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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 9, SEPTEMBER 2013

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Comparison and Analysis of Energy-Efficient
Geographical and Power Based Clustering
Algorithm for Heterogeneous WSNs
Mohd. S. Jahan, A. Sali, W. Usaha, Nurul Azman A. Kadir, Mohd. Fadlee A. Rasid, and
Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali
AbstractIn wireless Sensor Network, efficient usage of energy is very critical because, sensor nodes being battery-operated,
the network operations are often restricted by the energy limitations. In legacy, WSNs nodes were homogeneous and hence
could not take full advantage of the presence of heterogeneity in the network. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a energy
efficient clustering protocol. In this paper we propose and analysis, Geographical and Power based Clustering Algorithm
(GPCA): a heterogeneous aware of clustering protocol, which has significant impact on the entire energy dissipation of WSNs.
In this regard, the concept of virtual cluster header is introduced, where it is the head of a cluster. The virtual cluster header
formation process is simpler distributed technique to reduce the overhead than normal cluster formation process. In GPCA,
energy dissipation of the entire network is reduced because sensor nodes evenly share their lifespan and data transition
distance is shortened. From simulation results, the proposed GPCA scheme shows greater performance than the renowned
energy-efficient scheme LEACH, in terms of stability of network (14% greater), number of transmitted packet, network lifespan
(54% greater) and energy consumption (24 % lesser).
Index Terms WSN, Energy efficiency, Clusters, LEACH, Heterogeneous.



1 INTRODUCTION
IRELESS sensor network (WSN) is generally used
for various applications such as remote environ-
mental monitoring, precision farming, smart spac-
es, medical systems, robotic exploration, disaster predic-
tion, machine failure diagnosis, chemical/biological de-
tection, etc [1], [2], [3]. Duo to small size, low cost, dep-
loyment flexibility and maintenance simplicity Sensor
Node (SN) can be arranged in extremely poor conditions
such as either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
SNs are being deployed over big networks to keep an eye
on physical phenomenon: to gather, evaluate, and react to
time-varying data. In centralized WSNs have some diffi-
culties like performance bottlenecks and single point of
failure. So, to overcome these difficulties have to use dis-
tributed method for analysing and querying sensor data.
As well all the SNs in WSNs divide themselves into small
group (cluster), within a group one of the nodes is elected
as a cluster-head (CH) and this process is called clustering
[4], [5], [6], [7]. The CH plays the role of the central coor-
dinator depending on the task assigned to it. Also moni-
tor the network (like watchdog), identify the misbehaving
nodes, gather data, avoid sensing redundancy and to
reuse the limited resource (i.e. radio frequency, energy).
The current clustering design for WSNs can be catego-
rized in two ways [8], [9], [10]. The first one is called Min-
imum Transmission Energy (MTE) where the nearest
node to the sink acts as a relay; hence it consumes a lot of
energy compared to farthest nodes. From this design, a
well-balanced energy load distribution among nodes
cannot be guaranteed. Another clustering design is called
Direct Transmission (DT) - here the farthest node from
the sink would die first because it directly transmits data
to the sink, without the use of relays as in MTE. From the
two algorithms, we can see that the nearest and farthest
nodes are the first to die.
Derive from the problems, a low -energy adaptive
clustering hierarchy (LEACH) solution was proposed
where clusters are dynamically created and distributed to
improve the energy load using probability [11], [12], [13].
Homogeneous SNs is used in Most of the analyses for
LEACH scheme where all nodes are assumed to have
equal amount of energy. In this paper, heterogeneous
sensor network is considered, where nodes are equipped
with different amount of energy levels [14], [15]. There

- Md. S. Jahan is with the Department of Computer & communication Sys-
tems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
- A. Sali is with the Department of Computer & communication Systems,
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,
Selangor, Malaysia.
- W. Usaha is with the School of Telecommunication Engineering, Institute
of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology,111 University Ave-
nue, Muang District, NakhonRatchasima 30000, Thailand.
- N. A. A. Kadir is with the Wireless and Photonic Research Centre, Faculty
of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selan-
gor, Malaysia.
- M. F. A. Rasid is with the Department of Computer & communication
Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
- Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali is with the Department of Computer & communi-
cation Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400
UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


W
2013 JICT
www.jict.co.uk
2

are many useful applications (e.g. re-energization) of such
heterogeneous sensor networks which may get benefits
from node energy heterogeneity [16], [17], [18], [19]. Here
we are trying to increase the lifespan of the WSNs by
simply distributing extra energy consumption to some
existing nodes without introducing new nodes. Reliable
SNs feedback is very important for many applications.
Hence, it is necessary to increase the stable period of the
whole sensor network. Our proposed Geographical and
Power based Clustering Algorithm (GPCA) is a geo-
graphical and power-based heterogeneous clustering al-
gorithm which prolongs the lifespan by selecting a virtual
cluster header (VCH) based on the highest reschedule
energy level. Through simulation we show that GPCA
has longer stability in heterogeneous networks, which is
more flexible compare than LEACH because it intelligent-
ly consumes the extra energy of advanced (more power-
ful) nodes.
The remainder of this paper is organised as follows. In
Section 2 the proposed clustering algorithms are briefly
reviewed. Overall architecture of the proposed clustering
algorithm is discussed in Section 3. The formal cluster
formation process is described in Section 4. Next in Sec-
tion 5, using simulation, network lifespan, energy effi-
ciency and the performance of the GPCA scheme were
analysed followed by the conclusion in Section 6.
2 RELATED WORKS AND MOTIVATION
The improvement of energy efficiency for clustering me-
chanism has drawn many researchers effort. Some recent
research works have contributed to enhance the energy
efficiency, as described subsequently.
There have been some application-specific protocols
developed for WSNs. LEACH algorithm is proposed for
homogeneous SNs which is self-organized and distri-
buted in [20]. LEACH is considered only the spatial den-
sity of the WSN, not heterogeneity of SNs. This is the rea-
son of consuming lots of resource (i.e. energy). Lindsey
[21] proposed an optimal chain-based protocol (PEGA-
SIS). It reduces energy consumption through send data to
close neighbour SN.
In Liu [21] proposed a clustering algorithm for wire-
less mobile sensor networks for hot spots issues which
adopt the CHs counting and reference point setting way.
Li [22] proposed a clustering scheme to select the CH by
local competition which is called EEUC (Energy-Efficient
Unequal Mechanism). On the other hand, SNs send data
to base station with single-hop and multi-hops communi-
cation. Ying Wang [24] introduced a new approach which
is Monte Carlo-based mathematical method to simulate
LEACH in WSNs. An energy adaptive clustering protocol
is proposed for selecting CH in WSNs by Liang Ying [23].
This protocol tries to enhance the network life time and
balance the load of whole network by selecting a CH. Lin
[24] proposed a skew distance based fully centralized
clustering algorithm to uniform clusters in the whole
network. This cannot maintain optimal number of clus-
ters and cluster constriction is not stable. So the nodes
should consume a lot of energy.
Bsoul [25], proposed a threshold-based centralized
clustering protocol called enhanced centralized LEACH
(ELEACH) which selects the CH based on their residual
energy and distance from the base station (BS). In WSN
data sending and receiving consume higher energy than
other process. ELEACH is centralized clustering algo-
rithm where nodes always need to communicate with BS
for sending residual energy and receiving information. So
nodes consume a lot of extra energy for cluster formation
process. In LEACH, CHs is selected with some probabili-
ty and also broadcast their decisions to other SNs in the
network. After received decisions, other SNs join the clus-
ter of the CH that requires minimum communication
energy. Sometimes CHs are elected near each other but
far from cluster members or sink, which is not energy
efficient to transmit the packets. In the previous research,
homogeneous SNs are used in most of the analyses for
LEACH scheme where all nodes are assumed to have the
same amount of energy. Furthermore most of the cluster
protocols are random, adoptive, stochastic homogenous
CH election methods, where SNs act selfishly, to minim-
ize their individual utility. In WSN heterogeneous is con-
sidered where different SNs are consisting of dissimilar
amount of energy levels [26], [27], [28]. Our GPCA algo-
rithm was motivated to achieve the outlined goals by or-
ganizing SNs for controlling the packets to improve ener-
gy efficiency for heterogeneous WSNs. Details of the
GPCA algorithm are described in the following section.
3 GPCA PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE
In this section, a clustering algorithm model which con-
sists of IEEE 802.15.4 low-rate, low-power and low-cost
SNs in heterogeneous Wireless Personal Area Networks
(WPAN) is illustrated. The models are described in terms
of the energy resource, location of nodes and the cluster
mechanism. The SNs density is denoted by which is a
finite number of randomly distributed nodes use in pre-
sented analytical model. Transmitting area is defined
around the node, for a successful transmission follow the
CSMA/CA mechanism.
In wireless sensor networks data transmitting cost is
higher than processing cost. Whole network splits by
cluster into disjoint sets of nodes, which significantly af-
fects the negotiation and collision process. In WSNs huge
numbers of clustering algorithms are proposed for mini-
mizing the routing process. They are not suitable to sup-
port the negotiation process in MAC layer. GPCA would
be a paradigm for efficient MAC protocol design in
WSNs. LEACH protocol is probably known as the best
cluster based protocol. Many clustering algorithms are
based on the LEACHs ideology and architecture. Our
proposed protocol is also compared with the existing re-
nowned LEACH cluster protocol which is defined as low-
energy adaptive clustering hierarchy.
3.1. Nodes Density
We assume that in whole network a two-dimensional
hexagon, the total SNs are N distributed with uniform
distribution. We can express the density (1) of the whole
3

2
0
3 .
R
R N
net
R
N rdr
R

| |
= \ = N
|
\ .
}
network (
N
) where R
net
is radius of the hexagon.

(1)


After dividing the whole network with some small
hexagon, using (2) can calculate the total number of nodes
present in a small hexagon. Where, R is the radius of the
small hexagon and r is the distance between transmitter
and receiver. Thus, nodes present in a small hexagon (N
R
)
is:

(2)



So, one cluster have non-cluster
head nodes.

3.2. Radio Channel
In WSNs sender and receiver distance is a cause of energy
dissipation of radio hardware for free space (fs) and mul-
tipath (mp) channel model [29]. The SNs send data to sink
node by free space (3) or multipath models (4) in the con-
dition of distance is less than a threshold (d
o
). Therefore,
SN is transmitted (tx) a k-bit message with distance (d)
and using the electronic energy (E
elec
) for data sending
and receiving.

(3)


(4)

The equation (5) is for energy dissipation by VH node,
where cluster VH receives (Rx) message from cluster
member nodes.
(5)

We begin to analyze the energy dissipation per VH
node (E
CH
) for packet forwarding to next hope. The
transmission method (fs or mp) is depending on distance,
by the (6):



(6)



The negotiation and collision is the main cause of
energy dissipation in WSNs. However good cluster struc-
ture can lower the dissipation rate. A lot of energy is con-
sumed when two nodes negotiate with each other
through wireless communication. Most of the existing
clustering algorithms [30] are not suitable for reducing
the negotiation of proposed routing process. The distri-
buted clustering algorithms have some desirable proper-
ties. These properties are (a) reduced overhead for easy
cluster construction process (b) scalable to fit any network
size and topology (c) stability in avoidance of frequent
reformation (d) same cluster formation process should be
run only in the nearest nodes (in communication range)
and (e) interactions among the cluster should be dis-
jointed to lower the complexity.
In GPCA, the strength of mutual impacts (e.g. commu-
nication distance d) between two SNs are determines by
Euclidean distance (7). The geographical position is the
easiest way to recognise the identity of a cluster. We as-
sumed that each SN is known its position by means of a
GPS receiver. Network centre position was chosen as the
reference point. In the WSN area, all points are selected
as relative position with the reference point (Fig. 1). The
equation (7) for Euclidean distance between two SNs (xi,
yi) and (xj, yj) is

(7)
4 GPCA CLUSTER FORMATION
The aim of our algorithm is to enhance WSN lifespan. All
SNs can directly communicate with each other in a fully
connected cluster. Therefore the maximum communica-
tion distance is assumed as d and it is the diameter of
cluster circle (Fig. 1). So, all the SNs in a circle can com-
municate directly with each other. If the whole WSNs
area portion with circle (or rectangular), there will be in-
terspaces in between. Hence the circles are approximately
replaced by hexagons with outer diameter of d. And each
hexagon is assigned with a unique two-tuple (xID, yID)
identifier. That is used to determine the hexagon centres
coordinates (x
c
, y
c
). The network area is 60 60 (m
2
), so
the centre of the network space is at (30, 30) which is the
first hexagon centre coordinate. We know the area of the
hexagon expressed as (8)

Hexagon area = (8)

From the assumption above, the hexagon centres
coordinates can be calculated as follows in (9), (10) and
(11)

Fig. 1. Stability of the network.
2
. 1
net
R
R
| |
N
|
\ .
( )
2
,
tx elec fs
E k d k E k E d = +
( ) ,
Rx Rx
E k d k E =
( )
4
,
tx elec mp
E k d k E k E d = +
2
. 1
CH elec
Net
R
E E
R
| |
| |
| = N
|
|
\ .
\ .
( )

n
CH fs or mp
packet size E d +
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
, ,
i i j j i j i j
dist x y x y x x y y = +
2
3
2
d
( )
2
2
3 .
N
net
N
R
=
\
4



(9)

If xID is even

(10)

Else

(11)

Where d'=3d/2 is the inner diameter of the hexagon,
derived using Pythagoras theorem. In Fig. 1, the vertical
neighbours are like clusters (0, 0) and (0, 1) and the skew
neighbours like cluster (0, 0) and (1, 0). Using the equa-
tions (9), (10) and (11) to calculate position of two vertical
neighbour clusters is adjusted by (0, d'), while the posi-
tion of two skew neighbour clusters is adjusted by (3d/4,
d'/2). In GPCA clustering algorithm, the clusters are stable
and not affected by nodes arrival or departure, because
they are disjointed. Moreover, to make simple cluster
formation process, SN can independently select its clus-
ter. Finally, the GPCA algorithm is scalable, where the
number of SNs cannot affect the maximum cluster num-
ber within the WSNs area.
It is clear from geometric law that if SN i belongs to
any cluster (xIDj, yIDj), the distance from SN i to cluster
centre (x
c
, y
c
) must be shortest. The sink node uses Equa-
tion (9, 10 and 11) to calculate the whole network clusters
centre coordinates (x
c
, y
c
), and we assume that all SNs are
aware of all cluster centre coordinates (x
c
, y
c
). So if there
is a SN i with coordinates (xi, yi), it can identify the ID of
the cluster it belongs to by following rules (12), (13), (14)
and (15):
When node coordinate is positive:

(12)


(13)


When node coordinate is negative:

(14)


(15)

SNs maximum distance from cluster centre is d/2;
hence the cluster circle diameter is d. With (12), (13), (14)
and (15) we can easily determine cluster for a SN without
any complex calculation. After selecting the cluster inde-
pendently, SNs are broadcasted their ID and chosen clus-
ter ID with CSMA/CA scheme. And the newly arrival
SNs just send their ID, coordinates and chosen existing
cluster ID to the CH.
The responsibility for controlling the packets and han-
dling the arrivals and departures of SNs is belongs to CH.
In the WSNs cluster member are dynamic, which need a
lot of computation energy. It is not suitable to assign one
specific SN as a permanent CH. In this paper present a
virtual cluster header (VCH) mechanism, where VH is not
a permanent node (CH) but it is a cluster wise unique
packet where reflects the all CHs Jobs. VCH carries to-
ken, where it reflects dynamic changes of Cluster mem-
bers.
The clustering process of the GPCA algorithm (Fig. 2)
is separated into two phase. The first one is inquiry phase,
where all SNs sense the environment information (e. g.

Yes
No
Is total
node>0?
Abort
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Is remaining
energy > other
cluster member?
Elect as a
Cluster
Head
Elect as a
cluster member
Is node remaining
energy > 0?
Discard
Perform Cluster
member jobs
Perform the
CHs Jobs
Is sink and VCH
distance > do?
Send data to
nearest VCH
Directly send
data to Sink
Have
VCH?
Yes
Yes No
Start
Estimate the centre of the
network
Partition whole network
by hexagon
Comparing the distance
between node and
cluster centre
Is distance
exceed d/2?
SNs (existing and new arrived)
are broadcasted their ID and
chosen cluster ID.

Fig. 2. GPCA mechanism flowchart.
3
4
c
x xID d =
c
y yID d = '

2
c
d
y yID d = +
'
'
2
c
d
x x >
2
c
d
y y >
2
c
d
x x s +
2
c
d
y y s +
5

spectrum information, data collection).
Another one is formal phase, selects the VCH based on
its remaining energy. The VCH is passed token packet
among listed SNs. As well as transmitting SNs put their
information into the token packet. Only the nodes listed
in the token conduct the formal phase. For node hetero-
geneity reason, advanced node (having additional power)
will get more possibility to be the CH. Afterwards collu-
sion free data communication begins between VCH and
cluster members with CSMA/CA mechanism. The fur-
thest VCH chooses a close VCH (d
o
=2d, where d
o
is the
VCH transmission range) neighbour by receiving signal
strength or directly delivering data to the sink node.
While the close VCH accepts transferred data, it will for-
ward it to the sink node directly (Fig. 3). In each round
the transferred data can be forward only once by the
VCH.
5 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS BY SIMULATION
The following simulation is done to validate the efficiency
of the GPCA algorithm. In the network overall 50 normal
and advance SNs are distributed uniformly. The network
bounding area is 60 by 60 meter. And the sink is at the
centre of network area (30, 30). As in Fig. 4 all SNs in the
network, cluster centre, CH, sink node position in the
network and whether SNs are alive or dead are shown.
All the normal nodes have same initial energy level and
advance node have E
o (1+a) initial energy level. We can
see the simulation parameters values in Table 1 [24].
In WSNs, the processing aptitude (like sensing, data
aggregation, control and data packets process) and stored
energy of a SN is very limited. Network Lifespan is af-
fected by these limited attributes. This is the reason of
evaluating the algorithm efficiency with the network
energy consumption. Some more performance parame-
ters has been used to evaluate the performance of the
LEACH clustering and GPCA protocol. Lifespan can be
measured in three ways: - FND (First Node Dies), HND
(Half of the Node Dies), and LND (Last Node Dies), sta-
bility of network- the first node dead round, Number of
transmitted packets and Energy consumption is the key
metric of evaluation.
In order to evaluate the performance metrics, the pack-
et size and transmission rate on every transmission is
same. In GPCA, SN cannot regulate transmission rate and
packet size. also assumed that GPCA and LEACH have
same node position, number of nodes, round number,
existence of heterogeneity, fraction of advance (m)=0.1
and fraction of energy (a) =1. Here performance of GPCA
and LEACH under different nodes has been compared.
The results are shown in below figures.
Fig. 5 shows the Number of simulation rounds and
SNs until first node dies (stable region). GPCA algorithm
performance is longer (around 14%) when nodes density
is high, even though the gain is not very large. The GPCA
algorithm extends the stability of the whole network by
selecting the VCH nodes with more energy (heterogenei-
ty). This way all SNs maintain equally their lifetime.

Fig. 3. Data transmitting process in VH.
TABLE 1
SIMULATION PARAMETERS


Fig. 4. WSN when some nodes are dead.

Fig. 5. Stability of the network.
VCH
CM
Distance
>
do
Distance
<
do
VCH
Sink
6

Fig. 6 shows that number of data packets sends to BS
during the lifetime of the network. It shows that the
number packets generated by GPCA algorithm is higher
compared to that of LEACH. GPCA takes full advantage
of heterogeneity the number of transmitted packet is
increased drastically. The reason is, in GPCA process the
advance SNs is elected as a VCH more than normal SNs.
Furthermore the SNs are in communication range; as a
result SNs waste least amount of energy to transmit data.
So, in this way GPCA can generate more packets than
LEACH.
In Fig. 7 it is shown that the GPCA is more stable than
LEACH algorithm when existence of heterogeneity, frac-
tion of advance m=0.1, fraction of energy- a=1. The stable
region (1 to 115 rounds) of LEACH is shorter than GPCA
(1 to 148 rounds). Besides the unstable region of GPCA is
less than LEACH. Our GPCA is more stable because
within a cluster SNs select as a CH depending on the re-
maining energy of SNs. All cluster head jobs are per-
formed by advance SN. Less energy SNs stay as a cluster
member. So, in this way WSNs become more stable.
As in Fig. 8 shows the lifespan of GPCA clustering pro-
tocol is higher due to the efficient utilization of energy by
the VH mechanism. With sharing lifespan equivalently in
GPCA, the WSN lifespan reaches more that 54% even
with maximum node. Moreover, GPCA is more stable
because within a cluster SNs select as a CH depending on
the remaining energy of SNs. All cluster head jobs are
performed by advance SN. Less energy SNs stay as a clus-
ter member. So, in this way WSNs become more stable.
In this study the energy consumption was established
as a performance index in order to estimate energy effi-
ciency when using the GPCA and LEACH and algorithm.
The energy consumption is calculated as the energy con-
sumed by each SN in the WSN with a unique event num-
ber received by the sink. Hence, as this number becomes
smaller, an event can be sent to the sink with less energy.
Cluster head switching protocol as implemented in
GPCA consumes relatively less energy than random clus-
ter selection protocol. This is because a message used for
exchanging the protocol with the GPCA algorithm is in
half of communication distance, which is very small. But
in LEACH unstable cluster and far distance communica-
tion message exchange process leads to the energy con-
sumption of the network goes up. Due to above reasons
we can see some fluctuation for LEACH in Fig. 9 and also
the energy consumption after the completion of the simu-
lation that is the smallest with the GPCA algorithm.
Hence, it was verified that energy consumption was low-
er (24%) when using the GPCA algorithm rather than
using LEACH. So, WSNs energy consumption is more
balanced and lifetime is prolonged with efficient energy
organization.
6 CONCLUSION
In order to increase the existence of WSNs, clustering al-
gorithm can be an energy saving solution by reducing the

Fig. 8. Lifespan of the network.

Fig. 6. Number of packet transmitted by nodes.

Fig. 9. Energy consumption for per round by SNs.
Fig. 7. Number of alive nodes in per rounds.
7

energy dissipation of the SNs under congestion condition.
In this paper energy dissipation is minimized by selecting
a proper CH with the proposed GPCA algorithm for low
power heterogeneity SNs in WSNs. It introduced a distri-
buted clustering method that can simply form a cluster in
heterogeneous WSN and also elect a virtual CH based on
its remaining energy compared to other SNs. Moreover
in the CH election process does not required any global
knowledge of the network and number of long hop com-
munication is limited. Also it can be easily employed in
large WSNs (e.g. environmental monitoring, precision
farming). Performance evaluation results show that the
GPCA algorithm can achieve higher efficiency and im-
provement in network stability (14% greater), number of
transmitted packet, network lifespan (54% greater) and
energy consumption (24 % lesser) compared to LEACH.
Further work will be on diffent WSNs scenario into the
implemented cluster with diffent heterogeneity.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research is supported by TWAS-COMSTECH fund
Radio Resource Management for Mobile Sensor Networks
(Project code: 09-101 RG/ITC/AS_C).
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Mohd. S. Jahan received his B.Sc.Engg. in Computer Science and
Engineering from University of Asia pacific, Bangladesh in 2005, and
his M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from Universiti Putra Malay-
sia in 2009. He is a Ph.D. candidate in Computer and communica-
tion Systems Engineering in the field of wireless sensor networks
communication and MAC protocols in Universiti Putra Malaysia. His
research interests include Game theory, Wireless sensor networks,
MAC protocols, and Resource management.

A. Sali is currently a Lecturer at Department of Computer and Com-
munication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malay-
sia (UPM) since July 2003. She obtained her PhD in Mobile Satellite
Communications form University of Surrey, UK, in July 2009, her
MSc in Communications and Network Engineering from UPM in April
2002 and her BEng in Electrical Electronics Engineering (Communi-
cations) from University of Edinburgh in 1999. She worked as an
Assistant Manager with Telekom Malaysia Bhd from 1999 until 2000.
She involved with EU-IST Satellite Network of Excellence (SatNEx) I
& II from 2004 until 2009. She is the principle investigator for projects
under the funding bodies Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology
and Innovation (MOSTI), Research University Grant Scheme
(RUGS) UPM and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing
World (TWAS-COMSTECH) Joint Grants. Her research interests are
radio resource management, MAC layer protocols, satellite commu-
nications, wireless sensor networks, disaster management applica-
tions and 3D video transmissions.

W. Usaha received a B.Eng. (Hons) degree from Sirindhorn Interna-
tional Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Thailand, and
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, all
from Imperial College London, University of London, UK, in 1996,
1998, and 2004, respectively. She is currently with the School of
Telecommunication Engineering, Suranaree University of Technolo-
gy, Thailand. She has received His Majesty King Bhumibol Scholar-
ship in 1996 awarded for the best graduate (in Electrical Engineer-
ing) in Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat
University. Her research interests include resource allocation in
communication networks and reinforcement learning, Adhoc net-
works, Wireless sensor networks & applications, Game theory.

Nurul Azman A. Kadir received his B.Sc. in Electrical and Electronic
Engineering from Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2005. He is currently a
Research Officer at Wireless and Photonic Network Research Cen-
ter, UPM and pursuing his study on M.Sc. degree in Communication
and Network Engineering in UPM. His research interests include
Zigbee, IEEE 802.15.4MAC protocols, and Wireless Sensor Net-
works.

Mohd. Fadlee A. Rasid is the deputy director for National Centre of
Excellence on Sensor Technology (NEST) at Universiti Putra Malay-
sia. He received a B.Sc. in electrical engineering from Purdue Uni-
versity, USA and a Ph.D. in electronic and electrical engineering
(mobile communications) from Loughborough University, UK. He
directs research activities within the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
group and his work on wireless medical sensors is gaining impor-
tance in health care applications involving mobile telemedicine and
has had worldwide publicity, including BBC news. He involves with
UK Education and Research Initiative under the British Council on
wireless medical sensors project that will allow a more patient-driven
health service in improving the efficiency of health care delivery. He
is also part of the European Union (EU) STIC Asia Project on ICT-
ADI: Toward a human-friendly assistive environment for Aging, Disa-
bility and Independence. He currently leads a few research projects
on WSN, particularly for medical and agriculture applications. He
was nominated for IEE J A Lodge Award for Outstanding Work in
Field of Medical Engineering, London, 2005 and was the proud reci-
pient of State of Selangor Young Scientist Award in 2006.

Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali obtained his B.Sc. (Hons) Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from Loughborough University in 1979;
M.Sc. and Ph.D. from University of Wales, UK, in 1981 and 1985,
respectively. He became a lecturer at the Faculty of Engineering
UPM in 1985, made a Professor in 2002, and Director of Institute of
Multimedia and Software, 2001-2006. In 1997 he co founded the
national networking testbed project code named Teman, and be-
came Chairman of the MYREN Research Community in 2002, the
successor to Teman. His research interest is in Wireless Communi-
cations and Networks where he publishes over 80 journal and 200
conference papers. He is a Senior Member of IEEE and a member
of IET and a Chartered Engineer, and the present ComSoc Chapter
Chair. He was in Mimos as a Principal Researcher, heading the
Wireless Networks and Protocol Research Lab.