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Unit 1

Basic Foundations for Instructional Design


Time is the coin of your life. Only you can determine how it will be spent. - Carl Sandburg

Important Vocabulary behavioral theory cognitive psychology constructivism declarative knowledge direct instruction effect size efficacy equity extrinsic motivator inclusion individual educational plan (IEP) interpersonal intrapersonal intrinsic motivator learner-focused classrooms least restrictive environment mainstreaming mentor meta-analysis metaphors mnemonics motivation normal distribution norms pluralism procedural knowledge schema school culture socioeconomic data standards transfer of learning zone of proximal development

Pretest This is intended to help you focus your reading. The pretest is NOT submitted with the unit assignment. 1. Implicit values of a school are reflected in: a. b. c. d. 2. extrinsic student awards. negotiated student-teacher interactions. the ethos of individual schools. all of the above.

To be intentionally disinviting reflects: a. b. c. d. planning, compassion, and understanding. teachers who have strong pro-student ideals. a philosophy of the student as an incompetent person in an impersonal environment. a teacher who really wants children to learn.


Some socioeconomic data suggest that: a. b. c. d. there is little or no relationship to school participation. low achievers all come from poor families. children from low-income families tend to be somewhat less engaged in school activities. schools are legally forbidden to aid any socioeconomic-related problems.


The actual implementation of an educational goal takes place in: a. b. c. d. society. a teachers classroom. the deliberation of a school board. the state legislature.


One problem identified in the school culture relates to instruction. The authors: a. b. c. d. identify ephemeral norms. stress the use of locally prepared instructional materials. conclude that instructional methodologies have had a weak research basis. provide evidence that state legislatures have remedied instructional problems.


The key incentive for teachers is: a. b. c. d. salary. the uncertainties of teaching. student achievement. working alone in the job without interference form others.


Which characteristic is essential to be able to do the tough job of teaching? a. b. c. d. Conformity to the schools culture. Using a subject-centered approach. Having a rationale. Being efficacious.


The Individual Educational Plan (IEP) requires at least eight elements. Of the four below, which one is NOT required? a. b. c. d. Documentation of educational performance Identification of family socioeconomic status Specification of special services to be delivered Evaluation of methodology


Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge: a. b. c. d. in general, are identical. differ in focus. are seldom taught in grades K-6. require school approval prior to teaching.

10. The concept of least restrictive environment means: a. b. c. d. every child with any disability must be mainstreamed. children with disabilities are separated from regular classes. children with disabilities must be treated in a manner similar to children without disabilities. children without disabilities have the option to be placed in classes with or without other children having disabilities.

11. Equity is defined by the textbook authors as: a. b. c. d. every child in your class has an equal opportunity to learn. every child achieves the same level of excellence. all students must meet minimum competencies. all students do the same kind of work.

12. Effect size expresses: a. b. c. d. the distribution of scores on a normal curve. the increase or decrease in achievement of an experimental group in standard deviation units. the number of studies in a meta-analysis. percentile points on a standardized test.

13. A major strength of direct instruction is that: a. b. c. d. students are free to work on their own. content is delivered to all the class simultaneously. teacher class preparation is increased dramatically. class projects take most of the time.

14. In Vygotskys theory, the zone of proximal development: a. b. c. d. can be enhanced by adult or peer help. is fixed for each child. is unrelated to child development. is a maturational level similar to Piagets.

15. Active learning: a. b. c. d. applies to only the constructivist philosophy. is the hallmark of Vygotskys ideas. implies that there is no feedback to the learner. can be used with any learning experience.

16. Teachers reinforce learned helplessness by: a. b. c. d. lowering the expectations for minorities. implying incompetence in girls by giving boys more scientific tasks. giving fewer leadership opportunities to students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. all of the above.

[Answers can be found in the Appendix.] Unit Objectives This unit focuses on a design for instructional decisions. It provides an overview of the current educational system in which teachers must make a myriad of decisions on a daily basis. After completing this unit, you should be able to do the following: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the social, cultural, and educational factors that influence teaching.

2. 3.

Explain how learning perspectives affect instructional decisions. Articulate the cyclical nature of instruction and how all the elements inform the decisions teachers make. Link and relate the tenants of effective learning with an understanding of research as a basis. Before you can listen to learn, you must first learn to listen. - Source Unknown


Instructors Notes As you read the material for this unit, keep in mind that teachers make numerous decisions on a daily basis. The decisions need to be raised to the conscious level in order for students to reap the benefits. Teaching and learning is a system of interrelated components. It is critical that teachers understand the system and how to incorporate best practice to promote higher student achievement. There truly is no one best way to teach; rather, teachers must have the background and knowledge to select the most effective tools and strategies to create a rich, positive learning environment. Think about the system and how decisions are impacted. Use the graphic organizer to connect your thoughts.

Teaching as Interaction and Decision Making

Teacher as a Decision Maker Decision Making Within a System as Teacher Teaching Perspectives and Instructional Decision Making

The teacher is also a decision maker from a scientific perspective as well as from an artistic perspective. The effective teacher is one who is able to bring about intended learning outcomes. The two critical dimensions of effective teaching are intent and achievement. Without intent, student achievement becomes random and accidental; however, intent in not enough by itself. If students do not achieve their intended learning goals (even if the failure is due to variables beyond the control of their teacher), the teacher cannot truly have been effective (Cooper, 1999, p. 2). Although veteran

teachers have studied and continue to study various strategies and techniques as part of the scientific aspect of teaching, the truly effective teachers use their artistry to craft lessons and experiences that balance the needs of the students and the situation to deliver just in time teaching and learning opportunities. B. O. Smith has suggested that a well-trained teacher should be prepared in five areas of teacher competence to be effective in bringing about intended learning outcomes, as follows:. 1. 2. Command of theoretical knowledge about learning and human behavior. Display of attitudes that foster learning and genuine human relationships. a. b. c. d. 3. Teachers attitudes towards themselves. Teachers attitudes towards children. Teachers attitudes towards peers and parents. Teachers attitudes towards subject matter.

Command of knowledge in the subject matter being taught. a. b. A study of the subject matter itself. A judicious selection of the material that can be transmitted successfully to the student.

4. 5.

Control of teaching skills that facilitate student learning. Personal, practical knowledge (B. O. Smith, 1969).

For years, researchers denigrated the personal, practical knowledge of teachers, placing much greater value on scientifically derived knowledge. In recent years, however, researchers have accorded much more importance to the personal, practical knowledge that teachers use to solve dilemmas, resolve tensions, and simplify the complexities of their work (Cooper, 1999). Because the personal, practical knowledge of teachers is so closely tied to them as individuals, research on this type of knowledge has not added up to a codified body of teaching (Carter, 1990). Major teaching and learning perspectives include the following: Developmental Behavioral Cognitive Active learning

The research done by Harvey Daniels and Marilyn Bizar beginning in 1989 and supported by a branch of the National-Louis University, the Center for City Schools, the Joyce Foundation in Chicago, and the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), as well as a great deal of the effective schools research of Goodlad and Sizer, clearly shows that successful schools have certain characteristics. These characteristics afford the teacher the opportunity to focus on student learning. The characteristics of effective schools are as follows: Positive climate Clear goals Instructional focus Student progress monitored Concern about effectiveness Effective leadership Involved parents and community Student responsibilities and participation Rewards and incentives Order and discipline Schools and classrooms throughout the country are diverse in their nature and needs. The teacher must be mindful of the population and climate being served. Although schools in some communities are more homogenous than others, all schools evidence diversity which might be seen in ethnic backgrounds, the geography and climate, handicapping conditions, socioeconomic factors, and other issues. Schools and teachers play a vital role in helping to build and establish tolerance and respect for these issues of diversity. Goals 2000, while reaffirming that the responsibility for the control of education is reserved to the states and local school systems, asks that states and communities create their own high expectations by establishing standards for what ALL children should learn and what they should know how to do. Therefore, teachers must be cognizant of strategies and techniques to help all children achieve high expectations. In instructional roles, teachers have three basic teaching functions: planning, implementation, and evaluation. This is not a linear process but rather a process that thrives on feedback and reflection. The teacher as a decision maker in this process needs to utilize feedback and reflection to adjust the planning, implementation, and/or evaluation process to most effectively meet the students needs.

The process might look something like this:



Feedback and Reflection


Written Assignment 1. How do the contextual aspects (social, emotional, educational, and professional) of schooling affect the reflective teachers decisions. In a 1-3 page paper, demonstrate your understanding of contextual aspects and their connection to the characteristics of reflective teachers and the myriad decisions they must make. Your introduction should clearly articulate the topic of this response, and subsequent paragraphs should illustrate the contextual aspects, drawing from both the readings and your own experiences to support your ideas. 2. After reviewing the various learning theories or perspectives (developmental, behavioral, and cognitive), you may realize that the model you utilize for instruction reflects an eclectic approach. In a 1-2 page paper, explain how these theories or perspectives influence the various components of your instructional plan. Be explicit in defining the various theories, and incorporate a balance of text and your experiences to support statements. 3. Diversity is a complex term that includes race, ethnicity, and disabilities. As a teacher, you are faced with meeting the needs of the entire population of your class. Although this is an overwhelming challenge, teachers do make a difference because they can affect change on a personal level. In a 1-2 page paper, discuss key instructional practices that would ensure instructional equity for all. Insights from your own experiences may be included!


The authors of Pathways to Understanding suggest a metaphor of teacher as weaver. Use another metaphor or analogy relating the teacher to another job or role to demonstrate the interrelationship of the eight patterns described. Create and link your metaphor to teaching and learning in a 1-2 page paper. Relate the attributes of the new job or role with the attributes of learning. Be sure to focus on each of the eight learning patterns.


Instructional strategies are tools that must be utilized appropriately to be effective. Understanding research helps educators better understand the potential of various instructional techniques. After reading Chapter 1 in the text Classroom Instruction that Works, explain the importance of meta-analysis and effect size for studies. If you were reading about Strategy X and it had an effect size of .88, what would that mean with regard to the potential achievement impact of the strategy? (The Conversion Table on page 160 will be helpful.) Why do you suppose identifying similarities and differences has the potential to increase student achievement? In a 1-2 page paper, demonstrate your understanding of effect size and its potential for increasing student achievement. Specifically reference the potential for demonstrating increased student achievement by using identifying similarities and differences as an instructional technique.

Unit 1 Rating Scale Question 1 - Articulates contextual aspects with references to text and personal experiences - Articulates reflective teaching characteristics with references to text and personal experiences - Demonstrates the relationship between the two Total Question 2 - Identifies theories and uses them accurately - Articulates use of theories in own practice Total 4 points 16 points 20 points

5 points

5 points 10 points 20 points

Question 3 - Includes key instructional practices using text and references to personal experiences - Demonstrates relationship between key practices and equity Total Question 4 - Selects a metaphor that has sufficient attributes to utilize - Relates the metaphor to the eight attributes of learning Total Question 5 - Demonstrates an understanding of effect size - Applies the knowledge to Strategy X - Synthesizes the information regarding effect size Total Total Points for Unit 5 points 5 points 10 points 20 points 100 points 4 points 16 points 20 points 4 points 16 points 20 points