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Steps to Writing Well Chapter 4: Beginning and Ending I.

) The Beginning First impressions count o You only have a few sentences to reel in your audience o Ensure that within a few sentences, a few words, you have made your audience feel that your essay is worth reading about The thesis statement may not always be enough to capture their attention, thus, we use an introductory device called a lead-in Lead-ins have 3 main purposes: o Capture the readers attention o Announce the subject and tone of the essay (be it humorous, serious, etc.) o As the name suggests, leads into the presentation of the essay map and thesis Types of lead-in o Paradoxical statement o Arresting/shocking statement o A question o A quotation or literary allusion o A relevant story, joke, anecdote o A descriptionemotional appeal o A factual statement; a summary (5 Ws) o An analogy or comparison o A contrast o A personal experience o A catalogue of relevant examples o Statement of the problem or a popular misconception Avoiding errors in lead-in o Make sure that your lead-in introduces and is connected to your thesis o Use smooth transitions o Keep it brief Remember that no one likes a long introduction! o Dont begin with an apology or complaint This is a thesis! You must know how to be confident and assert yourself! o Dont assume that your audience already knows the subject matter Write in such a way that they will easily understand Elaborate or define uncommon words, especially those that belong to a certain jargon It doesnt hurt to recall facts that are already known, especially if they are relevant to the subject; they also help in putting emphasis o Dont be clich! Make your essay worth reading by making its introduction unique and interesting Think out of the box! II.) Concluding your essay Essays are just like telenovelas o Cliffhangers are the worst! Give your audience a satisfying conclusionsense of completion Emphasizes the validity and importance of your thinking Its your last chance to assert yourself! Ways to conclude: o Restatement of the thesis and major points o Evaluation of the subjects importance

o Broader implications o A call to action o A warning based on the thesis o Quotation from authority o Anecdote, witticism that emphasize the point of the essay o Image or description o Rhetorical question o A forecast Errors to avoid: o Mechanical endings Verbatim! Find a way to make the restatement emphatic o Dont introduce new points o Dont tack on a conclusion (use smooth transitions) o Dont change your stance o Avoid trite expressions Dont just announce that youre ending the essay.

III.) Titles Should capture attention, and announce the tone and subject of the essay Capitalize only the first and important words

Chapter 5: Drafting and RevisingCreative Thinking, Critical Thinking I.) Revision A good writer revises his or her prose Rethink, rearrange, rewrite A thinking process o Looking at your work from a fresh eye o Entails new ideas, new approaches, new focus Myths: o Revision is not an autopsy Happens all throughout the writing process o Revision is not limited to editing and proofreading Editing-correcting technical errors such as grammar, syntax, etc Proofreading-correcting typos Revision-encompasses both; also looks at content, coherence, etc. o Revision is not a punishment Remember that this is going to improve your essay! Tips for effective drafting o Your draft is not sacred o Write on only one side of the paper o Leave big margins o Devise a system of symbols o Leave blank spots to fill them in later o Dont omit anything permanently o Work on a typed copy o Always keep notes, outlines, drafts and an extra copy of the final paper. Suggested Revising Process: o Rethink purpose, thesis, audience Clear sense of what your purpose is and who your readers are o Rethink ideas and evidence Your main objective is to let them accept your thesis. Provide concrete and logical proof that will help persuade your readers

Choosing evidence requires critical thinking Ability to analyze and evaluate ideas o Learn to distinguish fact from opinion o Evaluate the strength of evidence o Watch out for biases and strong emotions that may undermine your argument o Look out for fallacies o Rethink organization Dont be afraid to restructure your paragraphs! o Rethink clarity and style o Edit grammar, punctuation, spelling o Proofread Make your paper look professional Revision workshops o As a writer: Develop constructive attitude; accept criticism Come prepared with what you want to revise Evaluate suggestions Find the good in bad advice o As a reviewer: Develop a constructive attitude Be clear and specific Address important issues Encourage the writer Understand your role as a critical reader Chapter 6: Effective sentences

I.) The importance of effective sentences Words are powerful tools of expression What and how we use them may change how people perceive or understanding our arguments Effective essays are made up of effective sentences Para siyang knitted sweater; pag natastas yung isang line, matatastas na lahat In the same way, one sentence may very well be the cause of downfall of the entire essay BLAH BLAH BLAH (please refer to the powerpoint; tinatamad na ako. XD )