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REVIEWER - BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 5 1.

FLAT SLAB INTRODUCTION


Common practice of design and construction is to support the slabs by beams and support the beams by columns. This may be called as BEAMSLAB CONSTRUCTION. The beams reduce the available net clear ceiling height. Hence in warehouses, offices and public halls sometimes beams are avoided and slabs are directly supported by columns. This types of construction is aesthetically appealing also. These slabs which are directly supported by columns are called FLAT SLABS. FLAT SLAB - a reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns without the use of beams. Concrete, reinforcement, and formwork are the three primary expenses in cast-in-place concrete floor construction to consider throughout the design process, but especially during the initial planning stages. Of these three, formwork comprises about 50 to 60 percent of the total cost and has the greatest influence on the overall cost of the floor system. The cost of the concrete, including placing and finishing, typically accounts for about 25 to 30 percent of the overall cost. The reinforcing steel has the lowest influence on overall cost

TYPES OF FLOOR SLAB SUPPORT


o o o o Flat slab Flat slab with drop panels Flat slab with column head Flat slab with drop panel and column head

Drops: is a local thickening of the slab in the region of the columns USES OF DROPS PANELS Increase shear strength of slab increase negative moment capacity of slab stiffen the slab and hence reduce deflection

Column head: is the local enlargement of the column in the junction with the slab USES OF COLUMN HEADS Increase shear strength of slab reduce the moment in the slab by reducing the clear or effective span Flat

BENEFITS: Flexibility in room layout Saving in building height Shorter construction time Ease of installation of M&E services Prefabricated welded mesh Buildable score

FLEXIBILITY IN ROOM LAYOUT Allows Architect to introduce partition walls anywhere required Allows owner to change the size of room layout Allows choice of omitting false ceiling and finish soffit of slab with skim coating

SAVING IN BUILDING HEIGHT Lower storey height will reduce building weight due to lower partitions and cladding to faade Approx. saves 10% in vertical members Reduce foundation load

2, FLAT PLATE FLOOR AND ROOF SLAB SYSTEM


A two-way slab of uniform thickness supported by any combination of columns and walls, with or without edge beams, and without drop panels, column capitals, and brackets. The simplest form of two-way slabsimplest for analysis, design, detailing, bar fabrication and placing, and formwork. A two-way concrete slab supported directly on columns with reinforcement in two orthogonal directions. One of the most common forms of construction of oors in buildings.

USED IN: It is commonly used in multi-story construction such as hotels, hospitals, offices, apartment buildings and roof parking.

COMPARED TO FLAT SLAB: Compared to flat plate system the flat slab system is suitable for higher loads and longer spans. The flat plate is a two-way reinforced concrete framing system utilizing a slab of uniform thickness, the simplest of structural shapes. The flat slab is a two-way reinforced structural system that includes either drop panels or column capitals at columns to resist heavier loads and thus permit longer spans.

ADVANTAGES
Simple formwork and suitable for direct fix or sprayed ceiling. No beams- simplifying under floor services. Minimum structural depth and reduced floor to floor height. Easy to construct.

DISADVANTAGES Medium spans. Limited lateral load capacity as part of a moment frame. May need shear heads or shear reinforcement at the columns or larger columns for shear. Long-term deection may be controlling factor. May not be suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions. May not be suitable for heavy loads.

THICKNESS OF SLAB: Slabs generally


range from 5 to 14 inches in thickness. Spans are up to 35 feet, but may be extended by post - tensioning.

CONNECTION AND DETAILING


STEEL COLUMN Main consideration is to ensure that the base plate for the steel columns is cast into the concrete flat plate. Positioning and alignment of the base plates are of utmost importance.

CONCRETE COLUMN Connection is more simplified without the need for base plate connection. Reinforcement bars should be properly detailed between the columns and slabs.

A BUILDING USING FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION Rigid insulation & ballast Protected roof membrane Elevator equipment Cast-in-place concrete flat plate Ducts & diffusers Suspended acoustical tile ceiling Window assembly Power & communication poles Carpeting Concrete columns Precast concrete spandrel panels Bolt insulation Metal stud & dry wall assembly Slab on grade & concrete pile foundation

Vapor barrier

3. WAFFLE SLAB A WAFFLE SLAB is a two-way concrete slab reinforced by ribs in two directions. In this type of slab intermediate beams are cast on a regular square grid that gives the underside of the floor appearance of waffle, hence it is named as WAFFLE SLAB. WAFFLE SLAB construction is used for ceilings and floor constructions. Dead weight of the slab is reduced as compared to flat slab of similar span, as the intermediate beams of waffle supports the thin slab above it. Able to carry heavier loads and span longer distance than flat slabs as these systems are light in weight. Suitable for spans of 7m 15m; longer spans may be possible with posttensioning. Flexible Relatively light, therefore less foundation costs and longer spans are economic Speed of construction Excellent vibration control The pockets both support the structure and help insulate the floor above by trapping hot air inside the pockets Durable finishes Fire resistance Higher formwork costs than for standard moulds and other slab systems. Slightly deeper members result in greater floor heights. Slow. Difficult to prefabricate reinforcement span.

They are a tasty way to build thin and strong concrete slabs that use a lot less material. They are more expensive to form than conventional flat slabs, but because of their depth, architects can design longer spans. Waffle slabs are assumed to have band beams along all four edges. Width of the band beams is taken as 1000 mm extending 500 mm from the center of the columns on both sides and depth as equal to total thickness of floor. The top of a waffle slab is generally smooth, like a traditional building surface, but the underside has a shape reminiscent of a waffle. Straight lines run the entire width and length of the slab, generally raised several inches from the surface. WAFFLE SLABS have a thin topping slab and narrow ribs spanning in both directions between column heads or band beams. The column heads or band beams are the same depth as the ribs.

The most common material for a waffle slab is concrete. Waffle slabs use less concrete, however if well engineered, they can be stronger than a solid slab.

4. SLIPFORM METHOD
Slipform is a method of continuously pouring concrete into the form or mold or steel shuttering panels that envelop the structure along its designed shape and are then moved upwards continuously, leaving below the structure in its final form with the assistance of hydraulic jacks. And the formwork is raised vertically by hydraulic jacks in a continuous process. It is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. A form of construction that can be used to build concrete, reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete structures. Slip forming is used for tall structures: a. Towers c. Silos e. Dams g. Medium to High-rise Housing b. Chimney d. Bridges f. Oil Tanks h. Hospital and Hotels as well as

horizontal structures, such as ROADWAYS.

SLIPFORM PROCESS
The slipform system is a hydraulically operated formwork system. 3 tonne hydraulic jacks are mounted on strategically located steel yoking frames to lift the formwork as the concrete is poured into the forms. The formwork system uses 1066mm high steel panels held rigidly by a framework built up from steel waler frames, trusses and bracing. The framework provides rigidity to the slipform as well as support for timber decking to form a working platform for placement of concrete, reinforcement steel and blockouts for doors and windows. Concrete is poured into the forms in layers of approximately 200mm. The setting rates of concrete are constantly monitored to ensure that it is matched with the speed at which the forms are raised. The jacks lift the form approximately 25mm per stroke generally producing a slipforming rate of 300mm per hour. Slipforming can be performed on either a continuous basis (i.e. 24 hours per day), or a discontinuous basis (i.e. pouring to a predetermined height usually within one working day). As the formwork is raised, reinforcement is held in the correct position using guides fixed to the top of the yokes. Horizontal reinforcement is threaded under the yokes and tied to the vertical reinforcement. Blockouts for doors and windows can be formed with either timber or steel. These are installed as the slipform proceeds and can be stripped from the trailing decks. Similarly with rebates that are used to provide connections between beams, slabs and the slipform walls. When the formed concrete is exposed from the bottom of the steel form panels it can be sponged or treated if required. Structural Systems experienced engineering and operational personnel ensure the smooth operation of the slipforming process and control of verticality. Structural Systems technical staff is always available to advise on all aspects of slip forming including coordination of various trades to optimize resources.

THE SLIPFORM TYPICALLY COMPRISES THREE LEVELS OF WORKING:


1. UPPER REINFORCEMENT DECK - acts as a storage and distribution area. 2. WORKING DECK - the main working platform is at the top of the poured concrete level. 3. LOWER RUBBING UP DECK - provides access for concrete finishing.

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED FOR SLIPFORM WORK:


1. CENTER POINT 2. FORM 3. NORMAL BRACKETS 4. JACK 5. YOKE LEG CLAMP 6. WALER CLEAT PLATES 7. HANGING SCAFFOLDS 8. STARTER / KICKER 9. YOKES 10. CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM 11. JACK HOLDER 12. PANEL CLAMP 13. WORKING PLATFORM 14. PUMP

ADVANTAGES:
Off-site assembly Greater speed and earlier completion of construction projects Early completion of lift motor rooms and early installation of lifts, plumbing and electrical services Reduced craneage as forms are lifted by hydraulic jacks Reduced scaffolding and temporary work platforms as the slipform system contains its own platforms for working. This also results in a cleaner and less congested constructed site A uniformity of wall sections and layouts can be achieved with the slipform method this is not achievable with conventional formwork systems Reduced labor costs, as the system provides an intensive work environment

DISADVANTAGES
Non-stop work Fixing door and window frames High initial expense Large quantities of equipment Need 24-hour service facilities Communication must be coordinated between ground level, crane drivers, slip form, and hoist operators

VERTICAL SLIP FORMING


The concrete form may be surrounded by a platform on which workers stand, placing steel reinforcing rods into the concrete and ensuring a smooth pour. Together, the concrete form and working platform are raised by means of hydraulic jacks. Generally, the slipform rises at a rate which permits the concrete to harden by the time it emerges from the bottom of the form.

TAPERED SLIPFORMING
Structural Systems is also heavily involved in the construction of conical chimneys, cooling towers, piers and other tall concrete structures involving constant or changing thicknesses in walls, diameters and/or shapes. Structural Systems has been involved in the construction of tapered towers and chimneys from 50m to 275m high with diameters and wall thicknesses changing from 25m to 6m and 700mm to 250mm respectively. While the slipforming process is similar to that used on the standard slipform equipment the logistics and planning require greater attention the heights which often make the use of cranes impractical. Structural Systems experience and expertise ensures the success of such projects.

TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH SLIPFORM SYSTEM FOR TAPERED STRUCTURES

HORIZONTAL SLIPFORMING For pavement and traffic separation walls concrete is laid down, vibrated, work and settled in place while the form itself slowly moves ahead.

5. SPAN TRUSS SYSTEM


A. ROOF What is SPAN TRUSS SYSTEM? Span truss systems are structural systems, usually a beam used to support a load, a roof for instance or cover a very wide area in straight and very long distances. Structural material is a FACTOR. TIMBER and STEEL are mostly used as construction material.

PRINCIPLES OF SPAN TRUSS


Steel trusses are being used for both buildings and bridges. But the design principles are different for different uses. Steel roof trusses are used for mainly for the Industrial buildings where free space requirement are essential for more working areas. The span of truss varies from 10 ft (3m) to 300 ft (91m) depending on the type of requirement and the available spaces.

SPAN TRUSS CONSTRUCTION For span up to about 20m, the spacing of steel trusses is likely to be about 4m. i.e. 1/5 of span. For economic spacing of roof trusses, the cost of truss should be equal to twice the cost of purlins + the cost of roof covering. As a guide the spacing of the roof trusses can be kept: a. of span up to 15.0m. b. 1/5 of span up to 15m to 30m. A slope of 22 degrees is common for corrugated steel and asbestos roofing sheets.

CONFIGURATIONS:
The pitch of roof truss depends on the roofing materials. a) Min. recommended for GI sheet1in 6. i.e h/l=1/6 h=l/6 b) For A.C sheet -1 in 12 i.e h=l/12. A rough estimate of section height for a gabled truss is that for roof slope 1:16, H=L/25 to L/30. For slope 1:10, H=L/35 to L/40 where H is the depth at support. For parallel trusses the relation is approximately H=L/20. The most advantageous angle between the diagonals and the bottom chord is 45-50 in a triangular lattice and 35 -45in a diagonal one.

WHERE IS IT USE?
Single-storey industrial buildings Arenas Theaters Exhibition Halls Stadiums Airplane Hangars many more

LONG SPAN TRUSSES


Long span trusses are any span in excess of or longer than 60 feet or 18 meters. So how does the structural material matter? According to the AIA Long-Span Building Panel, 60 ft (18.288m) for an office is considered long span but 60 ft for a gymnasium is not because 60 ft may be long span for a sawn timber beam, but a short span for a steel beam. The basic qualities of materials used are the answer. e.g. Steel; stronger, easy application, widely used.

ARRANGEMENT Two types of general arrangement of the structure of a typical single-storey building are shown in Figure 1.2 and in Figure 1.3. PORTAL FRAME ARRANGEMENT In the first case (Figure 1.2), the lateral stability of the structure is provided by a series of portal trusses The connections between the truss and the columns provide resistance to a global bending moment. Loads are applied to the portal structure by purlins and side rails.

BEAM AND COLUMN ARRANGEMENT The roof structure is arranged with main trusses spanning from column to column, and secondary trusses spanning from main truss to main truss.

ROOF SPAN TABLE:

TYPES OF ROOF SPAN

B. FLOOR TRUSS is essentially a triangulated system of straight interconnected structural elements. CONFIGURATION OF TRUSSES

PARALLEL CHORD TRUSSES Parallel chord trusses are also used as pre-fabricated floor joists, beams and girders in
multi-storey buildings. Modified Warren is used with additional verticals introduced in oredr to reduce the unsupported length of compression chord members. FLOOR TRUSS, also referred to as OPEN WEB STEEL JOIST is a lightweight truss cocnsisting of parallel chords and a triangulated web system. Steel joist are fastened to its supporting members usually by field welding. SPACING OF TRUSS IS DETERMINED BY: Magnitude of floor load Spanning capability of deck Load carrying capacity of truss/joist Floor construction depth desired

Unlike structural steel beams, steel joists must use BRIDGING placed perpendicular to the span to attain its stability. 2 TYPES OF BRIDGING a. HORIZONTAL BRIDGING b. DIAGONAL BRIDGING JOIST GIRDERS Are designed to carry the end reactions from equally-spaced joists applied to the panel points. ADVANTAGES: Longer clear spans in most cases, elimination of beams. Floor uniformity Greater nailing area for sub-flooring. Elimination of unsightly electrical wires, plumbing and heating eyesores. Size of room not limited by joist span table. Speed of installation. Accurate costing DISADVANTAGES: Increased fabrication cost

6. LIFT-SLAB CONSTRUCTION
History: Early 1950s Philip N. Youtz Thomas B. Slick A product of two Conceived Ideas

YOUTZ-SLICK METHOD GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Fast Method of Building Construction Cast in place multi-leveling system Minimal use of Cranes and hoists Concrete floors and roof slabs are cast atop one another. Prepared to the Previous ground floor Cast Around The Columns No beams / Drop panels / Column capitals Post-tensioned Slabs Increased Column Spacing and Reduced Slab Thickness Casted Concrete members are literally LIFTED into their final positions. Each tiers are Simultaneously lifted. Hydraulic Machine Lifters(Hydraulic Jacks) - Temporarily mounted on the top of the Column. Slabs are connected by Lift Rods to steel Lifting Collars. Lift Rods & Lifting Collars are Cast in and anchored to the slabs and surrounding columns. Columns:-Steel and Concrete Widely used for : Office, Institutional, apartment and Hotel Buildings Not too heavy load Not too long/wide span (Modular) METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION: Foundation -Backfilled Slab on Grade Prepared Ground Floor -provided Basement/s All slabs are casted on site. -by Mould or formworks Tiered/Filed Stacks of Concrete Floor and Roof Slabs -post-tensioned (preferable) Holes/Openings on the Slabs -for Steel/Concrete Columns Erected and plumbed Lifting Collar is attached Slab and Column Provides a Hook to the Lifting Rod at each collar Permanent/Temporary All Lifting Collars (slabs) are lifted. - after the 1st tier was erected (columns) Suspended to the ground (temporarily)

SEQUENCE OF LIFTING OPERATION: (2 METHODS)


FIRST METHOD: Column extends to its final height Cast all Roof & Floor Slabs Half of the Slabs are lifted (temporarily) Roof Slab remains and gain its permanent position Other Half (except basement slab) are lifted SECOND METHOD: Higher structure require more stages Cast all Roof & Floor Slabs Slabs are lifted simultaneously up to the(Midcount)

Roof Slab gains first its permanent position Follow through consecutively

CONSIDERATIONS Types of Column: Steel Varies in external lateral dimensions 8 to 12 inch (for a given building) Columns dimensions remains constant Steel areas vary by specifying each columns of different Flange Web thickness Concrete: pre-cast reinforced concrete longitudinal and lateral reinforcing bars pre-stressed columns Longitudinal wire tendons Mild steel lateral reinforcement COLUMNS ARE RIGIDLY ANCHORED - to their foundation by built up on bases to stand vertically In fire-resistive construction steel columns are protected by concrete metal lath pearl plaster A hollow steel column with concrete improves their fire resistance. SIZE OF SLAB: Overhead operated Hydraulic Jacks should act in unison to avoid local overstressing. Min. number of Jacks operated 12 to 18 in considering the number of equipment the number can increase up to 36 jacks COLUMN SPACING & SLAB THICKNESS Vary from 25-30ft or more and may differ in two directions Slabs are usually solid vary from 5-10inchs thick (for longer span waffle slabs are used) The slabs are reinforced with wire mesh PRE-STRESSING Slabs are usually pre-stress by post tensioning in both directions, usually the tendons are inclined from the lower center portion of the slab to the upper portion. LIFTING COLLARS Before each column is erected, the lifting collar required for each slab is placed on the column with approximately in clearance between them. SLAB CASTING Sequential as they occupy the building ground up (securely anchored to the lifting collars) CONNECTING SLABS TO COLUMN After lifting collars are welded to steel columns.

ADVANTAGES
The use of cranes and hoists when erecting the building is minimal, since construction materials are placed on the roof slab and lifted along with them. The use of formwork for the concrete slabs is minimal; only the sides need to formed, and there is no need to shore the formwork. Concrete floor construction at ground level is convenient and requires no shores, scaffolds or c ranes.

There is little need for finishing of the bottom of lift slabs, since they will be as smooth as the floor finish of the sab below; thus the bottom of the slab can be used directly as a ceiling. Lift slab can be used for heights up to about 16 stories. Economical column spacing ranges from 22 to 32 feet. Columns may be pipe, tubes or wide flange sections; concrete columns may be used in 3- to 4-story buildings not requiring splices. Because lift slab uses concrete, the technique offers good fire resistance and good acoustic ratings. Originally, lift-slabs were reinforced with mild steel reinforcing, which limited column spacing or required very thick slabs. With the advent of post-tensioning however, column spacing was increased and the thicknesses of the slabs were reduced. Contemporarily, all lift-slabs are post-tensioned. Locations of partitions are unaffected by beams because they are eliminated as in conventional flat-plate construction. If pre-stressed, deflections are minimal, and the slabs are crack-free. Less manpower.

DISADVANTAGES
The lift-slab method does have limitations, the principal one being that buildings must be specifically planned for the liftslab method, or it will not have any economic advantages over conventional construction. Failures and Deficiencies

JACK SYSTEMS WITH INADEQUATE TAKE-UP DEVICES As the slab fell the bottom latch at each rod would theoretically close on a groove passed by the latch, arresting the fall of the slab. If the slab fell suddenly the full 6 inch stroke, there could be a catastrophic impact load on the latches if the lathes could act quickly enough, or a relatively unimpeded fall of the slab, if the latches could not act quickly enough. UNEQUAL LIFTING Distortion, unleveled slabs and cracking may happen on the floor slabs.

7. RIBBED FLOOR SLAB


Ribbed slabs are made up of wide band beams running between columns with equal depth narrow ribs spanning the orthogonal direction. A thick top slab completes the system. Hollow blocks made of lightweight concrete or other materials are arranged between the ribs or the voids between ribs are left out without any filling material. The use of these blocks makes it possible to have the following: Smooth ceiling Hygienic consideration Insulation (sound and temperature) ADVANTAGES: Longer spans with heavy loads (12-15m) Reduction in dead loads due to voids Electrical and mechanical installations can be placed between voids Good resistance to vibrations and increase the tension resistance of the concrete DISADVANTAGES Higher formwork costs than for other slab systems Slightly greater floor thicknesses THERE ARE TWO MAIN TYPES OF RIBBED FLOORS: 1. Hollow block floors Hollow blocks are used to fill portions of the slab thickness; this results in deeper arm for the reinforcement while saving the amount of concrete and hence the own weight of the slab. The reinforcement is located between the

blocks inside the ribs. Blocks may be concrete blocks or styro-foam Most suitable for small irregularly shaped floors 2. Moulded Floors For large symmetrically supported floors, the moulded type of floor is most suitable and economical. Steel or fibreglass moulds can be used for temporary formwork. KEY COMPONENTS OF RIBBED FLOOR SLAB A, TOPPING SLAB: Topping slab thickness is not to be less than 1/12 the clear distance between ribs, nor less than 5.0 cm. The topping slab is designed as a continuous beam supported by the ribs. Shrinkage reinforcement is provided in the topping slab in both directions in a mesh form.

B. RIBS Minimum dimensions: Ribs are not to be less than 10 cm in width, and a depth of not more than 3.5 times the minimum web width. Clear spacing between ribs is not to exceed 75.0 cm as specified. C. LOADS: The load on ribs consists of dead and live loads. The dead load includes own weight of the slab, weight of the surface finish, and equivalent partition load. The live load is dependent on the intended use of the building. DIRECTION:

In ONE-WAY RIBBED SLABS ribs may be arranged in any of the two principal directions. Two options are possible; the first is by providing ribs in the shorter direction, which leads to smaller amounts of reinforcement in the ribs, while large amounts of reinforcement are required in the supporting beams, associated with large deflections.

The second option is by providing ribs in the longer direction, which leads to larger amount of reinforcement in the ribs, while smaller amounts of reinforcement are required in the supporting beams associated with smaller deflections compared to the first option.

8. Wall Panel System: RIBBED WALL Definition of Rib Something resembling a rib in form, position, or use, as a supporting or strengthening part. Surface of a vault accenting the ridges or dividing the surface into panels. Definition of Wall Rib Panel Panel Rib is our most economical wall system. In fact, this wall system is more economical than wood, concrete or masonry alternatives.

BENEFITS Variety of gauge thicknesses to meet most codes and specifications Engineered for durability and aesthetically pleasing Long panel lengths minimize end laps for optimum wall integrity Superior paint finishes reduces maintenance costs Recessed fastener locations give the panel a semi-concealed profile with bold architectural lines Embossed surface provides attractive architectural finish STANDARD WALL RIB PANEL The panels are attached with self-drilling, color-matched fasteners Available in 26, 24 or 22 gauge 36 wide panel with 1-1/4 high ribs 12 on center Available up to 41 in length Installed with self-drilling color- matched fasteners OTHER TYPES OF WALL RIB PANEL A. VEE RIB WALL PANEL The Vee Rib wall panel features a V-groove pattern, semi-concealed fasteners located in the bottom of the groove, and 1-1/4" reveals. Its surface, embossed for esthetic appeal, reduces glare. Self-drilling fasteners and 36" panel width provide for economical installation. Available in 26, 24 or 22 gauge 36 wide panel with 1-1/4 recessed ribs 12 on center Available up to 39 in length Installed with self-drilling color-matched fasteners Fasteners installed in V-groove Embossed exterior surface B. REVERSE-ROLLED VERSION OF PANEL RIB Panel is an attractive, high quality, low maintenance panel based on a reverse rolled RPR Panel is a reverse-rolled version of our popular Panel Rib profile. This economical wall system features self-drilling, color-matched fasteners and a 36" panel width to provide fast and easy installation. Reverse rolled version of VPs Panel Rib design Available in 26, 24 or 22 gauge 36 wide panel with 1-1/4 deep ribs 12 OC Available up to 41 in length Installed with self-drilling color-matched fasteners Fasteners installed in recessed rib TECH FOUR WALL PANEL A unique architectural wall system that is easy to install featuring concealed fasteners and an attractive, embossed finish. These durable panels easily adapt to a variety of insulation options (including batt, blanket or rigid board). Tech Four offers 16 coverage with 1/4 high, 4 wide alternating fluted profile. Available in lengths of up to 40, Tech Four can provide continuous coverage from foundation to eave eliminating the need for end laps and assuring superior weather tightness. Manufactured in sturdy 24 gauge steel for added strength and erectability. MEGA RIB Mega-Rib is a 7.2 rib spacing that provides optimum strength and spanning capabilities. Mega-Rib is a metal roof and wall panel that is equally well suited for industrial and commercial applications. Imperial RIB Panel Type - Exposed Fastener Metal Panel

Panel Width Coverage - 36" Rib Height - 3/4 Gauges - 29 and 26 gauge Metal Panel Substrate Galvalume Paint Finish Type - Siliconized Polyester

Kinds of Flat Type Wall Panel System

WOOD

GLASS

MASONRY

METAL/STEEL

GLASS WALL PANEL Glass wall panel on concrete glass panels are inserted between a concrete slabs to for a wall panel.

WOOD WALL PANEL Tongue and Groove flat wood panels are interconnected using the tongue and groove connection.

TONGUE AND GROOVE CONNECTION

EXAMPLES OF FLAT TYPE WALL PANEL USING TOUNGE AND GROOVE CONNECTION

Hidden divider metal connections are used to combined two wood wall panels

DIVIDERS THAT ACT AS CONNECTOR TO THE WOOD PANEL

FLAT TYPE WALL PANEL USING HIDDEN DIVIDERS CONNECTION

Moulding connection wood panels are connected using plastic moulding with optional insert for electrical wirings (used for insulation)

MOULDING REVEALS WITH OPTIONAL INSERT

FLAT TYPE WALL PANEL USING MOULDING CONNECTION

MOULDING REVEALS WITH OPTIONAL INSERT

FLAT TYPE WALL PANEL USING MOULDING CONNECTIONS

REVEALED DIVIDER unlike the hidden divider connection, the revealed divider are can be seen for aesthetics purposes (with optional insert for electrical wirings for insulation purposes).

1 DIVIDER MOULDING WITH VELO ANODIZED MOLDING

OTHER EXAMPLES OF FLAT WOOD PANEL:

CURVED WOOD PANEL (FOR POST/COLUMN PURPOSES)

WOOD PANEL WITH DESIGN

INSTALLATION: WOOD PANELS

THINGS TO REMEMBER: INSTALLING ON A FRAMED WALL & ON SOLID BACKING Check the studs to be sure they are vertical and on 16" or 24" spacing. Also make sure that backing is provided at all corners, at the top and bottom of the wall and around any openings. Outside walls should have a vapor barrier over the faces of the studs.

INSTALLING ON A MASONRY WALL First check the masonry walls for excessive moisture. Walls with moisture must be completely waterproofed before they are paneled. Moisture can sometimes be caused by condensation. If this is the case, add a waterproof vapor barrier over the wall (below grade, do this before furring it).

BEFORE PANEL INSTALLATION: Install 1" x 2" or 1/2" plywood furring stripsripped 11" widehorizontally or vertically, placing them on 16" centers. They are best when fastened with masonry anchors drilled into the wall. Furring strips also can easily be glued on. It can also be used to make imperfectly framed walls even and flat. Inspect your furring strips as you put them up to make sure they are creating an even, flat surface. Make any necessary adjustments by shimming behind the uneven strips with pieces of plywood or tapered wood shingles. Nail the shingles with brads to keep them in position. Get the first corner panels exactly plumb, using a level or chalked plumb line snapped onto the wall. Its outer edge must be centered on a framing member. The edge against the corner may have to be trimmed to bring the outer edge over a stud or furring strip. Double-check all your measurements before sawing the panel. Cut with a finetooth sawnever use one with coarse teeth. When the first panel is readied, nail (or glue and nail) it to the wall. Move on with additional panels, avoiding a fit that's too tight between the panels. Leave the thickness of a dime between panels to avoid expansion problems. The gaps will not show greatly if the area between panels is pre-colored with a marking pen or a stripe of paint the same color as the grooves.

PANELLING WITH NAILS: Cover your hammer head with a rag to protect the face of your panels when nailing. Place nails every 4 to 6 inches along the panel edges and every 8 to 12 inches throughout the rest of the panel on studs. Always begin nailing at one edge and move across the panel to the other edge. Never nail opposite edges first, then the middle of a panel. Place the panel in position on the adhesive and drive several nails loosely across the top to hinge it in the proper position. Now press the panel firmly against the adhesive and tap all over it with a hammer and cloth-padded wood block or rubber mallet. Heavy panels need additional support, with nails 16 to 20 inches apart.

MASONRY WALL PANEL What is a Sandwich Panel? Insulated wall panels are also referred to as sandwich panels. An inner core of insulation is surrounded or sandwiched between two precast concrete layers or wythes.

What is a Wythe? A wythe is a layer within, or on the surface of a sandwich panel or insulated wall panel. What is a Wythe Tie? A Wythe Tie is the name of the material that connects two or more layers of concrete (wythes) together in an insulated wall panel.

EXAMPLE OF MASONRY SANDWICH WALL PANEL: Styromesh Wall Panel is an alternative building system that can be used in place of wood or metal-framed walls, hollow block walls or pre-cast panels.

STYROMESH SANDWICH PANEL WITH REINFORCING STEEL WIRES

CONCRETE PLASTER

Styromesh panel used a dowel to connect the styromesh on the foundation and tie wired it to make it stable and ready for plastering. METAL WALL PANEL Metal Wall Panel is used to surface the exterior of a building to protect against exposure to the elements, prevent heat loss, and visually unify the face of the building.

Metal wall panel

moulding

7/8 16 gauge hat chanel 16 24 spacing

FLAT PLATE Definition: A two-way slab of uniform thickness supported by any combination of columns and walls, with or without edge beams, and without drop panels, column capitals, and brackets. The simplest form of two-way slabsimplest for analysis, design, detailing, bar fabrication and placing, and formwork. A two-way concrete slab supported directly on columns with reinforcement in two orthogonal directions. One of the most common forms of construction of oors in buildings.

Used in: It is commonly used in multi-story construction such as hotels, hospitals, offices, apartment buildings and roof parking.

Compared to flat slab: Compared to flat plate system the flat slab system is suitable for higher loads and longer spans. The flat plate is a two-way reinforced concrete framing system utilizing a slab of uniform thickness, the simplest of structural shapes. The flat slab is a two-way reinforced structural system that includes either drop panels or column capitals at columns to resist heavier loads and thus permit longer spans.

Advantages: Simple formwork and suitable for direct fix or sprayed ceiling. No beams- simplifying under floor services. Minimum structural depth and reduced floor to floor height. Easy to construct.

Disadvantages: Medium spans. Limited lateral load capacity as part of a moment frame. May need shear heads or shear reinforcement at the columns or larger columns for shear. Long-term deection may be controlling factor. May not be suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions. May not be suitable for heavy loads.

Thickness of slab: Slabs generally range from 5 to 14 inches in thickness. Spans are up to 35 feet, but may be extended by post tensioning. Connection and detailing: a. Steel column Main consideration is to ensure that the base plate for the steel columns is cast into the concrete flat plate. Positioning and alignment of the base plates are of utmost importance.

b. Concrete column Connection is more simplified without the need for base plate connection. Reinforcement bars should be properly detailed between the columns and slabs.

Sources: Flat plate flooring system Guide to long-span concrete floors Concrete roof systems Analysis and design of flat plate Design concept for flat plate system