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From stick figures in the sand and the earliest animals painted and carv ed in stone, people worldwide

have reacted to the world by making images. The f undamental goal of art, especially in the past, was to convey meaning and expres s important ideas, revealing what was significant to every society, by arresting images. In recognizing the subject matter of any painting, you have to look at the artist's intentions, which are regularly connected to social conditions, na tional or global issues and the demands of the public. To avoid the pitfalls of judging all art by our own personal experiences and subjective views, we have t o learn the background surrounding the artist when the work was created- the soc ial and historical conditions of the time and the philosophical views which affe cted the way in which the artist viewed the world. (Russell, 1984) Art is as varied as the life from which it springs and each artist portr ays different aspects of the world they know. Briefly, it may be said that arti sts paint to discover truth and to create order. The creators of art make disco veries about the wonders and beauty of nature and the dignity and nobility of ma n. They give these concepts an order to help us understand life in a greater de pth. In understanding the history and style of any period of art, we have to co mprehend the balance between social and political development of that particular era. Within each and every period, development of style is affected by a respo nse to particular philosophies, social and economic conditions, political and sp iritual influences. World Issues have been reflected in art throughout the ages , and this premise is supported by three particular periods of time. This is cl early evident when viewing ancient art, where symbolism was an important part of society. Also, through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, where art was a critical form of expression and finally in the modern age of art where even in looking into the works of individual artists, one can get a sense of the feelin gs and events of the time and the world. Let us now examine theses three period s in detail, to support this hypothesis. If we are aware of meaning of religious, political, or other symbols, it will better our understanding of the frame of mind of the artist. Each piece o f art is unique, a reflection of the artist's perceptions, insights and experien ces. Certain aspects of the world are often exaggerated, or eliminated, while t he art reflects both the period and the artists own orientation. Aristotle once said that "Art is the human intelligence playing over the natural scene, ingeni ously affecting it toward fulfillment of human purposes." (Bronowski 64) This w onderful world of creation began in ancient times, when people first created ima ges to express their response to the world around them. Various civilizations i n the past painted images preparing to understand life after death. Another fav orite subject was the glorification of gods and rulers. The subject which an ar tist selects for a painting depends largely upon the time in which he/she lives. A painter painting in the middle ages would probably have picked a religious s ubject, for that was almost the only kind of topic portrayed at the time. Still , outside factors of current events and different world issues would greatly eff ect the artists state of mind, and therefore his paintings. As you look into the ancient past of Egypt, it is quite interesting to n ote the bureaucracy in the times of 3000 BC, which helps us to understand the ar t work accomplished in these times. As the Egyptians were united under one cent ral government and ruled by a pharaoh, they were organized by control through a tightly organized bureaucracy. The Pharaoh dominated all facets of the peoples lives. The people dreamed of afterlife as a reward for their hard work while li ving, and often depicted afterlife where the spirit could find pleasure wanderin g unseen among the living. The palace art and architecture of these ancient kin gdoms was intended to emphasize a hierarchical ordering of society, form ruler, to subject. Egypt's tombs and temples were ornamented with paintings of great d istinction. A painting at the tomb of Theber shows floral offerings being made

to the hawk god Mentu. This is highly stylized and rich, showing the worshippin g of animal gods at the time. In Greece around the same time period, the mainland and the islands were settled by non-Greek tribes from Asia minor. In Crete, a civilization evolved to rival the wealth and sophistication of surrounding places, like Egypt. In la ter years, these people named Aninoicens had become quite wealthy from trade wit h the near east. This point of trade was controversial to what they initially b elieved in. The art of these new times were filled with glowing images of flora l and fauna , portraying a society that had a love for nature and beauty. Befor e, their painting would contain feelings of angst and bitterness. As time progressed, the good times were limited by many wars and hostile grounds. In 1250 BC, during the Trojan war, the minoins developed a new form o f monumental art to mark the graves of the numerous dead The size and function of these vases brought them closer to sculpture than most pottery. These monume ntal vases were painted in abstract, and geometrical patterns with no reference to the naturalness of minoin life. Often portrayed, were scenes depicting a mo ment in the individuals life, or a burial scene to commemorate the dead. As we proceed through the times and move to the fifth century, you can s ee that this era was dominated by the city of Athens when Athenian drama, poetry , philosophy and politics ruled. In times of the Persian wars, naturalness of a ction in narrative painting and relief carving came together. This emphasized h uman dignity in free standing sculptures. Life size statues were created for th e first time, most of these, including the famous Kouros and Kritos boy, stand w ith one foot forward, as if they were heading off to war. Artists put into thei r pictures our common hopes, ideals, dreams and passions and show us their meani ng and value concerning issues surrounding the times. Creators in all the arts make fascinating discoveries about the wonders and the world along with the natu ralness, movement and structure of the human form. They give these an order whic h enables us to see and understand the past and past life with greater depth. Christianity spread slowly throughout the western world, becoming an off icial religion of the roman empire in the fourth century. By this time, the emp ire was falling apart, so there was a stiff and formal style of art called Byzan tine. This style lasted for centuries, until conditions were greatly improved. During the middle ages, extending from 500, to 1500, the church was the source of main stability in western Europe and the monasteries alone kept the ar tistic culture alive. Beginning in the twelfth century, life for most people be came more secure. Towns grew, trade excelled and industry began to prosper. L arge, quickly growing towns became centers of wealth, learning and especially ar t. In northern Europe, a true gothic style developed, best known for the magnif icent cathedrals and stain glass windows created in this era. This high rise in town life, brought with it a spirit of inquiry and invention. A famous paintin g created in the Byzantine style of this time was 'The Madonna of Angels' by Gio vanni Anabue. In this painting, it is noted that Mary and Jesus are on a throne surrounded by angels. Although portrayed as lifeless, the figures begin to tak e on more human characteristics than ever before, for town life increased the kn owledge of the artists, coming together and improving their styles. By the latter half of this civilization, there was a shift to more graci ous, enjoyable lifestyles, characterized by courtly art expressing grand splendo r. In France at this time, scholarly art took on secular elegance, while in the court of Louis IX. Pressures of a secular society made gothic artists turn tow ards elegance and fashion- especially in Wells cathedral, which was then erected . This was an architectural masterpiece commissioned by the king, with enlighte ning Christian murals to symbolize the wealth and good times, and to welcome the prosperous times ahead. The development of the Flemish school of painting in the fifteenth centu ry marked the end of the great gothic period. This happened just in time for a rebirth in painting - the ever famous Renaissance period. In this period of ex ploration, invention and discovery, artists traveled to new lands seeking fresh

ideas, also studying the world and the heavens. Here, a culture of antiquity wa s rediscovered. Artists in this period, with increased knowledge of the world, began to study anatomy, science and mathematics involving perspective and dimens ion. Art was exciting, particularly in the high Renaissance, yet the times were troubled. Discoveries in science were changing the ways man thought of himself . The growth of wealth and the discovery of new lands had triggered a struggle for r power and many wars resulted. The challenges which this age brought fourt h, fortunately spurred a group of brilliant artists. Younger, Holland and Fland ers are some of the many well known artists of this era. As you can now notice, as we go as far back as the European middle ages and ancient times, art was a valuable form of expression, as it depicted feeling s and recorded events which were occurring in various countries. In these times , where very few people were literate, art was an important way an individual co uld explain stories of the world with great expression. Ever since the colonial times, there has been a strong tradition of real ism in the United States. George Bellows and Ben Shahn were both social realist s who painted members of the working class and their problems and pleasures. Pa inters like these were rejected from the art academy's and salons because of thi s supposedly vulgar and improper subject matter. These wealthy, authoritative f igures believed that painters should paint to represent nymphs, gods , holy imag es, or at the least, aristocrats. In one of Shawn's paintings, titled 'Mine Dis aster', he represented a scene of a tragedy which occurred close to his home. H e depicted a calamitous scene of a gathering of relatives waiting for news of a mining accident. Although he was basically a realist, he included some abstract impressionism in the background to reinforce the sense of desolation and create tenseness, grief and anxiety. Painting developed later in England than in the other European countries , partly because of the fact that both Henry the eighth and Thomas Cromwell dest royed the works of art in English churches and cathedrals. They believed that there were some hidden meanings, or false biblical references which they could n ot understand. Contrary to the beliefs of these rulers, many artists believed t hat art may be the key to existence and that artwork remained one possible way o f speaking truth in a world of chaos. After the restoration of the Stuart ruler s in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, people of wealth in England prefe rred to employ foreign artists. The Neoclassical period began in 1789. It combined a new scientific app roach and appealed to the intellectual who believed in power of reason to uplift society. This movement became associated with republican ideas of revolution a nd was said to belong to the age of "reason and revolution".( Russel 25) Flowi ng this period, in the early eighteenth century, a period labeled Romanticism ev olved. In this period, confidence in reason and artificiality of court life was characterized by a great value of emotion. Often there was an incorporated fas cination with untamed nature, picturesque or exotic themes. For the most part, times were good, life was simple and wild imagery in art reelected a carefree na ture. Realism and social protest occurred at the beginning of the nineteenth ce ntury; the inception of the industrial revolution encouraged a capitalist econom y. The paintings of this time involved social criticism of many political figur es, judicial and police systems, to rebel against the changing ways. Again, the realistic portrayals of daily life were rejected by the authoritative standards of the academy- especially the honorary 'Salon of Paris'. This brought about an artistic rebellion called impressionism, where artists painted directly again st the standards of the salon. Suitably, they called themselves impressionists. These artists wanted to portray the immediacy of a moment and in doing so, cap ture the truth of the times and the lives they lived. There were four main infl uences on these artists, these were the newly introduced camera, the art of past artists, the afresh obtained, imported Japanese woodcuts and new scientific dis coveries in light and color. With the introduction of the camera, artists were no longer needed to transcribe reality, therefore they were forced to find new o utlets of artistic expression. With Japanese art to study from, there were new

and exciting techniques to try and replicate. Through this age of revolution, a growing movement towards freedom for personal expression in subject matter, tec hniques and style of art were signaled. These periods of expression were merely buildups to the advanced movemen ts and rapid changes of the art in the twentieth century. Even before the trigg ering point of the times- being the first world war, many post war artists becam e engrossed in highly personalized interpretations- antibiotics, computerization , electronic transistors and the prospects of an atomic world. A brief feminist movement became a passionate cause for some, combining feelings with a response to the real world. Still, the world was preparing for the technological breakt hroughs to come. Out of the mystification of changing needs and changing material, art of the twentieth century, through creative minds, brought measures of logic into p lay. Following a brief euphoria of World war one, arts in the depression became more socially conscious, realistic and nationalistic. Realism derived from tra ditional American art, which was basically expressionism with strong emotional o vertones, focusing on feelings involved in such somber times. It was said that "The future of art no longer seems to lie with creation of enduring masterpieces , but with defining alternative cultural strategies."(McHall, 206) Up until the twentieth century, painting in Canada was solely dominated by French and English styles. This was until 1910, when the group of seven set out to develop a nationalistic style by expressing true Canadian spirit in thei r paintings. The portrayal of landscapes made Canadians aware of the magnificen ce of their own country and fostered a pride in a particular comeliness. During World War II, a number of European painters ventured to the Unite d States, where they had a profound effect on young painters. After the war, a group of these artists initialed a movement that became famous throughout the wo rld and served as a model for artists everywhere. This was called abstract expr essionism. The artists produced works which were noticeably larger in size, ene rgetic in effect and incredibly individualistic in character. Initially, these paintings illustrated war scenes and images commemorating the soldiers who had p erished, but following the war, the paintings were continued to be produced, wit h a change in subject matter. These works convey the strength and confidence of a powerful country, but they were also private statements proclaiming the "impo rtance of the individual in the face of pressures for conformity and depersonali zation."(comptons '96) With this strong movement, the United states became the center of the western art world for the first time in history. When looking into the lives of individual artists, you can see how event s which effected them and the emotions projected by various events were revealed through paint. Picasso is an incredibly interesting painter to study, for he h ad an adventurous life involving strong emotion. Picasso played an important ro le in some of the many different movements of the early twentieth century. He f ormed a style called his 'blue' period between 1901 and 1904 where he illustrate d elements of melancholy, dominated by subjects of vagabonds, beggars, prostitut es, poverty stricken and deprived people. He abandoned all rules of linear pers pective and overlapped planes even as he went through his rose period, where his subject matter contained mostly dancers, acrobats and harlequins. Through many more years, he experimented with increasingly analytical an d geometric forms while continuing to develop a unique cubist technique, making paintings less "rigorous and austere"(cd rom). His masterpiece , "Guernica", wa s his moving vision of the Spanish civil war. It was his response to the 1937 b ombing by the fascist forces of the small Basque town. This was a great emotion al/political statement, which combined violent distortion of images, with a rest rained subtlety of colour. Between two marriages, he also had a mistress named Francoise Gilot. His meetings with Gilot inspired Picasso to create a charming series of paintings featuring mythology and including representations of fauns, nymphs and pipers- quite different from his usual style. As Picasso remained in France throughout World war II, he was forbidden to show his work, and he joine d the French communist party. A number of his paintings then expressed the horr or of the war ( The Charnel House 1945) and following this sequence, he responde

d to the Korean war by Painting 'War and Peace'-1952, and 'Massacre in Korea'-19 51. It is very obvious to see that the worldwide events which took place in Pic asso's life time greatly effected his subject matter and his feelings. The second world war was a watershed for art, while Nazi occupation of Paris helped to break down the dam to be the home of modern art. Artists fled t o the United States to escape the fascism. The success of the United States in the cold war was measured by the fact that within a decade of the end of World w ar II, the United States enjoyed a cultural reputation, fitting into a higher gl obal power status. The Soviet Union at this time was committed to crude sociali st realism, suppressing other kinds of art like abstract expressionism. In turn , the United States embodied all the U.S.S.R denied. A trend that arose in the late 1950's was a reaction against abstract ex pressionism, it was labeled popart. Rather than avoiding references to mass cul ture, pop artists accepted and used them. Popular subject matter were soft drin k bottles, hamburgers, gas stations, comic strips, billboards and airplanes. In using these popular images, artists celebrated the technological culture and re vealed it's insolence and cheapness. Andy Warhol is probably the most famous po p artist. In his work he clearly illustrates the influence of machine productio n. Often his repeated portraits of identical images were based on photographs that had been enlarged by mechanical means. This style provides a multiplicity of views and moods of attractive women ( in most cases). This style was suppose d to represent a wild zest for life which these women possessed. " This was also meant to give the art a sense of abiding and fascinating tension."(Bronowski 14 ) In modern times, nationalist art became an important topic as well as i nternationalism in the art world. At any given time, in major cities worldwide, work from many nations are on show. Even though we except the fact that the gl obal art scene consists of a network of cosmopolitan cities, it is becoming incr easingly obvious that art recognizes no boundaries in present day. Robert Mothe rwell stated in 1966 that "Art is not national, to be merely an American or Fren ch painter is to be nothing; to fall to overcome ones initial environment is nev er to reach the human." Even in the early part of this century, but progressing through the years, artists saw themselves as internationally linked by aestheti c and conceptual issues with universal readings. Globalization in this case is revealed as a preferable substitute to nationalism. It is actually dangerously misleading to label art of the past or present into national packages. In today 's world it is difficult for post colonial nations to maintain identity and inte grity in the global art world. There is no guarantee that national art will flo urish in the world and raise profile, it depends on the initial economic support . There have been small national successes, for instance in Haiti, murals were painted on the city walls to celebrate "new Haiti" in 1986. This event bore wit ness to national solidarity in the face of oppression. It brought future hopes and a vehicle for communication for a country where 90% are illiterate.(Buck, 19 91) The modern age of reason promised to resolve all problems through the ap plication of science. Art of this time echoed a preoccupation with technology a nd environment. Today, many artists feel liberated from tradition and rules and feel free to follow any exploration, but as these artists are witness to many g lobal events, tragedies and breakthroughs, these are often reflected in their wo rks. Fad and fashion are nurtured by mass media and artists struggle to do anyt hing to capture attention. Enormous diversity characterizes present day paintin g. This diversity is characteristic of modern life, and each style reflects, qu estions, or analyses some aspects of contemporary society. "Through painting, the artist expresses ideas and emotions, as well as a version of the reality he or she perceives, in a two dimensional visual form."( cd rom) Some artists paint concrete forms with which viewers are generally fami liar with and some try to create entirely abstract relationships. The way a pai nting is constructed does not change the fact that as life goes on, and world ev ents weather negative or beneficial occur, these events are reflected through th

e universal language of art. To study the paintings of any age is to look in th e diverse interpretations of the era in which they were produced. Through paint ing, artists can give expressions of their own ideas and emotions corresponding to personal, national or global topics. As painting depicts the lives we live, it can also quite clearly be stated that an appreciation of painting and all art forms, can also deepen and enrich the lives we live.

Daily Logs March 19th '96 I have already had an interview with Mr. Cramm and decided to do my SIP on Art a nd how world issues have been reflected in art throughout the ages. This well b e an interesting project for me because I am an art major, and enjoy every aspec t of art and art history. It will be interesting to incorporate the two subject s. Today I met with Kath Peer to set up times when she can teach me and show me some of her slides. I also took out some art history books from the Unionville H.S. library. March 20th '96 This morning I went to the Unionville public library and took out some more book s on art history. I began looking into them and making notes. I have formalize d an introduction and basically organized my essay (and the messages I want to c onvey). I need to book another interview before I do any more, but I feel that I have a stable start to this project. March 21st '96 Today I talked to Kath Peer for a while on her ideas for which time periods I sh ould study, and which world issues I should look in to. I'm going to try and se t out some timelines to help. Today I also read some of my "art in the ancient world" book- I feel I should read a bit before I start taking serious notes. March 27th '96 Today I planned on going in for an interview, but unfortunately I missed my but, so K continued reading the history books to familiarize myself with my general topic. So far I have read into ancient Greek and Roman art/issues and started i nto renaissance. I have set dates for myself, so that I can start organizing my time and working hard to meet the deadline. April 2nd '96 Today I managed to accomplish a lot of work on my essay. I have read and now ma de notes on many interesting and informative books, and as of today, I have reco rded a lot of useful material. April 12th '96 I researched the life, art and livelihood of Pablo Picasso today. I wanted to g o into detail with a couple of famous artists lives, and I think Picasso was a g reat choice. A lot of his paintings were impressions of wars and events which o ccurred in his lifetime- which he had very strong feelings towards. I have almo

st finished my note making, and just need to look more in detail to the past cen tury (20th) of art. April 17th '96 Wow! Finally I am finished a long and hard battle of note making. This morning I went through my twenty seven pages of rough notes and highlighted them all ac cording to the three major time areas I am focusing on. Now I can finally get o n to the easy part- the essay writing. May 6th '96 I have spent the past three nights writing the first copy of my essay. The note s and examples came together very nicely, and I feel that I have written a subst antially good essay. I still have to type it and edit, but most of the work is done and I feel fairly competent of what I have accomplished. May 25th '96 My Essay is done- written, edited, spell checked and printed. Today I organized basic notes for my presentation which will occur on the 31st of this month. I recently spoke with my new art teacher Ms. Spittle and she has some interesting ideas about my topic, so soon I will be speaking to her again and finalizing my plans. This has been an all round enjoyable project, and I feel that I did not need to take a large amount of quotes, or even basic ideas from books, because o f the extensive knowledge I already have in art history.

Works Cited Bevetzin, Norman. The Arts in Canada. Copp Clark Publishing, Toronto: 1977 Bronowski, J. The Visionary Eye. The MIT Press, Mass.: 1978 Buck, Louis. Relative Values. PBC Books, London England: 1991 Casson, Jean. The Concise Encyclopedia of Symbolism. Chartwell Books Inc.,New

Jersey: 1979 Clark, Kenneth. The Romantic Rebellion. Butler and Tanner Ltd., Great Britain: 1973 Comptons Interactive Encyclopedia. Tribune New Media/Education Company: 19921995 Osbourne, Harold. Oxford Companion to Art. Oxford University Press, England: 1970