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CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION

Steel Authority of India Limited

Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets. SAIL is also among the five Maharatnas of the country's Central Public Sector Enterprises

SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanised sheets, electrical sheets, structurals, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sources of raw materials, including the Company's iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the distinction of being Indias second largest producer of iron ore and of having the countrys second largest mines network. This gives SAIL a competitive edge in terms of captive availability of iron ore, limestone, and dolomite which are inputs for steel making.

SAIL's wide range of long and flat steel products are much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL's own Central Marketing Organisation (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. CMOs domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its ever widening network of rural dealers who meet the demands of the smallest customers in the remotest corners of the country. With the total number of dealers over 2000 , SAIL's wide marketing spread ensures availability of quality steel in virtually all the districts of the country. SAIL's International Trade Division ( ITD), in New Delhi- an ISO 9001:2000 accredited unit of CMO, undertakes exports of Mild Steel products and Pig Iron from SAILs five integrated steel plants. With technical and managerial expertise and know-how in steel making gained over four decades, SAIL's Consultancy Division (SAILCON) at New Delhi offers services and consultancy to clients world-wide. SAIL has a well equipped Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and develop new technologies for the steel industry. Besides, SAIL has its own in-house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training Institute (MTI) and Safety Organization at Ranchi. Our captive mines are under the control of the Raw Materials Division in Kolkata

1.1. Major Units


Integrated Steel Plants

Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal

Special Steel Plants


Alloy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka

Ferro Alloy Plant

Chandrapur Ferro Alloy Plant

Joint Ventures

NTPC SAIL Power Company Pvt. Limited (NSPCL): A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC Ltd); manages SAILs captive power plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai with a combined capacity of 814 megawatts (MW).

Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt. Limited (BPSCL): This 50:50

joint venture between SAIL and the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is managing the 302-MW power generating station and 660 tonnes per hour steam generation facilities at Bokaro Steel Plant.

Mjunction Services Limited: A 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and Tata Steel; promotes e-commerce activities in steel and related areas. Its newly added services include e-assets sales, events & conferences, coal sales & logistics, publications, etc.

SAIL-Bansal Service Centre Limited: A joint venture with BMW Industries Ltd. on 40:60 basis for a service centre at Bokaro with the objective of adding value to steel.

Bhilai JP Cement Limited: A joint venture company with Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on 26:74 basis to set up a 2.2 million tonne (MT) slagbased cement plant at Bhilai.

Bokaro JP Cement Limited: Another joint venture company with Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on 26:74 basis to set up a 2.1 MT slag-based cement plant at Bokaro.

SAIL & MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt.) Limited : A joint venture company with Manganese Ore (India) Ltd on 50:50 basis to produce ferromanganese and silico-manganese required in production of steel.

S & T Mining Company Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture company with Tata Steel for joint acquisition & development of mineral deposits; carrying out mining of minerals including exploration, development, mining and beneficiation of identified coking coal
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blocks.

International Coal Ventures Private Limited: A joint venture company/SPV promoted by five central PSUs, viz. SAIL, CIL, RINL, NMDC and NTPC (with respectively 28.7%, 28.7%, 14.3%, 14.3% and 14.3% shareholding) aiming to acquire stake in coal

mines/blocks/companies overseas for securing coking and thermal coal supplies.

SAIL SCI Shipping Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture with Shipping Corporation of India for provision of various shipping and related services to SAIL for importing of coking coal and other bulk materials and other shipping-related business.

SAIL RITES Bengal Wagon Industry Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture with RITES to manufacture, sell, market, distribute and export railway wagons, including high-end specialised wagons, wagon prototypes, fabricated components/parts of railway vehicles,

rehabilitation of industrial locomotives, etc., for the domestic market.

SAIL SCL Limited: A 50:50 JV with Government of Kerala where SAIL has management control to revive the existing facilities at Steel Complex Ltd, Calicut and also to set up, develop and manage a TMT rolling mill of 65,000 MT capacity along with balancing facilities and auxiliaries.

1.2. Salem Steel Plant


Introduction
Salem Steel Plant, a special steels unit of Steel Authority of India Ltd., pioneered the supply of wider width stainless steel sheets / coils in India. The plant can produce austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and low-nickel stainless steel in the form of coils and sheets with an installed capacity of 70,000 tonnes / year in Cold Rolling Mill and 1,86,000 tonnes / year in Hot Rolling Mill. In addition, the plant has country's first top-of-the-line stainless steel blanking facility with a capacity of 3,600 tonnes / year of coin blanks and utility blanks / circles.

Product Mix
PRODUCT-MIX items Cold rolled stainless steel flat product (Coils/Sheets/Blanks) Hot rolled stainless steel/carbon steel flat product (Coils/Sheets) Total Saleable Steel TONNES/ANNUM 65000

110000 175000

Table 1.1 Facilities & Capacity


Area Major Facilities Products Capacity/Annum (in Tonnes) Hot Rolling Mill

Walking Re-heating Furance

Beam Hot

rolled

186000

Stainless Steel/ Carbon Steel Coils

Roughing Mill Steckel Mill Down Coiler Roll Shop

Cold Rolling Mill

Coil Build up Cold Rolled Line Stainless Annealing Steel Coils / 3 Sheets 8 Hot Rolled

65000

Bell

Furnaces no.(with bases)

Annealing

& Annealed

Pickling Lines and Pickled 2 no.

Stainless Steel Coils /

20-High Rolling Mills 2 no.

Sendzimir Cold Sheets

Roll Shop Strip Grinding Line

Skin Pass Mill Shearing Line Slitting Line Blanking Press Rimming Machine Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Blanks /Utility and blanks Coin 3600

Blanking Line

Annealing Furnace

Pickling Polishing Machines

Counting Machines

1.3. Hot Rolling Mill


The plant is facilitated with Hot Rolling Mill which can roll both stainless and carbon steels and the mill caters mainly to the input needs of stainless steel coils for the cold rolling mills. Special grades of carbon steels other than structural steels are also rolled from the facility includes weathering steels, high strength low alloy steels, etc., which are extensively used in industrial sectors.

Hot Rolling Mill complex is equipped with walking beam reheating furnace, primary descaler, 4-hi reversing roughing mill, 4-high reversing Steckel Mill, down coiler, laminar cooling and roll grinding machines, procured from world renowned suppliers. The Steckel Mill, the mother unit of hot rolling with level-2 automation is provided with hydraulic gauge setting and automatic gauge control. The continuously variable crown (CVC) controls the profile and flatness by roll shifting and work roll bending system provide additional fine control of flatness of the strip.

1.4. Cold Rolling Mill


Cold Rolling Mill complex is equipped with the most modern stainless steel production lines, sourced from leading manufacturers of the world. Coil build up line, bell anneal furnaces continuous annealing and pickling lines, Sendzimer mills, skinpass mill, strip grinding line, slitting and shearing lines to produce coils /sheets with precise dimensional tolerance and flatness with superior metallurgical characteristics. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steel are annealed/softened at bell annealing furnaces and austenitic stainless steel is annealed/softened and descaled in continuous annealing and pickling lines using Ruthner neutral electrolytic pickling process and mixed acid pickling for superior surface finish.

The coils are rolled in 20-high computerized Sendzimer mills to required dimensional tolerances. A 2-high skin pass mill with elongation control and constant hydraulic roll force system ensures a product of bright finish and
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high flatness.

1.5. Shearing and Slitting Line


A shearing line with precision roller levelers, electronic flying shear and vacuum piler facilitates defect-free piling of the leveled cut sheets. Coils of narrow width and smaller weight are produced by a precision slitting line equipped with latest features like in feed car, grip feed device, tension pad and interchangeable slitters. The shearing and slitting lines have online continuous marking system to make the products customer-friendly. Salem Steel Plant's cold rolling mill complex also includes a resquaring shear, a recoiling line, a packing line for slit products and wider coils. In addition to the common No1, 2D and 2B finishes, a wide range of finishes including No.3, No.4, No.8 (mirror) and special finishes like Moon Rock, Chequered, Honeykom, Macromatt, Aqualine, Frondz, Mystique, Linen, Fabrique finishes are also produced as per requirement.

Expansion Plan
Expansion and modernization of Salem Steel Plant is presently on. The plan envisages installation of Steel Melting and Continuous Casting facilities to produce 1,80,000 tones of slabs along with, expansion of Cold Rolling Mill complex, enhancing the capacity of Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Products from 65,000 TPA to 1,46,000 TPA and an additional Roll Grinding Machine for Hot Rolling Mill for increasing production to3,64,000 TPA.

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CHAPTER 2 SHEARING LINE

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Shearing Line

The Cutting line or shearing line is meant for doing, straightening, uncoiling, cross cutting to length and stacking. The sheets after hot rolling are brought to this line. Then according to customers requirement, the sheets are cut to varying length. The machine consists of an vacuum clamp arrangement to collect the sheets after cut and they are stacked. They are stacked into three different sections based on quality of sheet. The defects in the sheet are also identified before cut and they are collected after cut below the shearing line. The cut to length is controlled by PLC system.

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2.1. Work Flow


The Work flow in the shearing line is as follows Coil Loading --Recoiling --- Pre Straightening --- Buffering --- Fine

Straightening --- Feeding --- Transverse Cutting --- Stacking --- Cut Sheets out

FIG 2.1 WORKFLOW IN SHEARING LINE

2.2. Technical Parameters


Specification of the Sheet cut Thickness of the sheet Accuracy Line Speed 1250mm (W) * 4000mm(L) 0.3mm - 4mm < 1.5mm 0 -40 m/min

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2.3. Description about Shearing line


The shearing Line is an arrangement which consists mechanisms engaged. They and their functions are explained further. of several

2.4. Mechanisms
Straightening Rollers Flying Shear Machine Conveyors Vacuum Clamp ( Rolling Sheet) Stack Storage

Straightening Rollers
After the coil is engaged in decoiler, it is fed through the shearing line. The initial process starts with the straightening of sheets. Since some amount of deformation or irregularity may be seen in the sheets after rolling. So in order to eliminate it is fed between this straightening rollers. The

arrangement consists of two rollers. Gap adjustment can be varied for sheets of varying dimension.

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2.5. Flying Shear Machine


The operation of the shear machine is similar to that of the action of an power process. It cuts the sheets in a given interval of time. The power delivered to the cutting line is through the action of crank shaft. The cutting Blade is of stainless steel metal. It is hardened well so as to obtain good strength and ductility.

2.6. Conveyors
The conveyors are used to transmit the sheet from the initial to end of the line up to vacuum clamp. The belt arrangement is made in between more than two pulleys with high tension. So that accurate positioning of sheet is done. The conveyors are controlled by the action of PLC.

2.6. Vacuum Clamp


The vacuum clamp is next to that of the belt conveyor. The sheets coming after cut from the conveyor are clamped and collected in the respective stack is done by this vacuum clamp. The operation of the clamp is controlled by the PLC systems. There is separate line for the supply of vacuum to the cup in the sheet. The sheet consists of a no of vacuum cups on

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its surface. It is made to rotate continuously like an belt by action of an motor. So that collecting of the sheets is done continuously.

2.7. Stack Storage


The Stack is below the vacuum arrangement. The stack consists of three sections namely (i) Prime Quality.

(ii) Second Quality (iii) Commercial Quality The vacuum cups are operated in a manner that the sheets are collected at their respective storage. It is done by releasing the negative pressure at the place where it has be dropped. In this area the PLC are carried accurately otherwise it will cause problems such as collection of sheet at wrong stack. At last the sheets are collected from stack and ported to the inventory bay.

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CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

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Hydraulic System
A hydraulic system is an arrangement in which a operation is done by the aid of pressurized hydraulic liquid as the fluid medium.

FIG 3.1 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

1 Pump 2 Oil tank 3 Flow control valve 4 Pressure relief valve 5 Hydraulic cylinder 6 Directional control valve 7 Throttle valve

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3.1. Components of Hydraulic System


Reservoir ( or Tank)
A reservoir is an oil supply tank. It is hold the hydraulic liquid.

Pump
A Pump is used to force the liquid into the system

Prime mover
A prime mover, usually an electric motor, is used to drive the pump.

Valves
Valves are fitted in the system to control liquid direction, pressure, and flow rate.

Actuator
An actuator is provided to convert the liquid energy into mechanical force or torque to do useful work. The actuator is the actual working element of the system. The actuator can be either cylinders or hydro motors

Fluid - transfer piping


The hydraulic piping is provided to carry the liquid from one place to another.

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3.2. Advantages
The advantages of hydraulic systems over other methods of power transmission are Simpler design.

Flexibility. Hydraulic components can be located with considerable flexibility. Pipes and hoses instead of mechanical elements virtually eliminate location problems. Smoothness. Hydraulic systems are smooth and quiet in operation. Vibration is kept to a minimum. Control. Control of a wide range of speed and forces is easily possible. Cost. High efficiency with minimum friction loss keeps the cost of a power transmission at a minimum. Overload protection. Automatic valves guard the system against a breakdown from overloading. The main disadvantage of a hydraulic system is maintaining the precision parts when they are exposed to bad climates and dirty atmospheres. [Protection against rust, corrosion, dirt, oil deterioration, and other adverse environmental conditions is very important.

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3.3. Reservoirs
A reservoir stores a liquid that is not being used in a hydraulic system. It also allows gases to expel and foreign matter to settle out from a liquid. A properly constructed reservoir should be able to dissipate heat from the oil, separate air from the oil, and settle out contaminates that are in it. Reservoirs range in construction from small steel stampings to large cast or fabricated units. The large tanks should be sandblasted after all the welding is completed and then flushed and steam cleaned. Doing so removes welding scale and scale left from hot-rolling the steel The inner surface then should be sealed with a paint compatible with the hydraulic fluid. Non bleeding red engine enamel is suitable for petroleum oil and seals in any residual dirt not removed by flushing and steam cleaning.

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FIG 3.2 RESERVOIR

3.4. Strainers & filters


To keep hydraulic components performing correctly, the hydraulic liquid must be kept as clean as possible. (Foreign matter and tiny metal particles). Strainers, filters, and magnetic plugs are used to remove foreign particles from a hydraulic liquid and are effective as safeguards against contamination.

Strainers
A strainer is the primary filtering system that removes large particles of foreign matter from a hydraulic liquid. (Screening action). A strainer usually consists of a metal frame wrapped with a fine-mesh wire screen or a screening element made up of varying thicknesses of specially processed wire. The figure shows a strainer in three possible arrangements for use in a pump inlet line. If one strainer causes excessive flow friction to a pump, two or more can be used in parallel. Strainers and pipe fittings must always be below the liquid level in the tank.

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FIG 3.3 STRAINERS

Filters
A filter removes small foreign particles from a hydraulic fluid and is most effective as a safeguard against contaminants. Filters are located in a reservoir, a pressure line, a return line, or in any other location where necessary. They are classified as full flow or proportional flow.

FIG 3.4 FILTER

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The general classes of filter materials are mechanical, absorbent inactive, and absorbent active. Mechanical filters, contain closely woven metal screens or discs. They generally remove only fairly coarse particles. Absorbent inactive filters, such as cotton, wood pulp, yarn, cloth, or resin, remove much smaller particles; some remove water and watersoluble contaminants. The elements often are treated to make them sticky to attract the contaminants found in hydraulic oil. Absorbent active materials, such as charcoal and fuller's earth (a claylike material of very fine particles used in the purification of mineral or vegetable-base oils), are not recommended for hydraulic systems.

3.5. Accumulators
Like an electrical storage battery, a hydraulic accumulator stores potential power, in this case liquid under pressure, for future conversion into useful work. This work can include operating cylinders and fluid motors, maintaining the required system pressure in case of pump or power failure, and compensating for pressure loss due to leakage. Accumulators can be employed as fluid dispensers and fluid barriers and can provide a shock-absorbing (cushioning) action.

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Example:Accumulators are used mainly on the lift equipment to provide positive clamping action on the heavy loads when a pump's flow is diverted to lifting or other operations.

FIG 3.5 ACCUMULATOR

3.6. Pumps
Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric motor) into hydraulic (pressure) energy. The pressure energy is used then to operate an actuator. Pumps push on a hydraulic fluid and create flow. Pump Classifications: All pumps create flow. They operate on the displacement principle. Pumps that discharge liquid in a continuous flow are nonpositivedisplacement type. Pumps that discharge volumes of liquid separated by periods of no discharge are positive-displacement type

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3.7. Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps


With this pump, the volume of liquid delivered for each cycle depends on the resistance offered to flow. A pump produces a force on the liquid that is constant for each particular speed of the pump. Resistance in a discharge line produces a force in the opposite direction. When these forces are equal, a liquid is in a state of equilibrium and does not flow. If the outlet of a nonpositive-displacement pump is completely closed, the discharge pressure will rise to the maximum for a pump operating at a maximum speed. A pump will churn a liquid and produce heat. Figure 3-1 shows a nonpositive-displacement pump. A water wheel picks up the fluid and moves it.

FIG 3.6 NON DISPLACEMENT PUMP

3.8. Positive-Displacement Pumps


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With this pump, a definite volume of liquid is delivered for each cycle of pump operation, regardless of resistance, as long as the capacity of the power unit driving a pump is not exceeded. If an outlet is completely closed, either the unit driving a pump will stall or something will break. Therefore, a positive-displacement-type pump requires a pressure regulator or pressure-relief valve in the system. The figure given below shows a reciprocating-type, positive-

displacement pump.

FIG 3.7 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

This pump not only creates flow, but it also backs it up. A sealed case around the gear traps the fluid and holds it while it moves. As the fluid flows out of the other side, it is sealed against backup. This sealing is the positive part of displacement. Without it, the fluid could never overcome the resistance of the other parts in a system.
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3.9.

Hydraulic actuators
A hydraulic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to

mechanical force and motion. An actuator can be linear or rotary. A linear actuator gives force and motion outputs in a straight line. It is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram, reciprocating motor, or linear motor. A rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion. It is more commonly called a hydraulic motor or motor.

3.10.

Cylinders
A cylinder is a hydraulic actuator that is constructed of a piston

or plunger that operates in a cylindrical housing by the action of liquid under pressure. The given figure shows the basic parts of a cylinder. A cylinder housing is a tube in which a plunger (piston) operates.
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In a ram-type cylinder, a ram actuates a load directly. In a piston cylinder, a piston rod is connected to a piston to actuate a load. An end of a cylinder from which a rod or plunger protrudes is a rod end. The opposite end is a head end. The hydraulic connections are a head-end port and a rod-end port (fluid supply).

3.11.

Single-Acting Cylinder

This cylinder only has a head-end port and is operated hydraulically in one direction. When oil is pumped into a port, it pushes on a plunger, thus extending it. To return or retract a cylinder, oil must be released to a reservoir. A plunger returns either because of the weight of a load or from some mechanical force such as a spring. In mobile equipment, flow to and from a single-acting cylinder is controlled by a reversing directional valve of a single-acting type

FIG 3.8 SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER

3.12.

Double-Acting Cylinder

This cylinder must have ports at the head and rod ends.

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Pumping oil into the head end moves a piston to extend a rod while any oil in the rod end is pushed out and returned to a reservoir. To retract a rod, flow is reversed. Oil from a pump goes into a rod end, and a head-end port is connected to allow return flow. The flow direction to and from a double-acting cylinder can be controlled by a double-acting directional valve or by actuating a control of a reversible pump.

FIG 3.9 DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER

3.13.

Ram-Type Cylinder

A ram-type cylinder is a cylinder in which a cross-sectional area of a piston rod is more than one-half a cross-sectional area of a piston head. In many cylinders of this type, the rod and piston heads have equal areas.
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A ram-type actuating cylinder is used mainly for push functions rather than pull. The figure given below shows a telescoping, ram-type, actuating cylinder, which can be a single- or double-acting type. In this cylinder, a series of rams are nested in a telescoping assembly. Except for the smallest ram, each ram is hollow and serves as a cylinder housing for the next smaller ram. A ram assembly is contained in a main cylinder housing, which also provides the fluid ports. Although an assembly requires a small space with all of the rams retracted, a telescoping action of an assembly provides a relatively long stroke when the rams are extended.

FIG 3.10 RAM TYPE CYLINDER

3.14.

Cushioned Cylinder

To slow an action and prevent shock at the end of a piston stroke, some actuating cylinders are constructed with a cushioning device at either or both ends of a cylinder. This cushion is usually a metering device built into a cylinder to restrict the flow at an outlet port, thereby slowing down the motion of a piston. The figure below shows a cushioned actuating cylinder.

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FIG 3.11 CUSHION TYPE CYLINDER

3.15.

Valves

Valves are used in hydraulic systems to control the operation of the actuators. Valves regulate pressure by creating special pressure conditions and by controlling how much oil will flow in portions of a circuit and where it will go. The three categories of hydraulic valves are pressure-control, flow(volume-) control, and directional-control. Some valves have multiple functions, placing them into more than one category. Valves are rated by their size, pressure capabilities, and pressure drop/flow.

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FIG 3.12 VALVES

3.16.

Flow-control valves

Flow-control valves are used to control an actuator's speed by metering flow. Metering is measuring or regulating the flow rate to or from an actuator. Some of these valves are gasket-mounted, and some are panel-mounted.

FIG 3.13 FLOW CONTROL VALVES

3.17.

Pressure compensated flow control

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To control the velocity of a hydraulic motor or cylinder one has to control the flow to these components. This can be done with a simple flow control The flow through a flow control is determined by:

a) The area of the flow control: a larger area means a higher amount of flow and b) the pressure drop across the flow control: an increase of the pressure drop means an increase of flow. c) When the pressure drop across the flow control decreases as a result of an increase of the load on the cylinder the flow and velocity of the cylinder will decrease. If the velocity has to remain constant and independent of the load one has to use a pressure compensated flow control

FIG 3.14 PRESSURE COMPENSATED FLOW CONTROL VALVE

3.18.

Directional-control valves

Directional-control valves also control flow direction. However, they vary considerably in physical characteristics and operation. The valves may be a
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Poppet type, in which a piston or ball moves on and off a seat. Rotary-spool type, in which a spool rotates about its axis. Sliding-spool type, in which a spool slides axially in a bore. In this type, a spool is often classified according to the flow conditions created when it is in the normal or neutral position.

FIG 3.15 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

3.19.

Pressure-control valves

A pressure-control valve may limit or regulate pressure, create a particular pressure condition required for control, or cause actuators to operate in a specific order. All pure pressure-control valves operate in a condition approaching hydraulic balance. Usually the balance is very simple: pressure is effective on one side or end of a ball, poppet, or spool and is opposed by a spring. Most pressure-control valves are classified as normally closed.

3.20.

The Pressure Relief valve

The pressure relief valve is mounted at the pressure side of the hydraulic pump.
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It's task is to limit the pressure in the system on an acceptable value. In fact a pressure relief valve has the same construction as a spring operated check valve. When the system gets overloaded the pressure relief valve will open and the pump flow will be leaded directly into the hydraulic reservoir.

FIG 3.16 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

3.21.

Sequence Valves

Sequence valves control the operating sequence between two branches of a circuit. The valves are commonly used to regulate an operating sequence of two separate work cylinders so that one cylinder begins stroking when the other completes stroking. Sequence valves used in this manner ensure that there is minimum pressure equal to its setting on the first cylinder during the subsequent operations at a lower pressure. In the figure , diagram A, shows how to obtain the operation of a sequencing pressure by adjusting a spring's compression

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FIG 3.17 SEQUENCE VALVE

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CHAPTER4 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

Hydraulic Fluids

4.1.

Hydraulic fluids - requirements

Safety
High flash point or in certain cases not inflammable at all Chemically neutral (not aggressive at all against all materials it touches) Low air dissolving capability, not inclined to foam formation Environmental friendliness
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No environmental harm No toxic effect

Hydraulic fluid types


Water (3%) Mineral oils (75%) Not inflammable fluids (9%) Biologically degradable fluids (13%) Electrorheological fluids (in development)

4.2.
1. Water

Hydraulic fluid types

- Clear water - Water with additives Oldest fluid but nowadays there is a renaissance Used where there is an explosion or fire danger or hygienic problem Food and pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, mining

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Advantages
No fire or explosion danger Available everywhere 4 times larger heat conduction coefficient than mineral oils 2 times higher compression module than mineral oils Viscosity does not depend strongly on temperature

Disadvantages
Low viscosity (problem of sealing, but has good sides: low energy losses) Corrosion danger Cavitation danger (relatively high vapour pressure)

2. Mineral oil
Without additives With additives Always mixtures of different oils, often with additives

Additives
decrease corrosion increase life duration improve temperature dependence of viscosity
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improve particle transport

Advantages
Good lubrication High viscosity (good for sealing, bad for losses) Cheap

Disadvantages
Inflammable Environmental pollution

3. Not inflammable fluids


Contains water Does not contain water mines, airplane production, casting, rolling, where there is explosion and fire danger Water-oil emulsions (oil synthetic) or water-free synthetic liquids

4. Biologically degradable fluids


Natural Synthetic
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Environmental protection, water protection Agricultural machines Mobile hydraulics

CHAPTER 5
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HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS

Standard Hydraulic Symbols

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FIG 5.1 HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS

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CHAPTER 6 EVOLUTION

6.1. Problem Definition


Problems with the Current Shear line
The Shear line is one of the best working machine in Sail. But, there exists some problems in the operation of it. The problems exist in the following operation. a) The actuation of slide for scrap collection is done through manual method ( Bolt and nut) arrangement

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b) The gap adjustment for varying thickness of sheets through manual Bolt and Nut arrangement. In the above both criteria's the time for the actuation of slide and adjustment is higher. More manual work is needed. And also due to wear ,some imbalance in positioning may occur which causes problems in

clamping. Bolt and nut have to be changed frequently.

6.2. Possible Solution


The solution for this problem is that it can be substituted with the any one of Fluid power arrangement. In case of pneumatics it cannot be used for high pressure

application. And also in its positioning accuracy is poor. So that it can be substituted with an hydraulic arrangement. Since it can be used for high pressure application and also it has several arrangement over pneumatics. The hydraulic arrangement consists of an hydraulic cylinders, pressure control valves, and an DCV.

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CHAPTER 7 DESIGN AND FORCE ANALYSIS

7.1. Force and Design Analysis


Analysis of design and force calculations are done as follows

7.2. Technical Data


Supply Pressure (P) Length of Stroke (L) Weight of the Slide (M) 90 bar 100mm 700 kg ( approx )

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7.3. Design Calculations


Mass Weight = = = = 700kg Mass * g 700 * 9.81 6867 N ( g = 9.81)

Since the force to be lifted is of 6867 N, the cylinder should be designed to lift this load.

Let us consider the cylinder parameters as follows Bore Diameter Area of cylinder Pressure D ( in mm) A ( mm2) P (in N/mm2)

Force Supplied by each cylinder

= =

P*A P * pi/4 * D2

Since we are using two cylinders Total force obtained F = 2 (P * pi/4 * D2)

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In order to lift slide the force obtained from cylinder must be greater than the weight of slide. F > 6867 2 (P * pi/4 * D2) > 6867 2( P * 3.14/4 * D2) > 6867 P * D2 > 8743.34

By trial and error method we have made the following calculations by taking standard pressure valves

Case 1:

if P = 10 bar ( 1 N/mm2) 1 * D2 > 8743.34 D > 93.5mm

Case 2:

if P = 20 bar (2 N/mm2) 2 * D2> 8743.34 D > 66.11mm

Case 3:

if P = 30 bar ( 3 N/mm2)
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3 * D2 > 8743.34 D > 53.98mm

Case 4 :

if P = 35bar ( 3.5 N/mm2) 3.5 * D2 > 8743.34 D > 49.98mm

From the above analysis it is evident that the case 4 will be more economical when compared to that of the other. Also standard size of 50mm is easily available in cylinders. So we have preferred to use the cylinder of this diameter. The pressure required is 35 bar, since we are using two cylinders, each one requires a pressure of 17.5 bar.

7.4

Specifications of Project Components

Hydraulic Cylinders
We have purchased two hydraulic cylinders of double acting type with the following specifications for our project. Bore Diameter Stroke Length = = 50mm 100mm
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Max Pressure Material

= =

20 bar Aluminum

7.4.1.

Direction Control Valve

The Direction Control Valve has 4 - Ports(A,B,P,T), 3 - Position type( Forward, Ideal, Retract). Since for our operation the two flow operations are possible. So it will be good enough to use 4/3 DCV. And also it is of spring type solenoid controlled DCV. 7.4.2.

Pressure Relief Valve

This valve is meant for reducing or regulating the pressure level of fluid entering into the system. It is of unidirectional. No reverse flow is possible.

7.4.3.

Fluid Pipe Lines

For the transmission of fluid in the respective circuit these pipe lines are used. These are of aluminium material.

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CHAPTER 8 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DESIGN AND MODELING

8.1.

Construction of Circuit
The arrangement consists of two cylinders, pressure relief valves, and an 4/3 DCV, and two pressure line. The input is given from the Line I. The pressure is about 90 bar. The arrangement consists of an FRL unit for filtering, regulating , and lubricating the fluid.

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The DCV used is of 4/3 valve. It of spring type solenoid operated. Their positions are a) Position 1 b) Position 2 c) Position 3 From Port B to A Idle Mode From Port P to T

The pressure relief valve is used to control the amount pressure of fluid entering onto the cylinder. The cylinders used is of double acting type.

8.2.

Hydraulic Circuit

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FIG 8.1 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

Process
Initially the pressure is supplied from pressure Line I Then after the FRL Process it is fed into the DCV. The impurities are cleaned in filter, and regulated amount of pressure is passed to the DCV. Then the fluid passes through the Pressure relief valve. Finally the forward stroke is obtained in both the cylinder thus upward motion. And in the same manner the reverse stroke is obtained.

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8.3.

Model of Shearing Line

Before Modification

FIG 8.2 MODEL OF SHEARING LINE BEFORE MODIFICATION

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After Modification

FIG 8.3 MODEL OF SHEARING LINE AFTER MODIFICATION

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8.4. Advantages
Productivity improvement in shearing line
The production rate was earlier 15 sheets/hour when nut and bolt arrangement was used. And now after the implementation of hydraulic cylinder the production rate has been increased to 45 sheets/hour.

Reduction in setup time


The total time taken for the adjustment of slide has been decreased with ease of hydraulic arrangements

Minimization of loss due to time delay


Earlier due to the time delay of 1 hour, the loss was estimated to be 15000 Rs. So in our project, time delay has been reduced ultimately we have minimized the loss.

Additional benefits of hydraulic system


a) Uniform Force distribution b) Durability of the mechanism is longer c) Easy and accurate positioning of the slide for gap adjustment d) Noise Reduction

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CHAPTER 9 COST ANALYSIS

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Table 9.1 Cost Estimation of the Project Components

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Components Hydraulic Cylinder Double acting 4/3 Directional Control Valve Pressure Relief Valve Pipe Linings

Quantity 2 1 2 N/A 6200 Rs/-

Price 3500 Rs/700 Rs/1200 Rs/800 Rs/-

Total Cost

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CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION

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Conclusion

Thus to summarize the shearing line in the cold rolling mill of SAIL is optimized with the implementation of hydraulic lift arrangement for the gap adjustment and this is more cost efficient to be implemented. The productivity of the line is increased and the manual effort of labour is so decreased that they are satisfied with this design change. Loss due to time delay is greatly reduced.

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CHAPTER 11 REFERENCES

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References

1. www.sail.co.in 2. Herbert E. Merritt Hydraulic control systems 3. Esposito - "Fluid Power with Applications 4. www.wikipedia.org

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Gain

2000-3000 1000-2000 0-1000

Losses Before Modification After Modification

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