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DATE 1861

EVENT Emancipation of the serfs

Release of peasants from serfdom on the land on which they were born

IMPACT Redemption payments 49 installments, crippling - Land divided for inefficient farming - Landowning gentrys property halved (prior to emancipation, owned 50% of Russia, after 25%) discontent, felt overlooked - Between 1861 and 1900, population increase size of lots halved PROBLEMS W TNII - Little imagination - Relied on advice of officials with dubious ability - Dismissed capable officials due to feeling threatened - Overly orientated with family - Resented his role - Ostracised by Alexandra - Poor decision making - Lacked political reform - Wanted to maintain autocracy for heir -

RELATED PERSONS Tsar Alexander II Peasants Landed Gentry

RELATED CONCEPTS/ TERMS Mir Emancipatio n Gentry



Nicholas coronation

Tsar Nicholas II

I have a constitution in my head, but as to my heart, I spit on it TNII Russia gained in him the worst of both worlds: a Tsar determined to rule from the throne yet quite incapable of exercising power Orlando Figes Mir Trade union The collapse of autocracy was rooted in a crisis of modernisation Steven Smith


Less need for manual labour on farm land, movement of labour toward urban centres.

S: Peasants relocated to cities Overcrowding Poor working conditions 15 hour days Trade unions illegal Famines Rise of capitalists (factory owners, middle

Sergei Witte Capitalists Proletariats Peasants

class, ~10%) E: P: 1904 Russo-Japanese War S: Witte introduced accelerated industrialisation policy Trans Siberian Railway (1903), easier for trade Working conditions worsened Lack of patriotic spirit Increased dissatisfaction with Tsarist regime Humiliated popn Japan proven to be world power Loss of life Increased unemployment Raw materials run short Wasted funds on war effort Provided basis for 1905 Revn Dissatisfied society V. K. Plehve Admiral Togo Sergei Witte What Russia needs is small, victorious war V. K. Plehve As suggested by historian Donald J. Raleigh, the people were only angered against the Tsar as a result of the RJ war. Increased taxes as peasants left mirs Foreign investment Increased tariffs Imports grew faster than exports Doubled state budget



Battle of Tsushima

J. victory in less than a day Showcased military inefficiency

22nd January 1905

Bloody Sunday
Peaceful march of workers Led by Father Georgi Gapon Wanted to present petition asking for improved working, political, economic conditions (inc. 8 hour working days, end of RJ war, elected Duma) Tsar ignored Cossacks attacked, killing over 100 people, injuring over 300

Putilov Steel Works Strike

Loss of faith in Tsar (disintegration of Papa Tsar concept) Loss of life Rise of general strikes remainder of 1905, >3million workers on strike Violent peasant riots continued Peasants seized land from the wealthier land owners Fuelled and promoted the support of opposition groups Mutinies esp. navy Workers signatory to petition 12 000 involved In St Petersburg

Fr Georgi Gapon Cossacks TNII Proletariats

Duma Petition Navy Mutiny General Strikes Opposition groups

Battle of Potemkin, June 1905

August 1905 Advisory Duma set up

- Navy soldiers onboard mutinied - Death of some navy officers Failed appeased less radical liberals and nobles TNII Lower classes but was transparent to lower classes (seen as measly attempt to meet demands for rights)

Advisory Duma

Sept.Oct. 1905

Soviets set up
Local council/workers union primarily made up of workers and soldiers

St Petersburg Soviet

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks fought for control of soviets as believed workers would determine the success of revn Proletariats acting independently Formed 14 October Led by Mensheviks, Trotsky

Bolsheviks Mensheviks

Soviet Opposition groups

October 30, 1905 October Manifesto

Legal document published by TNII (drawn up by Witte). Granted - certain civil freedoms (eg freedom of speech) - elected Duma with legislative power - General franchise

Largest soviet Sergei Witte TNII Duma Manifesto Civil liberty would triumph if not by reform then by the path of revolution Sergei Witte R.E. Ringer suggests that the October Manifesto was ineffective in rallying support for the monarchy.

Russia became constitutional monarchy Kadets, middle class viewed as positive development - Lower classes, opposition groups and trade unions viewed as political concession - Witte replaced by Stolypin in 1906 - Trade unions legalised PRO FOR TSAR - Divided opposition - Members of St Petersburg Soviet arrested NEG. FOR TSAR - Strikes cont. - Peasants seized land - Mutinies cont. Executions of 2000 people ingited hatred toward regime Repression only fuelled rebellion Changing weight of votes ensured conservative nature of Duma Creation of new class (Kulaksland owning peasants) just created another class for peasants to rebel against Peasants released from mirs overcrowding in urban areas Peasant Land Bank given crown land to sell loans for land were crippling Tax paying capacity of citizens was eroded


Stolypins counterrevolutionary policy

Characterised by repression - Changed weight of votes in Duma, nobility weighed more (1907) - Executions - Agrarian reforms Believed stabilising peasant class would stabilise Russia -

Stolypin Kulaks Peasants

Execution Repression Counterrevn

It [Stolypins counterrevolutionary reforms] was a clear move that eroded the political reforms of 1905 R. Darlington He [Stolypin] was convinced that political repression was sufficient to

23 April, Fundamental Laws Issued by TNII, (part of 1906 -

Stolypins counter-revn policy) reduced power of Duma by giving him power to: - Intervene in a selfdeemed emergency - Reinstated Tsars divine right to rule

govt. could not progress Promoted Siberian migration alleviated hunger for land Trade unions legalised Reduced power of Duma, undermined constitutional monarchy General dissatisfaction with Tsars inability to commit to political reforms

rid him of the revolutionaries John Bradley TNII Stolypin Duma

Russification policy

Aimed for complete Russian assimilation

July 1906

First Duma elected

Feb 1907

Second Duma


Third Duma
Less democratic

Mixture of radicals and conservatives became debating society Outspoken deputies arrested Stolypin dissolved it after 10 weeks due to unconformity to Tsarist regime` Too many reforms suggested that would deprive nobility of land, therefore dissolved Bolsheviks and Mensheviks pushing for industrial revn Did not meet demands of peasants Threatened Tsars administration Amendments to electoral system by Stolypin allowed for majority to be held by property owners radicals turned again to violence

TNII Stolypin


TNII Bolsheviks Mensheviks Nobility Stolypin



Assassination of Stolypin

Directionless government support stirred by boosting hostility against Jews and foreign enemies



Fourth Duma

1 Aug., 1914

Germany declares war on Russia

Troops mobilised

Opposed Rasputin for inducing legislation reducing their powers - Disagreed with TNII decision to take over army Therefore, abolished EXTERNAL RESPONSES - Eastern front of the war in Europe was opened INTERNAL RESPONSES - Popular nationalistic support temporarily repaired rship b/w Tsar and people - Lack of leadership, ammunition, transportation and supplies defeats e.g. Battle of Tannenburg (Aug. 18) and Battle of

Rodzianko TNII Rasputin war The war would spell the disintegration of our entire national economy Durnovo, Minister of the Interior, 1914 At a critical moment, the Empire was handed over to an unbalanced woman with her advisers, who were also quite useless W.H.C Smith

Masurian Lakes (Sept. 2)


August 1915

TNII becomes Commander in Chief of Army

Replaces Grand Duke Nikolaevich Duke was trusted, Tsar was inexperienced - Alexandra encouraged, Rodzianko discouraged EXTERNAL - Conditions on the front worsened - Poor tactics and military strategising INTERNAL - Govt. decisions fell to Alexandra and subsequently Rasputin both distrusted - Rasputin clashed with Duma, seen as threat

Grand Duke Nikolaevich Mikhail Rodzianko Alexandra Gregori Rasputin TNII


Continuation of war

Alexandra legislated to further reduce Duma powers - Rasputin unchallengeable solidified autocracy alongside Tsarina - Alexandra isolated at court, TNII isolated at the front IMPACTS OF POOR SOLDIER MORALE - disloyalty of army - 4.5 times more man captured than killed soldiers more willing to be captured than die for their country - Desertion allowed Germans to advance - When sent to quell strikes joined strikers Disparity of emotions: Russians pleased, Alexandra displeased further isolation and disrespect Alexis now in danger

TNII Alexandra Army


The pople now began to ask why they were suffering in this way. For what? And for whom? W.H.C Smith

30 Dec, 1916

Rasputin assassinated
by Prince Yusipov

Alexandra Prince Yusipov Alexis Rasputin


January 1917 12 March, 1917 14 March, 1917

General strike of 100 000 people in Petrograd

No transport no food hunger and anger Food shortages food queues more people on street cold COLD + HUNGER + ANGER = DANGEROUS Bread queue storm a - Police fire on crowd bakery - General Habalov ordered to send troops to quell strike troops joined strike and assisted in disarming the police Provisional Committee set - Provisional government representative of all up parties, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks included - Petrograd Soviet originally supported

TNII General Habalov Alexander Kerensky Bolsheviks


Dual government Provisional

government as long as a Constituent Assembly (like a House of Reps) set up and civil rights granted 15 March, 1917 TNIIs abdication
Forced by army generals and members of PG to abdicate throne on way home from the front at Pskov


TNII attempts to hand brother, Michael, the throne who refuses unless elected by the people never going to happen Romanov rule comes to an end

TNII Michael

government Soviet Constituent Assembly Abdication

Orlando Figes: The Romanov regime fell under the weight of its own internal contradictions. It was not overthrown.

16 April, Lenin arrives in Petrograd Sent by way of German train 1917

from exile to Petrograd to promote withdrawal from war.

17 July, 1918

Romanov family executed

Under house arrest in Ural Mountains. Executed by Red Guard (Bolshevik army) to quell any counter-revolution

Takes control of Bolsheviks By October 1917, Bolsheviks in charge through majority in Soviets and slogan Peace, Land and Bread. Take over Winter Palace from PG, therefore begin to rule the country End war through Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany Build socialism, the party became almost autocratic in its nature, simply another version of Tsarist regime Based theories on Marxism, foundations of communism Possibility of Tsar and pro-Tsarist supporters forming a counter-revolutionary uprising eliminated Downfall of Romanov regime complete

Vladimir Lenin Bolsheviks

PG Treaty of BrestLitovsk Socialism

Romanov Red Guard Lenin Bolsheviks