of a Line:
If A and B are two points on a given line L then, the direction cosines of vectors AB

and BA

are
the direction cosines (d.c.s) of line L. Thus if , , are the direction-angles which the line L
makes with the positive direction of x, y, z- axes respectively then, its d.c.s are cos, cos, cos
(See Fig.1). If direction of line L is reversed, the direction angles are replaced by their supplements
i.e., , , t t t and so are the d.c.s i.e., the direction cosines become
cos, cos, cos . So, a line in space has two sets of d.c.s viz. cos , cos, cos .
The d.c.s are generally denoted by , , l m n . Also
2 2 2
1 + + = l m n and so, we can deduce that
2 2 2
cos cos cos 1 + + = . Also
2 2 2
sin sin sin 2 + + = .
The d.c.s of a line joining the points ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z and ( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z are
2 1 2 1 2 1
, ,
AB AB AB
x x y y z z
; where AB is the distance between points A and B i.e.,
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
AB = + + x x y y z z .
In order to obtain the d.c.s of a line which does not pass through the origin, we draw a line
through the origin and parallel to the given line. As parallel lines have same set of the d.c.s, so
the d.c.s of given line can be obtained by taking the d.c.s of the parallel line through origin.
In a unit vector, the coefficient of


, , i j k are called d.c.s. For example in


a li mj nk = + + The
d.c.s are , , l m n .

04. Direction Ratios of a Line:
Any three numbers , , a b c (say) which are proportional to d.c.s i.e., , , l m n of a line are called the
direction ratios (d.r.s) of the line. Thus, , , = = = a l b m c n for any { }
R 0 e .
Consider,
1
(say)

= = =
l m n
a b c

3 Dimensional Geometry Formulae For
By OP Gupta [Indira Award Winner, +91-9650 350 480]
RECAPITULATION, DIRECTION COSINES,
DIRECTION RATIOS & EQUATION OF LINES

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, ,

= = =
a b c
l m n

2 2 2
1

| | | | | |
+ + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
a b c

2 2 2
Using 1 + + =

l m n

2 2 2
= + + a b c
Therefore,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , = = =
+ + + + + +
a b c
l m n
a b c a b c a b c
.

The d.c.s of a line joining the points ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z and ( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z are

2 1 2 1 2 1
, , x x y y z z or
1 2 1 2 1 2
, , x x y y z z .
Direction ratios are sometimes called as Direction Numbers as well.
For a line if , , a b c are its d.r.s then, , , ka kb kc ; 0 = k is also a set of its d.r.s. So, for a line
there are infinitely many sets of the direction ratios.
05. Relation between the direction cosines of a line:
Consider a line L with d.cs , , l m n . Draw a line passing through the origin and ( )
P , , x y z and
parallel to the given line L. From P draw a perpendicular PA on the X-axis. Suppose OP = r . (See
Fig.2)
Now in OAP A we have,
OA
cos
OP
= = =
x
x lr
r
.
Similarly we can obtain = y mr and = z nr .
Therefore,
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ + = + + x y z r l m n .
But we know that
2 2 2 2
+ + = x y z r .
Hence ,
2 2 2
1 + + = l m n .

06. Equation of a line in space passing through a given point and parallel to a given vector:
Consider the line L is passing through the given point ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z with the position vector a

, b


is the given vector with d.r.s , , a b c and r

is the position vector of any arbitrary point ( )


P , , x y z
on the line. See Fig.3.
Thus
1 1 1

OA , OP , a x i y j z k r xi yj zk b ai bj ck = = + + = = + + = + +


.
a) Vector equation of a line: As the line L is parallel to given vector b

and points A and P are


lying on the line so, AP

is parallel to the b

.
AP , b =

where R , set of real nos. i.e. e
r a b =



r a b = +


.
This is the vector equation of line.
b) Parametric equations: If d.r.s of the line are , , a b c then by using r a b = +


we get,

( ) 1 1 1

x y z x y z a b c i j k i j k i j k + + = + + + + + .
Now, as we equate the coefficients of


, , i j k we get the Parametric equations of line given as,
1 1 1
, , x x a y y b z z c = + = + = + .
Coordinates of any point on the line considered here are ( )
1 1 1
, , x a y b z c + + + .
c) Cartesian equation of a line: If we eliminate the parameter from the Parametric equations of
a line, we get the Cartesian equation of line as
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1 1 1
x x y y z z
a b c

= = .
If , , l m n are the d.c.s of the line then, Cartesian equation of line becomes
1 1 1
x x y y z z
l m n

= = .
The Cartesian equation of line is also called the symmetrical equation or one point form of
line. In the symmetrical form the coefficient of x, y, z are unity i.e., 1.
Note that b

is parallel to the line L. So they both have the same d.r.s.



07. Equation of a Line passing through two given points:
Consider the two given points as ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z and ( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z with position vectors a

and b


respectively. Also assume r

as the position vector of any arbitrary point ( )


P , , x y z on the line L
passing through A and B. See Fig.4.
Thus
1 1 1 2 2 2

OA , OB , OP a x i y j z k b x i y j z k r xi yj zk = = + + = = + + = = + +


.
a) Vector equation of a line: Since the points A, B and P all lie on the same line which means
they are all collinear points.
Further it means, AP r a =


and AB b a =


are collinear vectors, i.e.,
AP AB =



( )
r a b a =




( )
, r a b a = +


where R e .
This is the vector equation of line.
b) Cartesian equation of a line: By using the vector equation of the line
( )
r a b a = +


we get,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

x y z x y z x x y y z z i j k i j k i j k
(
+ + = + + + +

+
On equating the coefficients of


, , i j k we get,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
, , x x x x y y y y z z z z = = = + + + ....( ) i
On eliminating we have,
1 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
x x y y z z
x x y y z z

= =

.
This is the Cartesian equation of line.

c) Parametric equations: By using (i), we get
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
, , x x x x y y y y z z z z = = = + + + .
These are called the Parametric equations of line.

08. Angle between two Lines:
a) When d.r.s or d.c.s of the two lines are given:
Consider two lines
1
L and
2
L with d.r.s as
1 1 1
, , a b c and
2 2 2
, , a b c ; d.c.s as
1 1 1
, , l m n and
2 2 2
, , l m n . Consider
1 1 1 1

b a i b j c k = + +

and
2 2 2 2

b a i b j c k = + +

. These vectors
1
b

and
2
b

are
parallel to the given lines
1
L and
2
L . So in order to find the angle between the Lines
1
L and
2
L , we need to get the angle between the vectors
1
b

and
2
b

. Consider the Fig.5.


So the acute angle between the vectors
1
b

and
2
b

(and hence lines


1
L and
2
L ) can be
obtained as,
1 2 1 2
. cos b b b b =


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Thus,
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
cos
a a bb c c
a b c a b c
+ +
=
+ + + +
.

1 2 1 2 1 2
Also, in terms of d.c.s : cos l l mm n n = + +
.

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
Sine of angle is given as: sin
a b a b b c b c c a c a
a b c a b c
+ +
=
+ + + +
.


b) When vector equations of two lines are given:
Consider vector equations of lines
1
L and
2
L as
1 1 1
r a b = +

and
2 2 2
r a b = +

respectively.
Then, the acute angle between the two lines is given by the relation
1 2
1 2
.
cos
b b
b b
=


.
c) When Cartesian equations of two lines are given:
Consider the lines
1
L and
2
L in Cartesian form as,
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
L : , L :
x x y y z z x x y y z z
a b c a b c

= = = = .
Then the acute angle between the lines
1
L and
2
L can be obtained by,

1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
cos
a a b b c c
a b c a b c
+ +
=
+ + + +
.
For two perpendicular lines:
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 a a b b c c + + = ;
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 l l m m n n + + = .
For two parallel lines:
1 1 1
2 2 2
a b c
a b c
= = ;
1 1 1
2 2 2
l m n
l m n
= = .

09. Shortest Distance between two Lines:
If two lines are in the same plane i.e. they are coplanar, they will intersect each other if they are
non-parallel. Hence shortest distance between them is zero. If the lines are parallel then the shortest
distance between them will be the perpendicular distance between the lines i.e. the length of the
perpendicular drawn from a point on one line onto the other line. Adding to this discussion, in
space, there are lines which are neither intersecting nor parallel. In fact, such pair of lines are non-
coplanar and are called the skew lines.
Skew lines: Two straight lines in space which are neither parallel nor intersecting are known as
the skew lines. They lie in different planes and are non-coplanar.
Shortest Distance: There exists unique line perpendicular to each of the skew lines
1
L and

2
L , this line is known as line of shortest distance (S.D.).

a) Shortest distance between two Skew lines:
When lines are in vector form:
Consider the two skew lines
1 1 1
r a b = +

and
2 2 2
r a b = +

. Assume that A and B are two
points on the lines
1
L and
2
L with position vectors
1
a

and
2
a

respectively. Let us assume


that the Shortest Distance between the two lines is PQ d = . See Fig.6.
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Now PQ is perpendicular to both the lines
1
L and
2
L . That means PQ

is perpendicular to
both
1
b

and
2
b

. But we know that


1 2
b b

is perpendicular to both
1
b

and
2
b

. So we can
deduce that PQ

is in the direction of
1 2
b b

.
Let the unit vector in the direction of
1 2
b b

is n .
So,
1 2
1 2

b b
n
b b



PQ PQ. n =



1 2
1 2
PQ PQ
b b
b b
| |

|
=
|

\ .


The shortest distance PQ is basically the projection of AB

on PQ

.
. . PQ AB. i e , n =


Then the S.D. between them is given as follow,
( )
( )
1 2 2 1
1 2
.
PQ
b b a a
d
b b

= =




.
When the lines are in Cartesian form:
Consider the two skew lines as,
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
L : , L :
x x y y z z x x y y z z
a b c a b c

= = = = .
Then the S.D. between them is given as follow

( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
x x y y z z
a b c
a b c
d
a b a b bc b c c a c a

=
+ +
.

b) Shortest distance between two parallel lines:
If the lines are parallel then they are coplanar i.e. they lie in the same plane.
Consider the two parallel lines as
1 1
L : r a b = +


and
2 2
L : r a b = +


. Assume that A and B
are two points on the lines
1
L and
2
L with position vectors
1
a

and
2
a

respectively. Also
assume that the lines are parallel to b

. Let AB

makes angle with the line


1
L . So the angle
between the AB

and b

will be t . See Fig.7.



Draw
1
BP L . Now BP represents the perpendicular distance between
1
L and
2
L .
In APB A , we have BP = ABsin ...( ) i
Now consider AB AB sin( ) b b n t =


AB AB sin [ 1 b b n = =



( )
AB AB sin b b =


AB BP [ ( ) b b By using i =


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AB
BP
b
b

=

.
Assume that the Shortest Distance between the two lines is BP d = .
Then the S.D. between them is given as follow,
( )
2 1
b a a
d
b

=

.

Note that the S.D. between two parallel lines in the Cartesian form can be obtained by simply
replacing
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1


( ) ( ) ( ) a a x x i y y j z z k = + +

and


b ai bj ck = + +

in the
expression obtained above for the Vector form.


Important Terms, Definitions & Formulae
01. Plane and its equation:
A plane is a surface such that if any two points are taken on it, the line segment joining them lies
completely on the surface. Plane is symbolized by the Greek letter t .
a) Equation of plane in Normal unit vector form:
Consider a plane at distance d from the origin such that ON

is the normal from the origin to


plane and n is a unit vector along ON

. Then ON dn =

if ON d = . Consider r

be the
position vector of any arbitrary point ( )
P , , x y z on the plane. See Fig.8.
Vector form of the equation of plane: Since P lies on the plane so NP

is perpendicular to
the vector ON

. That implies NP. ON 0 =




( )
. 0 r dn dn =


( )
. 0 [ 0 r dn n d = =


. . 0 r n dn n =



. r n d =

[ . 1 n n =
This is the vector equation of the plane.
Cartesian form of the equation of plane: If , , l m n are d.c.s of the normal n to the given
plane. Then by using . r n d =

we get,

( ) ( )
.


x y z l m n i j k i j k d + + + + =
lx my nz d + + = .
This is the Cartesian equation of the plane.
Also if , , a b c are the d.r.s of the normal n to the plane then, the Cartesian equation of
plane becomes ax by cz d + + = .

b) Equation of plane Perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point:
Assume that the plane passes through a point ( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z with the position vector a

and is
perpendicular to the vector m

with d.r.s as A, B,C


( )

A B C m i j k = + +

.
Also consider ( )
P , , x y z as any arbitrary point on the plane with position vector as r

.
Consider the Fig.9.
PLANE & ITS EQUATION IN VARIOUS FORMS
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Vector form of the equation of plane: As AP

lies in the plane and m

is perpendicular to
the plane. So AP

is perpendicular to m

.
AP. 0 m =



( )
. 0 r a m =

.
This is the Vector equation of the plane.
The above obtained equation of plane can also be expressed as . . r m a m =

.
Cartesian form of the equation of plane: As ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1

AP x x i y y j z z k = + +

, so by
using ( )
. 0 r a m =

we get,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1

. A B C 0 x x i y y j z z k i j k
(
+ + + + =


( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
A B C 0 x x y y z z + + =
.
This is the Cartesian equation of the plane.

c) Equation of plane passing through three non- collinear points:
Assume that the plane contains three non- collinear points
( )
1 1 1
R , , x y z , ( )
2 2 2
S , , x y z and
( )
3 3 3
T , , x y z with the position vectors as a

, b

and c

respectively. Let ( )
P , , x y z be any
arbitrary point in the plane whose position vector is r

.
Vector form of the equation of plane: As RS

and RT

are in the plane, so


RS RT m =

( ) say will be perpendicular to the plane containing the points R, S and T. Also
since r

is position vector of P which lies in the plane, therefore RP m


. See Fig.10.
RP. 0 m =



( )
( )
. RS RT 0 [ RS RT r a m = =



( )
( )
( )
. 0 r a b a c a
(
=


.
This is the Vector equation of the plane.
Cartesian form of the equation of plane:
The position vector of RP

, RS

and RT

is given as,

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
3 3 3 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1

RP

RS

RT
xi yj zk x i y j z k x x i y y j z z k
x i y j z k x i y j z k x x i y y j z z k
x i y j z k x i y j z k x x i y y j z z k
= + + + + = + +
= + + + + = + +
= + + + + = + +


Substituting these in the above obtained vector equation of plane, we get

1 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
3 1 3 1 3 1
0
x x y y z z
x x y y z z
x x y y z z

=

.
This is the Cartesian equation of the plane.

d) Intercept form of the equation of plane:
Consider the equation of plane A B C D 0, x y z + + + = D 0 = and the plane makes intercepts
, , a b c on , , x y z -axes respectively. This implies that the plane meets , , x y z -axes at ( ) , 0,0 a ,
( ) 0, , 0 b , ( ) 0,0,c respectively. See Fig.11.
Therefore,
D
A. B.0 C.0 D 0 A , a+ + + = =
a

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D
A.0 B. C.0 D 0 B + b+ + = =
b
and

D
A.0 B.0 C. D 0 C + + c+ = =
c
.
Substituting these values in A B C D 0, x y z + + + = , we get 1
x y z
a b c
+ + = .
This is the equation of plane in intercept form.
NOTE
Equation of XY-plane : 0,
Equation of YZ-plane : 0,
Equation of ZX-plane : 0.
z
x
y
=
=
=


02. Equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes:
The intersection of two planes say
1
t and
2
t is always a straight line. For instance, we can
visualize the intersection of xy - plane and xz - plane to form x- axis.
a) Vector equation of the plane: Consider two planes
1 1 1
: . r m d t =

and
2 2 2
: . r m d t =

. So if
h

is the position vector of any arbitrary point on the line of intersection of


1
t and
2
t then, it
must satisfy both the equations of planes i.e.,

1 1
. h m d =


and
2 2
. h m d =




1 1
. 0 h m d =


and
2 2
. 0 h m d =


.
Therefore for all R (set of all real nos.) e , we get

( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
. . 0 h m d h m d + =



( )
1 2 1 2
. h m m d d + = +



As the obtained equation is of the form . r m d =

(Note that in . r m d =

, d is not the
perpendicular distance of plane from the origin. Rather d is perpendicular distance from the
origin in . r n d =

.)
So it represents a plane
3
t (say).
Hence, the required plane is: ( )
1 2 1 2
. r m m d d + = +

.
This is the Vector equation of plane.
b) Cartesian equation of the plane:
Assume
1 1 1 1

A B C m i j k = + +

,
2 2 2 2

A B C m i j k = + +

and


r xi yj zk = + +

.
Then by using ( )
1 2 1 2
. r m m d d + = +

, we get
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
A A B B C C x y z d d + + + + + = +
i.e., ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
A B C A B C 0 x y z d x y z d + + + + + = .
This is the Cartesian equation of plane.
(You can visualize the situation discussed here in the Fig.12)
03. Co- planarity of two Lines:
Assume the given lines are
1 1 1
L : r a b = +


and
2 2 2
L : r a b = +


such that
1
L passes through
( )
1 1 1
A , , x y z with position vector
1
a

and is parallel to
1
b

with d.r.s
1 1 1
, , a b c . Also
2
L passes
through ( )
2 2 2
B , , x y z with position vector
2
a

and is parallel to
2
b

with the d.r.s


2 2 2
, , a b c .
a) Vector form of co- planarity of lines:
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We know
2 1
AB a a =


. Now the lines
1
L and
2
L are coplanar iff AB

is perpendicular to
1 2
b b

. That implies,
( )
1 2
AB. 0 b b =


( )
( )
2 1 1 2
. 0 a a b b =


.
b) Cartesian form of co- planarity of lines:
We know that ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1

AB x x i y y j z z k = + +

,
1 1 1 1


b a i b j c k = + +

and
2 2 2 2


b a i b j c k = + +

. So by using
2 1 1 2
( ).( ) 0 a a b b =


, we get
2 1 2 1 2 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
0
x x y y z z
a b c
a b c

=
.
Note that only coplanar lines can intersect each other in the plane they exist.
04. Angle between two planes:
The angle between two planes is the angle between their normals
1
m

and
2
m

(say). Therefore if
is the angle between the planes
1
t and
2
t then
o
180 is also the angle between the two planes.
Though we shall be taking acute angle only as the angle between two planes.
Observe the Fig.13.
a) Vector form for the angle between two planes:
Consider the planes
1 1 1
: . r m d t =

and
2 2 2
: . r m d t =

. If is the angle between the normals
to the plane drawn from some common point. Then,

1 2
1 2
.
cos
m m
m m
=


[Using dot product of vectors

1 1 2
1 2
.
cos
m m
m m

| |
=
|
|
\ .


.
b) Cartesian form for the angle between two planes:
Assume the planes,
1 1 1 1
A B C D 0 x y z + + + = and
2 2 2 2
A B C D 0 x y z + + + = where
1 1 1
A , B , C and
2 2 2
A , B , C are the d.r.s of normals (to the planes)
1
m

and
2
m

respectively.
Then,
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
A A B B C C
cos
A B C A B C
+ +
+ + + +
=


1
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
A A B B C C
cos
A B C A B C
+ +
+ + + +

=
.
For the parallel planes, we have:
1 1 1
2 2 2
A B C
A B C
= = .
For the perpendicular planes, we have:
1 2 1 2 1 2
0 A A B B C C + + = .

05. Distance of a point from a plane:
a) Vector form for the distance of a point from a plane:
Let : . r m d t =

be the plane and ( )
1 1 1
P , , x y z be the point with position vector a

. Let PA be
the length of perpendicular on the plane. See Fig.14. Since line PA passes through ( )
P a

and
is parallel to the m

which is normal to the plane.


So the vector equation of the line PA is ...( ) r a m i = +


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Since A is point of intersection of line (i) and the given plane. So we have,
( )
. a m m d + =



2
. d a m
m


Putting the value of in (i), we get the position vector of A given as follow,

2
. d a m
r a m
m
| |

= + |
|
\ .


Since PA OA OP =


PA r a =


2
.
PA
d a m
a m a
m
| |

= + |
|
\ .


2
.
PA
d a m
m
m
| |

= |
|
\ .


2
.
PA PA
d a m
m
m
| |

= = |
|
\ .


2
.
PA
d a m
m
m


.
. ., PA
d a m
i e
m


Hence, length of the perpendicular PA ( ) p say = from a point having position vector a

to the
plane . r m d =

is given by

. d a m
p
m

.
b) Cartesian form for the distance of a point from a plane: Let A, B, C be the d.r.s of the
normal m

to the given plane. So by using the relation


. d a m
p
m

we can obtain,

1 1 1
2 2 2
A B C
A B C
x y z d
p
+ +
=
+ +
.
If d is the distance from the origin and l, m, n are the d.c.s of the normal vector to the
plane through origin, then the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular is ( ) , , ld md nd .
c) Distance between two parallel palnes: Assume the two planes as,
1 1
. i.e., A B C D 0 r m d x y z = + + + =

and
2 2
. i.e., A B C D 0 r m d x y z = + + + =

.
Then the distance p (say) between them is given as
(i) Vector form:
1 2
d d
p
m

=

.
(ii) Cartesian form:
1 2
2 2 2
D D
A B C

=
+ +
p .

06. Angle between a line and a plane:
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The angle between a line and a plane is complementary to the angle between the line and normal to
the plane. Let is the angle between b

(which is parallel to the line) and normal m

of the plane.
This implies that 90

is the angle between the line r a b = +




and plane . r m d =

.
Consider Fig.15.
Now the angle between b

and m

,
.
cos
b m
b m
=


[By using dot product of vectors
So the angle ( ) say between the line and plane is given as 90 =

i.e.,

( )
sin sin 90 cos = =


i.e.,
.
sin
b m
b m
=




1
.
sin
b m
b m


| |
|
=
|
\ .


.
This is the angle between line and a plane.






















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VARIOUS FIGURES RELATED TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY



Fig. 1 Fig. 2



Fig. 3 Fig. 4


Fig. 5 Fig. 6








Fig. 7 Fig. 8




Fig. 9 Fig. 10





Fig. 11 Fig. 12











Fig. 13



Fig. 14 Fig. 15