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Condition Based Maintenance: Chevron Shipping Experience *McIntosh David, *Shrieve Paul, *Iyinbor Jude, Donesley Grant and

Brady Steve Chevron Shipping Company *Germanischer Lloyd

Abstract An increased equipment reliability and efficient maintenance techniques means a reduction in operational downtime, which leads to extended machinery life with a decrease in unpredicted breakdowns. These can be achieved by implementing a condition based maintenance strategy, which seeks to obtain the maximum useful life from machinery prior to taking them out of service. Implementation of such strategy in the maritime sector requires a model that delivers results to all stakeholders

In this paper, an examination is carried out on the partnership model between Chevron Shipping Company (CSC) and Germanischer Lloyd (GL).

Keywords: condition, maintenance, machinery

Introduction to Chevron Shipping Company Chevron Shipping Company is one of Chevron's original operating entities. From the days when barrels of oil were rolled onto the decks of sailing ships to present day supertankers, Chevron Shipping has been providing the vital transportation link between Chevrons upstream and downstream operations. Chevron precursor Pacific Coast Oil Company commissioned its first tanker ship an oil-fired steamer dubbed the George Loomis in 1895.

Today, Chevron Shipping Co. (CSC) manages 28 Chevron-owned and operated vessels around the world. Shipping's vessels transport 365 million barrels of oil per year, and import more than 600,000 barrels per day of crude oil into the United States. CSC staff includes roughly 1,275 mariners and 225 shore-side support staff.

CSC operations include Marine Transportation, which operates the company's fleet of oil tankers and gas carriers; Marine Services, which oversees construction projects and terminal and floating platform management; LNG Shipping, which provides shipping solutions to Chevron's gas-related projects; and Commercial, which is responsible for Chevron's chartered vessels.

Over the years, the services Chevron Shipping offers customers have expanded beyond transportation. Now we put our years of marine experience to work providing solutions to marine issues on the upstream and downstream sides of Chevron Corporation's business. By integrating our services into their planning and operations, our customers realize efficiencies in time and cost unmatched by outside vendors.

Background to the Reliability Improvement Program CSC operated a time based maintenance (TBM) strategy across the Fleet supported with bi-annual vibration surveys. This philosophy works with machines that run infrequently and have low repair costs. Replacing machine parts on a predetermined interval without any proof of deterioration in the components could lead to production loss due to unnecessary maintenance. Further more in some instances machines having more issues after new parts incorrectly being installed due to bad maintenance practises. There was a high rate of missed failures and false calls within the TBM program some of the key points to why this was happening are:

Many equipment failures transition from fault initiation to failure much faster than semiannual surveys assume.

Analysis performed off the vessel outside of the operating environment is less than what is needed by the Engineers onboard that will distinguish between normal variations of machine vibration with abnormal variations in operations. This leads to false positives and diminished program credibility.

Very little to no follow up on identified faults and corrections resulting in greater secondary damage and rework only to be back in the same position with the machine. Again diminishing program credibility.

No on board capability to assess machine condition following intrusive maintenance activities in validating the repair, plus many other reasons the vessel should have the ability to do this themselves.

No skill development of Chevron Engineers in Condition Based Maintenance Program.

No integration of an important real-time operating and maintenance decision tool into the CSC fleet.

Scope of Condition Based Maintenance within Chevron The main component of any condition based maintenance (CBM) program is a condition monitoring strategy that is fit for purpose. This involves the identification of available fault sensitive parameters and then monitoring the changes in baseline values to determine the onset of progressive failure modes. The CSC program

includes the gradual roll out of the following technologies, but is not limited to the list below: Vibration Analysis Main Engine Performance Monitoring Diesel Engine Analyser Lubrication Oil Analysis Thermal Imaging Acoustics Circuit Analysis

Using vibration analysis as an example, it is a proven means of detecting most mechanical defects associated with rotating equipment (Girdhar and Scheffer, 2004). Its effectiveness stems from the ability to analyse overall vibration signal into its frequency components in the spectral data. In comparison with just overall values, frequency components are more sensitive to defects such as bearing deterioration, misalignment of shafts and pulleys, etc.

Specifically derived higher frequency parameters provide an assessment of rolling element bearing condition and lubrication requirement. Trending such components provides earlier identification of impending problems and focuses any subsequent planned corrective actions. Fault detection is improved by assessing other

corroborative parameters, which are sensitive to the same defects. For example, an increase in bearing temperature will usually triangulate bearing problems. Once a fault is diagnosed, the scope also includes working in partnership with vessel engineers to carry out appropriate corrective measures by further deploying other technologies such Precision Laser Alignment and In-situ balancing.

Why Condition Based Maintenance Increase in machine production by limiting unexpected failures. Reduce costs by extending time between overhauls, repair when machine requires maintenance leads to no secondary damage which improves repair time. CBM targets specific defects allowing engineers to focus on particular areas of concern, reducing the failure detection time. Increase in machine life. Equipment for inclusion in the CM program, based on combination of results from GL analysis and current industry best practice. CM parameters have been selected based on their ability to detect the onset of anticipated equipment failure modes. Defect detection capabilities and detailed measurement lists are provided for all equipment.

Advantage Value to CSC approach: The CSC program brings an important operating tool and skill into the fleet; the program: Satisfies class requirements.

Provides more timely and accurate diagnosis resulting in fewer failures.

Enables onboard engineers to leverage vibration technology into the on-going operating and maintenance decision process.

Provides more accurate information relative to normal variations resulting in more accurate diagnosis.

Provides for post maintenance testing and evaluation verification of the repair.

Assists engineers in optimizing performance and reliability of equipment that makes sense.

Implementation Process
Start CBM setup

Existing Ship

New Ship

ID Confirmation

Communication setup: E-mail, Emergency Nos, etc

Non-Standard Equipment kit

Equipment requirement/Standard kit

Criticality Assessment

N Prerequisite Required? Y Establish contact

Pre-requisite received

Confirm Agents Add

Functionality test of equipment

Purchase Equip. N

Deliver Equip

Ackn. Delivery

New Ship?

Y Database/Route setup Functionality test of database Installation/Hardwiring

N New Ship? Record Equipment Set/ID Y Report Setup Procedure Analysis Baseline Survey Test setup

Equipment manual/material for standard and non-standard equipment

Next Scheduled visit Training

Monthly survey Y Other new technologies? N

Report Ackn GL Team

CSC Team Vessel Mgt Team

Analysis report

Report Approval GL Team

Performance report

CSC Team

Figure 1: Flowchart describing model

The CSC/GL model (as detailed in figure 1) is a detailed flexible mechanism developed to capture the requirements of implementing CBM on vessels beginning from initial definition of the process to continuous periodic assessment of machine condition to ensure operational functionality. The model undertakes a structured and auditable process for the implementation of CBM. For a given vessel, this process consists of five logical phases as indicated in figure 2 below:

Figure 2: Five Phases of Implementation of CBM

Phase 1 - CBM performance review This review includes an evaluation of the following areas; CBM strategy and objectives Level of integration into maintenance strategy Defined CBM key performance indicators Operational costs Quantified achieved cost benefits Criticality of equipment monitored CBM techniques, hardware and software Fault detection confidence currently achieved CBM business and work processes, definition and implementation Process roles and responsibilities, definition and implementation Competence and motivation of personnel

An integral part of this initial performance review involved interactive discussions with CSC and vessel personnel, during which the concept of CBM and the implementation process is fully explained to gain early 'buy-in' and ownership.

Phase 2 - Improvement strategy development Following analysis of the information gathered during the first phase, a statement of current performance was produced by GL and various improvement strategy scenarios developed and presented. These improvement strategy scenarios set forward improvement

opportunities, identify the actions / techniques appropriate to realise these opportunities and quantify the expected benefits.

It is essential that improvement strategies and supporting techniques are selected on the basis of their added-value contribution. Although, in practice, selection will be

determined from the outcome of the initial performance review, some of the available improvement techniques that may be utilised are described briefly below.

Criticality assessment Criticality assessment is a proven technique to focus CBM activities on vessel equipment items that are critical to the operational, safety or environmental performance of the vessel. It is these items, which will provide the greater benefit through CBM by:

Minimising unscheduled shut downs, and hence production revenue losses Minimising operating to failure, and hence high repair costs caused by consequential damage

A systematic review of equipment is undertaken against agreed assessment criteria and a criticality ranking defined.

CBM viability assessment Condition Based Maintenance should be applied where it is proven to be practical and technically capable of detecting anticipated / known equipment failure modes. CBM viability assessment is achieved via an in-house matrix analysis approach developed by personnel within GL that considers the sensitivity to failure of possible monitoring parameters and the practicality of acquiring the associated data. Once the achievable monitoring strategy is established, an assessment of the level of confidence in fault detection is then undertaken.

The matrix analysis approach defines which failure modes can and cannot be reliably detected using established and proven condition based maintenance technology. This enables an integrated maintenance strategy to be developed, to manage the areas where CBM will not add-value.

CBM Business process development Criticality Assessment and CBM Viability Assessment establish the pieces of equipment that can be reliably be monitored and the most appropriate combination of CBM technologies to be applied for this purpose. Business Process establishes how the resultant focused monitoring program can be most efficiently implemented to provide clear and concise condition information and how this information will be integrated into the overall maintenance management strategy.

Figure 3: Interaction between main drivers and business objective

The business objectives are driven by four main factors as described in figure. Design entails detailed review and specification of equipment to function optimally during service. Machine availability involves maintenance-based action carried out to ensure uptime. In order to attain safety and environmental standards, maintenance tasks are necessary to minimize risks. Maintenance optimization entails directing effort towards critical and specific functions to achieve safety, environmental and operational objectives at optimum cost. Processes are documented in a manner that clearly identifies the roles and

responsibilities of all parties (internal and external) who will contribute to the execution and management of the CBM program. For this reason, they must be developed in conjunction with all stakeholders to ensure that task interdependencies are fully understood and that expected contributions are established and accepted by the individuals concerned.

People development Whilst structured business and work processes may clearly identify intended roles and responsibilities, they do not directly address the ability of the individuals concerned to fulfill them. An assessment of CBM skill base within the workforce onboard the vessel and the provision of any necessary training, is therefore an essential ingredient for CBM implementation success.

The importance of people development cannot be over-stressed. The GL/CSC partnership has shown that vessel engineers have demonstrated a complete change in attitude once they received tailor-made training courses delivered to improve awareness and enhance knowledge. Training modules are targeted to meet the training requirement of each

engineer. Training is continuous until vessel engineers become adept, not only at collecting data and at identifying trends, but of more detailed analysis / interpretation to establish the cause and significance of observed changes. Result-oriented CBM can only be achieved if monitored data is converted into meaningful information for use in the maintenance decision-making process.

Key Performance Indicators The definition of appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) is essential in order to measure the success of CBM and to support a culture of continuous improvement. These indicators reflect the level of achievement for stated objectives of CBM as a 'standalone' process and when aligned to the overall business performance measures. established the following KPIs: CSC has

Machinery reliability and availability Reduction in downtimes Safety and environmental compliance CBM program costs and benefits Personnel skills and competencies Time between collection of data and sending it ashore for analysis (48 Hrs target) Time between data analysis and sending report to vessel engineers (48Hrs target) Number of machines surveyed monthly (60% target)

Phase 3 - Implementation planning The improvement strategy scenarios are jointly evaluated by CSC/GL to determine the best approach for CSC, bearing in mind available resources and budgets. Once the optimum strategy has been selected, a framework for implementation is developed, addressing the following: Detailed phasing of selected improvement initiatives Required implementation resources Expected gains and pay-back timescales Measures of success by which to evaluate achievement Critical implementation success factors Implementation management roles and responsibilities

The outcome of this phase is a detailed action plan to manage implementation of those improvement initiatives carried forward. Such implementation may be staged in practice, with initial attention focused on those initiatives providing potential 'step gains'.

Phase 4 - Implementation of improvement initiatives Following the development and agreement of a detailed action plan, GL facilitates and / or supports the performance improvement process in partnership with CSC. Key elements for a CSC/GL partnership agreement:

Ownership and accountability to the reliability program is critical. If a machine fails, they share in the responsibility even if it is not a machine they have yet included in the program.

KPIs need to reflect accountability mentioned above as well as Vendor/Supplier individual performance

KPIs to be a total mix of approximately six leading and lagging indicators

All personnel attending any Chevron vessel for support or service will be coordinated through one principal engineering manager. Chevron Shipping has final approval on which that individual is. KPIs will focus on the performance of the program managed by that principal engineer. Other engineering support

(such as design) to the program is evaluated separately, and on an on-going basis.

Principal engineers will get access to CMMS and other CSC information management systems

GL is responsible for technical training and development of engineers attending CSC vessels.

Chevron will provide training to GL engineers on the elements of OEMS and the reliability

GL engineers may have to represent or directly support other non-Chevron entities including potential competitors, such as analysis of the engine analyzer data and performance reports based on condition.

Phase 5 - Management and Operation of CBM CSC in conjunction with GL employs an interactive approach to manage and co-ordinate vessel-specific requirements of the CBM program.

Operational Process

Following the installation on board and the initial training of the Chevron personnel, data is collected from each machine on a monthly basis and sent to GL by e-mail, The data is reviewed and analyzed by the GL engineer and any issues highlighted immediately to CSC. A monthly report is produced per vessel and also an overall summary for the fleet is provided to management. A typical sample is provided below:

Each vessel is audited by the GL engineers on a bi-annual basis to ensure database is maintained and any additional training is provided as required. This includes for any new techniques that are to be deployed.

Improvement Process A steering group has been established for the contract which consists of Project Management representative from each company and a Management Sponsor from each company. This group typically meets annually to review the past performance of the contract and also sets the objectives for the coming period. This group also identifies potential improvement initiatives to be evaluated. Such initiatives currently include Web based reporting tools, Training, Hardware / Software Upgrades etc. The initiatives are evaluated on a case by case basis with the benefits to the program clearly identified for consideration. Future initiatives currently being considered is the use of vibration as a QA/QC tool in the shipyard, integration of various subsystems (Performance Monitoring, Vibration Analysis, Lube Oil Analysis, etc)

Benefits to Chevron Shipping Company

Examples of Success Stories (Case Histories) ME LO Pump (Maria Angelicoussis) HFO Purifier (Stellar Voyager) ME LO Pump (Phoenix Voyager) Steering Gear (California Voyager)

References Girdhar P. and Scheffer C. (2004) Machinery Vibration Analysis & Predictive Maintenance, Oxford: Newnes/Elsevier