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Tone- attitude a writer takes towards the audience, a subject, or a character
Setting- time & place of a story or play
Metaphor-figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in
which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the words like, as, or
Simile-figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things using
the words like and as
Pun- play on the multiple meanings of a word or on two words that sound alike but
have different meanings
Hyperbole- figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or to
create a comic effect
Irony-contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality, between what is
said and what is really meant, between what is said and what is really meant,
between what is expected to happen and what really does happen, or between what
appears true and what is really true
Personification- kind of metaphor in which a non-human thing or quality is talked
about as if it is a human
1st person point of view-character is the narrator
3rd person point of view- narrator plays no part in the story, zooms in on the
thoughts of one character
2nd person point of view-
Epic poetry- long story told in elevated languages which relates the great deeds
of a larger than life hero that embodies the values of a particular society
Allusion- a reference to a well known person, place, event, literally work, or
work of art
Verbal irony- writer or speaker says one thing but really means something
completely different
Situational Irony- there is a contrast between what would seem appropriately and
what really happens or when there is a contradiction between what we expect to
happen and what really does take place
Dramatic irony- audience or reader knows something important that the character
doesn’t know
Figurative language- simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, onomatopoeia
Symbolism- person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and something
beyond itself
Sarcasm-remarks that mean the opposite of what they seem to say and are intended
to mock or deride
Assonance- repeating similar vowel sounds
Consonance- a close similarity between consonants or groups of consonants,
especially at the ends of words
Onomatopoeia- words who’s sounds imitates or suggests its meaning
Plot- series of related events that make up a story
Theme- central idea of work
Syntax-organization of words in sentences: the ordering of and relationship
between the words and other structural elements in phrases and sentences
Diction-choice of words
Omniscient narrator- knows everything about the characters
Mood-a group of verb forms expressing a particular attitude. English has the
indicative mood, expressing factual statements, the imperative mood, expressing
commands, and the subjunctive mood, expressing possibilities and wishes
Metonymy-a figure of speech in which an attribute of something is used to stand
for the thing itself
Connotation-all meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
Blank Verse-poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Free verse-poetry without a regular meter or rhyme
Prose-writing or speech in its normal continuous form, without the rhythmic or
visual line structure of poetry
Rhymed verse-poetry that rhymes
Rising actions-all events leading up to climax
Exposition- type of writing that explains, gives info, defines, or clarifies an
Prologue-an introductory passage or speech before the main action of a novel,
play, or long poem
Climax-moment of great emotional intensity or suspense in plot

The Odyssey:
II. Write a sentence describing each character.
Athena is the goddess of wisdom and the arts of war and peace, and she is often
called Pallas Athena.
Calypso is a beautiful goddess-nymph who kept Odysseus on her island for seven
Charybdis is a female monster who, three times a day, sucks water to form a
Circe is a witch goddess who turned Odysseus’ men into pigs.
Hermes is the messenger god.
Odysseus was married to Penelope and had a son names Telemachus.
Penelope was Odysseus wife.
Polyphemus was the Cyclops that Odysseus blinded.
Poseidon is the god of the sea and Zeus’ brother. He is also an enemy of Odysseus.
Scylla is a female monster who has 6 heads and each head has a row of fangs.

III. Answers
He strings his bow.
Six men are devoured by the Scylla.

Ithaca is the home of Odysseus.

Odysseus puts beeswax in his men’s ears.

Eurylochus tells the crew that they can eat the cattle of Helios.
Homer wrote the Odyssey.
Ithaca is an island good for a boys training.
Zeus and Hermes helped Odysseus leave Calypso.
Athena was the goddess who made the sacrifice when he arrived home.
Laertes is Odysseus’ father.
Telemachus is Odysseus’ son.
Zeus ordered Calypso to release Odysseus from her island.
They make them forget their homeland so they don’t want to leave.
They don’t kill him because they needed him to move the giant rock that blocked
the entrance.
Odysseus did not want to agitate his men and he didn’t want them to go below deck
for fear that Scylla might destroy them all.
They warn him about the dangers of Helios cattle.
He was disguised as a beggar.
They must shoot an arrow through twelve iron ax helves with Odysseus’ bow.
Telemachus helped him.

Romeo and Juliet

Shakespeare was born around April 23, 1564.

I. Write a sentence describing the characters.

Romeo was the only son of Lord Montague.
Juliet was a Capulet and married Romeo when she was just 14 years old.
Paris was a kinsman of the Prince and Lord Capulet chose him to marry Juliet.
The Apothecary was from Mantua and he refused to sell the poison to Romeo.
Tybalt was Juliet’s cousin and he killed Romeo’s friend Mercutio and Romeo killed
Mercutio was Romeo’s friend and a relative of the Prince; he was killed by Tybalt.

Benvolio was Romeo’s friend/cousin and he was the only person that Romeo told
about him and Juliet.
The nurse was a funny character who always seemed to be cheerful. She helped
Juliet deliver messages to Romeo.
Peter was a Capulet server. He escorted the nurse to meet Romeo. He is literate
and cannot sing.
Friar Lawrence was the priest who married Romeo and Juliet in secrecy.

II. Answers
Romeo was sad and in a solitary mood because he was not with Rosaline anymore.

The Nurse, Benvolio, and Friar Lawrence were the only people who knew about the
secret marriage.

Juliet went to the Nurse to confide in her love of Romeo.

Romeo was supposed to be at the tomb when Juliet woke.
Paris was there to mourn over her.
His fate at the end was that he was the cause of Romeo and Juliet’s death.
The purpose of the prologue was to predict the deaths at the end.
Mercutio is a foil to Romeo because Mercutio doesn’t take love seriously like
Romeo does, and Mercutio is out going and more carefree about things than Romeo
They first met at the Capulet’s ball.
Because Tybalt is now family to Romeo.
He was banished to Mantua.
Dramatic irony.

III. Identifying Quotations:

This quote predicts that the two will die because that is what is meant to
The Prince says this quote.