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IMPERIAL COLLEGE of Science, Technology and Medicine Department of Civil Engineering MSc,DIC Concrete Structures

Supervisor: Prof. M. N. Pavlović

A STUDY OF RECTANGULAR PLATE UNDER COLINEAR LOAD WITH BOTH APPROXIMATE AND EXACT SOLUTION

  • P

 
  • P

Tsiatas George

June 1998

to an angel

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to thank Professor M.N. Pavlović for his supervision to this thesis and his important guidance and help. It was an excellent co-operation.

Contents

 

Page

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • 1.1 General Introduction

1

  • 1.2 Introduction

4

Chapter 2: Single Fourier Series Solution

  • 2.1 Introduction

  • 2.2 The closed-form solution

5

  • 2.3 Convergence study

8

  • 2.4 Stress distribution

σ

y

12

  • 2.5 σ

x

Stress distribution

13

  • 2.6 Stress distribution

τ

15

xy

Chapter 3: Exact Solution

  • 3.1 Introduction

20

  • 3.2 Problem outline

20

  • 3.2 The in-plane stress distribution

21

  • 3.4 The arithmetic implementation

29

Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General introduction

Lamé (1852) introduced the general problem of isotropic rectangular plates under in- plane normal loading. He attracted the attention of scientists, on the importance of the general problem of determining the state of stress and strain within a parallellopiped, which is subjected to given forces acting through its volume and to given tractions across its surface.

Numerous attempts have been made to solve Lamé’s problem by removing one or more faces to infinity, and thus simplifying the surface conditions. One of the earliest investigations of the application of Fourier series to the solution of two-dimensional elasticity problems was that of Mathieu. He presented an elasticity solution for Lamé’s rectangular parallellopiped with one infinite dimension.

The solution consisted of isolating a rectangular plate and subdividing the problem into four similar problems, each being loaded on one edge only. Clearly the total solution can be obtained by adding the solutions of the four individual problems. Each of these four problems was further subdivided into two others, A and B, where the load is divided in such a way that rectangle A is compressed equally on both opposite edges whereas rectangle B is compressed on one edge and pulled (i.e. by equal and opposite surface tractions) on the other. For problem A the loading was represented

by an infinite half-expansion Fourier series f

(

y

) =

A

0

+

A

n

cos

ny the volumetric

n

dilatation υ was expressed in a similar manner, but the coefficients were functions of

both

x

and

y

as

given by

υ

=

B

0

+

B E ( nx ) cos ny G

n

+

0

n

+

G E ( my ) cos mx

m

.

m

Convergence the Fourier coefficients was also examined by Mathieu. This solution,

however, consists a very complicated expressions made of looped infinite sets of

series containing trigonometric and exponential terms, which made it almost

impossible for practical utilisation (at a time when hand calculation were mandatory).

Ribière (1889) used single trigonometric series to represent the stress components in a

plate under transverse loading conditions. Uniform and concentrated loads were

applied to the plate and it was found that, for an aspect ratio of ten or more, the

longitudinal stress distribution differs very slightly from that given by the ordinary

bending theory.

Lamé’s problem was again tackled by Filon (1903), who obtained the solution for the

rectangular parallellopiped under an arbitrary system of surface loading in two cases:

first, when two faces are constrained to remain plane (plane-strain problem) and,

secondly, when one of the dimensions is so small that stresses in that direction are

negligible (plane-stress problem). The equations being of the same form in both cases

(the body forces are neglected), the distribution of stresses inside the beam is clearly

the same whether the above-mentioned dimension is very small or very large. General

solutions to the equations of the problem were established through functions using

complex variables. Fourier integrals were employed by Filon to replace the

summation in the case where the longitudinal dimension increases to infinity. Infinite

values of he stresses were found at the point where a concentrated load is applied. The

case of a beam under two equal and opposite compressive loads was examined, and

tensile stresses σ y (along the direction of the applied loads) were detected at some

distance away from the plane of loading. Filon showed that, since there are no

shearing stresses along the mid-plane of the beam transverse to the loading, one may

leave out of the analysis a half of the beam, and consider it as replaced by an infinite

smooth rigid plane, against which the beam is pressed by the (single) load on the top

face. The tensile stresses developed along the rigid base meant that an elastic block,

acted upon by a concentrated load at its upper surface, cannot have its whole base in

contact with a smooth rigid plane on which it rests: at a certain distance from the load

the body of the beam is lifted off the plane. However, the weight of the beam, which

2

was neglected in the analysis, may counteract this phenomenon to a certain extent, if

the applied load is not too large. This phenomenon was later confirmed by Marguerre

(1932), who directly studied the problem of the beam resting on a smooth rigid base

under the effect of a concentrated load on its upper surface.

Goodier (1932) presented the analysis of rectangular blocks compressed by normal

forces (knife-edge conditions) applied centrally to two opposite sides. Results similar

to those of Filon were found for the σ y transverse stress distribution. In addition,

Goodier pointed out that this load-concentration arrangement also results in the

development of considerable tensile stresses σ x across the plane of loading (i.e. in the

longitudinal direction).

Much later, Appl (1972) analysed the same series of rectangular plates using a

singular integral superposition method and confirmed the magnitudes of the

maximum tensile stresses found by Goodier.

Pickett (1944) used Fourier series to obtain exact solutions for stresses in rectangular

prisms for ‘any boundary conditions’. More than one series were used as needed.

Each of these series was selected so as to give a Fourier-series expression for one

component of stress (or displacement) at some boundary. The coefficients of the terms

in a series are determined by Fourier analysis so as to give not only the desired stress

(or displacement) at the boundary for which the series was selected but also to cancel

any stress (or displacement) that may have been unavoidably introduced by the other

series. The case of two equal and opposite concentrated loads was also studied; the

results of this analysis agree well with the σ x stress distribution given by Goodier

(1932).

Donnell (1952) presented series made up of polynomial terms for the stress

components, that satisfied equilibrium and continuity conditions of two-dimensional

elasticity theory and the boundary conditions (pressure loading) on the top and bottom

surfaces of a rectangular beam. The end conditions may be satisfied by superposition

of self-balance load systems on these ends. It was stated that these self-equilibrating

3

loads are substantially independent of beam length for as long as this exceeded the

depth.

Boley & Tolins (1955) calculated the stresses and deflections in rectangular beams in

accordance with the two-dimensional elasticity theory by an iterative procedure

previously derived by Von Kármán (1927) and Seewald (1927). The stress function

was made up of a summation of individual terms Φ i , where a recurrence equation

between partial derivatives of Φ i , Φ i 1 and Φ i 2 was established.

A method for the calculation of stresses in plane-elasticity problems was developed

by Theocaris (1959). A field of isostatics, determined experimentally, is represented

by a function with complex variables. A differential parameter h of first order is then

calculated all over the field. The stress components are expressed by relations that

depend on this parameter h and the boundary conditions of the problem. The method

was applied to two problems of plane, elasticity, and the results were then compared

with those obtained by purely analytical methods.

2.1 Introduction

The aim of this thesis is to explore the problem of a rectangular plate under colinear

point loading, using both approximate and exact solution. The plate is treated as a

plane-stress problem where the boundary conditions are given exclusively in term of

stresses.

Firstly, the solution of the two-dimensional general problem with rectangular

boundary is presented, using the approximate single Fourier series technique of the

Lévy type. A convergence study is considered and the stress distribution of internal

stresses is investigated with the help of a Fortran program.

Secondly, the exact solution is presented as Mathieu introduced it. Due to the limited

time for this thesis a thorough investigation was not feasible. However a program in

Fortran was written and results from Mathieu’s book were verified.

4

CHAPTER 2

SINGLE FOURIER SERIES SOLUTION

  • 2.1 Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to consider the problem of the colinear point loading of a

rectangular plate, concentrating on the solution by means of the single Fourier series

technique.

  • 2.2 The closed-form solution

The governing expressions for 2-D elasticity problems with constant or zero body

forces reduce to the single biharmonic equation when the Airy stress function Φ ,

which defines the three stress components (

σ , σ , τ

x

y

xy

),

is

used.

In

the

case

of

rectangular boundaries, such as the plate shown in Fig. 1, the assumption that Φ may

be expressed as an SFS along one co-ordinate axis enables the reduction of the partial

differential equation into a total differential form. This, in turn, leads to an algebraic

equation, the roots of which define a general solution for the function along the co-

ordinate axis. Thus, the typical mth term of the Fourier series solution (when the

expansion is along the x-axis) becomes

Φ =

(C cosh αy

1

+

C sinh αy

2

+

C y cosh αy

3

+

C y sinh αy ) sin αx

4

(2.1)

where α = mπ / a ( a being the span of the plate, which may be taken to be half the

period of the period of the half-range Fourier expansion).

b

Y

a

P

P

 
P

P

X

Fig.1. Thin rectangular plate of length α and depth b under in-plane loading (equal and opposite colinear point loads)

The four

integration constants in eqn (1)

follow upon the specification of the

boundary condition at the horizontal edges ( y = 0, b in Fig 1) namely, the values of

the direct ( σ ) and shear ( τ ) stresses along these boundaries, once these stresses

y

xy

have been expressed as suitable Fourier expansions matching the relevant derivatives

of Φ. Clearly, the whole process implies the repeated solving of four simultaneous

equations for each term of the series. In this work this has been avoided by solving the

four equations of the boundary conditions and evaluates the four constants.

The stress components are

σ

x

=

2

∂ Φ

y

2

=

sin α [

x C

1

α

2

cosh α

y C

+

2

α

2

sinh α

y C

+

3

α ( 2 sinh α

y

+

+ αy

cosh

)

αy + C α

4

( 2 cosh

αy + αy

sinh

αy

)]

(2.2)

σ

y

=

2

∂ Φ

x

2

= −α

2

sin

(

x C

α

1

cosh

y C

α +

2

sinh

y C y

α +

3

cosh

y C y

α +

4

sinh

α

y

)

(2.3)

6

 

2

τ

= −

xy

∂ Φ

x y

= −

α cos α [

x C

1

α sinh α

y C

+

2

α cosh α

y C

+

3

(cosh α y

+

 

+ αy

sinh

)

αy + C

4

(sinh

αy + ay

cosh

αy

)]

 

(2.4)

The boundary conditions are

 

For

y = 0

 

τ

xy

= 0

and

σ = −σ sin α x

y

u

 

(2.5)

 

For

y = b

 

τ

= 0

and

σ = −σ sin α

x

(2.6)

 

xy

y

l

Substituting these values in the equations (2.3) and (2.4) become

C

C

1

=

1

α

2

σ

u

=

α βγ

b +

α β γ

b +

 

(2.7)

C

  • 2 σ

α

2

Ω

σ

u

α

Ω

l

= −

α βγ

b +

+

α β γ

b +

 

(2.8)

C

  • 3 σ

Ω

α

σ

u

Ω

α

=

γ

2

βγ

l

(2.9)

4

where

α

Ω

σ

u

Ω

α

σ

l

Ω =

2

α b

2

2

γ , β cosh αb, γ sinh αb

=

=

,

b

being

the

(2.10)

plate

depth, the

subscripts u and l denote upper and lower longitudinal edge (i.e.

y = 0, b ) and the

expansions for normal stresses at the boundaries are expressed in terms of half-range

sine Fourier series, respectively.

7

The general expressions for the stress distribution within the plate become

σ

x

=

m

= 1

{

σ

u

cosh

αy αb bγ σ

+

[(

)

u

αbβ γ σ

(

+

)

l

]

Ω

1

(sinh

+

αy αy

cosh

αy

)

+

+

γ (γσ α σ )

u

b

l

Ω

1

( 2 cosh

α

y

+

α y sinh α y )} sin α x

(2.11)

σ

y

= −

m

= 1

{

σ

u

cosh

αy αb bγ σ

+

[(

)

u

αbβ γ σ

(

+

)

l

]

Ω

1

(sinh

αy αy

cosh

αy

)

+

+

αγ (γσ α σ )

u

b

l

Ω

1

y

sinh α } sin α

y

x

(2.12)

τ

xy

= −

m

= 1

{

σ

u

sinh

αy

[(

αb

+

)

bγ σ

u

αbβ γ σ

(

+

)

l

]

Ω

1

αy

sinh

αy

+

+

γ (γσ α σ )

u

b

l

Ω

1

(sinh α y

+

α y cosh α y )} cos α x

(2.13)

In this case of colinear point loads on either longitudinal edge (Fig. 1), σ

u

and σ

l

are

given by

σ

u

=

σ

l

=

2(

/

P t

)

sin

a

α

a

2

sin α

x

(2.14)

Where P is the total load, and t the plate thickness.

2.3 Convergence study

The convergence study is based on the problem of Fig. 1. The point loads are likely to

constitute one of the most severe tests of convergence, since the other, usually

distributed, loads require fewer terms for the given degree of accuracy.

The study of the convergence of the σ stress at the centroid of the plate reveals that

y

the minimum necessary number of terms for any specified accuracy varies practically

linearly with the aspect ratio for r > 3 . For r < 3 , fewer terms are generally needed,

and a maximum of 20 to 30 terms would be sufficient for convergence to within an

accuracy of four figures for σ . Figure 2 shows the variation of the numbers of terms

y

8

m with the distance from the mid-surface for the mid-span location, a result that was

found to be insensitive to the x-coordinate along the length of the plate.

m with the distance from the mid-surface fo r the mid-span location, a result that was

Fig.2. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: variation of the number of terms generally required for convergence to an accuracy of four figures across the depth of the plate ( r = 5 ).

In determining the

σ stresses in the plate, it was found that the structure could be

y

divided into three regions as it can be seen in Figure 3, as far as convergence of the

series (by ordinary summation) is concerned. One of these (region I) refers to the

locations of the concentrated loads (singularity points), their intermediate vicinities,

and, indeed, a thin horizontal strip along the longitudinal edges (encompassing, of

course, these boundaries), where there is no convergence. On the other hand,

throughout most of the plate (region III) convergence takes place for a certain finite

number of terms. In between these two regions, one can draw a transitional region

(region II), in the shape of a strip adjacent to the longitudinal-edge zones of region I,

where convergence is very pour and necessitates a larger number of terms than those

for region III. The gradual increase in m as one move from region III, through region

II, on to region I, is shown in Figure 4, which depicts the

σ values along the

y

midspan section x = a / 2 . It can be seen that, whereas at y = 0.1b , about 100 terms

are sufficient for convergence, closer proximity to the point load requires a rapidly

increasing number of terms, which full divergence reached at the very location of the

load.

9

Fig.3. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence throughout the plate Fig.4. Colinear (equal

Fig.3. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence throughout the plate

Fig.3. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence throughout the plate Fig.4. Colinear (equal

Fig.4. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: regions of convergence at various levels across the mid-span section (plane of loading) of the plate ( r = 5 ).

In order to improve the convergence of the ordinary summation, it was concluded the

selective use Fejer’s summability, which consists of summing up the means of

consecutive partial sums of the series. This is done either to improve convergence

when it is slow or to achieve convergence when this is not forthcoming by ordinary

summation means. It is only the adoption of Fejer’s summability that enables

convergence to be achieved in the intermediate region II. Even with this approach, the

number of terms that required within region II might be large, although radically

smaller than that which would be necessary were the ordinary summation algorithm to

be used. An example of such a case is given in Figure 5(a), which depicts the

convergence of

σ for a typical location within the transitional region II

y

10

( x = a / 2 0.1b, y = 0.03b ) . Clearly for practical purposes, only Fejer’s approach will

yield the correct answer, as the ordinary summation still exhibits large oscillations

beyond m = 500 . Furthermore, it is exclusively Fejer’s method which can yield

answers throughout most of region I (except, of course, at and/or very near the point

load itself), a zone where mere summation leads to intermediate values (i.e.

σ

y

oscillates with non-decreasing amplitude around the mean value). This is illustrated in

Figure 5(b), for the point x = a / 2 0.1b, y = 0 . That is the location at the very

longitudinal edge and reasonably close to the concentrated load. Of course,

σ

y

at

y = 0 is a boundary condition, and hence its value ( = 0

y

σ ) could have been obtained

by inspection; however, the sort of behaviour exhibited by the

σ

y

series in Figure

5(d) is also relevant to the computation of σ values along the longitudinal edges.

x

( x = a / 2 − 0.1 b , y = 0.03 b ) .
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig.4. Colinear (equal and opposite) point loads: convergence at various levels across the section (x=l/2-0.1b) of the plate ( r = 5 ). Note Fejer’s effect on the convergence-solid lines.

11

The convergence of σ described so far is, on the whole, also typical of that for

y

σ

x

and

τ

xy

. For the latter stress component, however Fejer’s summability must often be

employed. In fact, in the case of

τ , the application of the ordinary summation

xy

procedure, in terms of the partial sums, gives a solution which oscillates around a

certain value with a decreasing amplitude as m gets larger, mainly at points near the

horizontal edges of the plate. As a result the shear stress resultant across half of the

b / 2

depth of the beam, given by

0

τ

t

xy dy

P

, and of special interest in the present work,

also oscillates around its exact value. Although these partial sums do converge, their

convergence is slow and requires many terms for the necessary accuracy in the

solution to be achieved. If, instead, one adopts Fejer’s summability approach to, for

instance, the shear stress at the end of the plate, leads to a clear improvement in the

convergence of the

τ series there. Thus also improving the convergence of the

xy

integral of τ over the plate’s depth, a parameter of special significance, as will be

xy

seen subsequently.

2.4 σ

y

Stress distribution

For a plate with aspect ratio r = 5 the variation of σ along horizontal planes as one

y

move away from the mid-surface becomes steeper, with the peek compressive stress

increasingly rapidly as the singularity at y = 0 is approached, while the changeover

location at

σ

y

= 0

shifts towards the loaded plane. The absolute maximum tensile

stress of σ

y

throughout the plate is 0.045 P / bt , and occurs in fact at the centroidal

axis (at x = 0.85b ).

Investigating plates with variable aspect ratio, it was found that the centroidal

compressive-stress value, the maximum tensile stress, the changeover (

σ

y

= 0

)

distance, and the location where the largest tension occurs remain practically

unchanged for r 2 . Thus, the stress distribution is essentially invariant with r

provided this parameter exceeds 2, a limit which, therefore, may serve as one possible

12

criterion for what constitutes a ‘long’ plate in this and related problems. Even the

σ

y

variation that occurs below r = 2 is relatively slow, as may be seen by reference to

Table 2.1.

r

 

σ

y

/

bt P

(centroid)

1.0

 

-1.919

1.2

 

-1.886

1.4

 

-1.860

1.6

 

-1.847

1.8

 

-1.840

1.9

 

-1.839

2.0

 

-1.839

3.0

 

-1.839

TABLE 2.1: Colinear Point-loads Case: Variation of

σ

y

/

bt P

at the Centroid with Aspect Ratio

One interesting finding of the present parametric study concerns the limiting value

r = 1.77 , below, which the plate is wholly under compression as regards

σ . Tensile

y

stresses begin to appear near the ends of the plate only when r > 1.77 , although they

are negligible compared to the maximum tensile σ

y

in long plates.

2.5 σ

  • x Stress distribution

As remarked earlier, the convergence of the series for

σ

  • x and the same numbers of

terms may also be adopted for ‘full’ accuracy (i.e. to at least 0.1% of the true values)

throughout most of the plate, while Fejer’s summability is required elsewhere. For a

plate with aspect ratio r = 5 the variation of σ along the length of the beam at the

x

level of the mid-surface is tensile around the central section, compressive beyond a

distance of 0.3b (measured from the vertical centre-line).

13

The variation across the depth of σ in the plane of loading is of particular interest. It

x

may be seen that practically the whole depth of the mid-span is in longitudinal

tension. These tensile values increase slowly from 0.497 P / bt at the centroid to, say,

0.77 P / bt

at

y = 0.1b . In the very vicinity of the loads, of course, both

σ

x

and

σ

y

are compressive tending to infinity as y = 0 is approached.

The previous results, described on the basis of, also hold for any

r > 2 , as was the

case for

σ

y

. This may be seen, for example, by reference to Table 2.2, where the

values of σ at the centroid stabilises at 0.497 P / bt beyond r 1.8 .

x

r

 

σ

x

/

bt P

(centroid)

1.0

 

0.592

1.2

 

0.533

1.4

 

0.508

1.6

 

0.499

1.8

 

0.497

2.0

 

0.497

3.0

 

0.497

/

TABLE 2.2: Colinear Point-loads Case: Variation of bt P

σ

x

at the Centroid with Aspect Ratio

Finally, it was found that the distance along the mid-surface at which the changeover

σ

x

= 0

occurs is already a constant, at 0.3b from the ‘load line’, beyond r = 1.6 .

14

2.6 τ

xy

Stress distribution

As mentioned earlier, the simple method adopted herein does not permit the full

satisfaction of free-edge conditions along the vertical boundaries and shear stresses

will act at x = 0, a . It may readily be shown that under completely arbitrary transverse

loading, each term of the series for

τ

xy

can be split into two components. One part

proportional to (

C

1

+ C

2

)

, is symmetric with respect to the mid-surface y = b / 2 , and

hence represents a set of self-equilibrating actions, the role of which is to balance the

variation in

σ

y

across the plate depth; clearly, such stresses have no counterpart in the

simplified engineer’s beam theory. The second part, proportional to (

C

1

C

2

)

, does

have a resultant, which at the ends of the beam maintains overall equilibrium.

Evidently, for the case under study Figure 1, only the first, self-equilibrating,

component is present at all cross-sections. Of special interest will be the distribution

and magnitudes of τ at the transverse ends as, by integrating the shear stresses over

xy

half the beam’s depth, a natural estimate of the error inherent in the non-fulfilment of

the exact boundary conditions associated with a free edge may be obtained. Thus,

A

=

b

0

/ 2

τ

xy

t

=

b

0

/ 2

k

P

b

dy

dy

(2.15)

where k is the dimensionless constant for the ratio

τ

xy

/

bt P

which defines the shear

stress intensity at any point. Equation (2.15) gives directly the load ratio between the

vertical edge shear over half the depth on each vertical side and the aplied load on

each horizontal edge.

The basis of the algorithm that computes the arithmetic values of

τ

xy

and A

is

naturally Fejer’s summability. The results of Table 2.3 are based on this algorithm,

and show the variation of integral A with aspect ratio for the range r > 1 . It may be

seen that the shear-stress resultant over half of the depth decreases from 0.02 P for

r = 1.0

to 0.01P

for

r = 2.4 .

At

r = 3 ,

A becomes 0.002 P , decreasing rapidly

towards zero with further increase in aspect ratio.

15

r

A

1.0

-0.020

1.2

-0.047

1.4

-0.045

1.6

-0.040

1.8

-0.032

2.0

-0.023

2.2

-0.016

2.4

-0.010

2.6

-0.006

3.0

-0.002

TABLE 2.3: Colinear Point-loads Case: Variation of the self equilibrating shear-stress resultant at the ends of the plate (integrated over half its depth) with varying aspect ratio ( r > 1 ).

Were one to accept a departure from the free-edge boundary conditions of the order of

2% of the apllied load (as measured in terms of A ), it follows that, once again, an

aspect ratio of r > 2 can be said to constitute a ‘long beam’, in the sense that the

overall effect of

τ

xy

acting on the vertical sides becomes negligible for such plate

geometries. What is interesting is that, even for a near-square plate, the ‘error’

provided by the estimate of A is below 5%.

A typical τ distribution at the vertical left-hand edge of the plate is given in Figure

xy

5(a), corresponding to r = 1.4 . It would appear that irrespective of the aspect ratio,

with the sign of

τ

xy

unchanged throughout both half-depth portion and all stresses

pointing away from the corners; and, indeed, this is true for all aspect ratios exceeding

about 1. However, below an r corresponding approximately to a square plate, such a

simple picture no longer applies. This may be seen by reference to both Table 2.4 and

Figure 5(b) and (c). As r is gradually decreased from around 1, it is apparent from

Table 2.4 that A becomes smaller, reaching zero at r = 0.92 and then changing sign.

16

0 y / b 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
0
y / b
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
 

-0,2

-0,15

-0,1

-0,05

0

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

 

τ

/

bt P

 

(a)

xy

0 y / b 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
0
y / b
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
 

-0,1

-0,05

0

0,05

0,1

 

τ

/

bt P

 

(b)

xy

y / b

0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1

-2

-1

0

1

2

 

τ

/

bt P

 
 

(c)

xy

τ

xy

/

bt P

Fig.5. Equal and opposite colinear point loads:

distribution along the vertical edge x = 0 .

(a)

r = 1.4 , (b) r = 0.9 , (c) r = 0.3

17

At first sight, this might suggest that there exists a specific plate geometry for which

the assumptionof free vertical edges is exactly fulfiled. That this is no the case

becomes clear by reference to Figure 5(b) which shows that, at r = 0.9 ,the shape of

the

τ

xy

is such that the shear no longer acts in the same direction even within the half-

depth porion of the plate. This more complex shear-stress variation is characteristic

for the range of aspect ratios between 1.07 and 0.601. Below r = 0.601 the stresses

again become single-signed on either side of the mid-surface y = 0.5b , but their sense

is such that they now point towards the corner, a typical distribution being shown in

Figure 5(c). That the departure from the free-edge condition steadily becomes worse

with dimensing r even below r 1 is clear once the definition for the error measure

in equation (2.15) is altered to

A

′ =

b / 2 t ∫ τ xy 0 P
b
/ 2
t
τ
xy
0
P

dy

(2.16)

 

r

A

A

 
  • 1.15 -0.048

0.048

 
  • 1.10 -0.050

0.050

 
  • 1.00 -0.020

0.025

 
  • 0.95 -0.010

0.025

 
  • 0.90 +0.006

0.031

 
  • 0.80 +0.047

0.058

 
  • 0.70 +0.105

0.108

 
  • 0.60 +0.185

0.185

 
  • 0.50 +0.281

0.281

 
  • 0.40 +0.382

0.382

 
  • 0.30 +0.494

0.494

 
  • 0.20 +0.504

0.504

 
  • 0.10 +0.517

0.517

TABLE 2.4: Colinear Point-loads Case: Variation of the self equilibrating shear-stress resultant at

the ends of the plate (integrated over half its depth)

in terms

of

τ

xy

( A)

and also

τ xy
τ
xy

( A)

with varying aspect ratio ( r < 1 ).

18

The values of Aalso appear in Table 2.4 (note that r 1 seems to provide a local

minimum for the error, at around 2.5%).

The magnitude of the self-equilibrating set of shear stresses has also been studied at

different sections from the ends

x = 0, a . For example, with

r = 5 , it was found that

the area A (no longer an ‘error’ as it now refers to internal stresses) increases as one

approaches the plane of the loading. It is practically nil for x b (i.e. a distance of

1.5b away from the load), making up 1% of the applied load at a length b away from

the load, increasingly rapidly to 17.2% at 0.2b from the loaded point; clearly, as the

mid-span is neared, the τ stresses (and hence also A ) drop sharply to zero.

xy

19

CHAPTER 3

EXACT SOLUTION

  • 3.1 Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to consider the problem of the colinear point loading of a

rectangular plate, concentrating on the exact solution as it was introduced by Mathieu.

Mathieu’s approach to the fundamental problem of plane strain (but equally

applicable to plane stress) with rectangular boundaries is extended so as to encompass

completely arbitrary stress distributions acting along the four edges. The method

consists in breaking up the full solution into eight basic problem types which, by

appropriate superposition, can be made to describe exactly the internal stress

distribution arising from any imposed force distribution throughout the boundaries.

  • 3.2 Problem outline

Before proceeding with the solution, it will be necessary to summarise the main

governing expressions of two-dimensional elasticity (in the absence of body forces),

as, in common with much of 19 th -century elasticity work, Mathieu’s notation and

approach depart from current conventions. The two equilibrium equations (but also

embodying compatibility and Hooke’s law) are

Δ u = −

1 d

ε

υ

dx

,

Δ v = −

1

ε

d

υ

dy

(3.1a,b)

where u , v are the displacements along x, y respectively, υ is the volumetric

dilatation given by

 

du dv

υ =

+

dx dy

(3.2)

while Δ stands for Laplace’s operator. The constant ε is defined in terms of Lamé’s

parameters, i.e.

ε

=

μ

λ μ

+

(3.3)

these being related to the nowadays more familiar material constants, namely Young’s

modulus and Poisson’s ratio. By operating on expressions (3.1), it is easy to show that

the following requirement must always be met

Δυ = 0

(3.4)

Once the displacements u and v have been obtained, the stresses

N (direct stress

x

along x ),

N

y

(direct stress along y ) and

N

xy

(shear stress in the plane x y ) follow

from the relations

du

dv

N x = λυ + 2 μ , N y = λυ + 2 μ ,

dx

dy

(

N xy = μ

du dv

+

dy dx

)

(3.5a-c)

3.3 The in-plane stress distribution

Consider a rectangular plate of dimensions a × b with the origin of the axes x, y

placed at its centre as shown in Figure 2.

First, we express the loading f ( y ) as a Fourier series

21

f ( y ) A = + ∑ A cos ny (3.6) 0 n n X
f ( y ) A
=
+
A cos ny
(3.6)
0
n
n
X
P
a
Y
P
b

Fig.2 Thin rectangular plate upon by two equal and opposite colinear point loads

which is a half-range (even) expansion.

components

υ

1

υ = υ + υ

1

2

with

 

υ

1

=

B

0

+

 

n

where

 

and

υ

2

such that

B cosh nx cos ny

n

,

υ β

2

=

0

+

We

also

split

the dilatation into two

 

(3.7)

β

m

cosh my cos mx

(3.8a,b)

m

22

m

=

2 π

p

a

and

n

=

2

q

π

b

(3.9a,b)

in which p , q are positive integers 1,2,3,… and the summation extends over all p , q .

Expressions (3.8a) and (3.8b) satisfy separately (3.4), hence their sum ( υ ) is an

adequate dilatation function. It should be mentioned at this stage that other

combinations for even υ and υ would not satisfy all the necessary conditions

1

2

Now consider a function F such that

ΔF = −

1

υ

ε

(3.10)

Such a function satisfies (3.1) and (3.2) by putting

u =

dF

dx

+

α υ

1

dx v =

,

dF

dy

+

α υ

2

dx

(3.11a,b)

In fact, the second term in (3.11a,b) is necessary to satisfy (3.2), and for this condition

to be fulfilled the constant α must take on the value

α

=

λ

+ 2

μ

μ

(3.12)

Just as υ

was split υ

1

and υ , F can also be divided into two components

2

F 1
F
1

and

F 2
F
2

such that (3.10) may be rewritten as

ΔF = −

1

1

υ

1

ε

, ΔF = −

2

1

υ

2

ε

(3.13a,b)

with the solution of these partial differential equations being expressible in terms of

the series (3.8)

23

F

1

= −

1

1

n

1

2

ε

2

ε

n

B x

0

2

(

B xe nx

n

) cos

ny

+

(

H E nx

n

) cos

ny

n

F

2

= −

1

1

m

1

2

ε

2

ε

m

β

0

y

2

β

m

(

ye my

) cos

mx

+

(

G E my

m

) cos

m

 

(3.14a)

mx

(3.14b)

where from the onwards

E () = cosh (), e() = sinh ()

Using equations (3.5) and (3.11), one obtains the following expression for the stresses

N , N

x

y

and

N

xy

 
 

N x =

λυ + μαυ +

2

1

2

μ

N y = λυ + μαυ + μ

2

2

2

2

d

  • 2 F

  • dx 2

d

  • 2 F

dy

2

 

(3.16a)

(3.16b)

 

d F

d

υ

1

dx

 

d

   

N xy

=

[ 2

μ

dxdy

+

α

dy

+

The two additional coefficients

α

H

n

dx

and

dy

(3.16c)

G

  • m are to be determined-together with

B

n

and

 

β

m

-from the four boundary conditions that define the loading on the edges

x

= +

1

a

and

y

= +

  • 1 . (The nature of the stress function chosen for each problem

b

 

2

2

ensures the automatic satisfaction of the boundary conditions at the other two sides

x

= −

1

a

and

y

= −

  • 1 .) In the case of the colinear point loading, these four static

b

 

2

2

constraints are

 
 

N

N

xy

= 0

x =

f y

(

)

at

at

x

x

=

1

2

a

=

1

2

a

and

and

 

N

xy

N

y

= 0

= 0

at

at

y

y

=

=

1

2

1

2

b

b

(3.17a,b)

(3.18a,b)

 

24

Conditions (3.17a) and (3.17b) lead to the following expressions of

H

n

and

G

m

H

n

=

B

n

[

(

1

Conditions (3.17a) and (3.17b) lead to the following expressions of H n and G m H

1

a

2

+

  • 2 ε

n

4

n

2

(

1

e na

2

)

E na

)

]

,

G m

= β

m

[

1

Conditions (3.17a) and (3.17b) lead to the following expressions of H n and G m H

1

2

2

m

+

b

4

m

ε

2

1

e mb

(

2

)

E mb

(

)

(3.19a,b)

It should be noted that, to reduce expressions (3.17a) and (3.17b) so that a solution for

H

n

and

G

m

can be obtained, the choice of indices m = 2πp / a

and n = 2πq / b was

necessary just to eliminate terms in

sin

1

2

ma

and

sin

1

2

nb

. By combining condition

(3.18a), together with equation (3.16a) and (3.6), one obtains

2

d F

λυ μαυ

+

2

  • 1 A

+

μ

dx

2

=

A

0

+

2

n

n

cos

ny

(3.20)

which leads to the following expression, after some algebraic manipulations

(

λ μ

+

2

)

B

0

+

λ

B

0

A

0

+

(

λ μα

+

2

)

n

1

B E na ) cos ny

n

(

2

+

λ β

m

(

E my

) cos

m

1

μ

B

n

[ 2

  • 1 )] cos
    2

(

E na

)

+

1

2

(

1

nae na

2

2

ε

n

ma

ny

+

2

μ

n

(

1

1

1

H n E na

n

2

2

) cos

μ

m

ny

+

β

) cos

2

μ

m

m

mye my

(

ma

G m E my

m

2

ε

2

2

(

) cos

ma

=

A

n

cos ny

n

(3.21)

Substituting equations (3.19) into equation (3.21), we obtain the following expression

(

λ μ

+

)

1

[(

λ μ

+

2

)

B

0

+

λβ

0

A

0

]

+

n

{

(

1

1

1

A

n

B E na

n

2

[

2

1

e ( na )

2

(

λ μ

+

)

)

+

na

]

} cos ny

+

  • 1 mb

β

m

{

E my

(

)[1

  • m 2

1 E mb ( ) 1 2 ] + mye my ( )} cos 1 2
1
E mb
(
)
1
2
]
+
mye my
(
)} cos
1
2
e mb
(
)
2

ma

=

  • 0 (3.22)

25

In the same way, condition

(3.18b) together with equation (3.16b) leads to the

following expression

(

λ μ

+

)

1

[(

λ μ β λ

+

2

)

0

+

B

0

]

+

{

β

m

m

[

1

1

E mb

(

)
2

+

2

mb

  • 1 ]

A

n

1

(

λ μ

+

)

e ( mb )

2

} cos mx

+

B E nx

n

{

(

)[1

n

(

1

1 1 na nxe mnx ( )} cos 2 2
1
1
na
nxe mnx
(
)} cos
2
2

2

(

1

e na

2

)

]

+

E na

)

nb

=

0

(3.23)

By multiplying by dy and integrating between

+

  • 1 b

, equation (3.22) reduces to its
2

first term, i.e.

(

λ μ

+

)

1

[(

λ

+

2

μ B λβ

)

0

+

0

A b

0

]

=

0

(3.24)