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# Chapter 3: Dynamics Balanced & Unbalanced Forces Free Body Diagrams Use resultant force = mass acceleration Friction

Newtons 1st Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) Newtons first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will continue in motion at constant speed in a straight line in the absence of resultant force acting on it Implying that when no resultant force acts on a body, the body will continue with whatever motion it has Balanced Force Unbalanced Force Body will continue with whatever motion it A resultant force will cause has (i) a stationary object to move (ii) a moving object to Net force acting on it must be zero. stop move faster - When a force is an object is balanced, slow down object is either at rest or moving with change direction uniform velocity (No Acceleration)

Terminal Velocity refers to the point whereby Air Resistance = Weight However, it will still be in motion as

Newtons 2nd Law of Motion Newtons second law of motion states that the resultant forces acting upon an object is equal to the product of the mass and the acceleration of the object. The direction of the force is the same as that of the objects acceleration. Force = mass acceleration F = ma

Newtons 3rd Law of Motion Every action has an equal & opposite reaction. Free-body Diagram

Friction - Frictional Force is experienced when 2 forces are in contact with each other. - The force of friction always opposes the direction of motion Useful Force Needed for Walking To put a foot forward, the other foot pushes backwards. Friction thus acts in the opposite direction, propelling one forward without falling. Car Movement Car wheel turns backwards. Friction thus acts in the opposite direction at the point of contact between the car & the road, providing a forward drive. Friction Depends on: -Material in Contact with -Roughness of Surface -Proportion of the Force pressing against each other Note: Independent of Area of Contact (6cm2 VS 18 cm2) Nuisance Reduces Efficiency in Machinery Large amount of energy is wasted as heat energy. Causes Surfaces to Heat Up, causing Wear & Tear

Reduction of Friction -Movable parts can be made as smooth as possible -Materials with very low frictional resistance can be used -Ball and roller bearings are placed between moving parts -Surfaces separated by lubricant (oil, grease) -Surfaces separated by air cushion