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SANITARY ENGINEERING 1

COURSE OUTLINE

Course objectives: This course aims at conveying to the student the concepts of sewage collection management, storm water management, and wastewater treatment.

 

1. Introduction

4. Wastewater Treatment

Sanitary Engineering Course objectives and outline

Wastewater treatment Objectives Types and methods of wastewater

Final Exam

2. Wastewater Collection

treatment Activated sludge process

 

Sewerage systems Preliminary studies Sewer hydraulics Pipe materials Load on pipes

Trickling filter design Introduction to wastewater reuse Introduction to sludge treatment

Design of wastewater collection system Appurtenances

Course Evaluation

3. Design of Storm Water Drainage System

Objectives

1

Midterm Exam

Projects & HM Mid term Exam

25%

25%

Drainage systems Components Approach

Final Exam

50%

Quantities Design of storm water collection system

 

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Introduction

The sanitary engineer job became essential with the rapid increase of cities and other rural population concentrations.

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Sanitary Engineering Fields

Introduction The sanitary engineer job became essential with the rapid increase of cities and other ruralwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-1-11" src="pdf-obj-1-11.jpg">

Waste water

Management

Introduction The sanitary engineer job became essential with the rapid increase of cities and other ruralwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-1-18" src="pdf-obj-1-18.jpg">

-Collection systems -Treatment -Reuse (and/or) disposal

Storm water Management

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Water supply
Water
supply

-Water collection -Ground water -Surface water -Water treatment -Water Distribution

Solid waste Management

Introduction The sanitary engineer job became essential with the rapid increase of cities and other ruralwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-1-36" src="pdf-obj-1-36.jpg">

-

Collection systems

-

Treatment

methods

-

Reuse (and/or)

disposal

  • - Storm water

collection

  • - Storm water reuse

(and/or) disposal

  • - Storm water

treatment (if needed)

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WASTE WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM

DIFINITIONS

Sewer: Sewers are under ground pipes or conduits which carry sewage to points of disposal.

Sewage: The Liquid waste from a community is called sewage. Sewage is classified into domestic and non-domestic sewage. The non domestic sewage is classified into industrial, commercial, institutional and any other sewage that is not domestic.

Sewerage: The entire system used for collection, treatment and disposal of Liquid waste. This includes pipes, manholes, and all structures used for the above mentioned purposes.

Infiltration: It is the water which inters the sewers from ground water through Leaks from loose joints or cracks.

Inflow: It is the water which inters the sewers from the manholes during rainfall events.

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Manhole
Manhole
Manhole Under ground Sewer 4 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version <a href=www.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">

Under ground Sewer

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Types of collection systems

Types of collection systems Storm water Separate system Sanitary system Combined system Both sanitary & stormwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-4-5" src="pdf-obj-4-5.jpg">

Storm water

Separate system

Sanitary system

Combined system

Both sanitary & storm water

Types of collection systems Storm water Separate system Sanitary system Combined system Both sanitary & stormwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-4-20" src="pdf-obj-4-20.jpg">
Types of collection systems Storm water Separate system Sanitary system Combined system Both sanitary & stormwww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-4-22" src="pdf-obj-4-22.jpg">

1. Used for domestic and industrial wastes in addition to inflow and infiltration. Storm water is not considered. 2. It is preferred for the following:

The size of pipes is much smaller than the combined system sewers. This gives the advantage of good hydraulics in the pipe (the pipe is Designed to have a minimum velocity to prevent sedimentation of sand) Separation of wastewater from storm water minimize the total quantity of sewage which has the following advantages :

  • 1. Smaller pumping stations are needed.

  • 2. Smaller and more efficient treatment plants

are needed.

  • 3. Overflow of combined sewers in the storm

events produces pollution to

environment

which is not the case in separate sewer.

Only unavoidable Storm water inters the system

  • 5 which protects the system from the accumulation of sand in the sewers in the non-paved areas.

It is used for both storm water and wastewater. It is preferred for the following cases:

For areas of long rainy seasons. For areas where it is difficult to construct two pipelines in the streets crowded with other services (electricity, telephone, gas, etc...). Its not preferred for areas of short rainy season, and for areas poorly paved which leads to the accumulation of sand in the system. Combined system is 40% lower in cost than separate system.

Generally, most of the countries recently preferring separate systems.
Generally, most of the countries
recently preferring separate
systems.

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ways for transmission of sewage

ways for transmission of sewage By pressure: It's use is limited for areas which can ’www.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-5-5" src="pdf-obj-5-5.jpg">

By pressure: It's use is limited for areas which cant be served

by gravity

By gravity: Used always wherever possible

By vacuum

ways for transmission of sewage By pressure: It's use is limited for areas which can ’www.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-5-22" src="pdf-obj-5-22.jpg">
25 25 30 30 40 45 50 35 Gravity: 2.5% S = 25 Pressure: Head= m
25
25
30
30
40
45
50
35
Gravity:
2.5%
S = 25
Pressure: Head=
m

1000 m

MSL

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Preliminary studies are needed for the design of sewage collection systems

1. Contour maps, and longitudinal profiles.

  • 2. Geotechnical investigation( type of soil).

  • 3. Hydrological investigation( water table).

  • 4. Metrological data( rain,….).

  • 5. Detailed map of the area showing streets, buildings, levels of buildings entrance … etc

  • 6. Detailed cross section for the streets showing the underground service (water pipes, electricity cables, gas pipes, telephone,…..).

  • 7. Water supply and consumption study.

  • 8. Identification of industrial, commercial institutional and domestic areas.

  • 9. Identification of collection points of sewage and possible locations of pumping stations and point of final collection.

    • 10. Population forecast studies.

    • 11. Expected Development of the area (Master planning).

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Contour and Topographical maps

Contour and Topographical maps 8 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version <a href=www.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-7-4" src="pdf-obj-7-4.jpg">

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Contour and Topographical maps 8 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version <a href=www.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-7-11" src="pdf-obj-7-11.jpg">

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How to draw longitudinal profiles from contour map Fig. (11) Topographic Profile 22 Km from the
How to draw longitudinal
profiles from contour map
Fig. (11) Topographic Profile 22 Km from the Northeren Border of Gaza Strip .
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from the Shore Line ( km )
Elevation from the Sea Level (m)
0.2
0.7
1.1
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.3
4.7
5.1
5.5
5.8

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Hydrological investigation( water table)

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Water level contour map
Water level contour map

Population estimation

Many methods are used to forecast the population in the future. Each method has its own assumptions

1. Arithmetic increases method: Assumption: The rate of change is constant

Pt t Ú dp = Ú K dt fi P t = P + Kt 0
Pt
t
Ú
dp
=
Ú
K dt
P t =
P
+
Kt
0
Po
0
Pt = population after time (t).
Po= present or initial population
Population estimation Many methods are used to forecast the population in the future. Each method haswww.pdffactory.com " id="pdf-obj-10-13" src="pdf-obj-10-13.jpg">
50000 1995 1990 2000 2010 2020 2015 2005 Population 40000 45000 Population Projection 55000 60000 65000
50000
1995
1990
2000
2010
2020
2015
2005
Population
40000
45000
Population Projection
55000
60000
65000
70000
75000
80000
85000
90000
Arithmatic increase method

Time (year)

dp

=

dt

K

(time = t, population =P )

Validity: valid only if the curve is close to the real growth of the population in previous years

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Example 1:

The recent population of a city is 30000 inhabitant. What is the predicted population after 30 years if the population increases 4000 in 5 years.

Solution: The arithmetic increase method

K =

dp

=

D P

=

4000

= 800

dt

D t

5

 

=

P

0

+

Kt

=

30000

+

800*30

54000

=

inh

.

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2. Uniform percentage of increase: ( Geometric Increase ): Assumption: Uniform rate of increase

dp

dt

Where,

/

P

By integration

ln

P

t

=

ln

P

0

+

K

/

(

t

-

t

0

)

P

t

 

P

0

(1

 

k

)

n

+ k

)

,

(

t

- t

0

)

= n

,

(number of years), and k,

 

=

+

= K

K

/

= ln(1

population growth rate.

Geometric increase method (Equation 1) Population Projection Population (Ln P t ) 2020 2000 2015 2005
Geometric increase method (Equation 1)
Population Projection
Population (Ln P t )
2020
2000
2015
2005
2010
1990
1995

Time (year)

Population Projection Geometric increase method Equation 2 120000 115000 110000 105000 100000 95000 90000 85000 80000
Population Projection
Geometric increase method
Equation 2
120000
115000
110000
105000
100000
95000
90000
85000
80000
75000
70000
65000
60000
55000
50000
45000
40000
Population
2020
2000
2010
2005
2015
1990
1995

Time (year)

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Example 2:

The recent population of a city is 30000 inhabitant. What is the predicted population after 30 years if the growth rate R = 3.5% .

Solution: Uniform percentage of increase (Geometric Increase)

P

t

P

0

=

(1

+

k

)

n

P

30

30000 *(

=

1

+

0.035 )

30

=

84204

inh

.

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  • 3. Curvilinear method:

It is a method of comparison of the city under consideration with similar cities lager in size.

  • 4. Saturation method:

In this method, the maximum possible density of population is estimated according to the number of apartments and stories per unit area and the maximum family members.

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