&
. Temperature term in JC model
reduces the flow stress to zero at the melting
temperature of the work material, leaving the
constitutive model with no temperature effect. In
general, the parameters A, B, C, n and m of the
model are fitted to the data obtained by several
material tests conducted at low strains and strain
rates and at room temperature as well as split
Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests at strain
rates up to 1000/s and at temperatures up to 600
C. JC model provides good fit for strain
hardening behavior of metals and it is
numerically robust and can easily be used in
FEM simulation models. JC shear failure model
is based on a strain at fracture criteria given in
Equation 2. Many researchers used JC model as
constitutive equation for high strain rate, high
temperatures deformation behavior of steels (see
Table 1). JC shear failure model is utilized in
modeling and simulating the segmented and
discontinuous chip formations in cutting of AISI
4340 steel [21,22].
( )  
(
(


.

\



.

\

+ + =
m
room melt
room
n
T T
T T
C B A 1 ln 1
0
&
&
(1)
(
+
(


.

\

+
(
(
+ =


.

\

room melt
room
p
d
f
T T
T T
d e d d
eff
1 ln 1
0
4 2 1
3
&
&
(2)
Table 1. JohnsonCook model constants for
various steels
3. FRICTION MODELING
Several researchers have used Oxleys parallel
sided shear zone in which the primary shear
zone is assumed to be parallelsided and the
secondary zone is assumed to be of constant
thickness, in order to obtain work flow stress
data.
In order to successfully determine flow stress for
JC material model and friction characteristics at
the tool chip interface, zel and Zeren [24]
proposed some modifications and improvements
to Oxleys model [25], that includes integration of
JohnsonCook constitutive model as for the flow
stress and triangular shaped secondary shear
zone as it was confirmed via FEM simulations
(see Figure 1). The basic concept of this
methodology is the use of orthogonal cutting
experiments and inverse solution of Oxleys
model in order to determine the flow stress and
friction conditions experienced in the range of
highspeed cutting.
As commonly accepted, in the toolchip contact
area near the cutting edge, sticking friction
occurs, and the frictional shearing stress,
int
is
equal to average shear flow stress at toolchip
interface in the chip, k
chip
. Over the remainder of
the toolchip contact area, sliding friction occurs,
and the frictional shearing stress can be
calculated using the coefficient of friction
e
. The
normal stress distribution on the tool rake face
can be described as:
( ) ( )
max
1 /
a
N N c
x x l
(
=
(3)
Normal stress distribution over the rake face is
fully defined and the coefficient of friction can be
computed, once the values of the parameters
max
N
and a are found. The shear stress
distribution on the tool rake face illustrated in
Figure 2 can be represented in two distinct
regions:
a) In the sticking region:
int
( )
chip
x k = , ( ) , 0
e N chip P
x k x l < (4)
b) In the sliding region:
int
( ) ( )
e N
x x = , ( ) ,
e N chip P C
x k l x l < < (5)
In Equations 4 and 5, k
chip
is the shear flow stress
of the material at toolchip interface in the chip.
Based on the methodology detailed in [26], the
constants of the JC material model for AISI 1045
steel are computed as A= 451.6, B= 819.5, C=
0.0000009, n= 0.1736, m= 1.0955 for the
extended ranges of strain (0.0511.07), strain
rate (117766 1/sec.) and temperature (20721
C). The calculated friction characteristics
include parameters of the normal and frictional
stress distributions on the rake face as given in
Table 2.
Steel Ref.
A
(MPa)
B
(MPa)
n C m
AISI
4340
[21] 950.0 725.0 0.375 0.015 0.625
AISI
4340
[22] 792.0 510.0 0.26 0.014 1.03
AISI
1045
[23]
553.1 600.8 0.234 0.013 1.000
Tool
Workpiece
Chip
P
rim
a
ry
zo
n
e
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y
z
o
n
e
V
M
A
N
E
C
D
V
c
F
t
c
t
c
l
p
l
c
t
u
(a) (b) Type I Slipline field (c) Type II sliplines field
Figure 1. Illustration of the deformation zones and simulated slipline fields in orthogonal cutting
Table 2. Friction characteristics determined for AISI
1045 steel using carbide cutting tool
Material AISI 1045
V
c
(m/min) 100400
t
u
(mm) 0.1250.5
Nmax
(MPa) 1312.63
l
p
(mm) 0.639
l
c
(mm) 3.122
a 0.183
k
chip
(MPa) 202.95
e
0.64
4. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL AND ADAPTIVE
MESHING
The essential and desired attributes of the
continuumbased FEM models for cutting are: (1)
The work material model should satisfactorily
represent elastic plastic and thermomechanical
behavior of the work material deformations
observed during machining process, (2) FEM
model should not require chip separation criteria
that highly deteriorate the physical process
simulation around the tool cutting edge
especially when there is dominant tool edge
geometry such as a round edge or a chamfered
edge is in present, (3) Interfacial friction
characteristics on the toolchip and toolwork
contacts should be modeling highly accurately in
order to account for additional heat generation
and stress developments due friction.
In this paper, a commercial software code,
ABAQUS/Explicit v6.4 and ALE modeling
approach is used to conduct the FEM simulation
of orthogonal cutting considering round tool edge
geometry and all of the above attributes are
successfully implemented in the model. The chip
formation is simulated via adaptive meshing and
plastic flow of work material. Therefore, no chip
separation criterion is needed.
In the ALE approach, the explicit dynamics
procedure performs a large number of small time
increments efficiently. The general governing
equations are solved both Lagrangian
boundaries and Eulerian boundary approaches
in same fashion. The adaptive meshing
technique does not alter elements and
connectivity of the mesh. This technique
combines the features of pure Lagrangian
analysis in which the mesh follows the material,
and Eulerian analysis in which the mesh is fixed
spatially and the material flows through the
mesh. Explicit dynamic ALE formulation allows
flow boundary conditions whereby only a small
part of the work piece in the vicinity of the tool tip
needs to be modeled.
The simulation model is created by including
workpiece thermal and mechanical properties,
boundary conditions, contact conditions between
tool and the workpiece as shown in Figure 2 and
given in Table 3. The workpiece and the tool
model use fournode bilinear displacement and
temperature (CPE4RT) quadrilateral elements
and a plane strain assumption for the
deformations in orthogonal cutting.
The cutting process as a dynamic event causes
large deformations in a few numbers of
increments resulting in massive mesh distortion
and termination of the simulation. It is highly
critical to use adaptive meshing with fine tuned
parameters in order to simulate the plastic flow
over the round edge of the tool. Therefore the
intensity, frequency and sweeping of the
adaptive meshing is adjusted to most optimum
setting for maintaining a successful mesh during
cutting.
The general equations of motion in explicit
dynamics analysis are integrated by using
explicit central difference integration rule with
diagonal element mass matrices, Equation 6.
 { }  { }  { } { }
M C K P
N N N N
u u u + + = && & (6)
( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
M P I
N NJ J J
i i i
u
= && (7)
Where M
NJ
, P
J
, I
J
are the diagonal element mass
matrix, the applied load vector, and the internal
force vector, respectively.
( ) ( )
N
i
i i N
i
N
i
u
t t
u u
) (
) ( ) 1 (
2 1 2 1
2
& & & &
+
+ =
+
+
(8)
N
i i
N
i
N
i
u t u u
) 2 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( + + +
+ = & (9)
( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
C P F
N NJ J J
i i i
=
&
(10)
N
i i
N
i
N
i
t
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
&
+ +
+ = (11)
The expressions for the nodal displacement u,
velocities u& , and accelerations u& & , are given in
Equations 6 and 7 where t is time increment.
u
N
is a degree of freedom and i is the
incremental number in the explicit dynamics step
[27]. In this case, we see that the system
equations become uncoupled so that each
equation can be solved for explicitly. This makes
explicit dynamic method highly efficient for non
linear dynamics problem such as metal cutting.
During metal cutting, flow stress is highly
dependent on temperature fields as we
discussed earlier. Therefore, fully coupled
thermalstress analysis is required for accurate
predictions in FEM simulations. In this analysis,
the equations of heat transfer are integrated
using explicit forward difference time integration
with lumped capacitance matrix as given by
Equations 10 and 11, where C
NJ
is the lumped
capacitance matrix, P
J
is the applied nodal
source vector, F
J
is the internal flux vector, is the
temperature
N
at node N.
In summary, the explicit dynamics method is
used mainly because it has the advantages of
computational efficiency for large deformation
and highly nonlinear problems as experience in
machining. Machining, as a coupled thermal
mechanical process, could generate heat to
cause mechanical and thermal effects influence
each other strongly. In the mean time, work
material properties change dramatically as strain
rate and temperature changes. Thus, the fully
coupled thermalstress analysis, in which the
temperature solution and stress solution are also
carried out concurrently, is applied.
Table 3. Cutting conditions, work and tool
material properties used in the FEM simulation
model
Orthogonal Cutting Parameters
Cutting speed, V
c
(m/min) 300
Uncut chip thicknes, t
u
(mm) 0.1
Width of cut, w (mm) 1
Tool rake angle, (degree) 5
Tool clearance angle (degree) 5
Tool edge radius, (mm) 0.02
AISI 1045 Workpiece Properties
Coefficient of thermal expansion
(m /mC)
11 (at 20 C)
Density (g/cm
3
) 7.8
Poissons ratio 0.3
Specific heat (J/kg/C) 432.6
Thermal conductivity (W/mC) 47.7
Youngs modulus (GPa) 200
Carbide Tool Properties
Coefficient of thermal expansion
(m/mC)
4.7 (at 20 C)
4.9 (at 1000 C)
Density (g/cm
3
) 15
Poissons Ratio 0.2
Specific heat (J/kg/C) 203
Thermal conductivity (W/mC) 46
Youngs Modulus (GPa) 800
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The simulations were conducted and the chip
formation process from the incipient to the
steady state was fully observed as shown in
Figure 3.
CHIP
TOOL
WORKPIECE
y
x
Lagrangian
V = V
T=T
x c
U = U = 0 , T= T
x y 0
0
Figure 2. Simulation model used for ALE with Lagrangian boundary conditions
12 m 25 m
50 m 75 m
Figure 3. FEM Simulation of orthogonal cutting with a round edge tool using ALE with Lagrangian
boundary conditions
Figure 4. The stress distributions of
xx
and
yy
in orthogonal cutting with a round edge tool (predicted
stresses are in 10
4
x MPa)
Figure 3 also shows the temperature predictions
at increments of 12, 25, 50 and 75 m as
maximum temperatures of 850, 910, 1090 and
1120 C respectively. The distributions of the
predicted the von Mises stress distributions are
given in Figure 4. The von Mises stress
xx
and
yy
also represent the residual stress
distributions on the machined surface. From the
simulation results it was observed that there exist
a region of very high deformation rate around the
round edge of the cutting tool. The round edge of
the cutting tool and the highly deformed region
underneath has an dominant influence on the
residual stresses of the machined surface. This
also signifies the current work when compared
the earlier FEM modeling studies that used
criteria for chipworkpiece separation [28,29].
The uses of separation criteria undermine the
influence of the cutting edge on the residual
stress on the machined surface. In this study, the
work material is allowed to flow around the round
edge of the cutting tool and simulated the
physical process.
6. CONCLUSIONS
In this study we have utilized the dynamics
explicit Arbirary Lagrangian Eulerian method and
developed a FEM simulation model for
orthogonal cutting of AISI 1045 steel using round
edge carbide cutting tool. JohnsonCook work
material model and a detailed friction model are
also used and work material flow around the
round edge of the cutting tool is simulated in
conjunction with an adaptive meshing scheme.
The simulation of the chip formation,
development of temperature distributions as well
as predictions of the stress distributions in the
chip, tool and on the machined surface are
successfully achieved. This study establishes a
framework to further study machining induced
residual stresses accurately and process design
via optimization of cutting conditions, tool edge
geometry for highspeed machining applications.
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