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Buckling of Mild Steel

TEAM
BY: Michael Ridolfi Edward Van Meter Matt McKellar Neema Kalilli Dale Mace

In 1757 Euler derived the

formula for maximum axial load a specimen can carry without plastically deforming.
The sample was modeled as

an ideal column that is perfectly straight and free of any initial stress. The original formula ONLY took into consideration axial loading, but not lateral. It was later shown to provide approximately the same results.

Modern History of Buckling 1940s


Known phenomena

Buckling lab uses a materials

Youngs modulus and moment of inertia, with an applied force, to find the critical loading value. Three samples made up of the same material will be used with varying lengths and constraint types. This information gathered will help also aid in determining the deflection. The machine that will be used is the TQ-STR12

TQ-STR12 Used to test:

Euler buckling loads. Relationships between strut

length and collapse load. Relationships between end conditions for collapse load Nature of deflection and deflected shapes.

Hardware
Magnetic deflection

Software
Computer simulation of

scale. Digital force display. Screw compressor for strut experiments. Load cell for measuring applied load.

experiment. Expands scope of experiment beyond limits of hardware. Displays theoretical buckling.

A36 Mild Steel


Density = 7800 kg/m^3 Ultimate Strength = 400-550 MPa Poisson's Ratio = 0.260 Youngs Modulus = 200 GPa Shear Modulus = 79.3 Gpa

Member types

Plates, sheets (type we are testing) Bars, structural shapes

General Properties

Standard low carbon steel No advanced alloying Maintain ultimate strength to about 650F Typically welded, bolted, riveted. Very common structural steel

Most common hot-rolled

and mild steel. How it is made, carbon, roll type How it interacts with machine

Element Iron Manganese Carbon Silicon Copper Sulfur Phosphorous

Content 98.0% 1.03% 0.25-0.29% 0.28% 0.20% 0.05% 0.04%

Cut

Design, measure, mark sheet material at different lengths. Make specimen cuts using metal press.

Drill Fit

Mark holes with diameters that will fit the bending machine. Drill holes using drill press

Make final measurements ensuring consistent width and shape. Fit specimens individually into TQ-STR12 to check they fit properly.

Problems during production: Width consistency. Proper width, not too thick, not too thin. Holes had to be as center as possible
Samples had to be similar to prior aluminum

samples for a proper comparison to be made.


We had to ensure the lengths were appropriate

for buckling machine to gather conclusive results.


Sample A B C Length (L) 0.51 m 0.48 m 0.44 m Width (W) 0.018 m 0.019 m 0.018 m Thickness (T) 0.0014 m 0.0014 m 0.0014 m

We selected a material and made careful measurements to ensure

the experiment parameters were met. This included proper sheet


thickness and width. Also, with steel being stronger than aluminum, the samples had to be longer than prior aluminum specimens.
Calculated and theoretical results for deflection and critical

loading were compared and that was then compared to loadings with different end orientation.
The samples are inserted into the TQ-STR12 machine with the

following methods:
Pinned on both ends Fixed on both ends Fixed and Pinned

Measure thickness, width, length, of specimen

Record value and compare to theoretical values. Repeat for next sample.

Attach specimen to the TQ-STR12.

Turn nob at the top of the specimen, applying a load until the values begin to fall again.

Choose end state for link. i.e. FF, PP, FP

PP, n=1 Sample A B Measured 26 35

Pcr (N) Theoretical 32.537 41.361 Error (%) 20.090 15.379

42

47.226

11.066 15.512

Discussion

Note: Scales change

PF, n=1.414 Sample A B Measured 58 74

Pcr (N) Theoretical 70.386 90.077 Error (%) 17.597 17.848

82

103.585

20.838 18.761

Discussion

FF, n=2 Sample A B C

Pcr (N) Measured Theoretical 121 152.849 154 197.042 181 228.366

Error (%) 20.837 21.844 20.741 21.141

FF, n=2 Sample A B Measured 121 154

Pcr (N) Theoretical 152.849 197.042 Error (%) 20.837 21.844

181

228.366

20.741 21.141

Discussion

The most notable and similarly obvious trend in the data is how

the critical loading is strongly correlated to the length of the


member. The shorter the member, the larger the critical loading.
The next observation is that the members with one fixed end

had a critical loading of about 2x that of the pinned-pinned

end fixture. Similarly, the fixed-fixed end condition provided


another magnitude 2x that of fixed-pinned. There is a very strong correlation between more fixed positions and larger

critical loading.

Members are not quite as uniform in width as we would have

liked. Very slight variation in hole placement. Members had some imperfections from production such as scrapes, dings, and very very slight deformation.
Machine had some uncertainty

values. Hand measurements had some slight uncertainty.

Buckling measurements are made on

almost any project including mechanical, structural, and civil engineering. Mechanical: submarine hauls under compressive forces from sea water Structural: underground tunnels with c shape supports Civil: every building ever made.
constraint in construction of buildings and most designs that cause compressive stresses. consideration because failure typically results in a catastrophic failure of the member and possible the entire structure.

Basically, buckling is a typical design

Buckling is a important quality to take into

World Trade Center After intense fires that, at their hottest, were measured at 1800F the members began to weaken.
At 1100F, mild steel looses

of its total strength! The second tower hit lasted twice as long as the first because there was haft the floors loading the members above the fires.

Future contributions:
Material sciences to produce stiffer materials Test different cross sections.

What will this lead to Found information

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A36_steel
http://publish.ucc.ie/boolean/2010/00/deP

aor/11/en http://www.tqstructures.com/STR12/bucklin g-of-struts.htm