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The Cold War: Joseph Stalin: Russian/Soviet Union Communist dictator Communism: French Revolution Before there are

e are 3 classes Royalty Old money, accustomed to running everything Merchants New money, recently developed b/c industry Lowly peasants During the revolutions: Merchants overthrow royalty (Marie Antoinette is beheaded) Merchants are the Bourgeois and peasants/factory workers are the Proletariat Bourgeois establish a capitalistic and democratic society They have all the power because they have the money Marx and Lennon saying that their government will establish themselves as economical and political powers based on their money Want to eliminate all social classes and make everyone the same Overthrow Bourgeois by organizing the Proletariat into one political party and will vote themselves as a group into power Beat the Bourgeois at their own political game Communists have political power Then take over private property so its all owned by the government No private property=no money/power People work for community Labor has equal value Society has everyone equal Marx and Lennons idea is attractive because at the time there is a huge imbalance of wealth in France Pros Everyone is equal Greater benefits for Proletariat No social (royalty) or economical ($) hierarchy People who worked for the same amount of time should receive the same social standing no matter what their job was Provides security Food, clothing, homes provided Nobody worked for themselves only, but for the benefit of the whole community Cons Everyone does the same thing People are GREEDY Want money, power, and possession No incentive to work hard Everyone receives the same benefits no matter what Unsavory (but necessary) jobs wouldnt be filled People motivated in different ways Fear Get shot Get sent to places you dont want to live Get a lesser job

Party politics Did a good job, get moved up, more power Idealism Some actually believed in the principles of working for the community While the society is shifting to Communism, government has LOTS of power Power corrupts because people like power People didnt go to college Later fall behind when the west is in service economy People were assigned jobs Athletes, scientists, etc. Trained from very young age An economic and political system where the government owns all private property so that no one has more wealth or power than any other person there arent any social classes. Ideally, everyone will do different jobs for the community in order to benefit everyone. No one earns money, but the government provides the people with clothing, food, and homes. Capitalism An economic system where businesses are privately owned and the success of the products produce directly benefit the owner. In this system the workers are selling their labor to the owners as a commodity. Atomic Bomb and the Arms Race After the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the rest of the world (especially Soviet Union) rushed to get their own nuclear weapons Competition to develop the most nuclear weapons Competition to develop biggest and best nuclear weapons Competition to gain the most nuclear power Atlantic Charter Was created by FDR and Churchill in 1941 and stated that there would be no land or territory gain in war, but that the affected nations would be able to hold elections after the war. Lowered the incentive to go to war and signaled the end of colonization because all nations colonized were now allowed to chose their own government

Puppet Government Governments in eastern Europe that did whatever Stalin and the Soviet Union wanted them to do Containment Policy U.S. has peace and happiness ideas with the UN and democracy Soviet Union is playing along Why? George Kenan sends Long Telegram in 1947 to explain it American diplomat who spent most of his career in Europe Says Stalin is looking to consolidate power in Eastern Europe. We cant beat him at his own game, but if we can consolidate our influence in countries around him, we can stop the spread of Communism and it will eventually self-destruct Exact opposite of Isolationism Involving ourselves in matters that dont directly pertain to us Truman Doctrine (1947) Says the U.S. will arm or provide military aid to free people or anti-communist groups fighting against armed minorities or outside forces Armed minorities Lots of weapons in Greece because they had been armed to fight the Nazis in WWII Communist fighting nationalists

U.S. helps nationalists

Outside forces Soviet Union wants to control Iran and Turkey so they could have ports. Put lots of pressure on them and are breathing down their neck U.S. helps Turkey Marshall Plan (1948) Europe is devastated after WWII Marshall Plan designed to help rebuild Europe and prevent newly elected governments from becoming Communist People are starving, veterans cant get medical care, economy has tanked all across Europe Because all the countries are poor, U.S. is afraid that they will turn to Communism Communism is gaining popularity in Italy and France because it makes everyone equal Under the Marshall Plan, all allies of the U.S. are offered money to rebuild their country if they agree to get rid of Communism in their country Fits into Containment Policy Creates powerful and stable anti-communist U.S. allies Money helps to set up capitalist economies Countries were capitalistic before, so money is used to start off everything again People go back to work, governments starting Iron Curtain End of the soviets sphere of influence Wall between eastern and western Europe Barrier between U.S. ideals and U.S.S.R.s NATO (1949) Military alliance created between most of Western Europe the U.S. and Canada An attack against any member is treated as an attack against the whole group Establishes a very clear western camp Made sure that the Soviets couldnt extend their control/power into western Europe because then they would have to fight the U.S. Showed the U.S. policy of containment (as compared to isolationism) Warsaw Pact (1955) Military alliance between Soviet Union and its satellite nations of eastern Europe Created in response to West Germany joining NATO Chinese Revolution (1949) 1910 people overtake the Manua Qing dynasty Try to set up a republic, but the group of people is too small to control it Have to give away land to Japan to get their help WWI ends and people realize their government gave away their land and they are angry 2 separate groups are formed and at first work in harmony KMT (nationalists) CCP (Communists) 1920s KMT and CCP start fighting warlords and each other In 1931Japan invades China and they have to put away own problems to fight the Japanese End of WWII the U.S. is allies with China and we tried to support negotiated peace between the two groups, but it doesnt work In 1946 all out war between the two parties breaks out CCP headed by Chairman Mao KMT headed by Chiang Kai-Shek Supported by the U.S. In 1947 U.S. pulls support for KMT because we are busy occupying Japan and starting the

Marshall Plan and KMT is losing 1949 Chain Kai-Shek flees to Taiwan and establishes the Republic of China there Mao declares the formation of the Peoples Republic of China Viewed as better run ad more legitimate in China because the nationalists are viewed as corrupted Most of the western world recognizes the PRC as the legitimate power U.S. doesnt and doesnt let the PRC take the security council seat in the UN leads to Chinese involvement in Korea U.S. hopes that Mao is a strong enough character that there would be friction between him and the Soviets Sino-Soviet Treaty Signed in 1950 Military alliance between China and the Soviet Union U.S.s worst fear Korean War th After WWII the U.S. and Soviet Union split Korea at the 38 parallel

Tension about how to establish a united government Note: Korea had never been divided but now is divided by two outside powers 1947 U.S. asks the UN to negotiate Korean elections UN does but the Soviets dont let them into North Korea so elections are only held in South Korea and the Republic of Korea is set up Soviets set up the Democratic Republic of Korea in response Both sides say that their government is the rightful ruler of all of Korea 1948 U.S. pulls out most troops from South Korea and the Soviet Union pulls out most of its troops but leaves North Korea heavily armed 1950 North Korea invades South Korea and all but takes it over Soviet troops arent with them but armed them U.S. brings in troops and asks UN for help Soviets arent at UN because they are boycotting because PRC wasnt recognized Security Council votes to send troops to Korea Reason why never technically a war since its a UN thing UN able to push North Korea back all the way to the Yalu River (Koreas boarder with China) China starts to send troops in to fight the U.S. MacArthur wants to invade China and use the atomic bomb to show that the U.S. would beat Communism not only in Europe but also in Asia End of Communism once and for all Truman want to avoid WWIII If we attack China then the Soviets will attack us because of the Sino Soviet Treat Soviets also have atomic bomb Truman fires MacArthur WWII hero public doesnt like him being fired Stalemate develops in Korea Troops keep butting heads at 38th parallel

1 years of negotiation leads to a ceasefire DMZ is created (no mans land) Buffer zone between the two militaries Communism in the U.S. 1930s Communism organizes in the U.S. Very much a minority Soviets werent a big threat 1938 HUAC (House Committee of Un-American Activites) Investigates people (mainly in the government) who had ties to Communist

organizations that could suggest they were loyal to anti-American interests 1947 Hollywood 10 Rumors that Hollywood was Communist Directors and producers and actors trying to use movies to make America sympathetic to Communism Anyone involved in a movie that saluted the common worker were under question 10 refuse to testify in front of Congress Held in contempt Lots of Hollywood people are blacklisted and cant find work 1948 Alger Hiss Big shot in State Department (chief negotiator at Yalta) Whittaker Chambers (former Communist who came to U.S. and saw the light) accuses Hiss of passing information to him when he was Communist Hiss denies it To prove it Chambers pulls out rolls of negatives from a hollowed-out pumpkin his garden at his house in Connecticut and says Hiss gave them to him Hiss is pulled from the State Department and is tried fro espionage and sent to prison Sparked local hunts for communists within local governments, union leaders (especially), university teachers, clergy-men, Union leaders targeted especially because they were calling for equal rights for workers (like Communism) Loyalty Oaths People with jobs in public positions have to sign loyalty oaths saying that they arent part of any organization that is communist Federally directed or voluntary by organization 1949 Soviets explode atomic bomb Suspicion arises that people leaked information Ethel Rosenbergs brother worked at Los Alamos and was interrogated Gave Julius Rosenbergs name as being the ring-leader of Soviet sympathetic people in U.S. 1951 Ethel and Julius are accused of high treason for passing on secrets that could result in the destruction of the U.S. 1953 the Rosenbergs are given the death penalty by the electric chair McCarthy Face of the hunt for Communist spies in the government Senator from Wisconsin Hadnt really made a name for himself Making a speech in Wisconsin about anti-communism and the government not being tough enough on Communism (hates Truman) Says I have here in my hand the name of 205 Communists in the State Department Says that politicians are soft on Communism internationally Let China and eastern Europe become Communist Thinks government in communist Ruins the life of dozens of people in the state department Uses fear and bullying tactics If you were suggested or mentioned as being part of a communist movement you would have trouble finding work or being accepted McCarthy wasnt well liked within the anti-communist group People thought he would discredit them all 1954 McCarthy goes after the department of the army Pressuring the army for special treatment of his friend Joe Walsh (Council of the Army) challenge McCarthy

McCarthy had no proof and was discredited 1954 Senate censured McCarthy McCarthy had been able to ruin peoples lives just by mentioning them even though he didnt have proof No one could see his list Numbers on the list always changing Why did everyone follow him? Feeds into Americas paranoia of Communism in the government Fear of being connected to communism by speaking out People who were in the government were actually convicted Actually were internal threats How did Communism take hold in Eastern Europe? How does it spread to Asia? Soviet puppet governments in Europe China becomes communist North Korea occupied by Soviet Union CONTAINMENT is an important concept. Understand how the containment policy relates to the U.S.s support in Europe (Marshall Plan) and Asia (Korean War), NATO, and Truman Doctrine. Marshall Plan: Countries have to say they wont be communist Strong non-communist ally countries Korean War: Dont let Korea be taken over by the Soviets and become Communist (cant let Communism spread) NATO: Makes sure Communism wont spread because if the Soviets try to spread it to eastern Europe, the U.S. will attack them Truman Doctrine: Any country trying to fight Communism from within or without will receive the U.S.s support so Communism wont take over their country How did McCarthy inflame the second red scare? By feeding off the American paranoia to accuse more and more people of being Communist and not allowing anyone to speak up because of his fear and bullying tactics

Civil Rights: 14th amendment July 9, 1868 Puts states in their place Bill of Rights supercedes the right of the state to abridge those rights Required sense of equality among citizens States arent supposed to treat different citizens differently Jim Crow laws and literacy tests Laws requiring segregation Black barber cant cut a white womans hair Blacks and white segregated in blind wards Blacks and white segregated in burial grounds Segregated in buses, education, libraries, mental hospitals, prisons, reform schools, wash rooms, etc. Plessy v Ferguson Plessy was legally black and sat in the white section of the train Was arrested Idea of separate but equal comes out of the case Both black and white have the same rights, so it equal

As long as the law established political equality, then its okay Hove to accept the social structure and not mess with it politically Confirms social moors of the time Segregation de facto Brown v Board of Education Calls into question separate but equal Isnt equal Psychological studies on black students show black feel inferior Asked elementary students if they wanted to play with white or black dolls and asked which ones were prettier, smarter, and had a better life blacks always said white Shows the culture around segregation perpetuates a feeling of inferiority 19th century interpretation of 14th amendment should no longer stand because it was

different then Education used to be all private Education is now public Interpretation is outdated because no issues about segregated schools before th 14 amendment says that race cant be the reason you divide people


14th amendment says people should be treated equally not the same Saying blacks and whites need different things Says separate is no longer equal (for education) Plessy v Ferguson is found unconstitutional Little Rock, AK School Integration and Little Rock 9 Schools in Arkansas supposed to integrate Chose top 9 black students to go to Little Rock High School Only small minority upset up integration Governor of Arkansas realize he might lose his reelection if he doesnt get white supremacists votes Calls in the national guard to bar the black students from entering Other students knew their might be a crowd Came in a group to side entrance Then left in a car Elizabeth Eckford didnt have a phone Had to confront the whole thing on her own Faubus (governor) is preventing enforcement of federal law by prevent the black students from entering Eisenhower meets with him t persuade him to let the students in Faubus removes National Guard Students have no protection Knows mob is getting crazier so it will create huge chaos when the students come to the school so itll show integration is bad Eisenhower sends in paratroopers (U.S. army trumps national guard) Says that Supreme Courts decision saying that little Rock has to integrate its schools is final Mob rule cannot be allowed to override the decision of the courts Were not going to allow the feeling of a few to override federal law Faubus says We are now an occupied territory Brings back tension from the Civil War when the North occupied the South Has become a very racist politician was moderate before Little Rock becomes a national spectacle Makes people think about their opinions on segregation

Kids in the school have different beliefs from parents Generational gap Federal vs state conflict (education normally controlled by state) Non-violence Goals Society in 15 years that is equal and un-segregated Create an integrated community To welcome and want citizens in their community Inclusion Interracial democracy Unity Tools Actions that are non-confrontational but force confrontation Love NEVER verbally, physiologically, or physically attack them Force them to attack their own ideas Love your oppressor Overpower people with love Organized rebellion Lead by example Never give reason for oppressors to retaliate Example Sit-ins Marches Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec. 1955 Dec. 1956 Very established and active civil rights groups in Montgomery Rosa Parks is a very respected member of the community (part of NAACP) People were enraged for her when she was arrested for not giving up her seat Organize a 1 day boycott 30 thousand people participate Works so well they wan to continue it Need a leader Young, new reverend is asked to do it Has no enemies Where MLK gets his name (b/c national event) Montgomery Improvement Association ran the boycott Headed by MLK Victory for nonviolence Supreme Court ultimately responsible for ending boycott by ruling bus segregation is unconstitutional but is a victory b/c Forces the issue Psychological victory Makes people think nonviolence will work United community standing up against segregation Flies in the face of the idea that only a couple of extremist groups are unhappy Air of legitimacy Size of the group Determination Well-spoken, highly-educated leader who talks about using the weapon of love and nonviolence Contrasts whites threatening violence and hatred to destroy


MLK Respect Love Dignity Justice KKK/White Citizen Councils Violence Destroy Hatred Bombing

Sit-ins Young people taking a stand by sitting in and standing their ground Start in Greensborough, SC when 4 black guys set in at a lunch counter at local Woolworths Nashville is the first city to latch onto the sit-ins movement on a city-wide basis Separate sit-ins go on in different states Freedom Rides The federal government says that interstate buses have to be desegregated South isnt following that law Freedom riders (white and black) sat next to each other on buses from the north going into the south in protest Mobs waited for them in the south and attacked them and put them in jail Example of nonviolence People were obeying federal law and didnt retaliate when attacked Forced confrontation Raises questions about whether bus stops should be segregated Federal law says they should be integrated State cops at bus stations enforcing segregation laws HUGE CONFLICT White mobs start to meet buses Set some on fire Slashed tires Bombed some People are beat up by cops or forced off the bus and attacked by mobs Kennedy calls King and tells him to get the freedom riders to stop King says he doesnt know whos organizing it Doesnt know when next bus is leaving Organized within groups but dont have overall leader connecting the small groups Kennedy makes a deal with the governor of Mississippi Still arrest freedom riders Has to give riders protection from the mob JFK ends up getting black vote 1st American president to take a stand on civil rights

March on Washington 1963 MLK speech Talks about his vision of America Injustice Segregation Police brutality Ghettos limited economic ability Prejudice

But there is still opportunity (for change) There are good ideals in America, despite these bad things and we can work to achieve them for everyone in America Vision for America United Not hate Integration Not just together but accepting and welcoming Society where race isnt even a factor Economically, where you live, socially, etc. Live up to American ideals How to get there No hate Love Hope Nonviolence Civil Rights Act Bill started in June of 1963 Calls for outlawing of discrimination or segregation in any public place by race, gender, religion, or ethnicity Wont have to go case by case to Supreme Court November JFK is assassinated LBJ rides the wave of JFK sympathy, ideals, and legacy to pass lots of liberal bills that went along with JFKs ideas Civil Rights Act is passed in 1964 Freedom Summer White college students went to Mississippi to teach at black voter registration school Selma March Voting Rights Act Passed in 1965 Allowed people who werent allowed to vote to prove they were being discriminated against The voting areas would then be court-monitored to make sure they werent discriminating Malcolm X Parent both civil rights activists both killed Got into drugs, alcohol and petty theft When in prison at the age of 17 Found Nation of Islam Says Christianity was forced upon slaves in the U.S. Oppressive white religion He gets rid of it and his last name (Little) Becomes very powerful and charismatic speaker Gets a name as a spokesperson and motivational speaker Says you should become one with yourself and empower yourself through Nation of Islam Becomes very well read Names becomes connected with Black Nationalism Ballet or Bullet speech in 1964 Black Power Idea that blacks have to look inside and fix their own problems first Unite as a people Not try to integrate into other communities Be proud of their black heritage dont try to gain entrance to white society by denying their black-ness

Urban Riots Various (inner city) communities break down into riots Everyone who could moved out and away to suburbs Watts, LA 1964 (34 dead) Newark 1967 (26 dead) Detroit 1967 About 50 million dollars worth of property destroyed July 23 28 40 dead, 7,000 arrested Crowds take over, mayhem, violence, destruction, high level of fear, confusion, out of control, anger, chaos Why riot Built up anger hate and frustration and resentment Frustration about liberties and oppression Detroit doing well as a city, but not all the communities are benefiting Watching the rest of the city progress and modernize but not blacks LBJ ends up sending in troops to calm things down Hippies Ginsburg (Godfather of the flower power generation) Feels separated Observer Restless Not accepted (gay) Says that our culture is promoting conformity and thats not okay Kerouac No say in America Not part of America Not accepted Feels separated Politics Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) U.S. has a big problem We need to fix our problems before spreading our ideas to other countries Politics shouldnt only be about politicians but about people Mr. Lyrie Advocating use of drugs (LSD) Professor of psychology Encourages hallucinatory drugs Separation from the world Rebel from real life See world in a different light Be-ins Wisdom Defiant of the world Jefferson Little connection to yesterday Focuses on optimism and tomorrow Wants to live for the moment and be carefree Hippies say its about being one and loving everyone Throw out constrains of family and organized religion Rejecting authority and systems Biggest cultural legacy is the music produced during the times How is change affected by: The courts? The federal government? The state and local government?

The people? The courts: Brown v Board and the standard that set for other similar court cases Federal government: Freedom rides and Little Rock paratroopers State and local government:

The people: Sit-ins, marches, bus boycott Force the issues so the courts, federal or local government have to deal with it How and why did the methods and the philosophies of the Civil Rights Movement change over time? Integration to black power Frustrated at white ignorance and unwillingness Only blacks that assimilated white society were integrated successfully What role does the media play in the Civil Rights movement?

Vietnam War: French Colonization and Japanese Occupations Pre-WWII France colonized Vietnam During WWII Japan occupies Vietnam Vietminh fight of the Japanese French try to take control of Vietnam again after WWII Vietnam are tired of being ruled by outsiders 1st Indochina War

Geneva Accords split the country at 17th parallel

Ho Chi Minh Asked U.S. President Wilson for help for Vietnamese independence Wilson says no Goes to Soviet Union for 10-15 years Is trained in Communism Sneaks back into Vietnam during WWII Leader of the Vietminh After WWII fights France for independence Becomes leader of North Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem Exiled Vietnamese leader living in France Catholic Anti-Communist Most of Europe is Catholic so they will support him Cant relate to his own people Cracks down on any religion that isnt catholic Tortures Buddhist monks and puts them in jail Destroys temples Cracks down on people who oppose him Doesnt allow reunification elections Instructed by U.S. not to Overthrow by his colonels and generals Killed U.S. knew about coup but didnt realize he would be killed

Viet Cong Guerilla fighters in South Vietnam that work to get rid of Diem Surprise hit and run attacks Look like normal people (cant tell them from the civilians) Dont have organized army uniforms Have underground bases Hard for U.S. to find Established because people are upset with Diem North upset because want to reunify South dont like Diems oppressive rule Most people like Ho Chi Minh because he seems legitimate Has been fighting for Vietnamese independence since the beginning Supported by North Vietnam Working to reunite the country Domino Theory Put forward by Eisenhower Applied to the spread of communism in Southeast Asia U.S. thought that if Vietnam became communist, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, and Burma, and so on would all become Communist Reason why U.S. were involved in Vietnam Try to stop Communism from spreading Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) North Vietnamese boat attacked the U.S.S. Maddox in international waters Unprovoked Followed by another attack Johnson retaliates Leads to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Allows Johnson to wage war with any means he deems necessary President is able to wage war without Congress ever declaring it Give a LOT of power to the president Allows Johnson to commit more troops and use the draft 1-2 years latter, the public finds out U.S.S. Maddox was in North Vietnamese waters It was aiding a South Vietnamese raiding party There may not have been a second attack The Resolution was drafted a couple months before the attack Search and Destroy Missions U.S. raiding parties would go to a particular village and tear apart peoples homes looking for weapons If a young man had a weapon he was considered part of the Viet Cong They would then evacuate all the people from the town and drop NAPALM on it (jelly-like gasoline that would stick to people and burn) Ho Chi Minh Trail North Vietnamese troops would sneak into South Vietnam to fight Sneak in through Laos and Cambodia couldnt barricade the whole boarder because it was all forest Tet Offensive (1968) A North Vietnamese and Viet Cong surprise attack on the Vietnamese holiday Tet (Vietnamese New Year?) U.S. eventually recovered and won the battle but it was the turning point in support for the war U.S. didnt realize the Viet Cong could wage such a serious and organized attack People no longer thought the U.S. could win the war

Support for the war waned Credibility Gap Lack of trust between the president and the U.S. people Started after the Gulf of Tonkin incident Added to by the Invasion of Cambodia Very new idea of distrust for the president Mai Lai Massacre (1968) Company of soldiers under the direction of Lieutenant Cally went on a search and destroy mission in Mai Lai Not much was found Cally then orders the troops to kill all the villagers Over 300 people were killed A higher officer in the army arrived with his troops and when he saw what was going on, ordered the troops to stop killing the civilians and said his troops would shoot any U.S. soldier that didnt follow his order Information was eventually leaked to the papers People wonder if Cally was used as a scapegoat for the army if the orders to kill the civilians came from above. Vietnamization The gradual withdrawal of American troops in Vietnam so that the South Vietnamese would gain responsibility for the war Under Nixon Invasion of Cambodia In early 1970s, Nixon starts a secret Cambodia Campaign where he bombed and attacked (on the ground) Communist bases in Cambodia (which was supposed to be neutral) It was a neighboring country to Vietnam, potential victim of the Domino affect and the Ho Chi Minh trail went through Cambodia Nixon tried to keep it secret, but it was eventually leaked This angered the U.S. because it was view as an extension of the war when Nixon had promised to get out of Vietnam As a result of the U.S. invasion, the country was destabilized and the Kamar Rouge took control

Napalm and Agent Orange Napalm was dropped on villages after search and destroy mission It burned the villages to the ground and stuck to people skin Agent Orange was dropped on millions of acres of jungle in Vietnam Killed trees and thick underbrush so it was easier for U.S. troops to march through the terrain Its a carcinogen and caused cancer in those who administered it as well as those who marched through area where it had just been dropped Lottery Draft Used to pick soldiers to be sent to Vietnam On TV Pick out birthdays Everyone with that birthday and a low draft number would go Under Nixon Kent State Tragedy Student reactions to the Invasion of Cambodia The campus erupts Administration is tired of the student activists and called in the National Guard Told the students to step down Students refused

In the chaos, 4 students were killed (at least 2 werent involved in the protests) More protests start and the campus is shut down Hadnt been riots before the shooting Level of violence didnt require the National Guard to be armed with live bullets The anti-war movement was so large and student focused that the killings put forth an image of actively silencing or punishing people standing up against the war Similar incident occurred at Jackson State (black school) received very little coverage Doves and Hawks Doves thought the war was wrong and couldnt be won and wanted to withdraw our troops Hawks thought that the U.S. should wage a full out war attack on Vietnam to decisively win War Powers Act (1973) Opposite of the Gulf of Tonkin Showed the complete change in the countrys attitude towards Vietnam President needs congressional approval for sustained aggression/war Can land troops for 60 days without approval of Congress Needs to tell Congress action was taken within 48 hours What were the historical events and political reasons the U.S. got involved in the Vietnam conflict? Domino Theory and fear of the spread of Communism Containment Policy stop another country becoming communist How did the Credibility Gap affect the war? It led to less support and patience for the war because America didnt trust our president to do the right thing in Vietnam How did the Vietnam War shape domestic politics and the culture of the 1960s? Led to hippies Led to War Powers Act

Nixon through Regan: Watergate Break in June 17, 1972 5 men are arrested while trying to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate Hotel Caught because of the tape on the door During the investigation of the crime, the burglars were linked to the White House Saturday Night Massacre Nixon wants to fire Archibald Cox (special prosecutor) because he wants the tapes The Attorney General (Elliot Richardson) and the man working underneath him (Ruchelshaus) both refuse to fire Cox and resign The third man in line fires Cox Pentagon Papers Papers published in the New York Times that traced the steps and executive decisions and actions that led to U.S. furthered involvement in Vietnam Included concealed actions of government officials Information leaked by Ellesburg Infuriated Nixon because he wanted to move on but they brought Vietnam back into the minds of the citizens Led Nixon to wiretap and spy on anyone who could leak any information Executive Privilege Protected confidentiality between the president and his aids that allow them to speak freely with one another Nixons reason for not handing over the tapes US v Nixon Nixons tapes were subpoenaed but when he refused to give them up and kept appealing the decision it when from the district court to the appeals court to the supreme court Nixon claimed Executive Privilege

The Supreme Court said he had to hand over the tapes because no national security secrets were at risk and they were key evidence in an ongoing investigation and even the president needs to abide by the law Dtente Nixons foreign policy of reliving tension between the U.S. and communist nations like the Soviet Union and China Opened up communication between the U.S. and communist nations Nixon visited China and acknowledged the PRC Signed a treaty saying that they both didnt want the Soviets in Asia Visits Moscow and signs SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) Arms race is VERY expensive and damaging to the economy Caps weapons Dont to get rid of any, but it limits the type, number and kind Oil Crisis After the U.S. support Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the Middle Eastern countries are mad and OPEC puts an embargo on oil to the U.S. Price of gas and heating skyrockets Plastics industry and factories suffer (more expensive) Some factories shut down unemployment Average worker cant afford to go to work Economy suffers Auto industry in Detroit hit hard Widespread investor panic Anyone with stock in gas, car, or plastic companies pull out No contingency plans or means to address shortage of oil OPEC Organization of countries that produce/export oil Created because countries in the Middle East wanted to profit from the oil that was in their country instead of having foreign oil companies reaping the rewards. After the U.S. helped Israel after the Yom Kippur War, OPEC started an embargo on oil OPEC tried to make the U.S. and other allies of Israel stop supporting Israel by not exporting any oil to them U.S. economy suffered Oil in their country gave them a lot of power Yom Kippur War (1973) Syria and Egypt surprise attack Israel on Yom Kippur Israel able to get back on its feet because it has a very well trained arm and had U.S. support Leads to the embargo on oil and oil crisis and nationalization of oil Country takes control of something in its boarders Arab Nationalism Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt Promoting Arab cultural and religious heritage Unify foreign policy and economics Common enemy in Israel Coordinate surprise attacks Iranian Hostage Crisis CIA decides to make sure that no communists get oil Put Shah, Mussadiq, in charge of Iran Anti-communist, pro-west, works to modernize the country and cracks down on religious nature of people In 1970s protests break out People want to show religion openly

People want democracy People want change in leadership Shah flees to France in 1978 Revolution in Iran Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power Islamic Fundamentalism and Ayatollah Khomeini take control o Iran Quaran/Koran is fact/law Refers to U.S. as Great Satan Very anti-west Allows people to practice religion openly Says Iran will be independent Won over student radicals and militants When the Shah is accepted into the U.S. the U.S. embassy in Iran is stormed and all the people inside are held as captives and Iran demands the Shah be returned to Iran ($ and to kill him) U.S. doesnt negotiate with terrorist Hostages released at the very beginning of Regans presidency (held for over a year) How did Nixon abuse the powers of President and how did he justify the abuse? Wire taping and spying on everyone . . . Executive privilege What were the underlying conditions in the US which set the stage for the oil crisis? No contingency plans or means to address the oil shortage Over-consumption of oil Little effort to limit energy use What were the lasting effects of the Iranian Hostage Crisis

Entering a New Era: Reaganomics Reagans way of fixing the economy Conservative: Money to people Lower taxes Philosophy is the government should only do what is outlined in the Constitution and nothing else Cut down on government programs (expensive) Federal government only provide security and regulate between states More power to local and state governments Funding by local/state governments Trick Down Economics Tax cuts money to people people invest business grows more jobs Everyone got richer (those with bigger tax cuts, rich, did faster) Successfully lowered taxes, mostly on wealthy Government spending wasnt lowered much because of military spending Unemployment and inflation went down National debt skyrocketed huge deficit 1981: $907.7 billion 1985: $2350.3 billion De-regulation Cutting restrictions of businesses that kept them from growing Cutting environmental restrictions Can dump chemicals in stream (used to be illegal)

Iran-Iraq War Iran in turmoil after Shah flees Iraq invades (1980-1990) Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini hate each other Iraq sees massive Shiite revolution Iraqi people predominately Shiite affects Iraq population Iraq thinks maybe they arent protecting the oil fields Fight for 10 years no ground gained Helped unite Iran in fundamentalism U.S. buying oil from Iraq Sent US troops to Persian Gulf to protect Iraqi oil to prevent oil prices from going p Iran-Contra Scandal U.S. sold arms to Iran and funneled the money to the Contras, who were fighting the communist and anti-US Sandinistas in Nicaragua Invasion of Afghanistan (1978) Marxist-Leninist group in power More loyalty to local leaders than to national leaders of Communism Isnt that much political unity Communists arent recognized as soul authority Religious Islamic guerilla militants fight against Communists Because didnt let them practice religion openly Soviets invade Afghanistan to help out communist government Launch massive air strikes against Mujahideen outposts U.S. sees the Soviet Union extending their power to another country Arm Mujahideen with anti-air missiles Afghanistan is torn apart by civil and national conflict Taliban comes to power in early 90s (war ends in 89) Star Wars/Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Reagan doesnt stand by Anti-Bolist Missile Treaty made under Nixon Instead designs a theoretical system that will protect the country with satellites and lasers from incoming missiles Never really put into place Tension between US and Soviet Union goes up Gorbachev Soviet Union has fallen behind the west because the Soviets have an industrial economy while the west has a service economy with ideas and knowledge Soviets have rise in military expenses Arms race increasing Helping Afghanistan Mikhail S. Gorbachev is part of the younger generation of Communism Wants to get communism on its feet Perestroika: restructuring People are given a set amount of time to make sure their particular industry is self-sufficient (like capitalism) In order to move economy forward, need a sense of openness so people can present new ideas Glasnost: openness Freedom of press Many independent newspapers spring up Reagan starts taking him seriously Lowering censorship Allowing people to have a voice Protecting individual voice

Liberal In 1987 Reagan sees Gorbachev changing his country Reducing arms Wont make anymore short/intermediate range missiles Demonstration that Soviets are looking to be part of the larger world and be more connected Gets rid of puppet governments and ideas that they can control other countries Pulls out troops voluntarily 500 thousand from Warsaw Pact countries Iron Curtain breaking down Hungary opens up its boarders between Austria and Hungary and Soviet Union doesnt do anything Pope John Paul II (from Poland) able to start to speak out against Communism in Poland Gives Poles renewed desire to express religion Labor unions start to form in new found ability to put pressure on government to change Catholic Church allowed to reopen facilites Fall of the Berlin Wall and Soviet Union Berlin Wall Symbol of division in the world Symbol of iron curtain In 1989 mass demonstrations against the East German government Nov. 4, 1989 1 million gathered on Alexander Platz in East Berlin Nov. 9, 1989 refugees allowed to cross freely between East and West Germany and Berlin Wall comes down in early 1990 Germany has a whole generation of adults that have completely different educations Hard to unite Germany reunifies Poland has free elections Soviet Union has huge elections More than Congress is replaced with non-communist people Baltic states break free from Soviet Union December 31, 1991 Soviet Union no longer in existence Tiananmen Square Massacre June 4, 1989 New Chinese leader: Deng Xiaoping Xiaoping starts to introduce some elements of competitions Industries have 2 years to make business profitable Move towards capitalism Students in China Knowledge becomes very valuable See rebellion everywhere else where theres communism Se liberating economy Want to liberate politics too Tiananmen Square In capital Next to Forbidden City Mao buried there Important communist spot Students showing: Dont like communism Dont care

Threw paint on one of Maos pictures Ultimate defacement Evaluate Reagans economic policies. Helped rich out more than poor. Led to large national deficit Sort of worked Trace the USs attitude about the Cold War during the 1970s and 80s

Why did the Cold War end? What events lead up to the dissolution of the Communist bloc and how did they contribute to the end of the Cold War? Soviets had a bad economy, a lot of military spending, no service economy, couldnt keep up with west How has the world fundamentally changed because of the end of the Cold War? No longer any Soviet Union