IMPERIAL COLLEGE of Science, Technology and Medicine Department of Civil Engineering MSc,DIC Concrete Structures
Supervisor: Prof. M. N. Pavlović


Tsiatas George
June 1998
to an angel
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to thank Professor M.N. Pavlović for his supervision to this thesis and his important guidance and help. It was an excellent cooperation.
Page 

Chapter 1: Introduction 


1 

4 
Chapter 2: Single Fourier Series Solution 




5 

8 
σ y 
12 
x Stress distribution 
13 
τ 
15 
xy Chapter 3: Exact Solution 


20 

20 

21 

29 
Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D
1.1 General introduction
Lamé (1852) introduced the general problem of isotropic rectangular plates under in plane normal loading. He attracted the attention of scientists, on the importance of the general problem of determining the state of stress and strain within a parallellopiped, which is subjected to given forces acting through its volume and to given tractions across its surface.
Numerous attempts have been made to solve Lamé’s problem by removing one or more faces to infinity, and thus simplifying the surface conditions. One of the earliest investigations of the application of Fourier series to the solution of twodimensional elasticity problems was that of Mathieu. He presented an elasticity solution for Lamé’s rectangular parallellopiped with one infinite dimension.
The solution consisted of isolating a rectangular plate and subdividing the problem into four similar problems, each being loaded on one edge only. Clearly the total solution can be obtained by adding the solutions of the four individual problems. Each of these four problems was further subdivided into two others, A and B, where the load is divided in such a way that rectangle A is compressed equally on both opposite edges whereas rectangle B is compressed on one edge and pulled (i.e. by equal and opposite surface tractions) on the other. For problem A the loading was represented
by an infinite halfexpansion Fourier series f
(
y
) =
A
0
+
A
n
cos
ny the volumetric
n
dilatation υ was expressed in a similar manner, but the coefficients were functions of
both
x
and
y
as
given by
υ
=
B
0
+
B E ( nx ) cos ny G
n
+
0
n
+
G E ( my ) cos mx
m
.
m
Convergence the Fourier coefficients was also examined by Mathieu. This solution,
however, consists a very complicated expressions made of looped infinite sets of
series containing trigonometric and exponential terms, which made it almost
impossible for practical utilisation (at a time when hand calculation were mandatory).
Ribière (1889) used single trigonometric series to represent the stress components in a
plate under transverse loading conditions. Uniform and concentrated loads were
applied to the plate and it was found that, for an aspect ratio of ten or more, the
longitudinal stress distribution differs very slightly from that given by the ordinary
bending theory.
Lamé’s problem was again tackled by Filon (1903), who obtained the solution for the
rectangular parallellopiped under an arbitrary system of surface loading in two cases:
first, when two faces are constrained to remain plane (planestrain problem) and,
secondly, when one of the dimensions is so small that stresses in that direction are
negligible (planestress problem). The equations being of the same form in both cases
(the body forces are neglected), the distribution of stresses inside the beam is clearly
the same whether the abovementioned dimension is very small or very large. General
solutions to the equations of the problem were established through functions using
complex variables. Fourier integrals were employed by Filon to replace the
summation in the case where the longitudinal dimension increases to infinity. Infinite
values of he stresses were found at the point where a concentrated load is applied. The
case of a beam under two equal and opposite compressive loads was examined, and
tensile stresses σ _{y} (along the direction of the applied loads) were detected at some
distance away from the plane of loading. Filon showed that, since there are no
shearing stresses along the midplane of the beam transverse to the loading, one may
leave out of the analysis a half of the beam, and consider it as replaced by an infinite
smooth rigid plane, against which the beam is pressed by the (single) load on the top
face. The tensile stresses developed along the rigid base meant that an elastic block,
acted upon by a concentrated load at its upper surface, cannot have its whole base in
contact with a smooth rigid plane on which it rests: at a certain distance from the load
the body of the beam is lifted off the plane. However, the weight of the beam, which
2
was neglected in the analysis, may counteract this phenomenon to a certain extent, if
the applied load is not too large. This phenomenon was later confirmed by Marguerre
(1932), who directly studied the problem of the beam resting on a smooth rigid base
under the effect of a concentrated load on its upper surface.
Goodier (1932) presented the analysis of rectangular blocks compressed by normal
forces (knifeedge conditions) applied centrally to two opposite sides. Results similar
to those of Filon were found for the σ _{y} transverse stress distribution. In addition,
Goodier pointed out that this loadconcentration arrangement also results in the
development of considerable tensile stresses σ _{x} across the plane of loading (i.e. in the
longitudinal direction).
Much later, Appl (1972) analysed the same series of rectangular plates using a
singular integral superposition method and confirmed the magnitudes of the
maximum tensile stresses found by Goodier.
Pickett (1944) used Fourier series to obtain exact solutions for stresses in rectangular
prisms for ‘any boundary conditions’. More than one series were used as needed.
Each of these series was selected so as to give a Fourierseries expression for one
component of stress (or displacement) at some boundary. The coefficients of the terms
in a series are determined by Fourier analysis so as to give not only the desired stress
(or displacement) at the boundary for which the series was selected but also to cancel
any stress (or displacement) that may have been unavoidably introduced by the other
series. The case of two equal and opposite concentrated loads was also studied; the
results of this analysis agree well with the σ _{x} stress distribution given by Goodier
(1932).
Donnell (1952) presented series made up of polynomial terms for the stress
components, that satisfied equilibrium and continuity conditions of twodimensional
elasticity theory and the boundary conditions (pressure loading) on the top and bottom
surfaces of a rectangular beam. The end conditions may be satisfied by superposition
of selfbalance load systems on these ends. It was stated that these selfequilibrating
3
loads are substantially independent of beam length for as long as this exceeded the
depth.
Boley & Tolins (1955) calculated the stresses and deflections in rectangular beams in
accordance with the twodimensional elasticity theory by an iterative procedure
previously derived by Von Kármán (1927) and Seewald (1927). The stress function
was made up of a summation of individual terms Φ _{i} , where a recurrence equation
between partial derivatives of Φ _{i} , Φ _{i} _{−}_{1} and Φ _{i} _{−} _{2} was established.
A method for the calculation of stresses in planeelasticity problems was developed
by Theocaris (1959). A field of isostatics, determined experimentally, is represented
by a function with complex variables. A differential parameter h of first order is then
calculated all over the field. The stress components are expressed by relations that
depend on this parameter h and the boundary conditions of the problem. The method
was applied to two problems of plane, elasticity, and the results were then compared
with those obtained by purely analytical methods.
2.1 Introduction
The aim of this thesis is to explore the problem of a rectangular plate under colinear
point loading, using both approximate and exact solution. The plate is treated as a
planestress problem where the boundary conditions are given exclusively in term of
stresses.
Firstly, the solution of the twodimensional general problem with rectangular
boundary is presented, using the approximate single Fourier series technique of the
Lévy type. A convergence study is considered and the stress distribution of internal
stresses is investigated with the help of a Fortran program.
Secondly, the exact solution is presented as Mathieu introduced it. Due to the limited
time for this thesis a thorough investigation was not feasible. However a program in
Fortran was written and results from Mathieu’s book were verified.
4
2.1 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to consider the problem of the colinear point loading of a
rectangular plate, concentrating on the solution by means of the single Fourier series
technique.
2.2 The closedform solution
The governing expressions for 2D elasticity problems with constant or zero body
forces reduce to the single biharmonic equation when the Airy stress function Φ ,
which defines the three stress components (
σ , σ , τ
x
y
xy
),
is
used.
In
the
case
of
rectangular boundaries, such as the plate shown in Fig. 1, the assumption that Φ may
be expressed as an SFS along one coordinate axis enables the reduction of the partial
differential equation into a total differential form. This, in turn, leads to an algebraic
equation, the roots of which define a general solution for the function along the co
ordinate axis. Thus, the typical mth term of the Fourier series solution (when the
expansion is along the xaxis) becomes
Φ =
(C cosh αy
1
+
C sinh αy
2
+
C y cosh αy
3
+
C y sinh αy ) sin αx
4
(2.1)
where α = mπ / a ( a being the span of the plate, which may be taken to be half the
period of the period of the halfrange Fourier expansion).
b
Y
a 


P 

P 
X
Fig.1. Thin rectangular plate of length _{α} and depth b under inplane loading (equal and opposite colinear point loads)
The four
integration constants in eqn (1)
follow upon the specification of the
boundary condition at the horizontal edges ( y = 0, b in Fig 1) namely, the values of
the direct ( σ ) and shear ( τ ) stresses along these boundaries, once these stresses
y
xy
have been expressed as suitable Fourier expansions matching the relevant derivatives
of Φ. Clearly, the whole process implies the repeated solving of four simultaneous
equations for each term of the series. In this work this has been avoided by solving the
four equations of the boundary conditions and evaluates the four constants.
The stress components are
σ
x
=
2
∂ Φ
∂ y
2
=
sin α [
x C
1
α
2
cosh α
y C
+
2
α
2
sinh α
y C
+
3
α ( 2 sinh α
y
+
+ αy
cosh
)
αy + C α
4
( 2 cosh
αy + αy
sinh
αy
)]
(2.2)
σ
y
=
2
∂ Φ
∂ x
2
= −α
2
sin
(
x C
α
1
cosh
y C
α +
2
sinh
y C y
α +
3
cosh
y C y
α +
4
sinh
α
y
)
(2.3)
6
2 

τ 
= − xy 
∂ Φ ∂ x ∂ y = − α cos α [ x C 1 
α sinh α y C + 
2 α cosh α y C + 
3 (cosh α y 
+ 

+ αy sinh ) αy + C 
4 
(sinh αy + ay cosh 
αy 
)] 

(2.4) 

The boundary conditions are 

For 
y = 0 

τ 
xy = 0 
and σ = −σ sin α x y u 
(2.5) 

For 
y = b 

τ 
= 0 
and σ = −σ sin α 
x 
(2.6) 

xy y l Substituting these values in the equations (2.3) and (2.4) become 

C C 
1 = 1 α 2 σ u = α βγ b + − α β γ b + 
(2.7) 

C 
α 2 Ω σ u α Ω l = − α βγ b + + α β γ b + 
(2.8) 

C 
Ω α σ u Ω α = γ 2 − βγ 
l 
(2.9) 

4 where 
α 
Ω σ u Ω α σ l Ω = 2 α b 2 − 2 γ , β cosh αb, γ sinh αb = = 
, 
b 
being the 
(2.10) plate depth, the 
subscripts u and l denote upper and lower longitudinal edge (i.e.
y = 0, b ) and the
expansions for normal stresses at the boundaries are expressed in terms of halfrange
sine Fourier series, respectively.
7
The general expressions for the stress distribution within the plate become
σ
x
=
∞
m
= 1
{
σ
u
cosh
αy αb bγ σ
−
+
[(
)
u
−
αbβ γ σ
(
+
)
l
]
Ω
− 1
(sinh
+
αy αy
cosh
αy
)
+
+
γ (γσ α σ )
u
−
b
l
Ω
− 1
( 2 cosh
α
y
+
α y sinh α y )} sin α x
(2.11)
σ
y
∞
= −
m
= 1
{
σ
u
cosh
αy αb bγ σ
−
+
[(
)
u
−
αbβ γ σ
(
+
)
l
]
Ω
− 1
(sinh
αy αy
−
cosh
αy
)
+
+
αγ (γσ α σ )
u
−
b
l
Ω
−1
y
sinh α } sin α
y
x
(2.12)
τ
xy
∞
= −
m
= 1
{
σ
u
sinh
αy
−
[(
αb
+
)
bγ σ
u
−
αbβ γ σ
(
+
)
l
]
Ω
− 1
αy
sinh
αy
+
+
γ (γσ α σ )
u
−
b
l
Ω
− 1
(sinh α y
+
α y cosh α y )} cos α x
(2.13)
In this case of colinear point loads on either longitudinal edge (Fig. 1), σ
u
and σ
l
are
given by
σ
u
=
σ
l
=
2(
/
P t
)
sin
a
α
a
2
sin α
x
(2.14)
Where P is the total load, and t the plate thickness.
2.3 Convergence study
The convergence study is based on the problem of Fig. 1. The point loads are likely to
constitute one of the most severe tests of convergence, since the other, usually
distributed, loads require fewer terms for the given degree of accuracy.
The study of the convergence of the σ stress at the centroid of the plate reveals that
y
the minimum necessary number of terms for any specified accuracy varies practically
linearly with the aspect ratio for r > 3 . For r < 3 , fewer terms are generally needed,
and a maximum of 20 to 30 terms would be sufficient for convergence to within an
accuracy of four figures for σ . Figure 2 shows the variation of the numbers of terms
y
8
m with the distance from the midsurface for the midspan location, a result that was
found to be insensitive to the xcoordinate along the length of the plate.
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.}_{2}_{.} Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: variation of the number of terms generally required for convergence to an accuracy of four figures across the depth of the plate ( r = 5 ).
In determining the
σ stresses in the plate, it was found that the structure could be
y
divided into three regions as it can be seen in Figure 3, as far as convergence of the
series (by ordinary summation) is concerned. One of these (region I) refers to the
locations of the concentrated loads (singularity points), their intermediate vicinities,
and, indeed, a thin horizontal strip along the longitudinal edges (encompassing, of
course, these boundaries), where there is no convergence. On the other hand,
throughout most of the plate (region III) convergence takes place for a certain finite
number of terms. In between these two regions, one can draw a transitional region
(region II), in the shape of a strip adjacent to the longitudinaledge zones of region I,
where convergence is very pour and necessitates a larger number of terms than those
for region III. The gradual increase in m as one move from region III, through region
II, on to region I, is shown in Figure 4, which depicts the
σ values along the
y
midspan section x = a / 2 . It can be seen that, whereas at y = 0.1b , about 100 terms
are sufficient for convergence, closer proximity to the point load requires a rapidly
increasing number of terms, which full divergence reached at the very location of the
load.
9
Fig.3. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence throughout the plate
Fig.4. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence at various levels across the midspan section (plane of loading) of the plate ( r = 5 ).
In order to improve the convergence of the ordinary summation, it was concluded the
selective use Fejer’s summability, which consists of summing up the means of
consecutive partial sums of the series. This is done either to improve convergence
when it is slow or to achieve convergence when this is not forthcoming by ordinary
summation means. It is only the adoption of Fejer’s summability that enables
convergence to be achieved in the intermediate region II. Even with this approach, the
number of terms that required within region II might be large, although radically
smaller than that which would be necessary were the ordinary summation algorithm to
be used. An example of such a case is given in Figure 5(a), which depicts the
convergence of
σ for a typical location within the transitional region II
y
10
( x = a / 2 − 0.1b, y = 0.03b ) . Clearly for practical purposes, only Fejer’s approach will
yield the correct answer, as the ordinary summation still exhibits large oscillations
beyond m = 500 . Furthermore, it is exclusively Fejer’s method which can yield
answers throughout most of region I (except, of course, at and/or very near the point
load itself), a zone where mere summation leads to intermediate values (i.e.
σ
y
oscillates with nondecreasing amplitude around the mean value). This is illustrated in
Figure 5(b), for the point x = a / 2 − 0.1b, y = 0 . That is the location at the very
longitudinal edge and reasonably close to the concentrated load. Of course,
σ
y
at
y = 0 is a boundary condition, and hence its value ( = 0
y
σ ) could have been obtained
by inspection; however, the sort of behaviour exhibited by the
σ
y
series in Figure
5(d) is also relevant to the computation of σ values along the longitudinal edges.
x
Fig.4. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: convergence at various levels across the section (x=l/20.1b) of the plate ( r = 5 ). Note Fejer’s effect on the convergencesolid lines.
11
The convergence of σ described so far is, on the whole, also typical of that for
y
σ
x
and
τ
xy
. For the latter stress component, however Fejer’s summability must often be
employed. In fact, in the case of
τ , the application of the ordinary summation
xy
procedure, in terms of the partial sums, gives a solution which oscillates around a
certain value with a decreasing amplitude as m gets larger, mainly at points near the
horizontal edges of the plate. As a result the shear stress resultant across half of the
b / 2
depth of the beam, given by _{∫}
0
τ
t
xy dy
P
, and of special interest in the present work,
also oscillates around its exact value. Although these partial sums do converge, their
convergence is slow and requires many terms for the necessary accuracy in the
solution to be achieved. If, instead, one adopts Fejer’s summability approach to, for
instance, the shear stress at the end of the plate, leads to a clear improvement in the
convergence of the
τ series there. Thus also improving the convergence of the
xy
integral of τ over the plate’s depth, a parameter of special significance, as will be
xy
seen subsequently.
2.4 σ
y
Stress distribution
For a plate with aspect ratio r = 5 the variation of σ along horizontal planes as one
y
move away from the midsurface becomes steeper, with the peek compressive stress
increasingly rapidly as the singularity at y = 0 is approached, while the changeover
location at
σ
y
= 0
shifts towards the loaded plane. The absolute maximum tensile
stress of σ
y
throughout the plate is 0.045 P / bt , and occurs in fact at the centroidal
axis (at x = 0.85b ).
Investigating plates with variable aspect ratio, it was found that the centroidal
compressivestress value, the maximum tensile stress, the changeover (
σ
y
= 0
)
distance, and the location where the largest tension occurs remain practically
unchanged for r ≥ 2 . Thus, the stress distribution is essentially invariant with r
provided this parameter exceeds 2, a limit which, therefore, may serve as one possible
12
criterion for what constitutes a ‘long’ plate in this and related problems. Even the
σ
y
variation that occurs below r = 2 is relatively slow, as may be seen by reference to
Table 2.1.
r 
σ 
y 
/ bt P 
(centroid) 

1.0 
1.919 

1.2 
1.886 

1.4 
1.860 

1.6 
1.847 

1.8 
1.840 

1.9 
1.839 

2.0 
1.839 

3.0 
1.839 

TABLE 2.1: Colinear Pointloads Case: Variation of σ 
y 
/ bt P 
at the Centroid with Aspect Ratio 
One interesting finding of the present parametric study concerns the limiting value
r = 1.77 , below, which the plate is wholly under compression as regards
σ . Tensile
y
stresses begin to appear near the ends of the plate only when r > 1.77 , although they
are negligible compared to the maximum tensile σ
y
in long plates.
2.5 σ
x Stress distribution
As remarked earlier, the convergence of the series for
σ
x and the same numbers of
terms may also be adopted for ‘full’ accuracy (i.e. to at least 0.1% of the true values)
throughout most of the plate, while Fejer’s summability is required elsewhere. For a
plate with aspect ratio r = 5 the variation of σ along the length of the beam at the
x
level of the midsurface is tensile around the central section, compressive beyond a
distance of 0.3b (measured from the vertical centreline).
13
The variation across the depth of σ in the plane of loading is of particular interest. It
x
may be seen that practically the whole depth of the midspan is in longitudinal
tension. These tensile values increase slowly from 0.497 P / bt at the centroid to, say,
0.77 P / bt
at
y = 0.1b . In the very vicinity of the loads, of course, both
σ
x
and
σ
y
are compressive tending to infinity as y = 0 is approached.
The previous results, described on the basis of, also hold for any
r > 2 , as was the
case for
σ
y
. This may be seen, for example, by reference to Table 2.2, where the
values of σ at the centroid stabilises at 0.497 P / bt beyond r ≈ 1.8 .
x
r 
σ 
x 
/ bt P 
(centroid) 

1.0 
0.592 

1.2 
0.533 

1.4 
0.508 

1.6 
0.499 

1.8 
0.497 

2.0 
0.497 

3.0 
0.497 

/ TABLE 2.2: Colinear Pointloads Case: Variation of bt P σ x 
at the Centroid with Aspect Ratio 
Finally, it was found that the distance along the midsurface at which the changeover
σ
x
= 0
occurs is already a constant, at 0.3b from the ‘load line’, beyond r = 1.6 .
14
2.6 τ
xy
Stress distribution
As mentioned earlier, the simple method adopted herein does not permit the full
satisfaction of freeedge conditions along the vertical boundaries and shear stresses
will act at x = 0, a . It may readily be shown that under completely arbitrary transverse
loading, each term of the series for
τ
xy
can be split into two components. One part
proportional to (
C
1
+ C
2
)
, is symmetric with respect to the midsurface y = b / 2 , and
hence represents a set of selfequilibrating actions, the role of which is to balance the
variation in
σ
y
across the plate depth; clearly, such stresses have no counterpart in the
simplified engineer’s beam theory. The second part, proportional to (
C
1
− C
2
)
, does
have a resultant, which at the ends of the beam maintains overall equilibrium.
Evidently, for the case under study Figure 1, only the first, selfequilibrating,
component is present at all crosssections. Of special interest will be the distribution
and magnitudes of τ at the transverse ends as, by integrating the shear stresses over
xy
half the beam’s depth, a natural estimate of the error inherent in the nonfulfilment of
the exact boundary conditions associated with a free edge may be obtained. Thus,
A
=
b
0
/ 2
τ
xy
t
=
b
0
/ 2
k
P
b
dy
dy
(2.15)
where k is the dimensionless constant for the ratio
τ
xy
/
bt P
which defines the shear
stress intensity at any point. Equation (2.15) gives directly the load ratio between the
vertical edge shear over half the depth on each vertical side and the aplied load on
each horizontal edge.
The basis of the algorithm that computes the arithmetic values of
τ
xy
and A
is
naturally Fejer’s summability. The results of Table 2.3 are based on this algorithm,
and show the variation of integral A with aspect ratio for the range r > 1 . It may be
seen that the shearstress resultant over half of the depth decreases from 0.02 P for
r = 1.0
to 0.01P
for
r = 2.4 .
At
r = 3 ,
A becomes 0.002 P , decreasing rapidly
towards zero with further increase in aspect ratio.
15
r 
A 
1.0 
0.020 
1.2 
0.047 
1.4 
0.045 
1.6 
0.040 
1.8 
0.032 
2.0 
0.023 
2.2 
0.016 
2.4 
0.010 
2.6 
0.006 
3.0 
0.002 
TABLE 2.3: Colinear Pointloads Case: Variation of the self equilibrating shearstress resultant at the ends of the plate (integrated over half its depth) with varying aspect ratio ( r > 1 ).
Were one to accept a departure from the freeedge boundary conditions of the order of
2% of the apllied load (as measured in terms of A ), it follows that, once again, an
aspect ratio of r > 2 can be said to constitute a ‘long beam’, in the sense that the
overall effect of
τ
xy
acting on the vertical sides becomes negligible for such plate
geometries. What is interesting is that, even for a nearsquare plate, the ‘error’
provided by the estimate of A is below 5%.
A typical τ distribution at the vertical lefthand edge of the plate is given in Figure
xy
5(a), corresponding to r = 1.4 . It would appear that irrespective of the aspect ratio,
with the sign of
τ
xy
unchanged throughout both halfdepth portion and all stresses
pointing away from the corners; and, indeed, this is true for all aspect ratios exceeding
about 1. However, below an r corresponding approximately to a square plate, such a
simple picture no longer applies. This may be seen by reference to both Table 2.4 and
Figure 5(b) and (c). As r is gradually decreased from around 1, it is apparent from
Table 2.4 that A becomes smaller, reaching zero at r = 0.92 and then changing sign.
16
0
y / b
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1


0,2 
0,15 
0,1 
0,05 
0 
0,05 
0,1 
0,15 
0,2 

τ 
/ bt P 

(a) 
xy 

0
y / b
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1


0,1 
0,05 
0 
0,05 
0,1 

τ 
/ bt P 

(b) 
xy 

y / b
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
2 1 0 1 2 

τ / bt P 

(c) 
xy 

τ 
xy / bt P 
Fig.5. Equal and opposite colinear point loads:
distribution along the vertical edge x = 0 .
(a)
r = 1.4 , (b) r = 0.9 , (c) r = 0.3
17
At first sight, this might suggest that there exists a specific plate geometry for which
the assumptionof free vertical edges is exactly fulfiled. That this is no the case
becomes clear by reference to Figure 5(b) which shows that, at r = 0.9 ,the shape of
the
τ
xy
is such that the shear no longer acts in the same direction even within the half
depth porion of the plate. This more complex shearstress variation is characteristic
for the range of aspect ratios between 1.07 and 0.601. Below r = 0.601 the stresses
again become singlesigned on either side of the midsurface y = 0.5b , but their sense
is such that they now point towards the corner, a typical distribution being shown in
Figure 5(c). That the departure from the freeedge condition steadily becomes worse
with dimensing r even below r ≈ 1 is clear once the definition for the error measure
in equation (2.15) is altered to
A 
′ = 
b
/ 2
t
∫
τ
xy
0
P

dy 
(2.16) 

r 
A 
A′ 


0.048 


0.050 


0.025 


0.025 


0.031 


0.058 


0.108 


0.185 


0.281 


0.382 


0.494 


0.504 


0.517 
TABLE 2.4: Colinear Pointloads Case: Variation of the self equilibrating shearstress resultant at
the ends of the plate (integrated over half its depth)
in terms
of
τ
xy
( A)
and also
( A)
with varying aspect ratio ( r < 1 ).
18
The values of A′ also appear in Table 2.4 (note that r ≈ 1 seems to provide a local
minimum for the error, at around 2.5%).
The magnitude of the selfequilibrating set of shear stresses has also been studied at
different sections from the ends
x = 0, a . For example, with
r = 5 , it was found that
the area A (no longer an ‘error’ as it now refers to internal stresses) increases as one
approaches the plane of the loading. It is practically nil for x ≤ b (i.e. a distance of
1.5b away from the load), making up 1% of the applied load at a length b away from
the load, increasingly rapidly to 17.2% at 0.2b from the loaded point; clearly, as the
midspan is neared, the τ stresses (and hence also A ) drop sharply to zero.
xy
19
3.1 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to consider the problem of the colinear point loading of a
rectangular plate, concentrating on the exact solution as it was introduced by Mathieu.
Mathieu’s approach to the fundamental problem of plane strain (but equally
applicable to plane stress) with rectangular boundaries is extended so as to encompass
completely arbitrary stress distributions acting along the four edges. The method
consists in breaking up the full solution into eight basic problem types which, by
appropriate superposition, can be made to describe exactly the internal stress
distribution arising from any imposed force distribution throughout the boundaries.
3.2 Problem outline
Before proceeding with the solution, it will be necessary to summarise the main
governing expressions of twodimensional elasticity (in the absence of body forces),
as, in common with much of 19 ^{t}^{h} century elasticity work, Mathieu’s notation and
approach depart from current conventions. The two equilibrium equations (but also
embodying compatibility and Hooke’s law) are
Δ u = − 
1 d ε 
υ dx 
, 
Δ v = − 
1 ε 
d υ dy 
(3.1a,b)
where u , v are the displacements along x, y respectively, υ is the volumetric
dilatation given by
du dv 

υ = 
+ 
dx dy 
(3.2)
while Δ stands for Laplace’s operator. The constant ε is defined in terms of Lamé’s
parameters, i.e.
ε
=
μ
λ μ
+
(3.3)
these being related to the nowadays more familiar material constants, namely Young’s
modulus and Poisson’s ratio. By operating on expressions (3.1), it is easy to show that
the following requirement must always be met
Δυ = 0
(3.4)
Once the displacements u and v have been obtained, the stresses
N (direct stress
x
along x ),
N
y
(direct stress along y ) and
N
xy
(shear stress in the plane x − y ) follow
from the relations
du
dv
N _{x} = λυ + 2 μ , N _{y} = λυ + 2 μ ,
dx
dy
(
N _{x}_{y} = μ
du dv
+
dy dx
)
(3.5ac)
3.3 The inplane stress distribution
Consider a rectangular plate of dimensions a × b with the origin of the axes x, y
placed at its centre as shown in Figure 2.
First, we express the loading f ( y ) as a Fourier series
21
Fig.2 Thin rectangular plate upon by two equal and opposite colinear point loads
which is a halfrange (even) expansion.
components υ 
1 

υ = υ + υ 1 
2 

with 

υ 1 
= B 
0 
+ ∑ 

n 

where 
and 
υ 
2 
such that 
B cosh nx cos ny n 
,
υ β
2
=
0
+
We 
also 
split the dilatation into two 

(3.7) 

∑ 
β m 
cosh my cos mx 
(3.8a,b) 
m
22
m
=
2 π
p
a
and
n
=
2
q
π
b
(3.9a,b)
in which p , q are positive integers 1,2,3,… and the summation extends over all p , q .
Expressions (3.8a) and (3.8b) satisfy separately (3.4), hence their sum ( υ ) is an
adequate dilatation function. It should be mentioned at this stage that other
combinations for even υ and υ would not satisfy all the necessary conditions
1
2
Now consider a function F such that
ΔF = −
1
υ
ε
(3.10)
Such a function satisfies (3.1) and (3.2) by putting
u =
dF
dx
+
α υ
1
dx v =
,
dF
dy
+
α υ
2
dx
(3.11a,b)
In fact, the second term in (3.11a,b) is necessary to satisfy (3.2), and for this condition
to be fulfilled the constant _{α} must take on the value
α
=
λ
+ 2
μ
μ
(3.12)
Just as υ
was split υ
1
and υ , F can also be divided into two components
2
and
such that (3.10) may be rewritten as
ΔF = −
1
1
υ
1
ε
, ΔF = −
2
1
υ
2
ε
(3.13a,b)
with the solution of these partial differential equations being expressible in terms of
the series (3.8)
23
F
1
= −
1
1
n
1
−
2
ε
2
ε
n
B x
0
2
(
B xe nx
n
) cos
ny
+
(
H E nx
n
) cos
ny
n
F
2
= −
1
1
m
1
−
2
ε
2
ε
m
β
0
y
2
β
m
(
ye my
) cos
mx
+
(
G E my
m
) cos
m
(3.14a) 

mx 
(3.14b) 
where from the onwards
E () = cosh (), e() = sinh ()
Using equations (3.5) and (3.11), one obtains the following expression for the stresses
N , N x 
y and 
N xy 

N _{x} = λυ + μαυ + 2 1 2 μ N _{y} = λυ + μαυ + μ 2 2 2 2 
d
d
dy 2 
(3.16a) (3.16b) 

d F 
d υ 
1 dx 
d 

^{N} xy = [ 2 μ dxdy + α ∫dy + The two additional coefficients 
α H 
∫n 
dx and 
dy (3.16c) G

B 
n 

and 
β m from the four boundary conditions that define the loading on the edges 

x 
= + 
1 a and 
y = + 
b 

2 
2 

ensures the automatic satisfaction of the boundary conditions at the other two sides 

x 
= − 
1 a and 
y 
= − 
b 

2 
2 

constraints are 

N N 
xy = 0 _{x} = f y ( 
) 
at at 
x x 
= 1 2 a = 1 2 a 
and and 
N xy N y 
= 0 = 0 
at at 
y y 
= = 
1 2 1 2 
b b 
(3.17a,b) (3.18a,b) 
24
Conditions (3.17a) and (3.17b) lead to the following expressions of
H
n
and
G
m
H
n
=
B
n
[
−
(
1
1
a
2
+
2 ε
n
4
n
2
(
1
e na
2
)
E na
)
]
,
^{G} m
= β
m
[ −
1
1
2
2
m
+
b
4
m
ε
2
1
e mb
(
2
)
E mb
(
)
(3.19a,b)
It should be noted that, to reduce expressions (3.17a) and (3.17b) so that a solution for
H
n
and
G
m
can be obtained, the choice of indices m = 2πp / a
and n = 2πq / b was
necessary just to eliminate terms in
sin
1
2
ma
and
sin
1
2
nb
. By combining condition
(3.18a), together with equation (3.16a) and (3.6), one obtains
2
d F
λυ μαυ
+
2
1 A
+
μ
dx
2
=
A
0
+
2
n
n
cos
ny
(3.20)
which leads to the following expression, after some algebraic manipulations
(
λ μ
+
2
)
B
0
+
λ
B
0
−
A
0
+
(
λ μα
+
2
)
n
1
B E na ) cos ny
n
(
2
+
λ β
m
(
E my
) cos
m
1
μ
B
n
[ 2
1 )] cos
2
(
E na
)
+
1
2
(
1
nae na
2
−
2
ε
n
ma
ny
+
2
μ
n
(
1
1
1
H n E na
n
2
2
) cos
μ
m
ny
+
β
) cos
2
μ
m
m
mye my
(
ma
G m E my
m
2
−
ε
2
2
(
) cos
ma
=
A
n
cos ny
n
(3.21)
Substituting equations (3.19) into equation (3.21), we obtain the following expression
(
λ μ
+
)
− 1
[(
λ μ
+
2
)
B
0
+
λβ
0
−
A
0
]
+
n
{
(
1
1
1
A
n
B E na
n
2
[
−
2
1
e ( na )
2
(
λ μ
+
)
)
+
na
]
} cos ny
+
1 mb
β
m
{
E my
(
)[1 −
m 2
ma
=
0 (3.22)
25
In the same way, condition
(3.18b) together with equation (3.16b) leads to the
following expression
(
λ μ
+
)
− 1
[(
λ μ β λ
+
2
)
0
+
B
0
]
+
{
β
m
m
[
1
1
E mb
(
)
2
+
2
mb
1 ]
A
n
−
1
(
λ μ
+
)
e ( mb )
2
} cos mx
+
B E nx
n
{
(
)[1 −
n
(
1
2
(
1
e na
2
)
]
+
E na
)
nb
=
0
(3.23)
By multiplying by dy and integrating between
+
1 b
, equation (3.22) reduces to its
2
first term, i.e.
(
λ μ
+
)
− 1
[(
λ
+
2
μ B λβ
)
0
+
0
−
A b
0
]
=
0
(3.24)
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