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NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS FOR DETERMINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF HARDENED CONCRETE Property Primary

Compressive Strength Relative compressive strength Tensile Strength Density Moisture content Static modulus of elasticity Dynamic modulus of elasticity and quality gradation of concrete Shrinkage/expansion Resistance to chloride penetration Air content; cement content; and aggregate properties ( scaling; alkali-silica reactivity; freeze/thaw susceptibility) Alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) Carbonation, pH Fire damage Freezing and thawing damage Chloride ion content Air permeability Electrical resistance of concrete Chemical Tests Cores for compression testing (ASTM C42 and C 39) Rebound number (ASTM C805); Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) (ASTM C597)/IS Splitting tensile strength of core (ASTM C 96) Specific gravity of samples (ASTM C 642) Moisture meters Compression test of cores (ASTM C 469) Resonant frequency testing of saved specimens (ASTM C 215) Length change of drilled or sawed specimens (ASTM C 341) Salt Ponding test (AASHTO T 259) Petrography examination of concrete samples removed from structure (ASTM C 856 and ASTM C 457); Cement content (ASTM C 1084) Electrical indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration (ASTMC 1202) Petrography examination of aggregates (ASTM C 294, C 295)

Possible Methods Secondary


Penetration resistance (ASTM C 803) : Pullout testing (drilled-in)

In-place pulloff test (ACI 503R; BS 1881:Part 207) Nuclear gage Nuclear gage Ultrasonic pulse velocity (ASTM C 597); impact-echo spectral analysis of Surface waves (SASW)

Cornell/SHRP rapid test (SHRP-C -315) Phenolphthalein (qualitative indication); pH meter Petrography; rebound n umber (ASTM C 805) Petrography Acid-soluble (ASTM C 1152) and water-soluble (ASTM C 1218) SHRP surface airflow method (SHRP-S-329) AC resistance using 4 probe resistance meter. Chloride content as per IS : 14959 (Part 2) - 2001 Sulphate Content as per relevant B.S. pH value as per relevant B.S., Carbonation Cover meter; Ground penetrating radar (GPR) (ASTM D 4748) Impact-echo(I-E); GPR (ASTM D 4748) Ultrasonic thickness gage (require direct contact with steel) Load test, deflection or strain measurements Half-cell potential (ASTM C 876) Linear polarization (SHRP-S-324 and S-330) Impact-echo; Infrared thermography (ASTM D 4788); Impulse-response; Radiography; GPR SHRP surface resistance test (SHRP-S-327) Other pH indicators (e.g., Impulse-response) SAWS; UPV; Impact echo; Impulse-response SASW; Impulse response Specific ion probe (SHRP-S-328)

Reinforcement location Concrete component thickness Steel area reduction Local or global strength and behavior Corrosion potentials Corrosion rate Location of delaminating, voids, and other hidden defects

X-ray and Y-ray radiography Intrusive probing Intrusive probing; radiography Acceleration, strain, and displacement measurements

Sounding (ASTM D 4580); pulse echo; SASW; intrusive drilling and bore scope

Property/Condition Primary
Bond strength Bond Quality (absence of voids at interface) Injection of cracks or voids Masonry

Methods Secondary
Impact-echo; SASW; Impulse-response SASW Pulloff test (ACI 503R), CAN/CSA A23.2-6B; BS 1881:part 207 Pulloff test (as above) Ultrasonic pulse velocity Impact-echo Water absorption Test (IS 1077: 1992) Salt attack resistance (Potential to effloresce) (ASTM C 67), Compressive Strength (IS 3495 :1992 part I, IS 1077 : 1992)

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS FOR DETERMINING MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL STRUCTURE Sl No.
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Materials or Items Test


Steel Plates/Tube/Pipe /Weld/ Forging/Casting Ferrous Metals Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals Metals/Alloys Metals/Alloys Ferrous & Non-ferrous Metals/Alloys Ferrous & Non-ferrous Metals/Alloys Sheet Thickness

Test Performed/ Standards/Specification or Technique


Ultrasonic Testing (ASME Sec V,1 ASTM A-435/A435M-82) Magnetic Particle Testing (ASTM-709, 1995, ASME Sec-5, 2001, ASTM A275) Liquid Penetrant Testing (ASME Sec-5, 2001, ASTM-E165) Microstructure In-situ Metallography (ASTM Vol IX) Physical/Chemical Testing (ASTM/IS) Hardness Testing Coating Thickness (IS: 3023) Gauge Thickness meter