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ASME

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VIII

2002
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: 56-3934

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Three Park Avenue, New York NY 10016-5990 (-, -)
2002
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2001 ASME
ASME (
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NC 2
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-
1 2002 .
C

.. (G.G. Karcher), W.M.Lundy

..
..-
(J.G. Feldstein),
(J.R. MacKay)
-
..
..- (T.G.McCarty)
(J.S.Brzuszkievicz),
.. (R.W. Barnes)
.. (U.R. Miller)
.. (D.L. Berger)
..
(M.D. Bernstein)
..
(M.N. Bressler)
..
(D.A. Canonico)
.. (F.C. Cherny)
.. (D.A. Douin)
.. (R.E. Feigel)
.. (R.E. Gimple)
. (M. Gold)
.. (O.F. Hedden)
.. (D.F. Landers)

.. (M.H.Jawad)
.. (D.P.Jones)
.. (T.P. Pastor)
.. (.J.Pieper)

. (V.Felix)

.. (R.A. Moen)
.. (P.A.Molvie)
.. (C.C. Neely)
.. (T.P. Pastor)
.. (C.J. Pieper)
.. (R.F Reedy)
.. (B.W. Roberts)
.. (F.J. Schaaf, Jr.)
. (A. Selz)
.. (D.E. Tanner)

. (A. Selz)
.. (A.J.Spencer)
.. (D.E.Tanner)

( )
.. (R.D.Bonner)
.. (R.C.Griffin)
.. (R.J.Bosnak)
.. (E.J.Hemzy)
. (G.Bynog)

.. (M.H.Jawad)

.. (H.M.Canavan)

.. (J.E.Lattan)

.. (R.J.Cepluch)

. (J.LeCoff)

.. (L.J.Chockie)

.. (F.N.Moschini)

.. (W.E.Cooper)
.. (W.D.Doty)
.. (J.R.Farr)

.. (W.E.Somers)
.. (L.P.Zick,Jr.)


..-
(J.R.MacKay),
.. (A.J.Spencer),
-
(G.Moino),
.. (F.P.Barton)
..
(M.D. Bernstein)
..
(J.G. Feldstein)

.. (J.L.Jones)

..
(D.A.Douin)
. (S.Katz) - ,
()
..
(R.D.Reetz)
- . (M.Kotb) ,

(- .. (K.NT.Lau) ,
)
.. (D.E.Tanner) . (J.Lemire) -
()
.. (R.J.Aben, Jr.) - . (C.Lundine) -

..
(J.T.Amato)
.. (S.E.Lyons)

.. (M.A.Malek) -
.. (E.FA.Anderson) .. (C.F.Mankel)
,
.. II (R.D.Marvin II) .. (M.M.Barber) -

.. (I.W.Mault) ,
. (R.Barlett) -

..
(F.P.Barton)
- ..- (H.T.McEwen)

.. (W.K.Brigham) - .. (A.W.Meiring) -
-
..
(D.E.Burns)
- . (R.Mile) ,

.. (M.F.Mooney) .. (J.H.Burpee) -

. (C.Castle) - . (Y.Nagpaul)

.. (J.D.Payton)
.. (R.R.Cate)
. (L.Chase) - .. (M.R.Peterson)
,
..
(R.A.Coomes)
.. (H.D.Pfaff)

. (J.Corcoran) - .. (D.C.Price) ,

.
(D.Eastman)
.. (R.C.Pucek)
, .. (D.E.Ross) - -,

..
(G.L.Ebeyer) . (M.Shuff)
,
..
. (N.Surtees) ,
(J.J.Engelking) -
.
(E.Everett)
- .. (M.R.Toth) -

.. (P.C.Hackford - .. (M.J.Verhagen) -

.. (J.B.Hanrath) . (M.Washington) -

.. (J.B.Harlan) - .. (R.B.West) -

.. (M.L.Holloway) .. (M.J.Wheel) -
-
. (K.Hynes) - .. (R.K.White) -
,
.. (D.T.Jagger) - .. (T.F.Wickham) - -

.. (D.J.Jenkins) - .. (C.S.Withers) -

( )
..
. (M. Gold)
(J.G. Feldstein),
.. (G.G. Karcher), ..-
-
(J.R. MacKay)
..
.. (T.P. Pastor)
(J.S.Brzuszkievicz),
.. (R.W. Barnes)
..
(D.A. Canonico)
.. (R.E. Gimple)

.
(J.Tiratto),

.. (L.W.Douthwaite)

. (M. Gold)
.. (E.F.Gregor)

.. (L.S.Hung)

xiii

. (P.Williamson)

(SC I)
..- (R.E.McLaughlin)
..- (J. R. MacKay),
.. (P. A. Molvie)

.. (D. K. Parrish)
.. (M. D.
Bernstein), -
.. (J. T. Pillow)
.. (J. N. Shih),
.. (R. G. Presnak)

.. (B. W. Roberts)
.. (D. L. Berger)
.. (R. D.Schueler, Jr.)
. (E. Everett)
.. (J. M. Tanzosh)
.. (F. R. Gerety)
..
. (J. Hainsworth)
(R.V.Wielgoszinski)
.. (T. E. Hansen)
.. (D. N. French),
.. (J. S. Hunter)

.. (C. F.Jeerings)
.. (R. L. Williams),
. (H. Lorenz)

.. (W. L. Lowry)
..- (T. C. McGough)

(SC II)
. (M. Gold),
. (F. Masuyama)
.. (R. A. Moen), .. (J. R. Maurer)

.. (R. K. Nanstad)
. (N. Lobo),
.. (M. L. Nayyar)
.. (D. C. Agarwal)
.. (E. G. Nisbett)
.. (W. R. Apblett, Jr.)
.. (J. T. Parsons)
.. (M. N.Bressler)
.. (D. W. Rahoi)
. (J. Cameron)
.. (B. W. Roberts)
.. (D. A.Canonico)
.. (R. R. Seeley)
.. (W. D. Doty)
. (E. Shapiro)
. (A. Fujio)
.. (C.E.Spaeder,Jr.)
.. (D. W. Gandy)
.. (R.W.Swindeman)
.. (M. H. Gilkey)
.. (J. M. Tanzosh)
.. (J. J. Heger)
.. (B. E. Thurgood)
.. (J. F. Henry)
.. (J. C. Vaillant)
.. (C.L.Hoffmann)
.. (R. S. Vecchio)
.. (G. C. Hsu)

(SC I)
.. ( P. A. Molvie),

.. (M.D.Bernstein)
.. (M. L. Coats)
.. (J.D.Fishburn)
.. (C. F.Jeerings)

.. (J. C. Light)
.. (R. D.Schueler, Jr.)
.. (J. L. Seigle)
. (N. Surtees)
..
(R.V.Wielgoszinski)

(SC II)
.. (A. P. Ahrendt)
.. (.R. Dirscherl)

(SC I)
.. (D. L. Berger),

..-
(R.E.McLaughlin),
. (J. Hainsworth)
.. (T. E. Hansen)
.. (J. M. Lyons)

..- (T. C. McGough)


.. (S. C.Petitgout)
.. (J. T. Pillow)
.. (R. D.Schueler, Jr.)
..
(R.V.Wielgoszinski)

(SC II SC - D)
.. (R. W. Mikitka),

.. (B. R. Morelock),

.. (D. C. Agarwal)
.. (D. J. Green)
.. (D. S. Griffin)
. (M. Katcher)

(SC I)
..- (R. E.
McLaughlin),
. (J. Hainsworth),

.. (D. L. Berger)
.. (M.D.Bernstein)
. (E. Everett)
.. (F. R. Gerety)

.. (C. F.Jeerings)
.. (J. M. Lyons)
..- (T. C. McGough)
.. (D. K. Parrish)
.. (J. T. Pillow)

(SC I)
.. (B. W. Roberts),

.. (J. S. Hunter),

.. (K. K. Coleman)
.. (K. L. Hayes)
. . (J. F. Henry)

.. (J. P.Libbrecht)
. (F. Masuyama)
.. (J. M.Tanzosh)
. . (H. N. Titer, Jr)

(SC I)
.. (T. E. Hansen),

.. (D. L. Berger)
.. (M.D.Bernstein)
.. (P. D. Edwards)
.. (W. L. Lowry)

.. (D. L. Kurle)
. (E.Michalopoulos)
. (D. Nadel)
.. (D. F. Shaw)
.. (C.E.Spaeder,Jr.)
.. (C.H.Sturgeon)

(SC II)
.. (E. G. Nisbett),

.. (K. L. Aber)
. (A. Appleton)
.. (R. M. Davison)
.. (B. M. Dingman)
. (T. Graham)
.. (W. N.Holliday)
.. (K. M. Hottle)
. (D.Janikowski)
.. (D. C. Krouse)

..
(J.F.Longenecker)
.. (W. C. Mack)
. . (J. R. Maurer)
.. (A. S. Melilli)
.. (K. E. Orie)
. (E. Upiti
. (R. Zawierucha)
.. (A. W. Zeuthen)
.. (R. H. Zong)

(SC II)
.. (W. M. Lundy),

.. (D. C. Agarwal)
. (J. Cameron)
.. (W. D. Doty)
.. (D. M. Fryer)
.. (J. P. Glaspie)
. (M. Gold)
. (M Higuchi)

(.. - (T. C.McGough)


.. (R. G. Presnak)
.. (M. W. Smith)
.. (E. A. Whittle)


(SC I SC VIII)
.. (J. M. Lyons)
.. (A. L. Plumley)

.. (W. D. Edsall)
.. (A. W. Zeuthen)

.. (D. W. Rahoi)

xiv

. (F. Osweiller)
.. (J. T. Parsons)
.. (R. D. Schueler, Jr.)
.. (R. R. Seeley)
.. (R. C. Soin)
.. (E. A. Steen)
. (E. Upitis)

(SC II)
.. (D. W. Rahoi),

.. (D. C. Agarwal),

.. (W. R. Apblett, Jr.)

. (L. Hibner)

.. (H. D.Bushfield)
.. (L. G. Coffee)
. (A. Cohen)
.. (M. H. Gilkey)
. (B. Heuer)

.. (A. G. Kireta, Jr.)


. (R. Kissell)
. (E. Shapiro)
.. (R. C. Sutherlin)
. (R. Zawierucha)



(SC III)
.. (G. C. Mok)

. (F. Masuyama)

.. (G. M. Foster),

.. (G. J. Solovey),
.. (D. K. Morton),

.. (W. H. Borter)
. . (J. T. Conner)
.. (E. L. Farrow)
.. (J. M. Floyd)
.. (D. R. Heath)
.. (R. S. Hill III)
.. (W. H. Lake)

. (S. Yukawa)

.. (G. C. Hsu)
. (M. Katcher)

(SC II)
..
(C.L.Hoffmann),
..

(J.
M.
Tanzosh),
.. (W. R. Apblett, Jr.)
.. (D.A.Canonico)
.. (K. K. Coleman)

.. (R. A. Moen)

.. . ( H. W. Lee)

.. ( D. W. Rahoi)
.. (B. W. Roberts)
.. (R. R. Seeley)

..- (P.E.McConnell)

. (A. Fujio)

.. (C.E.Spaeder, Jr.)

. (M. Gold)

.. (R.W.Swindeman)

.. (J. J. Heger)
. (S. Kinomura)

.. (B. E. Thurgood)
.. (T. P. Vassallo)
(SC II SC IX)
.. (J.M. Tanzosh), .. (J. F. Henry)

.. (K. K. Coleman)
.. (D. W. Rahoi)
.. (W. D. Doty)
.. (C.E.Spaeder, Jr.)
.. (K. L. Hayes)
.. (W. J. Sperko)
(SC II VIII)
.. (W. S. Jacobs), .. (C. C. Neely)

. . (J. L. Arnold)
.. (T. T. Phillips)
. . (R. J. Basile)
.. (M. D. Rana)
. (J. Cameron)
.. (R. R. Seeley)
.. (W. D. Doty)

.. (J. W. Stokes)

.. (H. E. Gordon)

. (E. Upitis)

.. (G. B. Komora)
.. (R. S. Vecchio)
. (K. Mokhtarian) . (S. Yukawa)
(SC III)
.. (R. W. Barnes), .. (R. S. Hill III)

.. (R. M. Jessee), .. (C.L.Hoffmann)


-
.. (C. A. Sanna), .-. (K.-H. Hsu)

. (Y. Asada)
.. (C. C. Kim)

.. (T. J. Neider)
.. (R. E. Nickell)
.. (T.J.OConnell)
. (T. Saegusa)
.. (N. M. Simpson)
.. (R. H. Smith)
.. (J.D.Stevenson)
.. (C. J. Temus)
. (P. Turula)

(SC III)
.. (R. P. Deubler),

.. (E. B. Branch),
.. (A. N. Nguyen),

.. (T. M. Adams)
. (Y. Asada)
.. (R. W. Barnes)
.. (M. N. Bressler)

.. (R. S. Hill III)

.. (C. W. Bruny)
.. (D. L. Caldwell)
.. (J. R. Cole)
.. (R. E. Cornman, Jr.)
.. (A.A.Dermenjian)

.. (W. Z. Novak)
.. (E.C.Rodabaugh)
. (I. Saito)
.. (J.R.Santangelo)
.. (G. C. Slagis)

.. (D. H. Hanrath)
.. (R. W. Haupt)

.. (J.D.Stevenson)
.. (K. R. Wichman)

.. (R. I. Jetter)
. (H. Kobayashi)
.. (J. T. Land)
.. (D. F. Landers)
.. - (W. N. McLean)
.. (J.C.Minichiello)

/ (SG-D) (SC
III)
..

(E.
B.
Branch),

.. (R. W. Barnes),
.. (R. S. Hill III),
.. (C. W. Bruny)
.. (R. P. Deubler)
.. (J. T. Land)

.. (D. F. Landers)
.. - (W. N. McLean)
.. (D. B. Nickerson)
.. (W. Z. Novak)
.. (J.R.Santangelo)

(SG-D) (SC III)


..
(R.J.Masterson),

.. (R. M. Dulin, Jr.),

..
(U.S.Bandyopadhyay)
. . (F. J. Birch)
.. (J. R. Cole)
.. (R. P. Deubler)
.. (J.C.Finneran, Jr.)

. . (J. C. Hennart)
.. (A. N. Nguyen)

.. (W. H. Borter)

.. (D. F. Landers)

.. (E. B. Branch)
.. (M. N. Bressler)
.. (F. C. Cherny)
.. ( R. E. Cornman,
Jr.)
.. (R. P. Deubler)

.. (W.C.LaRochelle)
.. (E. A. Mayhew)
W. N. McLean
.. (R. A. Moen)
.. (D.B.Nickerson)


(SG-D) (SC III)

.. (W. D. Doty)

.. (R. F. Reedy)

..

.. (F. R. Drahos)
.. (B. A. Erler)
.. (G. M. Foster)
.. (D. H. Hanrath)

.. (B. B. Scott)
.. (J.D.Stevenson)
.. (K. R. Wichman)

xv

(J.

T.

Land),

.. (P. R. Olson)
. (I. Saito)
.. (J. R. Stinson)
. (D. V. Walshe)
.-. (C.-I. Wu)

.. (J. F. Mullooly)


(SG-D) (SC III)
.. (D. L. Caldwell),

.. (P.L.Anderson),

.. - (M. K. Au-Yang)
.. (R. D. Blevins)
.. (P.-Y. Chen)
. (A. Hadjian)

.. (W. S. LaPay)
. (H. Lockert)
.. (A. E. Meligi)
.. (P. R. Olson)
.. (R. F. Perry)


(SG-D) (SC III)
.. (E. B. Branch),

.. (T. M. Adams)
.. (G. A. Antaki)
. (K. Hasegawa)
. (T. Isogai)
. (H. Kobayashi)

. (V. Matzen)
.. (J.C.Minichiello)
.. (M. S. Sills)
. (Y. Urabe)
. . (E. A. Wais)
. (T. Yamazaki)

(SG-D) (SC III)

(SC

.. (J. R. Cole),

. (P. Hirschberg),

.. (T. M. Adams)
.. (G. A. Antaki)
.. (J. T. Conner)
..
(A.B.Glickstein)
.. (R. J. Gurdal)
.. (R. W. Haupt)
.. (J. C. Hennart)
.. (R. S. Hill III)
.. (R. D. Hookway)
.. (R. B. Jenkins)
.. (D. F. Landers)
.. (K. A. Manoly)

.. (W. C.
LaRochelle),
. (A. Appleton)
.. (B. H. Berg)
. (C. Lizotte)
.. (E. A. Mayhew)
.. - (R. P. McIntyre)
.. (M. J. Meyer)

III SC 3)
.. - (J. F. McCabe)
. . (J. C. Minichiello)
.. (S. E. Moore)
.. (A. N. Nguyen)
.. (O. O. Oyamada)
.. (R. D. Patel)
.. (E. C. Rodabaugh)
.. (J. R. Santangelo)
.. (M. S. Sills)
.. (G. C. Slagis)
.. (V. K. Verma)
.. (E. A. Wais)
.-. (C.-I. Wu)

(SG-D) (SC III)


.. (R. E. Cornman,
Jr.),
.. (H. L. Brammer)
.. (A. A. Fraser)
. (M. Higuchi)
.. (G. R. Jones)
. . (J. W. Leavitt)

.. (J. E. Livingston)
.. (D. B. Nickerson)
.. (R. A. Schussler)
.. (D. B. Spencer, Jr.)
. (H. Tafarrodi)
.. (G. K. Vaghasia)

, (SC
III)
.. (C. L. Hoffmann),

.. (G. P. Milley),

.. (B. H. Berg)
.. (W. H. Borter)
.. (D. M. Doyle)
.. (F. R. Drahos)
.. (G. M. Foster)
.. (G. B. Georgiev)
.. (J. E. Harris)
.. (R. M. Jessee)

(SG-D) (SC III)


.. - (W. N. McLean),

R. R. Brodin
. (R. Koester)
.. (J. D. Page)

.. (S. N. Shields)
.. (H. R. Sonderegger)
. . ( (J. C. Tsacoyeanes)
.. (R. G. Visalli)

.. (K. A. Manoly)
.. (D. E. Matthews)
.. (G. K. Miller)
.. (W. Z. Novak)
. (E. Pelling)
.. (H. S. Thornton)


(SG-D) (SC III)

.. (W. Z. Novak),

. (Y. Asada)
.. (W. J. Heilker)
.. (R. S. Hill III)

.. (C. L. Hoffmann)
.. (R. A. Moen)
. (S. Yukawa)

.. (C. C. Kim)
.. (R. A. Moen)
. (H. Murakami)
.. (C. J. Pieper)
.. (N. M. Simpson)
.. (R. C. Soin)
.. (W. J. Sperko)
.. (K. B. Stuckey)
. (S. Yukawa)

(SC III)
.. (S. F. Harrison, Jr.),

.. (F. C. Cherny)
.. (E. M. Petrosky)

.. (A. L. Szeglin)
.. (D. G. Thibault)


(SC III)

/ (SG-D) (SC
III)
.. (C. W. Bruny),

.. (G. D. Cooper)
.. (D. H. Hanrath)
. (M. Hartzman)
.. (W. J. Heilker)
. (A. Kalnins)
. (M. Khan)

. (R. Mile)
.. (M. R. Minick)
.. (B. B. Scot)t
.. (H. K. Sharma)
.. (D. M. Vickery)
.. (D. V. Walshe)

.. (R. F. Reedy),

.. (W. H. Borter)
.. (M. N. Bressler)
.. (D. L. Caldwell)
.. (R. P. Deubler)

.. (B. A. Erler)
.. (D. H. Hanrath)
.. (W. C. LaRochelle)
.. (J. D. Stevenson)


/
,

(SC 3)
.. (M. F.
Hessheimer),
.. (S. J. Rossi),

.. (J. P. Allen III)


.. (J. F. Artuso)
.. (R. M. Attar)
.. (A. C. Eberhard)t
.. (B. A. Erler)
. (J. Gutierrez)
.. (D. J. Haavik)

xvi

.. (T. C. Inman)
.. (D. C. Jeng)
.. (T. E. Johnson)
.-. (N.-H. Lee)
.. (S. F. Putman)
.. (B. B. Scott)
.. (R. E. Shewmaker)
. . (J. D. Stevenson)
.. (A. Y. Wong)

(SC-IV)
.. (P. A. Molvie),

.. (S. V. Voorhees),
-
. (G. Moino),

.. (T. L. Bedeaux)
.. (W. L. Haag, Jr.)
.. (W. M.
Hiddleston)
.. (J. D. Hoh)
.. (D. H. Mapes)
.. - (K. M.
McTague)

.. (K. R. Moskwa)
.. (R. I. Mullican)
.. (E. A. Nordstrom)
. . (J. L. Seigle)
. (R. H. Weigel)
.. (R. V.
Wielgoszinski)
.. (J. I. Woodworth)
.. (R. B. Duggan),


(SC-V)
.. (A. S. Birks),

.. (S. J. Akrin)
. (T. Alexander)
.. (N. Y. Faransso)
.. (G. W. Hembree)


(SC-IV)
.. (S. V. Voorhees),

. (G. Moino),

.. (T. L. Bedeaux)
.. (K. J. Hoey)
.. (J. D. Hoh)

.. - (K. M. McTague)
.. (P. A. Molvie)
. . (R. I. Mullican)
.. (T. F. Wickham)

(SC-IV)
.. - (K. M.
McTague),
.. (T. L. Bedeaux)
.. - (C. P.
McQuiggan)

.. (K. R. Moskwa)
.. (R. H. Weigel)
.. (J. I. Woodworth)

(SC-V)
.. (J. E. Batey),

.. (S. J. Akrin)
.. (N. Y. Faransso)
.. (G. W. Hembree)
. (B. Kellerhall)
.. (E. K. Kietzman)
.. (F. B. Kovacs)

.. (R. I. Mullican)
.. (D. E. Tanner)
.. (M. A. Taylor)
.. (T. E. Trant)

(SC-IV)
.. (J. L. Seigle),

.. (T. L. Bedeaux)
.. (B. G. French)
.. (D. H. Mapes)

.. (E. A. Nordstrom)
.. (R. P. Sullivan)
.. (D. E. Tanner)
.. (R. V.
Wielgoszinski)

(SC-V)
., - (T. G.
McCarty),
.. (J. E. Batey),
-
.. (E. H.
Maradiaga),
.. (S. J. Akrin)
.. (A. S. Birks)
.. (N. Y.
Faransso)
.. (O. F. Hedden)
.. (G. W. Hembree)

.. (F. B. Kovacs)
. (R. W. Kruzic)
J. F. Manning
.. - (W. C. McGaughey)
..- (R. D. McGuire)
.. (F. J. Sattler)
.. (E. F. Summers, Jr.)
.. (M. J. Wheel)

.. (J. R. Mitchell)

SG-VM) (SC V)
.. (G. W. Hembree),

.. (S. J. Akrin)
. (T. Alexander)
.. (J. E. Batey)
.. (N. Y. Faransso)

.. (F. B. Kovacs)
. (R. W. Kruzic)
.. (E. F. Summers, Jr.)
.. (J. P. Swezy)

SG-VM) (SC
V)
.. (N. Y. Faransso)
.. (O. F. Hedden)
. (B. Kellerhall)
.. (E. K. Kietzman)

.. (R. W. Kruzic)
.. (J. F. Manning)
.. - (W. C. McGaughey)
.. (F. J. Sattler)

(SC
VIII)
.. (T. P. Pastor), Chair
. (K. Mokhtarian),
-
.. (A. J. Roby),

.. (R. J. Basile)
. (V. Bogosian)
. (J. Cameron)
.. (R. M. Elliott)
.. (R. E. Feigel)
.. (J. G. Feldstein)
.. (J. P. Glaspie)
.. (M. J. Houle)
.. (W. S. Jacobs)
.. (G. G. Karcher)
.. (G. B. Komora)
.. (K. T. Lau)

/
(SC-V)
.. - (R. D.
McGuire),
.. (E. Batey)
.. (A. S. Birks)
.. (N. Y.
Faransso)

. (R. W. Kruzic)
.. (J. F. Manning)
.. - (W. C. McGaughey)
.. (J. R. Mitchell)
.. (F. J. Sattler)
.. (E. F. Summers, Jr.)
.. (J. P. Swezy)

(SG-VM) (SC V)
. . (J. E. Batey)
.. (J. F. Manning)

(SC-IV)
. . (W. L. Haag, Jr.),

.. (T. D. Gantt)
.. (W. M.
Hiddleston)
.. (F. M. Lucas)
.. - (K. M.
McTague)

.. (R. W. Kruzic)
.. (F. J. Sattler)
.. (E. F. Summers, Jr.)
.. (R. J. Valdes)
.. (M. J. Wheel)

.. (G. W. Hembree)
.. - (J. R. MacKay)
.. (J. P. Swezy)

xvii

.. (R. W. Mikitka)
. . (U. R. Miller)
.. (C. C. Neely)
.. (M. J. Pischke)
. . (M. D. Rana)
.. (S. C. Roberts)
.. (C. D. Rodery)
.. (K. J. Schneider)
. (A. Selz)
.. (J. R. Sims, Jr.)
.. (A. J. Spence)r
.. (E. A. Steen)
.. (K. K. Tam)
.. (E. L. Thomas, Jr.)
. (E. Upitis)

- (SC VIII)
. . (U. R. Miller),

.. (R. E.
Knoblock),
.. (R. J. Basile)
.. (M. R. Bauman)
.. (M. R. Breach)
.. (S. M.
Caldwel)l
.. (J. R. Farr)
.. (J. P. Glaspie)
.. (W. S. Jacobs)
.. (G. B. Komora)
.. (R. W. Mikitka)

. (K. Mokhtarian)
.. (T. P. Pastor)
.. (M. D. Rana)
.. (G. B. Rawls, Jr.)
.. (C. D. Rodery)
. (A. Selz)
.. (S. C. Shah)
.. (J. W. Stokes)
.. (K. K. Tam)
.. (E. L. Thomas, Jr.)

(SC
VIII)
.. (J. R. Sims, Jr.),

.. (P. A.
Reddington),
.. (L. P. Antalffy)
.. (J. E. Baxter)
.. (R. C. Biel)
.. (D. J. Burns)
.. (P. N. Chak
.. (R. D. Dixon)
.. (R. E. Feigel)
.. (D. M. Fryer)
.. (J. L. Heck, Jr.)
. (W. Hiller)
.. (A. H. Honza)
.. (V. T. Hwang)
.. (M. M. James)

(SC VIII)
.. (C. D. Rodery),

.. (E. A. Steen),
. . (J. L. Arnold)
.. (W. J. Bees)
.. (H. E. Gordon)
.. (M. J. Houle)
.. (W. S. Jacobs)

.. (R. A. Johnson)
.. (D. J. Kreft)
.. (B. R. Morelock)
.. (F. C. Ouyang)
.. (M. J. Pischke)
.. (M. J. Rice)

(SC IX)
.. (J. G. Feldstein),

.. (W. J. Sperko),
-
.. (J. N. Shih),
.. (D. A. Bowers)
.. (M. L. Carpenter)
.. (L. P. Connor)
.. (W. D. Doty)
.. (P. D. Flenner)
.. (M. J. Houle)
. (S. Katz)
.. (W. M. Lundy)
..- (R. D. McGuire)
.. (A. H. Miller)

(SC VIII)
.. (S. C. Roberts),

. (V. Bogosian)
.. (M. L. Coats)
.. (D. B.
Demichael)
.. (R. M. Elliot)t
.. (J. P. Glaspie)
.. (K. T. Lau)

.. (W. E. Laveck, Jr.)


.. (A. S. Mann)
.. (C. C. Neely)
.. (A. S. Olivares)
.. (K. J. Schneider)
.. (A. J. Spencer
.. (K. K. Tam)

(SC VIII)
. (J. Cameron),

.. (D. C. Agarwal)
.. (W. D. Doty_
. (B. Heuer)
.. (E. L. Hibner)
. (M. Katcher)

.. (W. M. Lundy)
.. ( E. E. Morgenegg)
.. (E. G. Nisbett)
.. (D. W. Rahoi)
. (E. Upitis)

.. (M. R. Minick)
.. (T. A. Pindroh)
. (E. Soltow)
.. (A. A. Stupica)

.. (C. F. Jeerings)
.. (A. H. Miller)
.. (J. P. Swezy)

(SC
IX)
.. (B. R. Newmark),

.. (P. R. Evans)
.. (P. C. Filean)
.. (R. M. Jessee)
. (S. Katz)

.. (D. W. Mann)
.. (A. S. Olivares)
.. (H. B. Porter)
.. (R. A. Weis
.. (K. R. Willens)

(SC IX)
.. (M. L. Carpenter),

.. (L. P. Connor)
.. (R. M. Jessee)
.. (C. C. Kim)
.. (A. H. Miller)


(SC VIII)
.. (G. B. Komora),

.. (R. P. Zoldak),
)
. (G. Aurioles)
.. (D. L. Caldwell)
.. (M. J. Holtz)
. (R. Mahadeen)

.. (B. R. Newmark)
.. (P. P. Norris)
.. (A. S. Olivares)
.. (M. J. Pischke)
.. (S. D. Reynolds, Jr.)
.. (M. J. Rice)
.. (G. W. Spohn III)
.. (M. J. Stanko)
.. (P. L. Van Fosson)
.. (R. R. Young)
.. (W. K. Scattergood),

(SC IX)
. . (M. J. Pischke),

.. (M. L. Carpenter)
.. (M. J. Houle)

,
(SC VIII)
.. (M. D.
Johnson),
. (G. Braussen)
.. (F. L. Brown)
. (S. Malone)

. (P. Jansson)
.. (J. A. Kapp)
. (J. Keltjens)
.. (D. P. Kendall)
.. (A. K. Khare)
.. (S. C. Mordre)
.. (G. J. Mraz)
.. (K. D. Murphy)
.. (S. N. Pagay)
.. (E. H. Perez)
.. (D. T. Peters)
.. (E. D. Roll)
.. (J. F. Sullivan)
.. (F. W. Tatar)

.. (U. R. Miller)
.. (T. W. Norton)
. (F. Osweiller)
.. (R. J. Stastny)
. (S. Yokell)

xviii

.. (H. A. Sadler)
.. (C. E. Sainz)
.. (W. J. Sperko)
.. (M. J. Stanko)
.. (R. R. Young)

-
(SC IX)
.. (D. A. Bowers),

.. (V. A. Bell)
.. (L. P. Conno)r
.. (R. A. Coomes)
.. (R. B. Corbit)
.. (P. D. Flenner)
.. (K. L. Hayes)

. (G. Herrmann)
.. (M. J. Houle)
.. (W. M. Lundy)
..- (R. D. McGuire)
.. (P. P. Norris)
.. (G. W. Spohn III)

(SC IX)
.. (W. H. Bamford)
Jr.),
. (M. Kupinski),

.. (J. M. Bloom)
.. (R. C. Cipolla)
.. (R. M. Gamble)
.. (T. J. Griesbach)
. (K. Hasegawa)
.. (P. J. Hijeck)
.. (D. N. Hopkins)
. (K. Iida)
. (Y. Imamura)

(SC IX)
.. (D. A. Bowers),

.. (R. K. Brown, Jr.)


.. (D. W. Mann)
.. (A. H. Miller)
.. (P. P. Norris)
A. S. Olivares
.. (F. C. Ouyang)

.. (S. D. Reynolds, Jr.)


.. (W. J. Sperko)
. . (J. P. Swezy)
.. (P. L. Van Fosson)
.. (T. C. Wiesner)
.. (P. R. Wilt)


(SC X)
.. (A. L. Newberry)
. (D. Eisberg),
.. (D. J. Painter)

.. (P. J. Conlisk),
.. (D. J. Pinell)
-
.. (J. R. Richter)
.. (A. J. Roby),
.. (J. A. Rolston)

. (V. Sanchez)
.. (F. L. Brown)
.. (B. F. Shelley)
.. (J. L.
.. ()J. H. Skaggs
Bustillos)
.. (D. O. Yancey, Jr.)
.. (T. W. Cowley)
.. (T. J. Fowler)
.. (L. E. Hun
.. (J. C. Murphy)


(SC XII)
.. (R. E. Gimple),
.. (T. F. Lentz)

.. (J. T. Lindberg)
.. (R. L. Dyle), .. (W. E. Norris)

.. (G. C. Park)
. (O. Martinez),
.. (P. C. Riccardella)

.. (A. T. Roberts III)


.. (W. H. Bamford,
.. (W. R. Rogers)
Jr.)
. (L. Sage)
.. (R. L. Beverly)
.. (F. J. Schaaf, Jr.)
.. (C. D. Cowfer)
.. (R. J. Scott)
.. (D. D. Davis)
.. (J. C. Spanner, Jr.)
.. (T. N. Epps III)
.. (J. E. Staffiera)
.. (E. L. Farrow)
.. (R. W. Swayne)
.. (F. E. Gregor)
.. (R. A. Yonekawa)
.. (O. F. Hedden)
.. (K. K. Yoon)
.. (W. C. Holston)
. (K. Iida)
.. (R. D. Kerr)
.. (D. F. Landers)

(SC XI)
.. (S. H. Bush)
.. (L. J. Chockie)

.. (J. P. Houstrup)
.. (L. R. Katz)

. (S. Ranganath)
.. (P. C. Riccardella)
.. (D. A. Scarth)
.. (W. L. Server)
.. (C. A. Tomes)
. (A. Van Der Sluys)
.. (K. R. Wichman)
.. (G. M. Wilkowski)
.. (K. K. Yoon)
. (S. Yukawa)

(SG-ES) (SC XI)


.. (R. C. Cipolla),

.. (G. H. De Boo),

.. (W. H. Bamford,
Jr.)
. (M. Basol)
.. (J. M. Bloom)
. (E. Friedman)
. . (T. J. Griesbach)
.. (F. D. Hayes)
.. (D. N. Hopkins)
. (K. Iida)
. (Y. Imamura)
. (M. Kupinski)
.. (H. S. Mehta)
.. (J. G. Merkle)

. . (J. S. Panesar)
.. (R. K. Qashu)
. (S. Ranganath)
.. (D. A. Scarth)
.. (T. S. Schurman)
.. (W. L. Server)
.. (F. A. Simonen)
.. (K. R. Wichman)
.. (G. M. Wilkowski)
.. (K. K. Yoon)
. (S. Yukawa)
. (A. Zahoor)
.. (V. A. Zilberstein)

(SGES) (SC XI)


. . (T. J.
Griesbach),
.. (W. H. Bamford,
Jr.)
. (H. Behnke)
.. (B. A. Bishop)
.. (W. F. Brady)
. (E. Friedman)
.. (S. R. Gosselin)
.. (P. J. Hijeck)
. (M. Kupinski)
.. (S. D. Leshnoff)
. (P. Manbeck)
.. (H. S. Mehta)

. (R. Pace)
. . (J. S. Panesar)
.. (D. W. Peltola)
.. (J. R. Pfefferle)
(S. Ranganath)
. . (S. T. Rosinski)
.. (W. L. Server)
.. (E. A. Siegel)
.. (F. A. Simonen)
.. (G. L. Stevens)
.. (K. K. Yoon)
. (S. Yukawa)


(SG-ES) (SC XI)
.. (D. A. Scarth),

.. (G. M.
Wilkowski),
.. (W. H. Bamford,
Jr.)
.. (R. C. Cipolla)
.. (N. G. Cofie)
.. (S. K. Daftuar)
.. (G. H. De Boo)
. (E. Friedman)
.. (L. F. Goyette)
. (K. Hasegawa)

.. (P. H. Hoang)
.. (D. N. Hopkins)
. (K. Iida)
.. (K. K. Kashima)
.. (H. S. Mehta)
.. (J. S. Panesar)
.. (K. K. Yoon)
. (S. Yukawa)
(A. Zahoor)
.. (V. A. Zilberstein)


(SC XI)
.. - (C. G.
McCargar),
.. (W. L. Chase)
. (S. Hattori)

xix

. (R. Hundal)
.. (R. W. King)
. (W. Kwant)

,
(SGLMCS (SC XI)
.. (W. L. Chase),

. (S. Hattori)

. (R. Hundal)

(SC XI)
. . (J. C.
Spanner, Jr.),
.. (C. J. Wirtz),

.. (D. C.
Adamonis)
.. (N. R. Bentley)
. (B. Bevins)
.. (C. B. Cheezem)
.. (C. D. Cowfer)
.. (F. J. Dodd)

.. (T. N. Epps III)


.. (D. O. Henry)
.. (M. R. Hum)
.. (G. A. Lofthus)
.. - (J. J. McArdle III)
.. (M. C. Modes)
.. (F. J. Schaaf, Jr.)
.. (M. F. Sherwin)



(SG-NDE) (SC XI)
.. - (J. J.
McArdle III),
.. (M. F. Sherwin),

.. (D. R. Cordes)
.. (B. L. Curtis)
.. (D. O. Henry)
.. (A. S. Reed)

. (D. Spake)
.. (J. C. Spanner, Jr.)
.. (S. H. Von Fuchs)
.. ) (D. S. Whitcomb)
.. (C. J. Wirtz)

-
(SG-RR&M) (SC XI)
.. (T. E. Hiss),

.. (J. T. Conner),

.. (S. B. Brown)
.. (E. B. Gerlach)
.. (W. C. Holston)


(SG-RR&M) (SC XI)
.. (R. A. Yonekawa),

.. (R. R. Stevenson),

.. (S. K. Fisher)
.. (D. R. Graham)

.. (R. J. Cimoch)
.. (G. L. Fechter)
. (A. Lee)
.. - (J. K.
McClanahan)
.. (B. L. Montgomery)

.. (C. E. Hartz)
.. (M. F. Hendricks)
.. - (M. S. McDonald)
.. (S. M. Swilley)


(SG-RR&M) (SC XI)
.. (D. E. Waskey),

.. (R. E. Cantrell),

. (G. Cheruvenki)
.. (P. D. Fisher)
. . (A. J.
Giannuzzi)
.. (R. A. Hermann)
.. (R. P. Indap)


(SG-NDE) (SC XI)
.. (D. W. Lamond),

.. (J. M.
Boughman),
.. (T. M. Anselmi)
.. (T. R.
Bugelholl)
.. (J. J.
Churchwell)

.. (E. V. Imbro)
.. (D. F. Landers)
.. (W. R. Rogers)
.. (R. W. Swayne)
.. (A. H. Taufique)

.. (R. D. Kerr)
.. (C. C. Kim)
. (M. Lau)
.. (B. R. Newton)
.. (P. P. Norris)
.. (J. E. OSullivan)
.. (K. R. Willens)

(SC XI)
.. (G. C. Park),

.. (K. B. Thomas),

.. (J. M. Agold)
.. (G. L. Belew)
.. (J. M. Boughman)
.. (W. J. Briggs)
.. (T. R. Bugelholl)
. (R. E. Ciemiewicz)
.. (D. D. Davis)
.. (R. L. Dyle)
.. (E. L. Farrow)
.. (O. F. Hedden)
.. (M. L. Herrera)
.. (S. D. Kulat)

.. (D. W. Lamond)
.. (T. F. Lentz)
.. (J. T. Lindberg)
.. (M. P. Lintz)
.. (W. E. Norris)
. (C. Pendleton)
.. (J. E. Staffiera)
.. (H. M. Stephens)
. (E. Throckmorton)
.. (S. M. Walker)
.. (R. A. West)
. (J. Whitman)
. (H. Graves)

(SG-WCS) (SC XI)

(SG-NDE) (SC XI)


V/R/ Vjelc (M. C. Modes),
Ghtlctlfntkm
. (B. Bevins),

.. (F. L. Becker)
.. (N. R. Bentley)
.. (C. B. Cheezem)
.. (S. R. Doctor)
.. (F. J. Dodd)

.. (T. N. Epps III)


. (B. Kellerhall)
.. (D. B. King)
. (D. Kurek)
.. (G. L. Lagleder)
.. (G. A. Lofthus)
.. (S. M. Walker)

. . (J. E. Staffiera),

.. (H. M. Stephens),

.. (H. G. Ashar)
.. (W. J. Briggs)
... (K. K. N. Chao)
.. (R. C. Cox)
.. (M. J. Ferlisi)
. (H. Graves)

, (SC XI)
.. (W. C. Holston),

.. (D. E. Waskey),

.. (M. N. Bressler)
.. (R. E. Cantrell)
.. (P. D. Fisher)
.. (R. E. Gimple)
.. (C. E. Hartz)
.. (R. A. Hermann)
.. (T. E. Hiss)
.. (E. V. Imbro)

.. (R. D. Kerr)
.. (D. F. Landers)
.. (M. S. McDonald)
.. (W. R. Rogers)
. . (R. J. Scott)
.. (R. R. Stevenson)
.. (R. W. Swayne)
.. (S. M. Swilley)
.. (R. A. Yonekawa)

xx

.. (H. T. Hill)
.. (R. D. Hough)
C. N. Krishnaswamy
.. (W. M. Lazear)
.. (M. P. Lintz)
. (D. Naus)
.. (S. C. Petitgout)
.. (G. W. Robin)


(SG-WCS) (SC XI)
.. (S. D. Kulat),

.. (J. M. Agold),

.. (S. A. Ali)
.. (B. A. Bishop)
.. (J. W. Connor)
.. (H. Q. Do)
. (R. Fougerousse)
.. (S. R. Gosselin)
.. (M. R. Graybeal)
.. (M. L. Herrera)

.. (J. T. Lindberg)
. (I. Mach)
.. (R. K. Mattu)
. - (A. McNeill III)
. . (P. J. ORegan)
.. (M. J. Patera)k
.. (J. H. Phillips)
.. (F. A. Simonen)
.. (R. A. West)
.. (D. S. Whitcomb)

-
(SC XII)
.. (M. D. Rana),

. C. (Becht IV)
.. (D. A. Canonico)
.. (W. D. Doty)
.. (G. G. Karcher)
.. (P. P. Laluc)
. (M. Manikkam)
.. - (S. L.
McWilliams)

(SG-WCS) (SC XI)


. (E. Throckmorton),

. (J. Whitman),
.. (G. L. Belew)
.. (H. Q. Do)
. (R. Fougerousse)
.. (M. R. Hum)
.. (S. D. Kulat)
.. (J. T. Lindberg)

(I. Mach)
.. - (T. K.
McLellan)
. (C. Pendleton)
.. (C. M. Ross)
. (D. Song)
.. (K. B. Thomas)
.. (R. A. West)

.. (R. K. Mattu)
. (K. Rhyne)
. (L. Sage)
.. (R. J. Scott)


(SC XI)
.. (R. W. Swayne),

.. (R. L. Beverly)
.. (M. P. Lintz)

. (L. Sage)
.. (J. E. Staffiera)
. . (C. J. Wirtz)


(SC XI)
.. (F. E. Grego,

.. (M. P. Lintz),

.. (T. M. Anselmi)
.. (W. F. Brady)

.. (D. D. Davis)
.-. (P.-T. Kuo)
.. (W. M. Lazear)
.. (T. A. Meyer)

.. (J. H. Rader)
.. (M. D. Rana)
.. (C. M. Serratella)
. (S. Staniszewski)
.. (G. R. Stoeckinger)
. (N. Surtees)
.. (A. P. Varghese)
.. (S. V. Voorhees)
.. (C. H. Walters)

.. (L. D. Holsinger)
.. (J. E. Jones)
.. (D. J. Kreft)
. - (G. McRae)
.. (M. R. Minick)
. (N. Surtees)

(SC XII)
.. (C. H. Hochman),

. (T. Alexander)
.. (D. M. Allbritten)
.. (C. A. Betts)
.. (J. F. Cannon)
.. (J. L. Freiler)
.. (W. L. Garfield)
.. (M. A. Garret)t

.. (K. L. Gilmore)
.. (J. C. Keenan)
.. (T. B. Lee)
.. (F. A. Licari)
.. (G. R. Stoeckinger)
.. (C. H. Walters)
. (L. Wolpert)



(SC-BPVA)
.. (A. J. Spencer),

.. (C. E. Ford),
.. (K. I. Baron),

.. (M. B. Doherty)
.. (P. D. Edwards)
.. (R. M. Elliott)
.. (R. C. Howard)
.. - (B. B.
MacDonald)
.. (M. L. Sisk)
. (N. Surtees)

(SC XII)
. (A. Selz),

.. (P. D. Stumpf),

.. (A. N.
Antoniou)
. (C. Becht IV)
.. (C. H. Hochman)
.. (J. E. Jones)
.. (G. G. Karcher)
. - (G. McRae)
.. (M. R. Minick)

(SC XII)

. . (S. V. Voorhees),

. (M. Burch)
.. (D. A. Canonico)
.. (M. L. Coats)
.. (J. J.
Engelking)
.. (B. L. Gehl)
. (M. Hennemand)

(SC XI)
.. (A. T. Roberts
III),
.. (R. G. Edl),

.. (D. A. Jackson)
.. (D. W. Kinley III)
.. (E. J. Maloney)

.. (T. P. Pastor)
.. (J. L. Rademacher)
.. (T. A. Rogers)
.. (C. M. Serratella)
.. (A. P. Varghese)
.. (M. R. Ward)
.. (E. A. Whittle)

.. (B. C. Turczynski)
.. (W. J. Bees),
.. (V. A. Bell),
.. (M. A. DeVries),

.. (T. E. Hansen),
.. (L. J. Kuchera),

.. (W. C. LaRochelle),

.. - (K. M. McTague),

.. (G. P. Milley),
.. (B. R. Morelock),


(SC-NA)
.. (T. E. Quaka),

.. (R. R. Stevenson),
-
.. (M. C. Tromba),

. (V. Bogosian)
.. (M. N. Bressler)
. (G. Deily)
.. (F. R. Drahos)
.. (J. E. Harris)
. (M. Higuchi)
. (M. Kotb)
.. (W. C. LaRochelle)
.. - (R. P. McIntyre)
.. (H. B. Prasse)
.. (A. T. Roberts III)
.. (A. J. Spencer)

xxi

.. (R. E. Ciemiewicz),

. (S. Dasgupta),
.. (P. D. Edwards),

.. (S. M. Goodwin),

.. (D. H. Hanrath),

.. (R. C. Howard),

.. (K. A. Huber),

. (C. Lizotte),
.. (A. A. Lotfi),
.. (M. R. Minick),

.. (J. W. Stokes),

. (T. Suzuki),
.. (O. E. Trapp),

-
(SC-D)
.. (D. P. Jones),
.. (R. W. Mikitka)

.. (U. R. Miller)
.. (E. H.
.. (W. J. ODonnell)
Maradiaga),
.. (R. D. Schueler, Jr.)
.. (R. W. Barnes)
. (A. Selz)
C. Becht IV
.. (M. R. Breach)
.. (G. G. Graven)

(SC-D)
.. (M. R. Breach),

.. (R. W. Mikitka),

.. (G. G. Graven)
.. (V. T. Hwang)
.. (R. B. Luney)

-
(SC-D)
.. (M. R. Breach)
.. (P. J. Conlisk)
.. (R. J. Gurdal)
.. (J. L. Hechmer)
... (G. L.
Hollinger)
.. (D. P. Jone)s

. (A. Kalnins)
.. (W. J. Koves)
. (O. Maekawa)
. (G. Taxacher)
.. (E. L. Thomas, Jr.)
.. (R. A. Whipple)


(SC-D)
.. (R. W. Mikitka),

.. (G. D. Bibel)
. (E.
Michalopoulos)
.. (S. N. Pagay)

,
(SC-D)
. (C. Becht IV),

.. (J. M. Corum),

.. (C. R.
Brinkman)
.. (R. D.
Campbell)
.. (D. S. Griffin)
.. (R. I. Jetter)
. (C. Lawton)

.. (W. J. ODonnell)
.. (D. A. Osage)
.. (J. S. Porowski)
.. (C. C. Schultz, Jr.)
.. (L. K. Severud)
.. (D. F. Shaw)
.. (A. L. Snow)

,
(SC-D)
. . (W. J.
ODonnell),
.. (P. R. Donavin)
.. (R. J. Gurdal)
.. (J. A. Hayward)
. . (J. L. Hechmer)
.. (D. P. Jones)
. (G.
Kharshafdjian)

. (C. Lawton)
. (S. Majumdar)
.. (M. J. Manjoine)
. (J. Muscara)
. (G. Taxacher)
.. (H. H. Ziada)

.. (J. P. Madden)
.. (D. R. Palmer)
.. (M. D. Rana)
.. (E. C. Rodabaugh)

.. (P. G.
Scheckermann)
.. (R. W. Schneider)
.. (R. D. Schueler, Jr.)
. (A. Selz)


,
(SC-SVR)
.. (M. D. Bernstein),

.. (S. F. Harrison, Jr.),


-
. (U. DUrso),
.. (J. F. Ball)
. (S. Cammeresi)
.. (J. A. Cox)
.. (R. D. Danzy)
.. (D. B. Demichael)
.. (R. J. Doelling)
.. (H. I. Gregg)

.. (P. C. Hackford)
. (F. Hart)
.. (C. A. Neumann)
.. (J. W. Reynolds)
.. (D. J. Scallan)
.. (A. J. Spencer)
.. (J. C. Standfast)
. . (J. A. West)
.. (T. J. Ferrigan),

- (SC-SVR)
.. (R. D. Danzy),

.. (D. B. Demichael)
.. (R. J. Doelling)
.. (H. I. Gregg)

. (D. Miller)
.. (A. J. Spencer)
.. (T. R. Tarbay)
.. (J. A. West)

(SC-SVR)
.. (J. C. Standfast),

.. (J. F. Ball)
.. (J. P. Glaspie)
.. (P. C. Hackford)

.. (C. A. Neumann)
.. (J. W. Reynolds)
.. (J. W. Richardson)

(SC-SVR)
.. (S. F. Harrison, Jr.),

. (S. Cammeresi)
. . (J. A. Cox)
. (F. Hart)

xxii

.. (K. C. Roy)
.. (D. J. Scallan)
. (Z. Wang)

AG

AG
G-1
AG-100
AG-110
AG-120
AG-121
AG-121.1
AG-121.2
AG-121.3
AG-130
AG-140
AG-150
AG-151


3
.
3
..
3
..
4
..
4

4
, ..5
..
5

5
..
5
C, ..
5
..
10

G-2
AG-200
AG-200.1
AG-200.2
ag-201
11
AG-201.1
AG-201-2
AG-201.3

..
..
..
..
.

11
11
11
11

11
11
11

G-3
AG-300
AG-301
AG-301.1
AG-301.2
AG-302
AG-302.1
AG-302.2
AG-302.3
AG-303


..
..

.
.


.
.

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13

AG-140.1
AG-140.2

6
8

AG-150.1

..

G-1

AG-100

() ,

, , .
,
,
. ,
,

,
,

,
1.
()(1)
(2) ,
,
2 ,

,

, AG-301.1,
.
(2) , ,
, ,

3

,

,

, AG-301.1,
. ,
, ,
,
,

.
() ,

-

AD-100 (. AD150.1).
()


.
()
,
I, III IV
.
()

, ,

I, ,
.
() 1
VIII, 2
,
,
,
,

;

.
AG-110

2
, .




. ,

,
,

,
.


,
,

, ,
, .
2

, .
3


,

,
,

-
.

AG
AG-120


4
:
() ,
;
(1)

(. AD420.1 AD-602);
(2)

;
(3)

;
(4)

.
() ,


. ,

, . D-9.
() ,
, ;
()
,
, ,
, .
()

AR 10.
AG-121

,

; , ,
,
AG-100(b)

U-2:
() ,
;
() ;
() ,

-
(, , ,
,
)
/
,
;

() , AG-120(e),
,

,
( );
() (, ,

,
,
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,


;
() 120

,
;
() -
-
,
:
(1) 200,000 /
(58.6 kW) ;
(2) 210F (99);
(3) 120
(454 );
() ,
(. AD-121.3) 15
(./2) (103 kPa)
(. AD-300);
() , , ,
6
(152 ),
;
() ,
.5

.
AG-121.1

.
,
1,
I VIII, 1.
, ,

VIII, 1 2:
() ,
;

,

, , ..
.

,
, ASME PVHO-1.

AG
() ,
,
.
AG-121.2

,

. ,
AG100(b),
,
,
.
AG-121.3 .

,
,

(. AD-102).
AG-130

().
AG-140


, VIII, 1
2 ,

.
.

,

, , ,

.
AG140.1.
AG-140.2.

,
AD D-11, AF
F-8, AI I-1 AS S-4.
18 I-1,


,

.

:
() . ,
/
.
() . ,
.
() .
, .
() . ,
, ,
, . (

.)
() .
,
.
() . ,



.
() . ,

(
)


:
()
.
() ,
,
(
),


. ,
U-2,

,
, -1

.
() ,
, ,
U-2,
.

-2


( ,
,
,
) ,
,
.
U-2

-1
.
, ,
-1


. , ,
-

AG
AG-140.1

AG-140.1
Note

AG
. (e-2)

. (e-1)

:
(1)
(2) ( )
(3)
(4) ( )
(5)
(6)

AG-140.1 ( )

AG

(1)
(2)
(3)

:

( )

AG-140.2

AG
AG-150.1


, ,


,
,


( NPS 26 NPS 60)
( )




ASNT
ASNT ,



, -





( 2 4 ( 51 114 ))

( )

-


( 4 12 ( 114 305 )
2

ASME B.1
ASME B1.20.1
ASME B16.5
ASME B16.9
ASME B16.11
ASME B16.20

1989
1983(R1992)(1)
1996
1993
1991
1993

ASME/ANSI
B16.28
ASME B16.47
ASME/ANSI
B18.2.2
ANSI/ASME
B36.10M
ASME PTC 25
ASME QAI-1
API 527
AP
ANSI/ASNT
CP-189
SNT-TC-1A

1986
1996
1987(R1993)(1)
1985
1994
(2)
1991
. 3, 1997
1995
1996, A98

ASTM E 83
ASTM E 125

1990
1963(R1985)(1)

ASTM E 127

1982a(R1989)(1)

ASTM E 140
ASTM E 186

1988
1998

ASTM E 208

1987a

ASTM E 272

1975(R1989)(1)

ASTM E 280

1998

ASTM E 446

1998

:
(1) R
(2) . AI-110.

AG

.
AG-150

()
, , , ANSI,

,
.
AG-150.1
.
()
.

AG-151
,


, ,
,
:
()
(-), ()
,
,
,
.

10

AG

G-2

AG-200

2 8
.
AG-200.1
() AG ,

,

,
.
() :
(1)
,
;
(2)

;
(3)

,
, .
() AD
.
() AF ,
.
() AR
.
() AI


() AS
.

AG-200.2 .
,
,

, ,
,
.

.

AG-201
AG-201.1 .
.
, , , G-1,
.
AG-201-2 .
, ,
, .

, ,
, , , AD-140,
.
()
,
.
()

. , ,
.
AG-201.3 . ,
- , ,

, .

11

G-3

AG-300

, , ,
,

,

.


.
AG-301
AG-301.1

6,
, ,
,
, ,
.

,

,
, ,
.

, AD-110,

.
()


7, ,
,

,
(. 5-102)
5.


,

AD-160
,

.

,
6

, ,

.
7
AD-160

, 5.

AD-160.
() , ,

, ,
,
.
() ,
,
,
,
,

8.

,

.

[. -204, AF402 AF-820(d)].
()

-
, AG-301.1,
AG-301.1(a), AG-301.1(b) AG-301(c).
AG-301.2
.



-

AG-302

AG-302.1


() -

,



.
() ,
- ,
,
8


, ,
,
.
,

.

12

,
,
,
- .
() , ,


(
. AF-140.1 AF-210).
,

.

, - ,
,

.
()


, AS-300.
AG-302.2 .

,
,



,
.

,
. AD-160,


5.

AG-302.3
.



-

.


- , , 5-
.

().
AG-303


,
; ,


,
, ,
,
,
,
. ,


; , ,


,
.

-1

AM-100
() ,
,
, II
,
ACS-1, AHA-1, AQT-1, ANF-1.1, ANF-1.2, ANF1.3, ANF-1.4, ABM-1, ABM-1.1, ABM-1.2, ABM-1.3,
ABM-2. ,


.

6 II D.


,
.
(b) ,
,
, II
,
,

,
. ,

,

.
()

. AD 160.1
AD 160.2, ,
,
5,
.

,
,
, ,
,
.
(d) ,
, ,
,
,
5 II, D.
-100.1

,
.
,
,
AF-605.
AM-101


,
,

.

, ,
,
.

,
, (. AF101).
-105
,
,
,

,
,
, AS-310,
, -105.1 -105.2.
,
,
,


,
,

,
.


,
,
, ,
.

.
. -105.1 105.2
( D-8). , -105.1
-105.2,

, ,
.
,

19

(AG-301.1 ())
-250 420.
105.1 ,
, .
() , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,

-101
.
, ,
ANSI9
,
ANSI.
, ,
10,11,

.
, ANSI,


, .

, ,


,
,
AD-150 AD-160.
,
,

,

,
ANSI,
AG-150.1. ANSI

, .
10
, ,
,
,
.
,
,
.
11
, ,
ANSI 1,

2

20

(b)
,
.

, .
(), ,
,
D-7 3
.
() ASME B16.9

, ,

,
.
ASME B16.9 .
-105.2 , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,


-101.

,

21

-2


-200

-201

-201.1
()

, ,
(b), (c) (d) ().
,

.
(b)
,

, 1t
, t
.
() , ,
,
, ,
, ,

1/4t 1t .
,
, ()
-202.1 3t
x 3t x t, t .
(d) ,

, ,

, AD-701.1. (.
20).
()
,

,
G
(. SA-20) ,
, ,
.

AF-101.

-200.1
,
, -100
,
,

-201 -202
,
.
-200.2 .
.


() .
.
(b) . ,
:
(1)
.

( ).
(2)
.
( ).
(3)
. 2
(51 .),
( ,
).
(4)

.
.
() .
, .

,
.
-200.3 .

0.35%

(
).

22

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



(19 .)

1 (38 .)
.
(d)
,
,
.
(1)
,
,
.
(2)
()
, .
(3)
,
.
-201.4 () (b).

-201.2 .

.
-201.3
()

,
-201.3 (b).
(b)
1/4t


.
()



.

-201.5
()
ASTM -202,

,
2 (51 .).
(b) 2 (51 .)
,
1/4t

1t
.
.
() ,

,
,
, ,

.
,
,
.
,
,
,



,
.

(19 .)
1 (38 .)
.
(d)
, ,

.
(1)
,
,
, .

201.4
()

,
-201.4 (b), () (d).
(b)
,

,
1/4t
,
1t .
t x t, t


,

-202.1.
()
, ,
, ,


,
, ,
,
,
,,
.

.
,
,

,
, ,



,
..

23

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

,
.

(2)

()
, ,
,
-202.1.
(3)

,
.


-203
-203.1
() . (b),
4 (102 .) ,

SA-435.
(b)
, SA-263, SA-264
SA-265,

, SA-578,
S6,
.
() (),


() .
,
20.

-202

. 113.
-202.1 ,




,

, ,
,
(. -201.4 () -201.5 ()).

,
.
,

.
() ,

,

(1/4t),
, ,
,
250F (140) 20 ,

.
(b)
:
(1)
1t , t
;
(2)
1t ,
, ;
(3)
,
.
()
,

,
-202.1 ().
(d)

-203.2 .
4 (102 .)
,
SA-388,
203.2 (). ,

.
.
()
,
,
,
.
(b)
:
(1) ,
1 1
1/8 (25 29 .) 1
(25 .) .
, ,
2.25 /.,

,
1 /.
,
75 5% ,

.
(2) , 1 1
(25 .) 1 (25 13 .) 45

1 ..

3/8 (10
.) 3% (3/8
(10 .)), 1

24

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(25 .)
.
(3) , ,
, ()
,
, .
(4) ,


.

.


. ,
,

,

.


,
.

,
,

.
()
:
(1)
,

,
;
(2)
,
,
.
(d) ,


:
(1) ,

;
(2) ,
,

,

(

,
, ).
() ,


:
(1)
50% ;

-204.1




0
F
ksi
(0C)
()
( (1))

:
(1)

.
(2)


50% . (
,

10%

,
, 2 (51 .)
)
(f)

.
-204

-213, -214
-218,
-204.1
,
, ,
, ,
,

.

ACS-1 .. 211.1 -211.2.
-1
.. -213.

AQT-1 .. -310.

-2.
-214.
-204.1
()

SA-370.
(b) -204.1,


(. AD-121.2 (f)).
-204.2
()
.

25

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(b)
V-
, SA-370
( ).
10 10 .,
,
180 / (133)

.
(10 . 6.7 .)
.
75 / (55.4
) , .
() ,
, -
, - ,

,
,

. -211.3 (b)
ACS-1,

95 ksi (655 ),
80% . ,

,
.
,
,
0.099 (2.5 .).
,

550F (-480), -218.2.

(2)

. (. -112)

(b)
,
,
,
,
, ,
.
-205


, ,
,
(19.),
, .

, .
.
-210

-211
,
( . -214)
-211.1
ACS-1

95 ksi (655 Mpa).

,
-211,

,
-204.2(b).

-204.3
()
,
-201.
(b) ,
, 20
,
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
, 204.2(b),
(. -204.2.() ).

-211.2
.

,

,
ACS-1,
95 ksi (655 Mpa)
AQT-1,
, ,
-211.2.
-1,

,
,
0.015 (0.38 .), MDMTSs ,
3200F (-1960C) ,

(SMAW),
(GMAW)

(GTAW).

() (b), .

-204.4

()
,

:
(1)
, (. -204.3 ())

,
;

26

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

C V,ft- lb (J) ( )

:
() .
(b) , 2/3 ,

() , SA-320, SA-333, SA-334, SA-350, SA352, SA-420, SA-437, SA-508, 5 2, SA-540 ( , 2
4 ) SA-765, .

, .
(d) 95 ksi (655Ma) . -211.2.
-211 V-
,
, 95 ksi (655 MPa),
ASC 1

27

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



, 80%
, ACS-1 c
95
ksi (655 ),
, .1
, ( -211.1)



. (
-204.2 (b)).
ACS-1,
, 95ksi (655 MPa),
AQT-1 AHA-1,
,
.

()
316L:
(1)
(FN) 5,


-211.3;
(2)

3200F (-1960C)
(3)


,
0.021 (0.53 .).
(b) ,
316L ,

. (), :
(1)

, MDMT, ASTM E
1820 J IC ;
(2)
TL KJC (J) ,
120ksi ;
(3)
(FN) FN,
.

-211.4
() .
,
SA370.
(b)
(1) ,
,
;
() ACS-1,
95 ksi (655
MPa) AQT-1

,
-211.2;
(b) -1 MDMTs
, 3200F (-1960C),

, 0.015 (0.38 .),
2/3 ;
() -1 MDMT
3200F (-1960C),

, 0.018
(0.46 .), 0.015 (0.38 .);
(d) AQT-1,

,
_211.2, 2/3 ;
(2)
. ,
AQT-1 ACS-1,
95ksi (655 ) ,

, ,
-211.2 .
-1,
, 0.015
(0.38 .), MDMTs
-3200F (-1960C),

-211.3


.
()
0.394 (10 .).

0.315 (8.; . -211.1),

,
.1

, 0.315 (8.)

,
,1 ,
-211.1. (
-204.2 (b) ).
(b) , 0.394
(10 .).
80%
,
,
.1
1

ASC-1
AHA-1.
-204.1
(b).

28

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

V-

CV (.)

-211.1
V-

-211.2 V-
ACS-1,
95 ksi (655) AQT-1

29

30
-213.3

:
() .
:
(1) GMAW 0.08%, - 0.12%.
(2) 0.06%.
(b) WRC-1992,

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

, 0.099 (2.5.).
()
.

70 0F (210C)
, ,

:
(1) ,
9000F 1,6500F (4820C - 9000C).
304, 304L, 316, 316L,
9000F
1,300 0F (4820C 7040C)
,
MDMT 200F
(-290C) ,


;
(2) -

6000F 1.7500F (3160C 9540C)
(3)


8000F 1.3500F (4270C 7320C)

-211.1



ACS-1 c
95 ksi (655
),
80%

(. -211.3 (b))

0

F (0C)

. ( 1)
0.394 (10.01) (
)
0.354 (8.99)
0.315 (8.00)
0.295 (7.49) (3/4 )
0.276 (7.01)
0.262 (6.65) (2/3 )
0.236 (5.99)
0.197 (5.00) (1/2 )
0.158 (4.01)
0.131 (3.33) (1/3 )
0.118 (3.00)
0.099 (2.51) (1/4 )

0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
5 (2.8)
8 (4.4)
10 (5.6)
15 (8.3)
20 (11.1)
30 (16.7)
35 (19.4)
40 (22.2)
50 (27.8)

:
(1)
.

MDMTs -3200C (-1960C), . 211.2.


(2) ,
,

.
,



, -211.2.
()
,

.
-204.2(b)
75 - (55.4 .) ,

(10 . 10 .).

(b)

.


(MDMTs), .()
.
(1)

-
:
() 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 321, 347
MDMTs -320F (-196C) .
(b) , . ()
, 3
0.10%, MDMT -320F (-196C) .
() ,
3 0.10%, MDMT -55F (48C) .
(d) MDMT -20F (-29C)
.
(2)

- ( 200)
:
() 3,
0.10% MDMT -320F (-196C)
.

-213


,

-211.2 ,
-1.

,
.. (b), (c) (d), -213.1.


.
3
,
,
.

31

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

(b) 3,
0.10% MDMT -55F (-48C) ;
() MDMT -20F (-29C) .


:
(1)
,
,
,
- ;
(2)
(WPSs)
(PQRs),
,
-204 ( 211),
, (PQR)

,
.
(3) (
)
0.10%;
(4)

,
SFA-5.4, SFA-5.9, SFA-5.11, SFA-5.14 SFA5.22. .

(3)

MDMT -20F (-29C) .
() -
3/8 (10 .)
;
(b) ,
1/8 (3.2 .)
;
() ,
1/8 (3.2 .)
;
()
.

,

(MDMTs), . () .
(1)

-
, 3
0.10%,
, MDMT -155F (-104C)
;
(2) :
() , 0.10%

SFA-5.4, SFA-5.9, SFA-5.11, SFA-5.14, SFA-5.22
MDMT -155F (-104C) ;
(b) , 0.10%

SFA-5.4, SFA-5.9, SFA-5.11, SFA-5.14, SFA-5.22
MDMT -55F (-48C) .

() ,



,
MDMT
, . () (2) ,
II, , SFA-5.4, A9.12.
-211.2.
(b) ,


,
MDMT , . () (2)
, II, , SFA-5.4,
A9.12. 211.2.
() ,
,
,
. MDMT
, .
() (2) ,

,
.
(d) ,

, ,
, -2,


, :
ENiCrFe-2; ENiCrFe-3; ENiCrMo-3; ENiCrMo-4; ENiCrMo6; ERNiCr-3; ER-NiCrMo- 3; ERNiCrMo-4; SFA-5.4, E31015 16.
()

, ,
, -2,

(3) ,
,
, .(b)
(3) , (
),
MDMT -20F (-29C) :
() - ;
(b) ;
() .
(d)
.
, -203
MDMT -320F (-196C) ,

,
. MDMT , -320F (-196C),
ASTM E
1820 JIC 211.2.

,

--
MDMTs -320F (-196C),

32

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


, :
ER308L, ER316L, ER310
GMAW, GTAW, PAW.

, , ,
, , , ,
, ,

,
, ,
.
,
,
(), (b) (),

. 218.1 .
() , tg
, :
(1) ,

, -218.2, ();
(2) ,


.
(3)
, , .(2)
, 4.
(4) , ,
(,
),

,
,


( 218.2, (b)).

4 (102 )

900F (320C) ,
.

-213.1
.
-1 ,
, -213(),

, 0.3.
-214

.214.1 ,
ABM-1
()
-1,
-1.2 1.3,
,
.
(b) ,
, -1
SA-320, ,

V- ,
-211.
-214.2 ,
-2.
,
,
4, 5 6, (. -2).
V-
,
30 / (133 N),
25 / (111
N).
-218 ,

(b)
.
() ,
,
,
4.
(d)
,
4
.
()
4 (102 )
900F (320C)
, .

, -218.2.

-218.1

,
. -218.1,

, , ACS1. ,

(. AD121.2 (f)) , ,
.

,

, ,
-2,
.
4

, AD-110,
.

: -204,
,
,
, 211.

33

0F (0)

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

123

()
( 4 (102 )

-218.1

34

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-218.1
:
() -218.1.
(b) , (1) (2) , .
() -214.
(d) (1) (4) , .
() , (1) (4):
(1) , ,
, , .
(2) , SA-20.

:
(1) , :
() , , ,
2 4.
(b) SA-216 WCB WCC SA-217 WC6, .
(2) , B:
() SA-216 WCA, ,
WCB WCC , 2 (51),
.
(b) SA-217 WC9, ;
() SA-285 ;
(d) SA-414 ;
() SA-515 60
(f) SA-516 65 70, ;
(g) SA-612, ;
(h) SA-662 , ;
(i) , , ,
(3) (4) ;
(j) , , (3) (4) ;
(k) , -105, ,
;
(3) :
() SA-182 21 22, ;
(b) SA-302 D;
() SA-336 F21 F22, ;
(d) SA-387 21 22, ;
() SA-516 55 60, ;
(f) SA-533 ;
(g) SA-662 ;
(h) , (2) , ,
(4) ;
(4) , D:
() SA-203;
(b) SA-508 1;
() SA-516, ;
(d) SA-524 1 2;
() SA-537 1,2 3;
(f) SA-612, ;
(g) SA-662, ;
(h) SA-738 ;
(i) SA-738 Cb V, ,
200F (-290);
(j) SA-738 , 200F (-290).

(1)
,
;
(2) ,
, -218.4 ()
200F (-290),
, 550F (-480),

MDMT

SFA;

-218.2

,

, -211,
.
() , ,
,
-211,
:

35

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



-218.1
-218.1


SI


F
B, F
C, F
D, F
s, mm
A, C B, C
C, C
D, C
0.25
18
-20
-55
-55
6.4
-8
-29
-48
-48
0.3125
18
-20
-55
-55
7.9
-8
-29
-48
-48
0.375
18
-20
-55
-55
9.5
-8
-29
-48
-48
0.4375
25
-13
-40
-55
11.1
-4
-25
-40
-48
0.5
32
-7
-34
-55
12.7
0
-22
-37
-48
0.5625
37
-1
-26
-50
14.3
3
-18
-32
-46
0.625
43
5
-22
-48
15.9
6
-15
-30
-44
0.6875
48
10
-18
-45
17.5
9
-12
-28
-43
0.75
53
15
-15
-42
19.1
12
-9
-26
-41
0.8125
57
19
-12
-39
20.6
14
-7
-24
-39
0.875
61
23
-9
-36
22.2
16
-5
-23
-38
0.9375
65
27
-6
-33
23.8
18
-3
-21
-36
1.0
68
31
-3
-31
25.4
20
-1
-19
-35
1.0625
72
34
-1
-28
27.0
22
1
-18
-33
1.125
75
37
2
-26
28.6
24
3
-17
-32
1.1875
77
40
2
-24
30.2
25
4
-17
-31
1.25
80
43
6
31.8
27
6
-14
-30
-22
1.3125
82
45
8
-19
33.3
28
7
-13
-28
1.375
84
47
10
-18
34.9
29
8
-12
-28
1.4375
86
49
12
-16
36.5
30
9
-11
-27
1.5
88
51
14
-14
38.1
31
11
-10
-26
1.5625
90
53
16
-13
39.7
32
12
-9
-25
1.625
92
55
17
-11
41.3
33
13
-8
-24
1.6875
93
57
19
-10
42.9
34
14
-7
-23
1.75
94
58
20
-8
44.5
34
14
-7
-22
1.8125
96
59
22
-7
46.0
36
15
-6
-22
1.875
97
61
23
-6
47.6
36
16
-5
-21
1.9375
98
62
24
-5
49.2
37
17
-4
-21
2.0
99
63
26
-4
50.8
37
17
-3
-20
2.0625
100
64
27
-3
52.4
38
18
-3
-19
2.125
101
65
28
-2
54.0
38
18
-2
-19
2.1875
102
66
29
-1
55.6
39
19
-2
-18
2.25
102
67
30
0
57.2
39
19
-1
-18
2.3125
103
68
31
1
58.7
39
20
-1
-17
2.375
104
69
32
2
60.3
40
21
0
-17
2.4375
105
70
33
3
61.9
41
21
1
-16
2.5
. 105
71
34
4
63.5
41
22
1
-16
2.5625
106
72
35
5
65.1
41
22
2
-15
2.625
107
73
36
6
66.7
42
23
2
-14
2.6875
107
74
37
7
68.3
42
23
3
-14
2.75
108
74
38
8
69.9
42
23
3
-13
2.8125
108
75
39
9
71.4
42
24
4
-13
2.875
109
76
40
9
73.0
43
24
4
-13
2.9375
109
77
41
10
74.6
43
25
5
-12
3.0
110
78
41
11
76.2
43
26
5
-12
( )
36

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AM-218.

2AM-218.3
218.1
-218.1


SI
,

A, F
B, F
C, F
D,F
mm
A, C B, C
C, C
D, C
3.0625
ill
78
42
12
77.8
44
26
6
-11
3.125
ill
79
43
13
79.4
44
26
6
-11
3.1875
112
80
44
13
81.0
44
27
7
-11
3.25
112
81
44
14
82.6
44
27
7
-10
3.3125
113
81
45
15
84.1
45
27
7
-9
3.375
113
82
46
15
85.7
45
28
8
-9
3.4375
114
83
46
16
87.3
46
28
8
-9
3.5
114
83
47
17
88.9
46
28
8
-8
3.5625
114
84
48
18
90.5
46
29
9
-8
3.625
115
85
49
19
92.1
46
29
9
-7
3.6875
115
85
49
19
93.7
46
29
9
-7
3.75
116
86
50
20
95.3
47
30
10
-7
3.8125
116
87
51
21
96.8
47
31
11
-6
3.875
116
88
51
22
98.4
47
31
11
-6
3.9375
117
89
52
22
100.0
47
32
11
-6
4.0
117
89
52
23
101.6
47
32
11
-5
(2) () (2)
() (3) ;
(3) ,
218.1 218.4, () (3),
.

(3)
-218.4
550F (-480).
(b) ,
ACS-1, ,
,
(13)

5/16 (8)
500F (100).
() ,
,
,
:
(1)
,

(2)
(13)
700F (210);
(3)
-218.4 (),
550F
(-480).
(d)

:
(1) ,
-218.1 218.4
200F (-290) ;

-218.3
,


-218.3 , -218.3

SCS-1
MDMT , -218.1
.
() , MDMT 550F (-480)
, MDMT ,
-218.1
,
-218.4.
, MDMT,
.
(b) -218.3
,
, ,
, , ( ). MDMT
,
218-1 -218.4 (),
, -218.4.
, 3 218.4
MDMT
() MDMT.

37

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

tg1 = tA
tg2 = tA

()

tg ()

()

tg1 = ta tc

tg2 = tb tc

tg3 = ta tb

: MDMT MDMT
.
(b)
-218.2 ,
-218

38

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(
)


, tg1 tg2

() ,

(d)

()
-218.2 ,
-218

39

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

(f) -218 ()

(g)
: tg = , 218 () (1)
-218.2 ,
-218

40

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

. -218.3 ()

F0 0 (. -218.3)
= .
tn = .
tr = ,
(. (2) -218.4)
-218.3

41

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



1
( 1),
(tn tn , ),
, :
( 2)
(MDMT), .
tn = (1) .
tr = ( 2)
-218.1
= ().
2
MDMT -218.1 ( 3)
( 4)
3

( 4 5)
4
3, ,
-218.3,
MDMT 2 ( 6 7)
5
MDMT

6
( 8)
,

( 9). . AS-130.
. -352
( 4)
-422
( 4)

-218.4 -218
(MDMT)

42

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-218.4
:
(1) , ,
(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)
(6)
(7)

(8)
(9)

, tn MDMT . ,
, tn
, AD-110, ,
MDMT.
-218.1 , MDMT ,
, , 2
II D. -218.1, -218.1.
, (-301), ,
tr ,
tn , ,
. . -352 -422.
, ,
, 2 II D.
MDMT 400F (22.20C), MDMT MDMT = (1 ) 1000F (0C).
-218.3(b) -218.4 (g)(2) MDMT
(MAP). ,

, 2 II D MDMT. , -218.4(),
, MDMT 1000F (380C) .
. -218.1 .
MDMT , ,
(. -218.4). . -218.4 (f).

,
MDMT,
, , MDMT -550F
(-480C).
() (b) ,
MDMT, -218.1 -218.4 (),
,
, ,
(b) .
,
.
(d)
-550F (-480C),
, ,
() .
()
-550F (-480C), -1550F (-1040C),
,
-218.3 0.3
.

-218.4

.
()
,
-200F (-290C):
(1) ASME B16.5 ;
(2) ASME 16.47
(3) , ,


, ASME B 16.5,
.
, ,


, ASME B 16.5.
(b)
ACS-1 0.10
, ,
ACS-1,
-550F (-480C).
,
NPS 4 P-No 1,

,
(SMYS),
-1550F (-1040C) .

:
,
, (
,
).

,
-218.1
,
2 II D.
,
-218.1,
,
.
.
,
, .

SMYS (. .) ksi (MPa)


20 35 (138 241)
36 45 (248 310)
46 (317)

43

()
0.237 (60.02)
0.125 (3.18)
0.10 (2.5)

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(h)

MDMT,
:
(1)
-218


( MDMT),
,
-1550F
0
(-104 C);
(2) (1) ,
,
,


MDMT,
,
-218.4. ,
3 -218.4,


,

-1550F (-1040C).
(i)

,
AF-410 AF-415, MDMT -550F
(-480C)
-218.3 0.30 .
,
, P-No1,

MDMT , -204.
(
)
25 / (33 ),
-211.
(1) 1 ,

100%
.
, ,

3:1.
(2)

3/8 (10),


-218 -2.
, ,
,
25%
.


9.

() ,
,
(6),
:
(1) PNo-1 Nos 1 2.
(2)
0.1875 (4.8)

0.154 (3.91 ).
(3)
-200F (-290C).
(d) 218.1,
65 ksi (448 MPa),
.
()
, ,
() 211,
,
50F (30C) ,
, .
(f) ,
,
300F (170C),
, P-No 1

-218.1.

550F (-480C).
(g) ,
ACS-1, ,
-218.3
MDMT
, ,
, -218.3
MDMT -1550F (-1040C).
(1) MDMT

,
, -218.4.
(2) -218.3
,
,
, ,
, (
). MDMT

.
-218.4. ,
3 -218.4

MDMT,
()
MDMT.
(3) (2) , MDMT
,

,
, (1)
,
.

-220

,


.

44

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-220.2
. ,

, ,
,
, AF
,
.
-220.3
.
,
, AD-166,

20,000 psi (138 MPa), ,
.

,

-.
,
.

-220.1
.

,
,
(. AD-116),
,
:
SA-236

(
);
SA-264

-
( );
SA-265
.

, ,
.

43.1

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
2 (51), ASTM E 46
2 (51)

:

-220.4
.
,
,
. ,
,

,
.



(4 )
D

F
G -

-230
,
, ,

AF.
-250
-251


,
,
250 in. (6.35 m)
.

< 1
(<25.4 )
1

1 <2
( 25.4 <50.8 )
2

2
1

3
3

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

(b) 2 12
(51 305), ASTM E 186,
( 2 4 1/2
(51 114 ))
( 4 12
(114 305 )) , ,
:

-252

, ,

,
,
-252.1 252.4 .

, , ,
,
,

.


.

1
2
3
D

F

2 4
(50.8 114.3)
2

4 12
( 114.3 305 )
2

1
2
3
0
0

2
2
2
0
0

-252.2 .
12
(305 )
,


,
5 V.
, ,
20%
, 30%
2 (51 )
, ,

,
,

, ,
,
,
.

-252.1 .
, ,
,
2 V.

,
,
:

44

43.1

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-255.1 .
, 1 20%
, , ,

, -252.1

,
, .
, 1
20% , , ,

,
(6 )

, , ,

,
, .


. ,

-252.3 .


, 9-1.
, 1
I II, III IV ASTM E 125,
,
, ,
.
-252.4
. ,

, 9 2.
,

:
() ,

1 6 (38 152 )
3 (89 ),
;
(b)
(6), (16),
1/3
(19 ) 2 (57 )
(19 ), 2 (57 ).

;
() , ,
3/32 (2.4 ).

-255.2
,

.
-255.3
.
, ,
IX.


,
, . ,
,
,
IX.

-252.5
, ,

, 255. ,
,

, ,
.

-255.4 .
,

,
.

-255

-252.1, -252.2, -252.3


-252.4,

.
,
, ,
, ,
.

-258 .

,
,
,
.

,
.

45

43.1

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-3



-300


,

AQT-1
AD AF, .

, ACS-1,
,
, ,
,
,
.

-301 ,


,
AQT-1,
,
,

, ,
ACS-1, AHA-1 ANF-1.3, ,

AD AF.

-310


() ,
AQT-1,
,
-311. ,
,
,
AD-121.2 (f), +320F (00).

,
(b) ( ), .

(b) ,

-218.3,

0.3,

,
-1550F (-1040).
() ,

-218.3,

0.3,

,

,

-218.3,
-1550F (-1040).
(d) , ,

,
.

-311

-201, -202 -1.


-311.1

.

, ,
, , ,
,
.

-311.2
.
,

-204.2 -204.3, ,



(. -311.2).

48

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-311.3 .
,
,
(10 10), 11
SA-370.

,
,
-204.2.
-311.4
. . -211.2.
-311.6 . . 211.4
(b).

-312

-200F (-290) ,
ASTM 208, (


),
, AQT-1,
:

() SA-522
;
(b) SA-353 SA-553 -3200F (1960);
() SA-645 -2750F (-1700);
-312.1 .
5/8 (16)
(
), (. -311).
-312.2
. ,

( ),
,
.

ASTM 208.
-312.3 .

, ASTM E 208,

.

49

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

()

(b)

()
:
(1)
(b-1).
, , (b2).
-311.2

( AQT-1)

50

-4


-400

,
-100
.
-401

()
.

.
(b) , ,
,
.

.
() (b)
.
-402
()
4 (102 )
,
ASTM
ASME, (d) .
,
,
, .
(b) ,
4 ,
() ,
, ,
.
,
-203.2.

,

,
.
,
.

()

,
,
.

,

.
(d) ASTM
ASME :
SE-114 , ,
,
.
SE-214

,
;
-217
;
SB-548
.
()
1
1/8 (19 29 ) ,
1 (25 ).
.
,
75 5%,
.
(f)

,
1 1 (25 25) 1
1.5 (25 38) 45 ,
.
(g)

,
(19)
,
.
(h)
:
3/8 (10) 3%
, 1 (25 )
,

51

(i) (
, -421),

, , ,
,

,
,
,

,
.

-410

,
,

, ,
,

:
SB-209
;
SB-221 ,
, , .

-420
-420.1 .
, ,
:
() 100%
,
, 252.4.
.
(b)

ASTM
E
272,


.

1, (25
) 2 1 (25 )
, ASTM.
() , 12
,

,
, SE-114. ,
20%
30%
, , 2
(51 ) , .

,
1 (645 2).

-420.2 .
, , ,
,
, -421.
-420.3 .

,
.

, ,
.

-421
() , ,
-420.1 (). (b) ()
,

.
,
,
.
(b) ,
1 (25 ) 20% ,
, , ,
,
,
(6 )
, ,
, .


. ,


.
()
,
.
(d)
,
IX.


,
. , ,
,
IX.
() ,
,

52

-5


-500
-501

,

3 1 II D,
, ,
3;
,

4, 5 6. ,

4 1
II D, .

-501.1 , .

,
4 1
II D,
.
()
, .
, ,
.
(b) ,
2 (50 )
9-1
9-2.


,
() ( ).
.
1 (25 ) .

-502
,

,
1 .
8

,
.
() 1 .
(b)
0.5
.
()

.
(d)
.

-503

,
.
-510

511

SA-194 SA-563

, .
, ,

, ACS-1, AHA-1
AQT-1 ,
, ,
.

-511.1 .

.
()

,
, 9000F (4820C).

53

(b)
9000F (4820C). ,
,
.
()

, .

-
.
-522 -523.

-512

.
2 ,
ASME B1.1.
-512.1 .

, AD-711,
, ,
ASME/ANSI B18.2.2
.

-512.2

,
AD,

,
,
,
, , ,
,
.

-512.3 .

()
,

,
3
1 II D,
.
(b)
,
()
3 1 II D,

, ,
,

, ,

.
()
,
()
3 1 II D,

, ,
.

, 3 1 II
D, .
-522
() ,
-511.
(b)
,
ANF-1.1, ANF-1.2, ANF-1.3.
-523
. -512.

-523.1 .
-512.1

-512.4

-523.2
. -512.2


,
(. -512.2).

-520

-523.3 .
-512.3
-523.4 . -512.4.

-521

54

-6

-600

2, 2, 3 4 1 II D

Sm ,
( . AD-130),
,
AD.
() , ,
, :
ACS-1
AHA-1
AQT-1
ANF-1.1
ANF-1.2
ANF-1.3

ANF-1.4
ABM-1
ABM-1.2
ABM-1.3
ABM-2

(b) Y-1 II, D,


,
.
() 1000F (380C),
,
2/3 90% (0.2%
).


0.1%. ,

,
. Y-2 II, D



.
(d)
, ,

, :
(1)
-1 -5 II
D
(2) -1 5, II D.
()

TCD
II D
(f) ,

6 II D.

55

ACS-1

.

SA-36
SA-105
SA-106
SA-178
SA-181
SA-182

SA-203
SA-204
SA-209
SA-210
SA-213
SA-216
SA-217
SA-225
SA-234

SA-266
SA-283

SA-285
SA-299

FR, Fl, F2, F3V, F5, F5a, F9,

SA-302
SA-333
SA-334
SA-335

Fll Cl. 1 &2, F12 Cl. 1 &


2, F21, F22 Cl. 3, F22V

SA-336

SA-372
SA-387

A, B, C, D
1, 3, 4, 6, 9
1,3,9
PI, P2, P5, P5b, P5C, P9,
Pll,
P12, P21, P22
Fl, F3V, F5, F5A, F9, Fll
Cl.
2 & 3, F12, F21 Cl. 1 & 3,
F22 Cl. \& 3, F22V
LF1, LF2, LF3, LF9
LCB, LC1, LC2, LC3
FP1, FP2, FP5, FP9, FP11,
FP12, FP21, FP22
A, B, C, D
2, 5, 11, 12, 21, 22

SA-420
SA-423
SA-487

WPL3, WPL6, WPL9


1, 2
1 Cl. A, 4 Cl. A, 8 Cl. A

SA-508

1,.1A, 2 Cl. 1 & 2, 3d. 1 &


2,
3V, 4N Cl. 3, 22 Cl. 3
60, 65, 70

A, B, C
C

A, B, D, E, f
A, B, C
Tl, Tla, Tib
A-l, C
T2, T5, T5b, T5c, T9, Til,
T12, T21, T22
WCA, WCB, WCC
C5, C12, WC1, WC4, WC5,
WC6, WC9
C
WPB, WPC, WP1, WPS, WP9,
WP11 Cl. 1, WP12 Cl. 1,
WP22 Cl. 1
1, 2, 3, 4
B, D

SA-350
SA-352
SA-369

SA-515

A, B, C

.
.
SA-516
SA-524
SA-533
SA-537
SA-541

/
55, 60, 65, 70
I, II
A Cl. 1 & 2, B Cl. 1
2, C Cl. 1 & 2, D
2
Cl. 1, Cl. 2, Cl. 3
1, 1A, 2 Cl. 1 & 2,

&
Cl.
3 Cl.

1 & 2, 3V, 22 Cl
22V

3,

SA-542

B Cl. 4, C Cl. 4a, D


4a

Cl.

SA-662
SA-675

A, B, C
45, 50, 55, 60, 65,

SA-727
SA-737
SA-738
SA-739
SA-765

B, C
A, B, C
Bll, B22
I, II, III

SA-832

21V, 22V

70

.
.
SA-182

SA-213

SA-217
SA-240

SA-249

-1

/
. /
.

FXM-ll, FXM-19, F6a, F304, SA-268 TP405, TP410, TP429,


SA-430
F304H, F304L, F310, F316,
TP430, 26-3-3
F316H, F316L, F321, F321H,
F347, F347H, F348, F348H SA-312 TPXM-11, TPXM-15,
TPXM-19, TP304,
SA-479
TP304H, TP304L,
TP304, TP304H, TP304L,
TP304N, TP309Cb,
SA-666
TP304N, TP309Cb, TP309H,
TP309H, TP309S,
SA-688
TP309S, TP310H,
TP310MoLN, TP310S,
TP316,
TP316H, TP316L, TP316N,
TP321, TP321H, TP347,
TP347H, TP348, TP348H,
XM-15
CA15
XM-15, XM-19, XM-29, 302,
304,
304L, 304N, 309Cb, 309H,
309S, 310H, 310MoLN,
310S,
316, 316L, 316N, 317, 317L,
321, 321 H, 347, 347H, 348,
405, 410, 410S, 429, 430,
S44660
TPXM-15, TPXM-19, TP304,
TP304H, TP304L, TP304N,
TP309Cb, TP309H, TP309S,
TP310 Cb, TP310H,
TP310MLN, TP310S,
TP316,
TP316H, TP316L, TP316N,
TP317, TP321, TP321H,
TP347, TP347H, TP348,
TP348H

TP310Cb, TP310H,
TP310MoLN, TP310S,
TP316, TP316H, TP316L,
TP316N, TP317, TP321,
TP321H, TP347, TP347H,
TP348, TP348H
SA-336 FXM-ll, FXM-19, F6, F304,
F304H, F304L, F304N,
F310, F316, F316H,
F316L, F316N, F321,
F321H, F347, F347H
SA-351 CF3, CF8, CF8C, CF8M,
CF10, CHS, CH20, CK20
SA-376 TP304, TP304H, TP304N,
TP316, TP316H, TP316N,
TP321, TP321H, TP347,
TP347H, TP348
SA-403 XM-19, 304, 304H, 304L,
304N, 309, 310, 316,
316L, 316N, 317, 321,
321H, 347, 347H, 348,
348H

/
FP304H, FP304N,
FP316H, FP316N,
FP321, FP321H,
FP347H
XM-19, 309H
XM-11
TP304, TP304L,
TP316,
TP316L

SA-789
SA-790

S31500
S31500

SA-803
SA-813

26-3-3
TP309Cb, TP309S,
TP310Cb, TP310S

SA-814

TP309Cb, TP309S,
TP310Cb, TP310S

SA-333
SA-334
SA-353
SA-372

AQT-1

. /
. /

/
8
8
D, E Cl. 70, F Cl. 70, G Cl.
70, H Cl. 70, J Cl. 70 &
110

SA-420 WPL8

SB-209
SB-210
SB-221

.
SB-96
SB-98
SB-111
SB-150

SA-508
SA-517
SA-522
SA-533
SA-543
SA-553
SA-592
SA-645

4N Cl. 1 & 2
A, B, E, F, J., P
I
B Cl. 3, D Cl. 3
B, C
I, II
A, E, F

SA-723
SA-724

1, 2, 3
A, B, C

ANF-1.1

/ UNS
.
/ UNS

A93003, A93004, A95052, A95083,


SB-241
3003, A93003, A95083, A95454,
A95086,A95454, A96061
A96061, A96063
3003, A93003, A96061, A96063
A93003, A95083, A95454, A96061,
SB-308
A96061
A96063

UNS
C65500,
C65100, C65500, C66100
C28000, C44300, C44400,
C44500, C60800, C70600, C71500
C61400, C62300, C63000, C64200

ANF-1.2

.
UNS

SB-169
C61400
SB-171
C46400, C70600, C71500
SB-187
C10200, C11000

SB-395

C70600, C715QO

ANF-1.4

.
.
SB-127
SB-160
SB-161
SB-162
SB-163
SB-164
SB-165
SB-166
SB-167
SB-168
SB-333
SB-335
SB-407
SB-408
SB-409
SB-423
SB-424
SB-425
SB-434
SB-435


UNS .
.
UNS .
.
N 04400
SB-511
N08330
N02200, N02201
SB-514
N08800, N08810
N02200, N02201
SB-515
N 08800, N08810
N02200, N02201
SB-516
N 06600
N02200, N02201, N04400, N06600,
SB-517
N 06600
N08800,
N08810, N08825
SB-535
N 08330
N04400, N04405
SB-536
N 08330
N 04400
SB-564
N04400, N06600,
N08800,
N06600
SB-572
N 06002
N06600
SB-573
N 10003
N 06600
SB-574
N 06455, N 10276
SB-575
N06455, N 10276
N10Q01, N10665
SB-581
N06007
N 10001, N 10665
SB-582
N 06007
N08800, N08810
N08800, N08810
N08800, N 08810
SB-619
N06002, N06007,
N06455,
N 08825
N10276, N10665
N08825
SB-622
N06002, N06007,
N06455,
N08825
N 10276, N 10665
N10003
SB-626
N06002, N06007,
N06455,
N06002
N10276, N10665

N08810

N10001,
N10001,
N10001,

ANF-1.4

SB-265
SB-338
SB-348

R50250, R50400, R50550, R52400,


R52402, R53400
R50250, R50400, R50550,
R52400, R52402,R5340Q
R50250, R50400, R50550, R52400,
R52402, R53400

SB-381
SB-861
SB-862

R50250, R50400, R50550, R52400,


R52402, R53400
R50250, R50400, R50550,
R52400, R53400
R50250, R50400, R50550, R52400,
R53400

-1
,
, 3

.
/
.

SA-193
B5
B7
B7M
B16
SA-320

SA-325
SA-354
SA-437
SA-449
SA-508
SA-540

L7
L7A
L7M
L43
1
BC
BD
B4B, B4C
5 Cl. 2
B21
B23 Cl. 1 & 2
B23 Cl. 3 & 4
823 Cl. 5
B24 Cl. 1
B24 Cl. 2
B24 Cl. 3 & 4

B24 Cl. 5
B24V Cl. 3

SA-194
2, 2H, 2HM, 3, 4, 7, 7M,
16
SA-540
B21, B23, B24r^324V

SA-193
66
B8 Cl. 1
B8.CI. 2
B8C Cl. 1
B8C Cl. 2

()

.
F (C), .

4 (102), .
21 2 (64)
212 to 4 (64 - 102), .
4 7 (102 - 178), .
21 2 (64)
21 2 (64)
21 2 4 (64 - 102), .
4 to 7 (102 - 178), .
21 2 (64)
21 2 (64), .
2*2 (64)
1 (25)
1
1
a to I 2 (13 to 38), .
4 (102), .l.
4 (102), ..

3 (76), .



6 (152), .
6 to 9*2 (152 - 241), .
8 (203), .
8 to 9J2 (203 - 241), .
6 (152), .
6 to 8 (152 - 203), .
7 (178), .
7 to 9*2 (178 - 241), .
8 (203), .
8 to 9'2 (203 - 241), .
9*2 (241), .

20 ( 29)
55 ( 48)
40 ( 40)
40 ( 40)
55 ( 48)
20 ( 29)
20 ( 29)
20 ( 29)
. . () AM-211
. . () . AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
20 ( 29)
0 ( 18)
+20 (7)
. . () AM-211
20 ( 29)
. . () AM-211
.
.
. . () AM-211
.
. . () AM-211
.
. . () AM-211
.
. . () . AM-211
. .
. . () AM-211
.
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211

55 (48)

55 ( 48)

4 (102)

I1 2 <38), incl.

3
4 to I1 2 (19 - 38), .

20 ( 29)
425 (254)
.
425 ( 254)
.
()

-1
,
, 3
.
/
.

()
SA-193
B8M Cl. 1
B8M2
B8MNA Cl. 1A
B8NA Cl. 1A
B8P Cl.
B8P Cl. 2
B8S, B8SA
B8T Cl. 1
B8T Cl. 2
SA-320
B8 Cl. 1
B8 Cl. 2
B8A Cl. 1A
B8C Cl. 1 & 1A
B8C Cl. 2
B8CA Cl. 1A
B8F Cl. 1
B8FA Cl. 1A
B8M Cl. 1
B8M Cl. 2
B8MA Cl. 1A
B8T Cl. 1
B8T Cl. 2 ,
B8TA Cl. 1A
SA-453
651 Cl. A & B, 660 Cl.
A& B
SA-479
XM-19
SA-564
630
SA-705
630

()

.
F (C), . . .


2 2 1/2 (51 - 64), .



lV2 (38), .


3
/4 - 1 (19 to 25), .

1 (25), .


1 (25), .




1 1/2 (38), .


1 1/2 (38), .

-425 (-254)
.
-320 (-196)
-320 (-196)
.
.
.
-425 (-254)
.
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
. . () AM-211
.

8 (203), .
8 (203), .
8 (203), .

.
.
.

ABM-1.2
,
,
, 3
. .
SB-98
SB-150

UNS .
C65100, C65500, C66100
C61400, C62300, C63000, C64200

. .
SB-187
SB-211

UNS .
C10200, C11OOO
A92014, A92024, A96061

: , ,
, -320F (-196C).

ABM-1.3

,
3
. .
SB-160
SB-164
SB-166

UNS .
N02200, N02201
N 04400, N 04405
N06600

. .
SB-408
SB-425
SB-446

UNS .
N08800, M08810
N08825
N 06625

. .
SB-574

UNS .
N 0602 2, N 06455,
N 10276
SB-581
N06007, N06030,
N06975
SB-335
N10001, N10665
SB-572
N 06002, R30556
SB-621
N08320
SB-573
N10003
SB-637
N07718, N07750
: , ,
, -320F (-196C).
ABM-2
,
4, 5, 6
. .
SA-193

UNS .

. . /UNS . .
/ UNS .
.
SA-437 B4B, B4C
SA-705 630

B5, B6, B7, B7M,


B8, B8C,
B8M, B8MNA, B8NA, SA-453 651, 660
B8R, B8RA, B8S, B8SA,
SB-164 N 04400, N 04405
B8T, B16
SA-540 B21, B22, B23, B24,
SB-637 N07718, N07750
B24V
SA-320
143
SA-564 630, 651, 660
: -214.2.

AD

D-1

9
.
()
, -

4.
,
AD.
(I)(a) ,

.
() -
,

,
,
.
() ,
-
.
()
, 1 2
,

, S
D-2 D-3.
(2)() ,
, ()(1)
()(3) .
() -
,

,
,
.
()
,
(1)().
(3) AD-551.

AD-100
() AD

, ,
,

. ,


.
.
()
,
,

.
4

5,
. ,

6.
- ,
,
D-1, D-3 D-4
,
.
()

,
AD.
4

5,
(. AD-160).
, AD-200,


AD-201 AD-206.

,
,

AD-102
,
,

,
,

.
,
, ,

1 ,

2. (. AG-121.3.)

AD-101
()
,

68

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-104

,
,






,

.



.
,
,

.


,

(6)
( ,
ACS AQT) 1/8 (3,2)

( , ANF). (. AF105.1, AF-105.2 AF-606.)
AD-105

,


, ,
.

AD-116
, -410


,
,



-
,
:
()
,

, AF-563;
()



;
() Sm
, , 70%
,
Sc
=



,
,
, ./2 ()
Sb
=


, ./2 ()

,
. Sc Sb,

.

,
,
.

AD-106



.
AD-110
, 12


,
:
() ,
;
()
;
() ,

,
,

;
() , ;
()

( ,
, ..)
()

,
- ;
() ,

,

.
AD-115
12

. AG-301.1 AG-301.2

69

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2





,

.
()
,

(. AS-100).
,



.

,

1, II, D
- ,
.
() ,
,


,
1, II, D .
()
,
, :
(1)

,

, .
(2)

,

(), .
()

,

(
)
.
()

.
()

,
,

(. -218).

,
,

.

.

. -352 -422 .
() 1,
II, D

,

.

,
, -
,

.
AD-117


, ..
,
. ,

.
AD-120
() AD-120.1
,

.
()

.

,
(
, -
)

. ,


,
,
AD-150,
.
AD-121
AD-121.1 .

,
()
.

(. -108).
AD-121.2 .

70

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



AD-120.1


,
,


,






( 1)
,



(. 1, AS100)

,
AR121 AR-122

:
(1) , .

,

) ,
.

. ,

425F
(-254),
320F (- 196).
, 1, II,
D ,
, .
,
,

(

AD-121.3 .
,
.

71

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



.

()


Sy , ,
,
,
, 1.5Sy
.

, ,
,

,
.
() ,
, ,

.
[. 4 112(k)],
0.6Sm.

[. 4 112(h)],

:
(1) , -600(),
0.5S 100F (38oC)
0.675 S ;
(2) - 0.5S
.

,

,

.
,
,
, ,


.
()
,

S-,

,
1.5 S,

.

AD-121.4 .
,

. ,

,

(. -300, 301 -410).
AD-121.5 .
,
, AR140.
AD-121.6
,

.

4-112.
AD-130

Sm
2, 2, 3 4 1 II
D .

. ,
20F ( - 29oC),


20F 100oF ( 29oC
+38). Sm
,
4

,
AD-150.1.
.
AD-131


-1, -2, -3, -4 -5 II,
D;
-1, -2, -3, -4 -5 II, D.

, II, D,

.

AD-132.2 .
,
,
(, ,
) 0.6Sm.
,

, 0.8Sm.

AD-132


.

AD-132.3

.
,

AD-132.1

72

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2




1.5 kSm. ,
1.1 kSm

, R


,

, t
.
() ,
-

1.5 kSm. (.
4,

.)

(), ()

,
,



.
,
,
,
. ,
(. 4-134),


,
- ,
Sy, Y-1
II D.

AD-140.1

.

,
,
,
4.


,
4.

AD-140
AD

,
,
,
.

.
,
,


kSm
, .

,
AD-151. .
AD-150.1 k,
.
()

, ,
.

.
()
,
-

,

kSm.
()
,

AD-150



kSm AD-150.1
;
, AD150.1,
AD-151.

.
AD-151


, ,
,
-300, -301 -410
6%,
-
,
.
AD-151.1 ,
.


,
:
()
90%

73

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-150.1
k


(. AD-110)

,

,

1. 2

1. 2


,

[ (1)]

1. 2

. AD-160 5

. AD-151

(:

)

.

1.0

:
(1) ,
[ AG-100()(2)], , ,
,
10-8,
20 .

74

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



;
() ,
, 2 (70);
() ;
() ;
()
.

Sy ,
1 II D;
()



(1) (2):

;
(1)
(2)

AD-160.2
,
.


.
,

4 5
.
,
,

. ,

,
,
AD-160.3.

AD-151.2
.

,
:
()
80% Sy
,
1 II D;
()



, (1) (2):
(1)

(2)

.

80,000 ./2 (552 ),
,
() () ()
(), 1000 .
() ()
, .
() ()
,
20% .
(,
20%
.

.)
()
13 14

AD-151.3 .
,


, AD-151.1 AD-151.2 (.
-310).
AD-160

,

AD-160.1.

,
AD-160.2 AD-160.3. AD-160.2
AD-160.3 ,
106.

13

,
,
.
14
:
() :
(1)

AD-160.1 .


,

:
() ,
,

,
(2) , L = 3,5,
L = ,
()
R = ,

t = ,
=
,
Rt , .

75

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


, .


,
.
F (oC)

, Sm
1 II,
D .
,
1/3 (S/Sm), S
Sa
106.
()
3

, Sa

,

;

,
-1, -2, -3, -4 -5;
-1, -2, -3, -4 -5
.
()
3

, Sa ,
4

.

,

, S ,
().
()

,

/
,
,

, Sa


, 1 2
, 1 2

,
. (. -1, -2, -3,. -4,
-5, -1, -2, -3, -4 -5.)

,

, S
().
,
Sa
.
, AD-116.
()
, ,
,
,
Sa,

.

450 (250)

20

, ,
:
, F (oC)


:
1,000 (0) + 250 (1) + 5 (12) = 310
, () 1000
310. ,
- ,
.
()
,
,

0.00034,

(. -1, -2, -3, -4 -5


II, D),
, F. AD-116
.
.

.
() ()
, ,

5 Sa
Sm,
1
II, D
.
() ()
15
(Sa /Sm),
Sa ,
5
() :
,
.
15

, ,
.

76

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,
,
Sa,
.
,

S, S (),
.


,

.
, F (oC)
50 (28 )
51 100 ( 28 55)
101 150 ( 55 83)
151 250 ( 83 139)
251 350 ( 139 194)
351 450 ( 194 250)

AD-160.3


.
,

.
,
, 5-110.1, 5-110.2.1, 5110.2.2, 5-110.2.3, 5-110.3 5-110.4. (

.)
,
4 5

. (. AD-570,

.)

0
1
2
4
8
12


:
, F (oC)
50 (28)
90 (50)
400 (222)

1,000
250
5

1,000 (0) + 250 (1) + 5 (12) = 310


, () 1,000
310. , -
, .
()
,
,

0.00034,

(.
-1, -2, -3 -4 ),
, F.
AD-116 .
. AD-160.2,

() .
() 4
, () 3.
()
, () 1/3.
() 2,7 2
, (), () ().

.

16
,
, 80,000 ./2
(552 ),
() () () (),
400.
() ()
,
.
()
,
15% .
(, 15%

.

.)
()
17
3 , .

,


.

16

. AD-925
.
17
,
,
.

77

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-2

1
AD-200

,
,
AD-201 AD-212,

() ().

AD-150
F , .
()
,


.
(1)

4-132
.
,
,


, 4-112
(i)
,

.
(2)

(1)
,
4-136.
()

AD201.1,
.
(1)

4-136.3 4-136.5.
4 5

.
(2)

10.
1


, ,


O.D.

AD-200.1

(3)
2/3 ,
AD-201.
(4)

3:1
.

,
.
(5)

(6)



78

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

AD-201.1
.
,


(. AD-115).
D =



,
, ()
F =

,


(./). (kN/m)
. ,

,
,

(
).
L =
,
().
P =

./2 (kPa)
( 2 3 AD-120.1)
Q = - P/S
R =
().
.
RL =
--, ()
Rm =
()
Rs =
-- ()
S =

1
II, D
AD-150.1,
./2 (kPa)
T = , ()
h =


(
) ().
r =

()
t = ,
()


tr = Q-

AD-201, ()
AD-201


, (), () (),
.

> 0.4S ,
:

In .
() F 0.5PR:

() F ,

(. AD-340).
AD-202


, (), () (),
.

> 0.4S ,
:

() F :

() F
() . AD-340
,
.
AD-203

,

79

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,
R ,
(. AD211 AD-212 --
).

> 0.4S:

() F 0.5PR:

() F ,

.
AD-340

R AD-200.1.


,
AD-204.1,

4, 5, 6.
AD420 AD-402.2.
AD-204.3 .3,4
2:1

AD-204.2
AD-204.1 c 2:1 ellipsoidal
head. ,

2

4,
5, 6. (

.)

AD-420 AD-420.2.


,
,


, .

AD-204.4
.
,
AD-204.2 AD-204.1,
,

.
:
() 6% ;
() 3- .

AD-204.1 .
,
,
(AD-202).

. AD-420 AD-420.2.

AD-204.5 .

,

.
AD-420 AD-420.2.

AD-204

AD-204.2 3

(
t/L 0/002 t/L,
t/L = 0.4 0.5)
AD-204.1.


; ,
. ,

AD-204.1,
:

AD-205


.
,
.
,
(. AD-420.1).

,
, ,
.
3
AD-204.1

, ,
AD-135.
. 4-4 4
AD-204.1.


= 2-
L/D = 0.90 ,/D = 0.17.

80

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

. .

: .
2:1

t/L L = 0.9D

AD-204.1 2:1
AD-204.2 AD-204.3

81

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-206 , ,

,
,
AD-110.

4,
5 6.
,
AD-201, AD-202
AD-203.
AD-210
AD-210.1


.
,

.
, , ..
, ,
.
AD-210.2 .
,
,
,
.
,
,
AD-110.
AD-210.3 ,
.

,
, ,
,
.
AD-210.4

.

, AD-203.
AD-210.5

, ,

.
AD-210.6



,
,
D-5.

AD-210.7
.
,
,
, ,
.
AD-204.
AD-211 --


:
()
;
()
(. AD-206);
()
,

, , ,
(. AD-412.2);
()

AI-510;
()
.

AD-211.1 --
( ).
,
, 30
,
AD-203 AD-201 ,
,
AD-211.1.
AD-211.2

--

( ).

AD-211.1 ,
. AD-211.2
Q
S 30 .

tr , :
()

, RL
;
()
;

() t
AD-203
.
AD-212 --


:
() , ,
;
-
82

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

: ,
( ) 3 S

, ,

AD-211.1 --
()
(. AD-206);
()
,

(. AD-412.2);
()

AI-510;
()

.
AD-212.1 --
( ).
,
,
30 ,
AD-203 AD-201 ,
,

AD-212.1.

AD-212.1 ,
. AD-212.2
Q
S 30 .

tr , :
()

;
() tr

;
() t
AD-203

AD-212.2

--

( ).

83

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

: ,
( ) 3 S

AD-211.2 Q --
AD-212.3 --
. -

:
() d
;
() 30,
60 ;
() AD-520
AD-540.1, ,


;
()
/
D-5.
AD-213 --
--

,

, ,
.

84

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

:
(-
,
) 1.1 Sm
(RS + t/2) (Rs + t/2) / cos

, ,

AD-212.1 --

85

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


: (-

,
) 1.1 Sm
(RS + t/2) (Rs + t/2) / cos

AD-212.2 Q --

86

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

. AD-601.1

1 =
2 =
3 =

AD-212.3
()

(,

AD-420.
()
, AD-420 AD420.1.
()


,




.


AD-420 AD-420.2.

87

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-3

1
1

AD-300
,
,
,
, ,
(. AF-130.2).

3 II, D.

=
, ()
= ,
() (
,

DL

Do, ,


)

AD-300.1 .

:
= , G
3 II, D
3 II,
D. ,

10, . AD-310.2.
,
3
II, D ,

(. )

().
=

, . (2)
=

, . (2)
=
, . (2)
=
, . (2)
= ,
. (2)
= ,
, . (2),

=
,


(. AD-350.2)
=
, ()
=
, /. , ().


3 II, D18 (

.)
= ,
/. , ()
=
, /. , ()
= ,
/. , ()
= ,
- , ..,
, /
(/)
= ,
- , ..,
, /
(/)
=

,

= ,
3
II, D ,

,
, ,
.

18

,
,
3 II, D
,
-1 II, D
, .

88

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


( ),
()
I
=


--
, , 4 (4).
, ,

, .
,




.

.
:
. ,
Is I..


--

, ,
4 (4)

,

,

.
k = 1,

=
, , k
1,0
=
(.

AD-350.2)
L =
,
:
()


( );
() -

;
()

;
()


(
),
,
();
()
--.
=
-

= ,
() =
= ,
:
()
--
;
() --


.
=



,
,
(). :
() ,
;
()

;
()

;
() --.
= ,
(),

:
()
--
;
() --


.
= , AD300.1, ()
P = , /.
()
=
, /. () (
, )
=

/ (/)
=
/ (/)

89

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AD-300.1 LX

90

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


= ,
()
= , ,
()
= ,
, ()
=

,
,

, ()
= ,
, ()
= ,
()
S =


1 II, D
0.9

1 II, D, ksi ()
t
=

,

, ()
= -, ()
= ,
() =
=
--, ()
=
(

AF-105.2), ()
= --

=
=

=

=
--


(. AD-360.3).


50,
= 50.
0,05

= 0,05.

3.
1
.
.


.
4. 3
,
3 II, D
/.

-

(. AD-121.2).
.
,
-,

-.
, . 7.
5. 4

.
6. ,

7. ,
-,
:

.
8.
, t
,
.
G-112.
AD-310.2

AD-310


, ,
,
.
AD-310.1

< 10

1. ,
AD-310.1, .
4,
:

10

1. t

2. 1
G 3 II, D.

0,01,
0,01.

91

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


2. 1
,

:

3.
:


S

1 II, D 0,9


1 II,
D.
4.

,
2
3,
.

.
,
t, ,
.

4. 3
,


:

5. ,
-,
:

.
6.
, t
,
.
G-113.
AD-330
AD-331


- :

AD-320

, ,
,


.
1. t
:

2. 1
,
3 II, D
.
-
(. AD-121.2).

. ,
-,

-.
, .
5.
3. 2

.


.
1. ,

t ,
,

, AD-331.

2.
3 II, D

1 .
,
,
4 5, .
3.

.
- . 5.

92

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


4.
.
5. ,
-
,
:

6.
I, 1
-,

.
I ,
.
G114.
AD-332

,
()(1), (2) (3).
()
, AD-332.1 (A) (),
,
,
(), ,

-.
(, ),

.
() ,
,
AD-332.1 (E) (F), ,
()
- (F)
. , () ()

,
.
() ,
, AD332.1 (D) (E), ,

AF-130.3,

, () :
(1)
90 ;
(2)
180 ;
(3) L AD-300.1.
,
,
-
.

( , ),

,
.
()

.
AD-333

,

(. AD-912.1). ,
,

AD-912.1, ().
AD-340

,
,
,
,
:
()

1
II, D;
() ,
3 II,
D,
:
=
, ()
t
=

, ()

3 II,
D .
1. t ,
,
:

2.
1 ,
3 II,
D .
-
(. AD-121.2).

. ,
,

()
-.
,
, . 4.
-
93

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,
AD-332(b).

. AD-332 (b)


, AF-130.3


, ,
AD-130.3

1200

AD-332.1
,

94

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


3. 2 ,

.
t R, 1.
4. ,
:

5. 3 4

,
t .
,
t ,


.

AD-350

,

, 19 (
)
,
.
AD-350.1

.


,
AD-320
.
AD-350.2 .

,
,
,


AD-320, ,

19


, ,
.

AD-350.2


AD-350.3 .

,
, ,


AD-320, ,



.
AD-360


,
,
,
AD-360.1 AD-360.2.
AD-360.3.
AD-360.1 60
() ,

10

1.

2. G 3 II,
D

1.
50,
=
50.
3.


,
1.

.
4. ,
3,

95

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


3 II, D
.
-
(. AD121.2).

, .
,
-,


-.
, . 7.

3.
:

5. 4

.
6. ,

, :

7.

-,
:

=



1 II, D 0,9

, ./2 ()

,
4.
2

3

.
.
,

t ,


.
5.
-- AD-360.3.

8. 6 7
.
,

t ,


.
9.
-- AD-360.3.
() ,

< 10

1. ,
(), .

4,
:


0,10.

0,10,

2. 1
,

AD-360.2 > 60.


60 ,
,
,


AD-360.3(e).
AD-360.3 -,
.
() () ()
, ,
--
() ,
,
> 60.
--,
AD-551

--.
()

()
, , AD360.3 c

96

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


.
.

**

.

,
, ,
:

2.
3 II, D

1 .
,
,
4, .

AD-360.3

60

3.
-
.
, . 5 .
4.
.

:
(1) = 60

,

,

:

, ,


.

.
--
.

.
1. ,

t ,
,
.

,
:

5.
-,

,
-,

,

, ,

-.
, ,
, ,
.
6.

.
--:

0.5

7. I
--.
8.

,
,
,
.

AD-332 AD-333.

()
()

,
, ,
:
-
97

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,


:

.
--
.

.
1. ,

t ,
,

.
,
:

2.
3 II, D

1 .
,
,
4, .
3.
-
.
, . 5 .
4.
.
5.
-,

,
-,

,

, ,

-.
, ,
, ,
.
6.

.
--:

7. I
--.
8.

,
,
,
.

AD-332 AD-333.
() , AD-210 ,
,
, ,
() .
()
60
() (),

( ,
, ).

.

.

, , 3,3
.
AD-360.4
.
,
,
,
, AD-360.1 AD360.2, ,

.
() (c) AD-300.1,

98

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


() (d) AD-300.1,

() () AD-300.1,

: ,
AD-300.1.

AD-360.5 .

,

.
AD-370



AD-520.

99

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-4

AD-400


,
.




. ,
,
,
,
. ,
,
, , . AD-400.1
,
.

AD-400.3 .

, ,
,

,
1


2
.
AD-400.4 .

1
, , ,
;

AD-212.3;

.1
AD-410

AD-400.1 .
,

,
,20
; ,

21
;

, ,
.1
AD-400.2 .


,
,1 ,

, 22


, ,
1.

20

,

,
.. .
21


.
22
. AD-400.4
,
AD-212.3.

AD-411

1 (. AF-221).
AD-412

1 ,
AD-415,
2 (. AF-222).
AD-412.1
2.
2,
,
.
2,
,
2,0
2,5
.
AD-412.2

. -

,
,
, ,
(. AD-400.1) 30

1. ,
,
.

100

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AD-400.1 , ,

AD-413

1,
(. AF-223),
AD-415 AD-416;
, AD711.1,
(. AF-225).
AD-413.1


()
,
(
),

AD-701.1

.
,



.
,

,

.23
1,5 ,
,
(19), 2
(51).
() , 3310.1, (d), (e) (f)

.
AD-413.2 .
,



23

3-301.1, (h) ,

.
()
,

,


b .
()


,

,
.
() b

,
.



.
() ,
,
,

, .
AD-414
()
:
(1) 1;
(2)
(. AF-223),
AD-415;
(3)
/
(. AF-225),
AD-416.


, ,
.

101

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


() ,
. D-6
.

AD-416

AD-414.1
.
AD-415,
,
(
..)

/ (. AD-621, AD-635,
AF-224 AF-225).


1 AF-221, ,
1 2 (AF-222).

1

(. AF-223).

AD-414.2

.
AD-415,


,
AD-620.
AD-415


,
AQT-1

() ,
AQT-1
, ()
, , ,
AD-400,
,

1 (. AF-221).
2 (51) ,

1 (.AF-221) AD-613.1.
2 (51),
,
AD-610.1
AD-613.1.
() SA-333, 8, SA-334,
8, SA-353, SA-522, SA-553 SA-645,
:
(1)

1 AF-221;
(2)

1 AF-221 2
AF-221;
(3)

,
;
(4)



( )

.

AD-417

,


,

.
(
AD-900, AD-911 AD-912.)
AD-420




4, 5 6,

(. AD-400)
, AD-420.1

1/8 (3,2).
,
.

, ,
, ,

AF-229.

,
AD-420.1 AD-420.2.
4, 5 6,

.
()

.
()
AD-420.1,

,
AD-420.2.
() -
,
,

102

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

3 ,
,


:


AD-420.1
,
.
()
, ,
,
,
, , ,
,
.
.

AD-420.1 .
, ,
[. AD-120(a)(1) AD-602]
,

,
,
.
,
AD-420.3.

103

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

: > 0,38 S, th AD-202(a)

AD-420.2

104

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

(NOTES):
(1)
(2)
(3)

AD-540.2.
.
t1 , :
() 0,8tm ,
tm =
()

AD-420.3 ,

105

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-5

AD-500



,
,
,
.
,
/

. -

.

() , ()
,
,

,
D-2, :
(1)

1.5 ;
(2)
, d

, D
;
(3)

,

,

.

()

4 5.
AD-502

AD-501

(4)

,
,

, AD-520.

AD-510


,
.
() ,

,


0,25
()
(

) 1,5 .
()


(), Rm
, t

();

(),
1,1Sm ,
,

.

106

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-520

()

. [. AD-540.1().]

() .

,



A = dtrF

d =
()
tr =
D-2
() :
(1)


, tr ,
AD-202 ;
(2) ,
tr

D,
,
;
(3)
2:1

,
,
80% , tr
AD-202

0,9 .
F = 1.00,


.

F,
AD-520.1, ,
F = 1.

AD-520.1
F
Longitudinal shell axis
Values of F F
Angle Q, deg., of plane with longitudinal axis
Q , .
AD-530

,
,
,

() .
, ,

50% (),
, tr ,

(. D-3).
-

= 0,5dtr

d =
()
tr

= ,
AD-702
, ()

107

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-540

,
,
,

. AD-540.1 AD504.2.
AD-540.1
.

,
:
() 100%

,

(1)

(2)

.
()
,
:
(1) r + 0,5
, Rm
, t
, r

;
(2)

.
AD-540.2 ,
. ,
,

,
.
() AD-540.1 () (b):
(1)

()
2,5t

(2)

2,5t,
r = ()
tn =
()
rm = ()
= r + 0,5tn
r2 =
()

tp =
()
t =
()
h = tn
()
L = tn
()
= 0,73r2
r2
,
()
x = ()
= tn tp
() AD-540.1 ():

(1)

(2)

r =
()
tn = tp + 0,667x
Q = (45
)
L =
()
rm =
().
() AD-540.1 (d),


te 1,5t
1,73W,
W =
, ()
te =
, ()
().
() AD-612.1, (d-1) (d-2)
AD-621.1, (-2) (-3),
te, 1,5t 1,73W.
. () () ,
.
AD-550


, AD-520 AD-530,
-
108

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AD-540.1
( . D-6 )

109

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


, ,
AD-540
,
:
() , ,

(. AD-200 AD-210
AD-702), ;
() ,
,

;
() ,
- ;
() ,

;
() , ,
, ,
,
, AD-570;
() ,
(), () ()
:

R =
./.
o
F (/; . -1, -2, -3 -4
II, D)
v =

./. oF (/; . -1,
-2, -3 -4 II, D)
= 70F (21)

,
.
,


,
.
()
().
: ,
(f) ,
AD-160.

AD-550.1
. ,
() , , ,
,

. (. AD-621).

AD-551
() ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
80% ,
.
()
, , ,


. ,

,
,

.

.
AD-560



, AD-501 AD-550
4-6 AD-560.1.

AD-560.1 .

.
() ,
.
() ( )

.
, AD-610.1 AD-613.1.
,
AD-560.1.
() ,
,

.
() ,

UTS/YS 1,5,
UTS =

YS =
()
:

AD-550.2
. ,

.
-

110

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AD-560.1

111

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

()

(1)

(2)

(3) LC LN

tr tr n.
(4) ,
,
LC Ln.
()

(1)
(2)

(3)

.
,
,

r. ,
R,, tr,
r, trn.
,
Ar/2
,
.

AD-560.4

112

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
, , 40%

- ().
AD-560.2
D = ,

, ()
d = , ()
R = ,

,
()
r = , ()
tr =
,
, AD-201
; AD202

, ().
trn = ,
, AD-201, ()
t =
()
tn = ,
()
tp = ,
()
= ,
(2)
= , (2)
. AD-560.7
AD-560.3 .

.


(2)

:
(1) ,
560.1) .

( AD-


,
.
AD-560.4 . ,
AD-

560.3 ,
, AD560.4.
AD-560.7

()

()

.
.

AD-560.5 ,
. ,
, , ,
.

Sm, ,
,

.


,
,
.

.
AD-560.6 .
AD560.1. , ,
AD-560.3

,
.
AD-560.7 .

,

S.
,

4-611.1
:

113

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



.

.
=
.
= ,
(,
)
= ,

= (
) .
= , ./2

AD-560.1 AD-560.6, ,
AD560.7 .

, ,
,
. ,
,

, -
.
,
(,
). ,

,
,
.


6,
.

AD-570

,
AD-212.3,

, ,

.
() ,
,
IX. QW-422 ,
1 4 AF-241.1.
()

80,000 ./2 (552 ).
()
12% 2 (51)
() 1
1\2 ().
()

AD-160

114

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-6

AD-600

AD-602

AD-601



,
,

:
() ,

,

;
() 24
.
. AD-420.1
.


, ,
:
()
;
()
D-4, ;
()
, AD-610.1, AD612.1, Ad-613.1 AD-621.1;
() D-5
;
() 2
(64) ,
(. AF-221)
(. AF-223);
(e)
,
F-2;
()

AD-740;
()

AD-640.
AD-601.1

.

AD-610.1, AD-612.1, AD-613.1 AD-621.1
:
r = ,
()
t =
, ()
tc =
,
(6) 0,7tn
(


), ()
te = , ()
tn = , ()

tw = , ()

AD-610



.
,


,
.
,
.
AD-610.1, () (b).

24

,
,
2 ANSI/ASME B36.01M, 12 %. ,
,
, .
,
ANSI/ASME B36M, ,
, .
,
,
ANSI/ASME
B36M.

115

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD- 611


,



. (
)
.
AD-610.1, (), (d), (d-1),
(e), (e-1), (f) (g).
-612






.

, 0,6te
0,6t.

.

AD-612.1, (), (b) ().

,
AD-613.1,

(. AF-223).
AD-610.1.
AD-620

NPS 2.

(.AF-223),
AD-621.1, (), (f)
(g), , ,
(h),
,
, , 0,7te
0,7t, (. AF-225).
AD-621

,

, ,
( NPS),

,

(
).

. ,

.

.

,
AD-621.1,
, ,
.., ,


,
.

,
,

( ),
(-1), (-2) (-3).
4
(102).
() ,
tw , , 1 tn ,
tc
(6) 0.7tn. (-2) (-3)


0,7te 0,7t. (c-3),

, , 1 tn.
()
,
AF-241.1.

AD-613

AD-622

AD-613.1
.

1.
AD-613.1 (. AF-221).


-105 ASME
B16.11 ,
. -


,

AD-612.1

AD-613.2 ,
.

116

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

(19)

r3 (6)

; (6)
r4 (6)

45

: . AF-241.1 .

AD-610.1

117

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

0,6 te 0,6t

0,6 te 0,6t

r3 (6) tn/2; ,
(6) tn/4 450
tc . = 0,7 tn (6), ,

0,6 te 0,6t
0,7 te 0,7t

0,7 te 0,7t

NPS 2
AD-612.1
,

118

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

R =

()

t ()
t =
tn =
tp =

,
A,B, C, D

AD-613.1

119

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

1 tn

1 tn

= ()

= 0,010 (0,25) dO 1 (25)
= 0,020 (0,51) 1 < dO 4 (102)
= 0,030 (0,76) dO > 4 (102)
dO =

1 tn

(6) (6) 45
tC . = 0,7tn (6), ,

0,7 te 0,7t

0,7 te 0,7t

AD-621.1

120

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


.
ASME B16.11.
AD-623

,
AM-105

ASME/ANSI B16.28.
80%

, 100%-

9 ASME B16.9.
,
ASME/ANSI B16.28.
AD-630

,
,
, AD740.

. ,



,


.
AD-635


,
-

(,

..,
AD-570 .


.
0,7te 0,7t.

AD-612.1, (d-1) (d-2).

AD-740.

AD-640
AD-640.1
NPS 2. ,

ANSI, ANSI/ASME B1.20.1,

,
,
AD-640.1, ,

.
AD-640.1 ,


, , .
AD-640.1



NPS
(DN)


,
()

AD-640.2 .

, AD-641.2.
AD-641

AD-641.1

,
NPS 2 (DN 50) .
AD-641.2

()



.


AF-761 AD-762
,
,


0,5Sm.
() 2
(70)

121

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-160 ,
,

3 4.

122

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-7
,

AD-700 ,

AD-701
,


.
AD-701.1, AD-701.2 AD-701.3.

. 4.

,
=
r =
,
,

, ()
=
, ()
=

,
AD-701.3, ()
=
, ()
= ,
()

AD-701.1

.

:
= ,
, ,
,
(. AD-701.1, AD-701.2
AD-702

AD-701.3)

D = ,
()
() ,
L =
AD-701.1, AD-701.2 AD
701.3, :

= (. AD-121.1),
./2 ()
S =
(.
AD-150.1). [ AD , ,
701.2, (), (d) ()], S
(a) UG-34(c)(2)

VIII, 1.
()
() , ,

,
( )
, AD-701.2
( ),
, :
, ./2 (), 1
1 1, II, D
T =
, ,
:
()
, ,
W =
.
,
d = , ()
, .
= ,
**

,


,
.
AD-701.2,
() (d), ()
-
123

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

ts


:
() , , 20-200.
() .
= 0, 375 (10)
(38).
()
= 0,25 ts
(38), (19).
, 2 (51 ).
() = h (19)

AD-701.1 ,
,

AD-703
() ,
AD-701.2, (),
AD-702(a) :
= 0,22 ,



-
,
F-2 ;
= 0,13 ,
:

,
,

:

= 0,13 ,
L (1),
:

= 0,44 0,27
, ,
,

, AD-701.3.

.
, ,
= 0,13, ,
, 1:3.
() AD-701.2, (b)
, C,
AD-702(a),
:
= 0,44, 0,27
,

,
(19)


F-2.
() AD-701.3, (),
(b), (d), (e), (f) (g) , C,
AD702(a), :

() ,
AD-701.2, () (d) AD-701.3,
(), AD-702()
:

= 0,3
,
. , AD-702()

,
.
-
124

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



rmin = 0,375 (10)

(38)

(38),
= 0,25 ts
(19)

:
. , AD-702 .

AD-701.2

()
, AD701.2, (d),

, :

() , AD701.2, (), ,

,
AD-702(a) = 0,25.
AD-710
AD-711

ASME/ANSI B16. 5

,


ASME/ANSI .
**

.

-105.1
,
,
, -105.1().
AD-711.1 ,
ASME/ANSI
B16. 5. ,
ASME/ANSI B16. 5
, ,
.
() , ,
, 1,
AF-241.1 IX, QW/QB-422.
()


80,000 ./2 (552 ).
()
12% 2 (51).
() ,
, 1 (32).
() , ,

125

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

+ b

+ b
b
b = 0

+ b
b = 0
= 0,44,
0,27



(6)
= 0.44 0,27

. AF-223.2()
(b) (), b

= 0,44, 0,27

. =

= 0,44, 0,27

(6),

= ,

= 0,44, 0,27

= 0,44, 0,27

. AF-241.1 .

AD-701.3 ,

126

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


, , 0,7
, .
() ,

, AD-160.3.
AD-712 ASME B16.47


,
ASME B16.47 .
-
ASME B16.47, ,
,
,
D-7 3
.
AD-720
, ASME
B16.5,
ASME
B16.47

-105.1

3
4, 5 6.
AD-730
,

- ASME B16.5,
:

()
,
ASME B16.5,
.


, ASME B16.5.
()
,
,
ASME B16.5;

. . 3-310.1, (i-l) (i2).
AD-740
,
,

ds

0,75d s x

ds ,
,
1 ds.

127

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-8

AD-800


( )
,
,

.

,
,
, ,
, ,
.
AD-801


()

- ,

, ,

:
()

.
() ,
.
() ,

() (),


. ,

,
,


-
. ,

(), () ()
.
AD-801.1
.

()

,
,


AD-801(), () (). ,
/
,


-

.
AD-802

,
.

128

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-9

AD-900
() , , ,


.
AD-160,


4 5.
,
.
()

,

, AQT1 ,
AQT-1 .
()
AD-912.1, AD-911
AD-912.

AD-912.1, ,
AD-901.1.
(1) ,
,

(2) .
,
,
.
(2)
25 ,
, ,
AQT-1, .
(3)
, .
,
,

,
,
10%

, ;


,

25

[ 3/8 (10)
5 (823) ],
,

, ,
.

(
, , ..

,
).
,

,

.
,

;



(


).
() ,

.
AD-901 ,

, ,

, .
. AF-623
.

AF-623.1
.


,
.
,
AD-912(a),
, SA-240,
SA-312, SA-479
,
, SA353, SA553 1 2, SA-645.
AD-901.1
,
. AF-623
, AF-741,
, 1


,
, , :
()
;

129

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
,
;
()
, AF.
AD-902

,
,

,

, ,
,
,
.
AD-910
AD-911 ,
,
1 4
AF-241.1
,


:
()
(13)

26,
R = ,

, .
= , .
()
;
1 (38);
()

;
() 27
() ,

() (d),
, 90-
,

, ,
26



,

.

--, --,
.
27


,
.
, ,
.

( . AD-912.1).

, ,
().
AD-912 ,
,
2 3
AF-241.1
,

,
:
() ,

28
3/8 (10)


. SA-333 8, SA-334
8, SA-353, SA-522, SA-553 SA-645

,
(13),


;
()
;

(19);
()

;
()
[. 3 AD-911()];
() ,

(d),
, 90-

,

t (.
AD-912.1).
,
(19),
.
AD-920


()


AD

28

, -
,
25%

25F (14),
.

130

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

:
0,5 ,
AD-911(a);
0,75

, AD911() AD-912();
1,0 , AD-911(c), (d)
(e) AD-912 (c) (e) .



,
800F (427),

1,
1 II D
.

131

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


:
() . AD-900, AD-911 AD-912.
() ,
.
() (),
, , 50% .
() . AD-912.1 ( ).

AD-912.1

132

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

t =
=
AD-912.1
()

133

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
;
,
;
,
,
, .
AD-925

AD-160,

,
,

:
() , AD-901.1, AD-911(a)
AD-912(a);
() , AD-911(e) AD-912(e)
,
AD160.
AD-930

AD-940
() ,

,
.
,
,
,
, , ..
(. AD-150).
.
()

-
, -
.
()
, [.
AG-120()]

,
AD-150.1.
()

,
,
, ,
.

,
,

.

134

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-10


AD-1000
() ,
,
,
,
(. AD-115),
,
,
,

.
()
,

50F (- 46) .
()
,
.
,


:
(1) AD-1000 (c),

;
(2) AD-1001 AD-1003,

;
(3)
.
AD-1001


29 12 (305)

12
(305)
, ,
,
NPS (DN 20).
AD-1003

29


16
(406) 12 (305)

16
(406) 12 (305)
, ,
,
, NPS 1 (DN 40),
:
16
(406) 12 (305)
,
,

, ,
,
NPS 1 (DN 40).
AD-1010

,
,
.1
() ,
, 18 (457) 12
(305) , ,

, NPS 1 (DN 40).
() 18
36 ( 457 914 )
,
, ,
NPS 2 (DN 50).
()
36 (914)
(. AD-1020.1), ,
,
,
, , ,
,
; ,
, , 4 6
(102 152 ).
()

,

135

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


2 3 (51 76 ),

.

,
.
()
,

.
()

,

.
() , ,

,
, :
(1) , ,
;
(2)

,
.

,
,
11/16
(18).

AD-1020

AD-1025

, ,
,
.
AD-1020.1
.
12 16
(305 406 ).
16 (406 ).
AD-1020.2

AD-1021





.
AD-1022

AD-1025.1
.
,


.
AD-1025.2 .

, ,

136

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

D-11

AD-1100
,

, D-1,
, ,
AD-1118.1. AD-160.3
.
AD-1101

()
,

AD-201 AD-212 .
()
, ,
,

, S1
0.50SL :

teff =
,
()
tact=

()
S1 =
,
./2 (kPa)
SL = ./2 (kPa)
() ,
20%
,


, ,

(. AD-101).
()
1/8 (3,2 ).

AD-1102

()
, D-3
:
(1) ,

,
, (2) .

,
.
(2)


,
.
(3) ,

,

,
.
() .

AD-340,

.
AD-1110


, D-4,
.
()

:
(1)
1 AF-810.1.
(2)

1 2 AF810.1.
()
:

137

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(1) 7/8
(22 ) ,
1 AF-810.1.
(2) 7/8
(22 ) ,
1 2 AF-810.1,

,

.
(3)


1 AF-810.1
AF-810.20(b)(5).
()


() 1 2
AF-810.1.
(1)

AD1117.1, () (b).
(2)
()

AD-1117.1, (), (d), (e) (f).
(3)

, AD1117.6, (b), (c), (d), (f) (g).
(4)
,
AD-1117.6, ()
().
()


1 2
AF-810.1.
(1) ,
AD-1117., (), (b-1), (b-2)
(b-3)
, ,
, , .
(2)
,
AD-1117., (), (d-1)
(e)
, ,
, , .
(3) ,
AD-1117.2, (f)
,
, ,
, .
()
,

1 2 AF-810.1.
, AD1117.2, (), (d-1), (d-2), (e) (f).

()

1
2 AF-810.1 AD1117.3. ,
AD-1117.1,
(), (d),(e) (f).
() ,


1 2 AF810.1. , AD-1117.4.
() ,

1 2
AF-810.1. ,
AD-1117.5, (-1) (-2).
()

1 2 AF810.1. , AD-1117.5,
(b-1).
()



,
AD-1117.6, (), (b), (f) (g).
() D
(),


AD-1118.1 ,
(i), (j), (k) (l).
D

.
()
AD-1117.2, (), (b-1), (b2) (b-3) AD-1117.5, (-1) (-2)
,
, 3:1,
--
4.
-
.

,
, .
AD-1115
() ,
() ,
D-5.

()


.
.
() NPS 2 (DN 50) ,
,
,

138

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AD-1118.1, (j).

, 80

AD-602.
()

.
AD-1116


AD-1118.1.
() 6
(DN 150) ,
AD-1118.1, (k) (l).


, ..
-
.
(1) AD-1115(a)

,
d AD-1118.1, (k) (l),

tr

,
.
(2) ,


.
AD-621
AD-1118.1, (k) (l).
(3)

, AD-540 AD-550,
,
.
() , 2
(51) ,
AD-1118.1, (i). (a)

, :

(1)
d AD-1118.1, (i), tr
,

;
(2)
,
AD-1118.1, (i);
(3)

AD-540 AD-550, ,
.
()
.


AD-1117.4, (e), (e-l), (f),
(f-1), (g) b (g-1).
AD-1120

,


D-7, ,
AD-1110(f) (g).
AD-1125

D-9. ,


,
,
, ,

. . AD-1122,
.
,

(. AF-817).

.

139

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

( )

5/8 (16 )

5/8 (16)

( )

3:1. .
()

. 3:1. .
(b)
( )

5/8 (16 )

5/8 (16)

. 3:1
(
,

. 3:1
(
,

( )

5/8 (16 )
()

5/8 (16)
(f)

:
, , Y
(). tL .

. ,
, .
AD-1117.1

140

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



( 1)



( )


2/3 tL .

5/8 (16 )


( )

7/8
(22)

5/8
(16)

AD-1117.2

141

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2







.


5/8
(16)

5/8 (16 )

7/8 (22)








5/8 (16)


() tH = ()
tL = ()
tS =
Y = ()
() (), Y tL . (f) Y
tS.
Y.
,

.
: (1)
.

AD-1117.2


( )
-

142

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

:
() tS = (. AD-1110(f) ()
() t = ( AD-700)
()
() . AD-701.1

AD-1117.3


143

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

()
(b) . 3-310

. 15%
,
3/8 (10 )

tS =

:
() (), (-1), (f), (f-1), (g) (g-1)
: (1) ,
; (2)
.
() (), (-1), (f) (f-1)
.
.
() (h) (h-1)
.

AD-1117.4

144

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


3:1

tH = ()
tL = ()
tS = ()
Y = ()

AD-1117.5

145

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


[. AF- 820(b)(2)]

AD-1117.6
- -

146

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

3:1

3:1

AD-1118.1

147

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

()


(
)

Cmax = 1/8 (3.2)



d = (. AD-1116,
)
r1 min = tn (19), ,
r2 = (6)
r3 min = r1 minimum
t min = (19) tn
tC = (6) 0.7
(19) tn
tL = ()
tn =
()
tS = ()
:
( )

O. D. (i), (j) (l).

AD-1118.1

(
)

148

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


( )


( )

*

( )

*
, ,


( )


( )

AD-1122

149

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF

150

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF
F-1
AF-100
AF-101
AF-102
AF-102.1
AF-102.2
AF-104
AF-104.1
AF-104.2
AF-104.3
AF-105
AF-105.1
AF-105.2
AF-110
AF-111
AF-112
AF-112.1
AF-112.2
AF-112.3
AF-112.4
AF-112.5
AF-120
AF-130
AF-130.1
AF-130.2
AF-130.3
AF-130.4
AF-135
AF-136
AF-140
AF-140.1
AF-140.2
AF-140.3
AF-141
AF-142
AF-142.1
AF-142.2
AF-142.3

.. 157
....... 157
..... 157
...... 157
. 157
( ). 157
() .. 157
(), . 157
() . 158
() () ... 158
.. 158
158
. 158
.. 158
. 158
.. 158
. 158
. 159
159
.. 159
.. 159
, .. 159
() 159
() . 159
() .. 160
. 160
, . 160
160
,
.. 161
. 161
. 162
162
. 162
, .. 162
, . 163
().. 163
,
163
163

F-2

165

AF-200
AF-210

.165
.. 165

151

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-210.1
AF-210.2
AF-210.3
AF-210.4
AF-210.5
AF-210.6
AD-215
AD-215.1

.. 165
() 166
166
166
- 166
. 166
167
, ,
.. 167
AF-215.2 . 167
AF-220
.. 167
AF-221
1 .. 167
AF-221.1 .. 167
AF-221.2 .. 167
AF-221.3 167
AF-222
2 .. 168
AF-222.1 .. 168
AF-222.2 . 168
AF-222.3 .. 168
AF-223
168
AF-223.1 .. 168
AF-223.2 .. 168
AF-224
169
AF-224.1 169
AF-224.2 .. 169
AF-225
. 169
AF-225.1 . 169
AF-225.2 .. 169
AF-226
169
AF-227
..169
AF-227.1 .
169
AF-228
.. 169
AF-229
170
AF-229.1 .. 170
AF-229.2 .. 170
AF-230
... 170
AF-231
, .. 170
AF-232
, 170
AF-233
. 170
AF-234
.. 171
AF-235
- 171
AF-236
. 171
AF-237
. 171
AF-240
. 171
AF-241
171
AF-241.1 171
AF-250
. 171
AF-251
171
AF-252
, ...... 172
AF-253
172
AF-254
172
AF-260
. 172

152

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-261

( ) 172

F-3

-- .. 179

AF-300
AF-301
AF-301.1
AF-301.2
AF-310
AF-320
AF-321
AF-321.1
AF-321.2
AF-321.3
AF-321.4
AF-330
AF-334
AF-336

. 179
. 179
179
179
..179
-.. 179
.. 179
179
.. 180
180
.. 180
180
.180
... 180

F-4 ... 181


AF-400
AF-401
AF-402
AF-402.1
AF-402.2
AF-402.3
AF-402.4
AF-410
AF-410.1
AF-410.2
AF-410.3
AF-410.4
AF-410.5
AF-410.6
AF-410.7
AF-415
AF-420
AF-420.1

. 181
... 181
. 181
. 181
, . 181
, . 181
. 190
.190
.. 190
190
, 190
191
191
191
.. 191
191
.. 192
, 192

F-5



..... 194

AF-500
AF-501

.. 194

194
. 194
194

194
.. 194

AF-503
AF-505
AF-510
AF-520

153

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-540
AF-550
AF-551
AF-552
AF-560
AF-561
AF-561.1
AF-561.2
AF-562
AF-562.1
AF-562.2
AF-563
AF-570
AF-571
AF-572
AF-572.1
AF-572.2
AF-580
AF-581
AF-582
AF-582.1
AF-582.2
-590
F-6
AF-600
AF-601
AF-602
AF-605
AF-606
AF-610
AF-611
AF-612
AF-613
AF-613.1
AF-614
AF-614.1
AF-614.2
AF-615
AF-620
AF-623
AF-623.1
AF-623.2
AF-623.3
AF-630
AF-631

.. 194
. 195
, ..195
, . 195

. 195

.195

195

195
..195
.. 195
195

195
... 195
. 195
196
, .. 196
, .. 196
. 196
.. 196
196
196
() 196
197

..... 198
... 198
... 198
. 198
. 198
... 198
.. 198
.. 198
. 199
200
... 200
. 200
... 200
() .. 200
... 200
. 200
200
. 200
. 200
. 200
... 201
201

154

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-631.1
AF-635
AF-635.1
AF-632.1
AF-635.3
AF-635.4
AF-636
AF-640
AF-641
AF-642
AF-642.1
AF-642.2
AF-650
AF-651
AF-652
AF-653
AF-653.1
AF-654
AF-660
AF-670

201
.. 201
.. 201
.. 201
.. 201
. 201
. 201
... 201
. 201
201
203
.. 203
. 203
. 1.. 203
204
. 204
204
.. 204
. 204
.. 204

F-7 .. 205
AF-700
AF-703
AF-704
AF-710
AF-711
AF-712
AF-712.1
AF-712.2
AF-720
AF-721
AF-721.1
AF-730
AF-730.1
AF-730.2
AF-730.3
AF-730.4
AF-730.5
AF-740
AF-741
AF-750
AF-751
AF-752
AF-753
AF-753.1
AF-753.2
AF-753.3
AF-754
AF-754.1
AF-754.2

. 205
. 205
.... 205
.. 205
.... 205
.... 205
205
.. 205
.. 206
.... 206
206
206
.. 206
206
.. 206
. 207
207
. 207

0,35%.. 207
.. 207
. 207
. 207
0,35% .. 208
208
. 208
.. 208
0,35%.. 208
208
. 208

155

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-754.3
AF-756
AF-760
AF-761
AF-762
AF-763
AF-764
AF-770
AF-771
AF-771.1
AF-771.2
AF-771.3
AF-776
AF-777
AF-777.1
AF-777.2
AF-780
AF-781
AF-782
AF-790

208
.. 208
,
... 208
. 208
. 208
... 208
.............. 209
, ............. 209
............. 209
209
. 209
... 209
209
.209
...209
.. 210
........ 210
.............. 210
, ,
, .. 210
.210

F-8 211
AF-800
AF-801
AF-802
AF-803
AF-805
AF-805.1
AF-805.2
AF-810
AF-810.1
AF-810.2
AF-810.3
AF-810.4
AF-810.5
AF-810.6
AF-810.7
AF-810.8
AF-810.9
AF-810.10
AF-810.20
AF-810.21
AF-811
AF-815
AF-815.1
AF-815.2
AF-816
AF-817
AF-820

. 211
211
... 211
.. 211
..... 211
. 211
..... 213
213
213
. 1 213
. 213
. 2 213
. 213
214
214
214
214
... 215
.... 215
216
.. 218
. 218
221
221

, 222
. 222
223

156

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-130.1
AF-130.2
AF-130.3
AF-136
AF-762.1
AF-805.1
AF-805.2
AF-805.3
AF-805.4
AF-810.1
AF-810.2
AF-815


160
,
.. 161
162
... 163

... 209
- - 212
... 213
... 214
... 214
... 219
.. 220
.. 221

AF-142.1
AF-226.1
AF-241.1
AF-402.1
AF-402.2
AF-630.1
AF-810.1

.
..
.
,
..

,

AQT-1..

164
170
173
182
190
202
217

157

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-1

AF-100
AF-101


,
.

,

.
AF-102
,
,
,

. ,

,


,




.

,


.
AF-102.1,
,
.
,
,
.
AF-102.1 .

, ,

,

,

.
,


.

,
, , AF102.2.
AF-102.2 -,
. -
- ,
,


, ,
, :
()
;
()
,


.



,
.


,
,
, -105.1.
AF-104
,
, ,
,


.


()
. ()

.
AF-104.1 .
,
-
9-1,
92
.
AF-104.2 .
()

158

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

IX ;

-204,


-201
,
.


AF-402, .
AF-104.3

,

() ,

-
9-1
9-2.
()

I-5,
3/8 (10),
.
AF-105

AF-105.1 .

. ,
,
0,01
(0,3) 6% ,
,

,
, ,

,

0,01 (0,3)
6% .
AF-105.2 .
,
.
.

,

, .
AF-110
AF-111 ()



,
.
AF-112
AF-112.1
()
,
,
.


(
) ,
.
,
AF-104.
() () (),
,
, 1 (38)

-
9-1
9-2.
() ,

-
9-1
9-2.
(1)
, AD-610.1, (),
(b) (f).
(2)

3 (76) .
(3) (
)
.
(4)
( ), -
,
(), 1
(25) .
: ,
,

, ,
SA-435, SA-388.

()

(13)
, AD413.2, ( )
,
(1) 9-1

9-2,

159

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-223.2(). ,
,

,
(1) .
(1) AD-701.3 3-310.1,
(h),
,

:
()

AD-701.3, (), (b) (c) 3-310.1,
(h);
()
AD-701.3,
()
()
AD-701.3,
(b),

;
()
, 3-310.1, (h);
()
,
AD-701.3, (c) 3-310.1,
(h);

.
-
9-1
92.
AF-112.4
. AD-610.1, AD-612.1,
AD-613.1 AD621.1,
, , t
(19), ,
,

().

,
, ,
, , tn
3/8 (10), ,
45,
, , 5\16 (8) (. AD-610.1,
AD-612.1, AD-613.1 AD621.1).
AF-112.5
. ,

AF-12.1().
AF-120

AF-112.2
() ,


( , , ),
.


,

.

.
() ,
,
.
-, - ,
, - ..
,

( ),
-

.
AF-112.3
.
,

, ,
- ,





(. AF-130).
AF-130
,

, AF-135
, AF-712.2)
AF-130.1 AF-130.4
.
AF-130.1 .


1% D, D

.
,
.
,

(. AF-130.1).

160

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


1 I.D ,
,
,
2%
.

AF-130.1


AF-130.2 .
AF130.1 , , (), () (),
.
() -

,

,
AF-130.2.

, ,
.

,
(
) ,
AF-130.3.
() t


, .
() L AF-130.2 AF-130.3
:
(1) L AD-300.1;
(2) Do
,
, L

:
()

( );
() ,
,
.
(3) L
Do .
AF-130.3
.
,
.

()

,
.
() ,

, AD-310
, .


,





,


.
AF-130.4
. , ,
,
,
.
AF-135

()

,
,


1 % D,
5/8% D, D

.

.

.
()
,
,
(),

, AF-130.2.
()
, .
()

,
AF-142
,
1% D, D
.

161

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-130.2 ,

AF-136
,

. d

.
AF-140

,
AD-160,
d
,
, ,
(. AF-136).
D
.
, D/6 12
(305), 36 (914).

, D
.
2:1, D 1,8

,

.

,
,
. ,


.


--
,
--,
--, - -- .

162

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-130.3

AF-140.1
.
, ,
, .

, ,
,

-
,
.

,
.
,
AG-302.1,
,

.

,
, ,
,
,
(. AF-142.1)/
AF-140.3 . ,


-
9-1
-
9-2. ,

.
,

,
,
AF-253.

AF-141
AF-140.2

()
.

- ,

,
, AF-142
.
-
163

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-136


, ,

, ,
- ,
,
.
()
,

.
() () (),
-
,

,
- .
AF-142

,
,
,
AF-141.1 AF-142.2. ,

AF-141.1
AF-142.2
, ,


4
AF-142.3. . AF-614
.
AF-142.1 .


, AF-142.1.
AF-142.2
,

,


AF142.1
.
AF-142.3
.


3:1
, ,
,
.

AF-229.

164

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-142.1

. AF-614.1
()


[ (1)]

Up to
Over

:
(1) t = .

165

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-2

AF-200

IX
.

() ,

:
(1) : ,

, ,
,
.
(2) :
, , 30,
,
, , ,
.
()
,
, ,
.
()


,

: SA-240
TP304, TP304L, TP316 TP316L; SA-182 F304, F304L; F316
F316L; SA-351 CF3, CF3A, CF3M, CF8, CF 8A CF8M.
,

1 (38)
,
,
1 (38),
.
() IX ,
.
()
,
,
, ,
AQT-1,

AF-401 AF-402.
1 (25)

.
()



AF-210.1
()

,
,
IX , IX ,



-.
() 31,
(


,
.
(1)
.
(2)

, ,
IX.
(3)
IX.
(4) ,
, :
()

;
()

;
()
;
() ,

.
(5)


,


.

30

31

,
.

AF-210

-
.

166

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-210.2

.
.

IX
AWS
.

, ,


- ,
, QW-201
IX. ,
,
-
, ,
QW-300 IX.
AF-210.3

. ,


,
.
AF-210.4
.
()

.
()

(),


IX.
()
,

.
, 80,000 ./2
(552 )
,
.
.
() ,
,
,

(,

, ..) ,

.
(1) ,


IX.

(2) ,

( ,
IX),
.
AF-210.5
-
() -,
,
,
()
, ,

IX.
(1)


.
(2)
,

.
,

, ,
IX.
() -,
,
,
(,
,
..) ,
.
(1) ,


IX.
(2) -
,
.
(3)

,


,

.
AF-210.6

.
-,
,


.

. -

167

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


3 (0,9)
,
AF-102.1 AF-601; ,
,

-,
.
AF-215 ,


AF-215.1 ,
.


,

. ,
,
.


.
AF-215.2
.
,
0F (-18). 32 F
(0) 0F (-18), ,
3 (76),
, ,
, ,
[ 60 F (16)].

,
,
.
AF-220

AF-221 1
1
,
,

, ,
. ,

1 .
AF-221.1
()
.
; ,
, ,
,

.


,

.
()

.
(1)

.
(2) 1/32
(0,8) 10%
, ,
.32
AF-221.2
. 1 1 AF-241.1


. ,
1, , ,


I-5. ,



I-5. , ,

-
, 1 (38)
,

9-3. ,
-

9-3.
AF-221.3 ,
,


,33

.
:

32


,
.
,
.
33


, , ,

.

168

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



, ()

,
()


Less than ; to ; Over ; incl. .

AF-222 2
2

.
,
2
, . AD412.1.
AF-222.1 .
2,

,

. ,

,
, AF-221.3
.
AF-222.2 .
,

.

.
AF-222.3
. 1 1 AF241.1

. ,
2,

I-5. , ,

,

9-3.

()

. ,
-

9-3.
AF-223


,
L T.

.
AF-223.1 .

, ,
,
[ . AD610.1; AD-612.1, (b), (c), (e), (f) (g);
AD-701.3 3-310.1, (g) (h)].
AF-223.2

()
[. AD-610.1,
() (b)],
,

,
-

9-1 9-2,
, .
()
, AD701.3, (b) (), ,
b ts,
100%

SA-435, ,
.
() ,
,
- ,
9-1
9-2, :
(1) ,
2 (64),


9-3, ,
,
,

I-5;
(2) ,
6 (156)
2 (64),

,
,
,

,
(1).
() , 2
AF-241.1, -

169

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



,
.
AF-224


,
,
AD-414.1.
AF-224.1 .

, AD621 AD-621.1.
AF-224.2
.
-
9-1

9-2.
-

2 AF-241.1

.
AF-225 ,

,
,
,
,
, ,
.

AD-612

AD-612.1, AD-620, AD-635


AD-711.1. ,
, ,
AD-911 AD-912,
, AF-227.
AF-225.1 .


,
. (. AF-221.1.)
AF-225.2

() ,

,

,
-

9-1 9-2.

,
.
() 1 1 AF-241.1


. ,
,

-

9-1 9-2, .
() ,


AF-227.1.
AF-226
.


D-6. ,
, AF226.1.
AF-227
, .
, ,

, , ,
, D-9. . AD911 AD-912, ,
,

,

,
0,35%
. . Af-741.
AF-227.1

,

() 1 1 AF-241.1


. ,
, , ,

,
(. D-9)

9-1
9-2, .
() ()
2
AF-241.1
, .

170

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-226.1









AD-610

,

,

AD-620

AD-613.1, (), (b), (), (-1), (d), (e)


(f); AD-610.1,
AD-612.1, (), (f), (g) (h)

AD-621

AD-621.1

AF-228



,
, ,
, ,
(19)

(. 9-2).

, .
.
AF-229



,

:
() ;
()
AD-420
AD-142.3 ,
AF229 AF-229.2.
AF-229.1
.
,

IX
.

AD-611


AD-610.1, () (b)
AD-610.1, (), (d), (d-1), (e), (e-1).,
(f) (g)
AD-612.1, (), (b) ()

AD-612
AD-613

AD-630
AD-635

AD-612.1, (d)


.
AF-230

AF-231 ,


,
,



.
,

-

.
AF-232

,

.
AF-233

AF-229.2


()

9-1,

9-2.
()
,
,


-
,


.

AF-234
()


-
171

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2




.
()
, () ,

. ,
,

.
()
,

,

, .
AF-235



() -

,

3 (0,9)

(6)


-,
.
()

, ,
,

,
,
,
:
(1)
,
,
,

-;
(2)

.
()
-,

,
,
, ,

, ,

-.

AF-236
,


.

.

10%.
,
.
AF-237




.
() IX

,
,

.
.
() 125
.
AF-240


AF-241
D-4

. D-6

. ,
D-9

.
AF-241.1.
AF-241.1
.
, AF-241.1

AF221 AF-652 AF-653.


,

AF-241.1.
AF-250

AF-251

, 1-5, 91, 9-2 9-3 ,

172

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2





.
AF-252 ,

, ,

.
AF-253





.
,

.
AF-254


F-4

.
AF-260

AF-261

AD-400,

,
,



. , ,


. ,

,
,
-

,
.


.

, , 100
(30,5) .
,
,
,

100 (30,5)
.

IX, QW-160.
-
.

173

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-241.1


1 [ (1), (2)]
1 - 1,2 3; 8 1 2; 9 1;
SA-387 12 4 1; 3 3, SA-302


1
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
1
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
1
AD-413
AD-701.1
RT
C. AF-221.2
3-301.1
FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-301.1

RT UT


2
(64) . AF223.2()

FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-301.1


2
(64) .
AF-223.2()

FW

AD-413

3-301.1

AD-414

AD-613.1

RT

C. AF-225 AD711.1

. AF-221.2

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

RT UT

6
(152)

2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

MT PT


6
(152)

6
(152)


2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

AD-414

AD-612.1

MT PT

. AD-570

AD-414

AD-612.1

MT PT

. AD-620 AD635

AD-414.1

AD-621.1

MT PT

. AD-621

FP + FW
( )
FW
PP

174

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-241.1

()

1 [ (1), (2)]
1 - 1,2 3; 8 1 2; 9 1;
SA-387 12 4 1; 3 3, SA-302


. AF-227.1
B
AD-911
MT PT
FP
FP + FW
PP +FW
FW


PT

8

(19)

,
.
. AF-228

175

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-241.1

()





1
1
1

2 [ (2)]
, 1,3 4

AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
AD-413
AD-701.1
RT
C. AF-221.2
3-301.1
AD-601

FP

AD-413
AD-601

AD-701.3
3-301.1

RT UT


2
(64) . AF-223)

FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-301.1

AD-414

AD-613.1

RT


2
(64)

.
AF-223.2() (d)
. AF-221.2

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

RT UT

6
(152)

2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

MT PT




2 1/2 (64)

.
AF-223.2(c) (d)

PP

AD-414.1

AD-621.1

MT PT

. AD-621
,

,
, .
AF-223.2(d)

B
FP
FP + FW
PP +FW
FW

AD-912

MT PT

. AF-227.1

, .
AF-223.2(d)

176

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-241.1

()

4 [ (2)]
P-No. 21 P-No. 25 ,
P-No. 31 P-No. 35 , P-No. 41 P-No. 45


1
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
1
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2 AF222.3
1
AD-413
AD-701.1
RT
C. AF-221.2
3-301.1
FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-301.1

RT UT


2
(64) . AF-223.2
()

FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-301.1


2
(64). . AF-223.2
()

AD-414

AD-613.1

RT

. AF-221.2

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

RT UT

6
(152)

2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

PT


6
(152)

6
(152)


2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

AD-414

AD-612.1

PT

. AD-570

AD-414

AD-612.1

PT

. AD-620 AD635

AD-414.1

AD-621.1

PT

. AD-621

AD-911

PT

. AF-227.1

P-No. 43, P-No. 44,


P-No. 45

FP + FW
( )
FW

PP
B
FP
FP + FW
PP +FW
FW

( AF-241.1 )
-

177

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-241.1

()

4 [ (2)]
P-No. 21 P-No. 25 ,
P-No. 31 P-No. 35 , P-No. 41 P-No. 45


1
AD-411

RT
. AF-221.2
1 2
AD-412

RT
. AF-221.2 AF222.3
1
AD-413
AD-701.1
RT
C. AF-221.2
3-310.1
FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-310.1

RT UT


2
(64) . AF-223.2
()

FP

AD-413

AD-701.3
3-310.1


2
(64). . AF-223.2
()

AD-414

AD-613.1

RT

. AF-221.2

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

RT UT

6
(152)

2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

FP

AD-414
AD-601

AD-610.1

PT


6
(152)

6
(152)


2
(64)
. AF-223.2(c)

AD-414

AD-612.1

PT

. AD-570

AD-414

AD-612.1

PT

. AD-620 AD635

AD-414.1

AD-621.1

PT

. AD-621

AD-911

PT

. AF-227.1

P-No. 43, P-No. 44,


P-No. 45

FP + FW
( )
FW

PP
B
FP
FP + FW
PP +FW
FW

( AF-241.1 )
-

178

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-241.1 ()
:
()

= : 1 . AF-221; 2 . AF-222
FP = . AF-223
= . AF-224
FW = . AF-225

RT =
= -
=
UT =

PWHT =
:
(1) ,
(13) SA-515 Gr. 70, SA-204, SA-299,
.
() :


FP
FP

FW

1/2 (13)
1/2 (13),
1 1/4 (32)
,
1/2 (13),
1 1/4 (32)

() RT UT ,
(13) ,
10 (254 ).
() , - ,
9-3.
(2) 9-3

,
.
.

, ,
.

(3) SA-372 IV V
.
, . . AF-741

.

179

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-3

()
AF-300

,

, .
AF-301



,
.
AF-301.1
.

.
AF-301.2 .
,
,
,

.

.

AF- 310

,
( )
,
.
AF-320



-
AF-321.
AF-321

-
. ,
,

, ,
.
AF-321.1
()
.
()
QW/QB-422 IX.

, .
()
.

.
,
.


, .
()
:
(1) QW/QB-422
IX
F
QW-432 ,
, ,
AISI -7 -8
QW/QB-422

;
(2) F QW-432
F
QW/QB-422 ,
.
()
0.1000 ,
10%
.
,
0.100 (2,54 ),
(
)

180

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
10%
, 3/8
(10 )
.
()
,
(. QW-461.1 IX).
()
.
()

.
()

.
AF-321.2



()
() F QW-432
F ( QW-432 QW404.5).
AF-321.3

()
,
.
()

(
).
()
.
()
,
25% 5 .
/ (0.14 3 / ), ,
.
()
,
().
.
() ,
.
()
.
AF-321.4
()
10%

AF321.1(e).
() .
()
10%.
() 0.010 (0.25 )

.
()
10%.
AF-330

,
,

, AF321. ,
,
, ,
2 (51 ).

10.
AF-334


92. ,
. [

(13 )].
, ,

.
(
)

10 .
AF-336

-
,

, ,
6.

-

181

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-4


AF-400


, AF-402.1 AF402.2, , ,
,
, 3 AG-301.1(c),

1/8 (3.2
), - 3, -4, - 5, 5, -5, -5, -6, -7, (
405 410S), -10,

.

AF-402.1

QW/QB-422 IX,

1 II, D.

AF-401 ()

IX. ,
,

.

, ,
,
,
.
.
D

,
- IX.
,

,

,
.
AF-402

AF-402.1
,


AF-402.1,

, AF-402.1 (.
AM-202).



.
, AF-402.1

,
,


IX AF-321,
, ,
.
AF-402.1 AF-402.2,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
AF-402.3,
,

.________
1
T-2.

-

AF-402.2 ,
,
-
, ,
-
, ,
AF-402.1
,

. ,

,

, .
AF-402.3

182

AF-402.1

2001 VIII 2
AF-402.1

(. AF-402.1)

, 0F (0C),

2 (51)
2 5 (51-127)
5 (127)
- 1,
1,100 (593)
1 / (1
2 15
2 15
1,2,3
/25), 15 .
(25) 2

(51 )
(25) 2 (51 )
:
(1) AF-402.2,
, ,
.
(2) :
() 1 (38 ) .
1 (32), 1 (38 ), ,
, 2000F (930C).
() , AG-301.1 (), ,
, :
(1) (13), (13),
2 (51), , ,
, 2000F (930C);
(2) (13) (13),
, , , ,
2000F (930C), , , 1
(32);
(3) , , ,
2000F (930C), , , 1 (32);
(4) , ( AF-551)
, , ,
2000F (930C), , , 1 (32).

(. AF-402.1)

, 0F (0C),

2 (51)
2 5 (51-127)
5 (127)

- 1,
1,100 (593)
1 / (1
2 15
2 15
1,2,3
/25), 1
(25) 2

(51 )
(25) 2 (51 )
:
(1) AF-402.2,
, ,
.
, , -2, .
(2) - 3, 4 .
(3) , (4), :
() -3, 1, - 3, 2, 5/8 (16). ,
5/8 (16) , ,
AF-210.4 .
() , AG-301.1 () , .
(4) , , ,
:
() , , 0.25%
( ,
) , ,
(13), (13) ,
2000F (930C);
() , (13)
, 0.25% (
, );
() , , ,
0.25% ( ,
), 2000F (930C);
() , ( AF-551)
, 0.25% (
,
), 2000F (930C), .
(5) ,
-202, .
( )

183

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1
,
()

(. AF-402.1)

, 0F (0C),

2 (51)
2 5 (51-127)
5 (127)

- 4,
1,100 (593)
1 / (1
1 / ((1/25)
5 15
1,2
/25), 1

(25) 5 (127
)
:
(1) , (2), :
() SA-202 5/8 (16). ,
5/8 , , AF-210.4
.
() , , ,
AG-301.1();
() - 4 1 2.
(3) :
() - 4,
:
(1) 4 (102);
(2) 5/8 (16);
(3) 0.15% (
SA, );
(4) 2500F (1210).
() 4, ()(1), ()(2), ()(3),
, , , :
(1) (13);
(2) 2500F (1210).
() 4, ()(1), ()(2), ()(3),
2500F (1210).
(3) ,
-202, .

(. AF-402.1)

, 0F (0C),

2 (51)
2 5 (51-127)
5 (127)

- 5, 5
1,250 (677)
1 / (1
1 / ((1/25)
5 15
1, 5
/25), 1

(25) 5 (127
)
-5,
1,300 (704)
2
:
(1) , (2), .
(2) :
() , :
(1) 3.0%
(2) 4 (102);
(3) 5/8 (16);
(4) 0.15% (
SA, );
(5) 3000F (1490).
() 4, ()(1), ()(2), ()(3) ()(4),
, , , :
(1) (13);
(2) 3000F (1490).
() , ()(1), ()(2), ()(3) ()(4),
3000F (1490).
(3)
-202, .
(5) -5, 5 1, 5, 1,
, , 1,2000F (6490C),
, 2 (51), 4
, 4 / (4 25) ; 2 (51),
4. , -112 .

184

AF-

AF-402.1

AF- 402.1
,
()

- 6,
1,2,3

, 0F (0C),

1,250 (677)

(. AF-402.1)
2 (51)
1 /
(1 /25),
1

2 5 (51-127)
2 15
(25)
2 (51 )

5 (127)
2 15
(25)
2 (51 )

:
(1) , 410
0,08% ,
, , ,
3/8 (10), 3/8 (10) 1 (38),
4500F (2320C)
.
(2) ,
-202, .

(. AF-402.1)

, 0F (0C),

2 (51)
2 5 (51-127)
5 (127)

- 7,
1,350 (732)
1 /
2 15
2 15
1,2
(1 /25),
(25) 2

1
(51 )
(25) 2 (51 )
:
(1) AF-402, ,
1000F (380C) 1,2000F (6490C),
. , 405
0,08% ,
, , ,
3/8 (10), 3/8 (10) 1 (38),
4500F (2320C) .
(2) ,

-202, .

-8

, 0F (0C),

..

(. AF-402.1)
2 (51)
..

2 5 (51-127)
.

5 (127)

:
(1) , -
8. D.
( )

185

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1
,
()

, 0F (0C),

(. AF-402.1)
- 9
1,100 (593)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)
1

:
(1) AF-402.2,
, ,
[1,0000F (5380C) ] .
, , -2,
.
(2) , (3),
:
() 5/8 (16). 5/8 (16) ,
, , AF210.4 .
() , AG-301.1() ,
.
(1) , :
() , :
(1) 4 (102);
(2) 1/2 (13);
(3) 0.15% (
SA,
);
(4) 2500F (1210).
() 4, ()(1), ()(2), ()(3),
, , :
(1) (13) ;
2500F (1210C).
, .
, :
() (13) ;
() 4 (102);
()
, IX

.
()
, , (13)

(13) , 2000F (930C);
() , , ,
2000F (930C)
() , ( AF-551)
, , ,
2000F (930C).
(4) ,
-202, .
(5) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .
( )

186

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1
,
()

- 9B
1

, 0F (0C),

1,100 (593)

(. AF-402.1)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)

:
(1) AF-402.2,
, ,
[1,0000F (5380C) ] .
, , -2,
.
(2) 1,1750F (6350).
(3) , (4),
:
() : 5/8 (16). 5/8 ,
, , AF210.4
.
() , AG-301.1() , , ,
.
(4) :
() , , ,
(13), (13), ,
2000F (930C).
() , , , ,
2000F (930C);
() , ( AF-551)
, , ,
2000F (930C).
(5) ,
-202, .
(6) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .
( )

187

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1
,
()

, 0F (0C),

(. AF-402.1)
-10
1,100 (593)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)
1

:
(1) () AF-402.2,
, ,
.
, , -2, .
() , 0.15%
, .
(2) , (3),
:
() SA 487 Cl. 1A ;
() - 10 5/8 (16).
5/8 , , AF-210.4
.
() , , ,

AG-301.1();
(3) :
() , , 0.25%
( SA,
) , ,
(13) (13) ,
2000F (930C);
() , (13) ,
0.25% (
SA, )
2000F (930C);
() , , ,
0.25% ( SA,
) ,
2000F (930C);
() , ( AF-551)
, 0.25% (
SA,
) , ,
2000F (930C).
(4) ,
-202, .
(5) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15 /
(15/25) . , , ,
, 15 / (15/25) .
( )

188

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1

,
()

-10
2

, 0F (0C),

1,100 (593)

(. AF-402.1)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)

:
(1) -10 .
(2) ,
-202, .
(3) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .

- 10
1

, 0F (0C),

1,250 (677)

(. AF-402.1)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)

:
(1) SA-268 446, 1000F/ (560/)
1,2000F (6490C), , , .
(2) ,
-202, .
(3) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .

-10F
6

, 0F (0C),

1,100 (593)

(. AF-402.1)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)

:
(1) -10 .
(2) ,
-202, .
(3) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .

- 10G
1

, 0F (0C),

..

(. AF-402.1)
2 (51)
..

2 5 (51-127)
.

5 (127)

:
(1) , .
(6) ,
-202, .
( )

189

AF-

AF-402.1

AF-402.1

,
()

- 10
1

, 0F (0C),

..

(. AF-402.1)
2 (51)
..

2 5 (51-127)
.

5 (127)

:
(1) , ,
, ,
, , :

S32550
S31803
S32900 (0.08 .)
S31200
S31500
S32304
J93345
S32750
S32950

- 10I
1

, 0F (0C),

1,350 (732)


, 0F
1,900-2,050
1,870-2,010
1,725-1,750
1,900-2,000
1,785-1,875
1,740-1,920
2,050
1,800-2,060
1,825-1,875

, 0C

1 038-1 121
1 021-1 099
941-954
1 038-1 093
974-1 024
949-1 049
1 121
982-1 127
996-1 024

(. AF-402.1)
1 , 15 / (15./25) 1 (25)

:
(1) 1000F/ (560) 1,2000F (6490C),
.
(2) (13) , , .
(3) S44635, , ,
, .
, 1,8500F (1 0100C),
8000F (4270C).
(4) ,
-202, .
(5) 500F/ (280/) 8000F (4270C) , 15
/ (15/25) . , ,
, , 15 /
(15/25) .

- 10
1

, 0F (0C),

..

(. AF-402.1)
2 (51)
..

2 5 (51-127)
.

5 (127)

:
(1) S44660, , ,
, .
, 1,5000F- 1,9500F (8160C 1 0660), 10
.
(2) ,
-202, .

190

AF-
AF-402.2


,


(
AF-402.1)



,
, 0F (0C)

[ (1)]
50 (28)
2
100 (56)
4
150 (84) [ (2)]
10
200 (111) [
20
(2)]

(4)
(5)

(6)
(7)

AF-402.4

1 (38)
,
(). , ,
AF-415(b) ()
- 1.

:
(1) 1
(25) . 15

1 (25).
(2)


- 1 2.

AF-410



. ,
,

PWHT,
AF-402.1. ,
, ,
,

,
,
.
t 2 (51),
,
. t
AF-402.3.

AF-402.1, AF-402.2, AF630.1, ,


. ,
,

,
,
.
()
,
,
,
.
() ,
.
() ,
.
,
,
.
() ,
.
()
,
:
(1)
,
;
(2)
, ,
, ;
(3) . AD-610.1, AD-612.1, AD-613.1,
AD-621.1,
, , ,
, ,

-

AF-402.1

,
;

;
,
,

;
-
;
,
.

AF-410.1
.
.
.
AF-410.2
.
, ,
, , 5
(1.5). ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
AF- 410.3 , ,
.
, , /

191

AF-

AF-410.6

,

.

.
-
,
,
, t
2 (51),
.
,
,
.

AF 410.4 .
,
,


.
,
.
AF-410.5

()
,

,
,
.
,

,
, .

,
;


, . ,
,



,
,
.

,
, PWHT, ,
,
,
,

.
,

, ,
, ,


-

AF-402.1

,
,
.
,
,
.
() , (),

, .

,
,

AF-410.2,

,

,
.
,
.

,
.

.

AF-410.7

,
AF-410.1 AF-410.6 ,
,
(

),
,
(,
, , -),
,
PWHT.
,
,
. ,

t 2 (51),
.
AF-415


, AF410, .
() 8000F
(4270C)
.
() 8000F (4270C),
4000F/
(2220C/),
,
1000F/ (560C/).

192

AF-

AF-420

, AF-420.1,
,
,
,


.
AF-420.1

,


- 3 1-3,
, ,

(),
,
, ,
AG-301.1(),
, AF-402.1,
,

-204.

() (), .
,

,
, ,
.
()

,
.

.

-

AF-402.1

()
1 (38) - 1,
1-3, 5/8 (16)
- 3, 1-3.

,
.
() ,

, 9-1 9-2 .
() IX,
,
.
(1)
-
, -
.
II,
, SFA-5.5, A5.6.

4
.
(2) - 1, 1-3,
,

2000F (930C).
(3) - 3, 1-3,

,

.
,


3500F (1770C).
4500F (2320C).

1/8
.
(3.2).

.


5/32 . (4 ) ,


, .

,
.
,

4000F (2040C) 5000F (2600C)
, 4 .

, 15
(4.6 ), ,
2500F (1390C) .
()
,
, AF-402.2
, .
, ,
1500F (830C)

, ,
AF402.1.
() ,
,

.


.
() 8000F (4270C),
,
5000F/ (2780C/),

,
1000F/ (560C/). 8000F (4270C),
.

193

AF-

AF-402.1

.
() ,
,

,
(),

,
- 3, 3,

,
, 48 .
,
.
,
3/8 (10)
,
AI-500.
() ,
.

194

AF-

AF-402.1

F-5





AF-500
AF-501



-220 -230.
AF-503

,
,

,

,
.
,
,
.

, .

, 1.00%,
, ,
.
AF-510

.
:
,
,
,

, .

AF-505
,
,
,

.
, ,
, .

, ,
, ,

AF-520

,
,


IX.
AF-540

195

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-550


AF-551 ,

,
, ,

,
,
.

,
,
.

,


,
AF-402.1.
AF-552 ,
,

,

,

,
, ,
,
405 410S

,
,
, AF-551.
AF-560



AF-561

,
IX, QW-217.
AF-561.1



.

,
AF-520,

, ,
AD-116.

AF-561.2
.



,
AF-520,

IX.
AF-562

.
AF-562.1 .
,




,
,

IX,
. ,


, .
AF-562.2 .


, ,
F-3,
,
.
, ,
,
AF-321.
AF-563





IX.
AF-570

AF-571


:
() ,
,
.

196

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

. ,
,
,
,
.
(b) , ,
,
, I-5.
,
,
,
.
AF-572

,


,
,
F-2.

9-3.

,
(),

,
,

.
(3) AF-241.1.
,
,
,
9-3.
AF-572.1 ,

,
,

,
,


.
AF-572.2 ,

,
F-2,
, ,

,
,
,
.
()
,
.
(b)
.
() ,
,
.
AF-580

AF-581
,


,

,

, AI
,
.
AF-582

,
.


.

,
.
,
,

.
AF-582.1
.
(. -3)

,
.
AF-582.2
,

,
,
. ,

,
,

, ,
.

197

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2




. ,
.

,
,
, ,

.
AF-590

AS,

,

:
() ;
(b) , ,

.

198

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-6


,

AF-600
%
,

,

,

,
F,
AD . -202.1
(d) ,

.
AF-601

.
1/2 (13)
.

, . AF-102.1.
AF-602

.
AF-605

() ,

,
,
AF-630.1.

5%, (1) (2):

(2) (,
):

t = , ()
Rf = /
, , ()
() , ,

,



.
AF- 606


, ,
(6).
AF- 610

AF- 611

IX,

(1) (,
):

199

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-612


() ,
0.06%,
,
.
() ,
,


-204,
V-
, -2.
()

-204 , :

SA 353
SA-522 I
SA-553 I
SA-553 II
SA-645
(1)


11A/1
11A/1
11A/1
11A/1
11A/2

,
:


SFA5.11
SFA-5.11
SFA-5.11
SFA-5.11
SFA-5.14
SFA-5.14
SFA-5.14
SFA-5.14
(2)


K81340
K81340
K81340
K81340
K41583


ENiCrFe-2
ENiCrFe-3
ENiCrMo-3
ENiCrMo-6
ERNiCr-3
ENiCrFe-6
ERNiCrMo-3
ERNiCrMo-4


43
43
43
43
43
43
43
44



, -204.
(3)
,

,
-204.
(4)

.
(5)

3200F (1960C).
() SA-508 SA-543, ,
IX, QW-250,

()
.
(1)

SFA
,
,
SFA.
(2)

/
,

1500
(830).
(3)

(

,

/ ).
(4)

(/), ,
, ,
.
(5)

:
() ,
,

(
,
, .
(6));
()
,
,
:

5/8 (16 )
5/8 (16)

( .
2)

5/8 (16) 2.

(6)

,
,

:
() ,

,
.
()
-
SFA 5.5.
,
0.2%
. ,
,

.
,
,

.
(7)

1000F (380)
(13); 2000F (930)
1
(38); 3000F (1490)
1 (38).

2
.

200

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(8) SA-517 SA-592,
() (1), (3), (4) (6),

IX,
QW-250,

,
.
(9) SA-517 SA-592
0.58
1 (15-32), ,
,
PWHT, AF-630.1:
()
2000F (930)
4000F (2040),
()

,

4000F (2040),
4 ;
()

,
.
AF-613
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
F- 613.1.
F- 613.1 ,

.
,
, ,
, - ,
..,

.

1/16 (1.6),

.
AF-614
AF-614.1
.

20%

, 3/32 (2,4 ),
(
, AF-142.1).
AF-614.2
.


( ,
AF-142,1):



15/16
(24)

15/16 (24)
1

(38)

(38)

20%


3/16 (4.8)

12%

,

(6)

AF-615
AF-221
AI-501,
,

10%
1/8 (3.2),
. ,
,
,

,
.
AF-620

, . AD-415.

AF-623

AF-623.1
.
, AD-901,

,

,
,

, + 20%
,
.
AF-623.2
.
,
.

,


.
,

,
9-1 9-2.

, ,

,
.

201

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-630

,

,
AF-630.1,
1/8
(3.2), ,


.
,
AF-630.1
,

,

.
AF-631

F-4,

, ,
AF-630.1.
PWHT
. PWHT
.
,
AF-415(). ,
,

PWHT.
AF631.1
.

,
AF-630.1,

(. AF402.1 AF-402.1).
AF- 635
AF- 635.1 .
,

.
,
,
+ 250F (+ 140C).
AF-635.2
.


.
AF-635.3.
.

AF-635.4 .
, ,

.
AF-636


,


,

.
AF-640

AF-641

, ,
,

,
,

,
,

AF-642() ().
AF-642

() (
)
,


.
()
(. AF-642.2)

.
,

,
+20% (13) ,
.
,

,
,

.


,
-201.



1 t
/ , t
,

. ,

202

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-630.1
-
AQT-1


SA-353
9Ni
SA-517
A
SA-517
B
SA-517
E
SA-517
F
SA-517
J
SA-517
P
SA-533
A, B,
C D, Cl. 2
SA-533
B D, Cl. 3
SA-543
B C, Cl. 1
SA-543
B C, Cl. 2
SA-543
B C, Cl. 3
SA-553
I II
SA-645
5Ni-V4Mo
SA-724
A B
SA-724

SA-333
SA-334

SA-372
SA-372
SA-372
SA-372
SA-372
SA-372
SA-372
SA-508
SA-508

C

8
8
D
E, Cl. 70
F, Cl. 70
G, Cl. 70
H, Cl. 70
J, Cl. 70
J, Cl. 110
4N, Cl. 1
4N, Cl. 2


PWHT,
()

,
F

, C

/
(/25 )

11A . 1
11B 1
11B 4
11B 2
11B 3
11B 6
11B 8
3 3

2 (51)
0.58 (15)
0.58 (15)
0.58 (15)
0.58 (15)
0.58 (15)
0.58 (15)

1,025-1,085
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,100
1,000-1,050

552-585
538-593
538-593
538-593
538-593
538-593
538-593
538-566

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

11A 4
11A 5
11A 5
11A 5
11A 1
11A 2
1 4

0.58 (15)
[ (1)3]
[ (1)3]
[ (1)3]
2 (51)
2 (51)

1,000-1,050
1,000-1,050
1,000-1,050
1,000-1,050
1,025-1,085
1,025-1,085

538-566
538-566
538-566
538-566
552-585
552-585

1
1
1
1
I

1 4

lV2 (38)

1,050-1,150 566-621

1
1
1
2
2

11A 1
11A 1

2 (51)
2 (51)

1,025-1,085 552-585
1,025-1,085 552-585

1
1

2
2

...
11A 5
11A 5

, . SA-372

[ (1)3
[ (1)3

1,000-1,050 538-566
1,000-1,050 538-566

1
1

1
1

( )

203

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-630.1
-
AQT-1 ( )
:
: (1) PWHT , .


PWHT,
()

,
F

, C

/
(/25 )

( )
SA-522
1
11A . 1 2 (51)
1,025-1,085
SA-592
A
11B 1 0.58 (15) 1,000-1,100
SA-592

11B 4 0.58 (15) 1,000-1,100
SA-592
F
11B 2 0.58 (15) 1,000-1,100
. PWHT,
, .
() ,
,
,
,
(.-202.1). ,
,
().
AF-642.1
() .

, ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
(
,


)
.
() . ,
, AF-642(),

, (-)
.
,
AF-642().

552-585
1
2
538-593
1

538-593
1

538-593
1

() , ,

,
, .
() , ,
,
,
.

QW-462.1(a) QW-462.1 (),
IX.
.
-310.
AF-650

AF-651 1.


I-5 1,
.

.
, ,

9-3.

() .

,

AF-642.2 .

,
,
,

.
, ,
+20% (13) ,
.

204

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

. ,
(3) AF-241.1.
, ,

,

9-3.
AF-652
,
, AD-613.1,

I-5.
2 ,
. AD-610.1, AD-415,

,
9-3,
I-5,
2 (51)
, .

.
,
,

,

, 9-3.
AF-653
, AF-653.1,
,

, ,
,

9-1. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, (), (),
() AD-610.1,

.

AF-653.1
.

, ,

,
9-2,

,
SA-333, 8, SA-334,
8, SA-353, SA-522, SA-553 I, II, SA645,

,
,
. , ,
,
.
AF-654


,
9-2.
, ,
.
AF-660

I

,
.
AF-670

AS,
,

,

(13).

(13)
.
, QT (.
AF-601).
:
, , ,

.

205

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-7


AF-700
,
,

,


, F-1.


.

(.29C); AM-311.4(b) -312 .


.
() ,
SA-723, 1, 2, 3 SA-723 2,
1, 2, 3,
40F (4C),

-211.1.
AF-710

AF-711
AF-703
() ,
SA-372, J, 110,


-203. -
,
, ,
.

, 5% ,
, , 1
.
() ,
SA-723, 1, 2, 3 SA-723 2,
1, 2, 3
-203.2
.
() ,

,
,
, .
(,


,
,

.

,
,

,
D-5.
AF-712
AF-712.1
.

. ,
AF-740.
AF-712.2
.
AF-130
,
, ,
3%,

:

AF-704 ( )
() ,
SA-372, J, 110


-3, ,

.20F

= ,
, , (),


0,2D2.

206

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


( D1 D2
.)
= . 29
106 ./2 (200 106 );
28 106 ./2 (193 106 );

(. -1 II, D).
P =
, AF-130, ./2
()
= , ./2 ()
=
, ()
=
=
, ()
= , ./2 (),

t = , ()
:
= , Sb 0,25Sm.

, .

(1)
(2)

AF-720


(. AD-204)
,

.
AF-721
AF-135.
AF-721.1
.

AF-712.1.
AF-730

,

AF-753.2.
AF-730.3

,
,
,

,
,

, ,
.
()
.



,
. ,

92
-
9-1.
()
.

,
,
5 (1,5) , ,

,

.
10%,
25% ,

,


, 40 .

AF-730.1 ,
:
. ,
,
,
ASTM E 140.
,

AF-730.4 .
,
,
:
AF() ;
402.

() ,
AF-730.5

.
AF-410.
,
AF-730.2 ,
,
. ,
,
,
AF-402.
, ,
-
207

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-740
,
, ,
,
F-2,
AF-741.
AF-741


0,35%

0, 35%
,
,
, AF-752
,
,

(6) ,
.

.
() ,
,


QW-461.2 QW-461.3 IX
, QW451.1 QW-451.2 IX.

, ,
,

, ,
.
, QW462.1, QW-462.2 QW-462.3 IX.
QW-150 QW-160
IX.
,
:


()1

-
(D)1

:
(1) D P-No. 11 QW-466.1
IX ,
.

()

,


QW-462.4(b) QW-180 IX.




QW-461,
,
QW-461.2, QW-452.1 QW-452.2 IX.

,
.


,



.
()


. ,
AF-741

,
,
.
()



92
-
9-1.
AF-750
AF-751
(,
.)
,
,

AF-711.
AF-752
, ,

.

-

208

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AF-753 AF-754.

AF-753 ,
0,35%
0,35%
( )

.
AF-753.1
.

IX.
AF-753.2


.
()

,
AF-402
.
()
,
(),
,
AF-402,
AF-402.
()
,
()
6 . (3871 2)

(6).
AF-753.3
.


I-5, - ,
9-1
-

9-2.

, 3/8
(10) .


.
AF-754
0,35%
0,35% (
)

.


IX
AF-741(a) (b).
AF-754.2

.
AF-754.1


()
, ,
AF-753.3,
,
(6) ,
.
()
,
,
, AF-753.3,


.
AF-756
,
0, 35%

AF-250 AF-254.
AF-760

,


AF-761


,
D-5,
AF-762.
.
AF-762






8
(DN 200) (. AF-762.1).
AF-763


AD-640
AD-641.

AF-754.1
.
-

209

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



, .
AF-771
AF-771.1

,
,

, -2.

AF-762.1



AF-764

.
AF-740.
AF-770


,

.

, AI
, .
()


, .
,
,


,

.
() ,
,
(,
). ,
,
. ,
,

AF-771.2 .


, .


,


,
.
AF-771.3 .


,



,
AF754, . ,
, -,
,
.
AF-776



,
AF-754. ,

,
AF-753.2.
AF-777

AF-777.1


, ,
,
,

.
AF-777.2
.

210

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



.

AF-780

,
,
,

( ),
.

AF-781
AS, ,
. ,

AF-782 ,




,

.
AF-790

AR
-
.

211

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

F-8


AF-800


,

,
F-1 F-6 .
,
F-2, F-4 F-6
.
AF-801

F-1.
1/8
(3,2 ).
AF-802


F-2,
,
,
,


AD-1110,
AF-810.2.
AF-803



,

,
,

,

. . 24,


.
AF-805

AF210, ,

ix AF-210.1 AF-210.4 ,
AF-805.1.
AF-805.1

()

,
QW-451 IX, :
(1)


,

;
(2)


3 (76) ,
, 2- 2
(51).
(3) ,

, ,
,
, .
()



, ,
.


,
7/8 (22 ) .
()


AF-805.1 (. AF805.4) 7/8 .

,
AF-805.2. (. AF805.4.)
,

.

212

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

---

,

.

-

AF-805.1 - -

213

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

> 1 (25 ), IX, QW-151.1


AF-805.2
()
7/8 (22 )
,

( AF-805.1),
.

()
, AF-805.3. (.
AF-805.4.)

,

.
AF-805.2


IX -.
,
, ,
QW-452 IX.
AF-810
.

AF-220 AF-240.
AF-810.1

.
AD-1110


. AD-1115 AD1116

, AD-1125

.
AF-810.1.
AF-810.2 1 .
1 ,

- ,
,
,
. ,

1 .

AF-810.3 .
1
- ,
.34

,
,

,

.
AI-501()
.
AF-810.4 2 .
2

. . AD-412.1

,

.

,
.
AF-810.5 .
2 ,

, ,
,

. ,
,


. ,
.
AF-810.6

.

.

,
, .

34


,
,
.

214

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

> 1 (25 )
( IX, QW-151.1)

AF-805.3


1 (25 )

AF-805.2,
AF-805.3

= 1 (25 )

()
AF-805.2,
( ) AF-805.3

( )
:
AF-805 AF-805.3
. () .

AF-805.4
AF-810.7


, ,

,

, , 70%
.
AF-810.8 .
-
, , ,
..
.

AF-810.9


. ,
,
,
, ,
,
D-9 D-11 (AD-1125). . AD-911,
,
,
,
, 1,
AF-241.1. ,
,
, AD-912.

215

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-810.10

. ,

:
()
;

()
AD-420
AF-142.3 ()

, AF-229
AF-229.2.
. AD-1110 AD-1117.1, AD-1117.2
AD1117.5.
()

IX

.
AF-810.20

.
()
.





I-5.
()
(1)
1/8 5/16 ( 3,2 8 )
100%

-


9-1.
(2)
5/16 5/8 ( 8 16 )
100%

-


9-1. ,
10%

9-3, , , 10%


6 dB.

AF-810.21.
(3)
5/8 7/8 ( 16 22 )
100%

9-3,
, , 10%


6 dB.
(4) ,

100%

9-1.
(5)


100%
-
9-1.
(6)
(
) 75 ,


.
()

(1)
1/8 5/16 ( 3,2 8 )
10%

-


9-1.
AF810.21.
(2)
5/16 5/8 ( 8 16 )
100%

-

9-1.
(3)
5/8 7/8 ( 16 22 )
100%

-

9-1, ,
10%
9-3,
, , 10%


6 dB.

AF-810.21.
(4)
7/8 (22 ) 100%

9-3,
, , 10%

216

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



6 dB.
() .
.
, D,

AF-810.20(b)

AF-810.20(a).
,
35
(. AF-815) .

, AF810.1. ,


AF810.2.

,


, ,

AF-810.20().
()
-
.

,

,
AD-1117.3,
, AF-810.20(c)
.
()

.
D ,
,

-
9-1. ,
,
AD-1118.1 (i), (j),(k) (l),


-

( ).
9-1 9-2
,

(-

).
()

.
(1) , ,
,
35

,

.


(. D-9)

-

9-1 9-2 .
(2) AF-227.1()

,
, 2 AF-241.1.
()
(1)
()


,
9-1 9-2.
(2) ,

,
,
.
() AF-810.1 .

, AF-810.1
.
,
,
AF-810.1.
AF-810.21
.
Af-810.20(b)(2) (c)(3)
- AF810.20()(1) :
()
,

-



.
6 (152 ).
()
,

AF-810.20(b)(2), (c)(1) ()(3),

,
.
() , -

AF810.20(b)(2), (c)(1) ()(3),


.
,
,
,

217

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AF-810.1

1
P-No. 1 Gr. 1, 2, and 3; P-No. 8 Gr. 1 and 2; P-No. 9A Gr. 1; SA-387 12 P-No. 4 Gr.
1; P-No. 3 Gr. 3 SA-302; AQT-1


7/8
(22)

7/8

No. 1 B

AD-1110(a)(1)

AF-810.20(a)

RT

No. 1 B

AD-1110(b)(1)

AF-810.20(b)

RT

No. 1 or 2 B

AD-1110(b)(2) (b)(3)

AF-810.20(b)

UT / MT

No. 1 B

AD-1110(d) (h)

AD-1117.2(a), (b-3),
AD-1117.5(a-1)

AF-810.20(d)

RT

218

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


Attachments ,

Transition welds

AF-810.1
:
= : 1 . AF-810.2; 2 .AF-810.4
FP =
= . AD-1116()
FW =
:
RT =
= -
=
UT =
:
(1) AF-241.1.
(2) AF-653 , AQT-1.

.
()

.



AF-810.20(b)(2), (c)(1) ()(3).
AF-811
AF-810.20
,

100%.
AF-815
() ,

.
()


,

, ,
.

()

, ,

,
,
.
()
,



,

( ,
0.010 (0.25).
, AF-815.
Ag
,

.

.
,
,

.
3/16 (4,8 ). ,
,

,
.

AF-815.1.,

219

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,


AF-810.20(a)

. AF-810.20(d)

AF-810.1
()
,
, AF-815(d)


,

().
,
.

,

.
, ,
.
() () ()

; . AF-816.

AF-815.1
.

AF-815,




,
.
()


() .
,

, .

,
em
().

220

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

()

AF-810.2

221

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

b = ()
h = ()
Rg = ()
t = ()
Ag = () = 2/3 hb, 2 (mm2)
()
,
,
:

Sa =
5-110.1, ./2 (kPa)
Sm =

= ./2 (kPa)
Rg =
()
= ./2 (kPa)

eth =
()
= ,
(kPa)
R = ()
= = ts/2
ts = ()
= ( 30 106
./2 (207106kPa)
()
:
0,5th.
AF-815.2
.


(), () ().

()


.
(1)

.
(2) F
, :

()
h
:

F = ( )
B = ()
h = ()
Rg = () ,
()
() F

h = ()
N = 3
=

v =
R2 =
()
R1 =
()

222

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


E, N, Sm P ().
AF-816


.
:
()

, ,
,
.

0,1%
.
()


. eL
eT

,

,
(6 ).

, , 180
.
()

.
()


(6 )
.
, , R/tan Q
( R , Q

).

,

.
,

.
()

.
,
.
AF-820


eL = / (/)
eT = / (/)
L1 =

()
L =

()
P = /2 (kPa)
E = /2 (kPa)
Y = (
/ ).
AF-817


, .
()

. , ,

(6 ).

.
() ,
,

() ,


F-4 F-6; ,


() .
() AF-402,


,




:
(1) , AF-402.3
AF-630 .
,
.
(2)

(),

AF-402.2 AF-630, 36
, , 1/8
(3,2 )
.
36

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-1
.

.

,

.
(3)
,

, , 3/8 (10 ).
, AQT-1,

37
5%, 8% 9% .
()

AF-820


()
.
()

,


.

37

,

,


.

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AR

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AR
R-1
AR-100
AR-110
AR-120
AR-130
AR-131
AR-131.1
AR-131.2
AR-131.3
AR-131.4
AR-131.5
AR-132
AR-133
AR-140
AR-141
AR-142
AR-143
AR-144
AR-145
AR-150
AR-160
AR-161












" "









227
227
227
227
228
228
228
228
229
229
229
230
230
230
230
230
231
231
231
231
231
231

R-2
AR-200
AR-210
AR-211
AR-213
AR-214
AR-220

232
232
232
233
233
233

,

,







235
235

AR-230
AR-240
R-4
AR-400
AR-401`
AR-401.1
AR-401.2
AR-402
AR-403
AR-404
AR-405
AR-410

233
234
234

235
235
235
235
236
236
236
236

225

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AR-570

R-6
AR-600
AR-601
AR-602
AR-610
AR-615
AR-620

242
242
242
242
242
242
242

235

R-5
AR-500
AR-510
AR-511
AR-512
AR-513
AR-520
AR-521
AR-522
AR-523
AR-524
AR-530
AR-540
AR-550
AR-560
AR-561
AR-562

AR-401.1

237
237
237
237
237
237
237
237
238
238
239
239
239
239
240
240
240

226

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

R-1

AR-100 1
() , ,
, .
(b) ,
.
() , ,
, ,
.
(d) , ()
, ,
, ,
AR-150.
() , , ,
, .
(f) , ,
, , (. ) ,
.
AR-110
2, 3 ,
, .
1
, ,
.
2
,
( ).

227

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,
.
: ,
,
.
.

AR-120 4
() .
(b) ,

, .
() 5%
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
(d) , , 2 psi
(13.8kPa), 70 psi (483 kPa) 3% 70 psi (483) kPa).
3

, , .
.
,
. ,
, . , ,
.
4

228

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


() , AR-511.
AR-130
AR-131 5
AR-131.1 . ,
AR-131.1. 6 , 7
. ,
, , 2 psi (13.8 kPa) 40 psi (276 kPa) 5%
40 psi (276 kPa).
, , .
, ,
.
() , , ,
, , ,
, .
.
, .
5 , ,
, . ,
. .
, , . .
ASME. ,
II .
6
, ,
.
.
7
, , .

229

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


(b) , 5% ,
, ,
, .
() , .
.
() ,
, (b) ,
. ,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
AR-131.2
() ,
(. AR-500), :
= = 0.62
( ) , ,
8.
(b) () ,
, KD AR-500.
8
, ,
() , .
() .

230

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-131.3 .
, ,
, ,
.
.
: , ,
, ,
- .

AR-131.4 .
9 , :
() , ,
AR-150;
(b) ( )
, 0.80
, ,
();
()
, AR-560;
(d) ,
, .
.10
() (. 8) , ,
(. (b) () ),
80% ,
AR-560.
9

, ,
.

10

, ,
, -
.

231

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-131.5 .
11 ,
, :
() , , ,
, .
, -
12;
(b) , AR-150(), (b) ();
() , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
(d) , , , ,
, ,
;
() ,
;
(f) , - ,
;
(g)
.
11

, , ,
,
, .
12
, ,
.
, , .

232

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-132 13
() , ,
.
(b)
, , .
.
() ,
. , ,
.
psi (kPa)

psi (kPa)
30 (207)
150 (1034)
5 (35)
151 (1041)
275 (1896)
10 (69)
276 (1903)
375 (2586)
15 (103)
(d) ,
105% .
() , 14,
, ,
, . 25.
, .
AR-135
() , ,

, ,
,
13

,
, .
, . , .
II .
14
, .

233

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


, ,
.
.
5%.
(b) ,
, (. AR-500) :
= = 0.62
( ) , ,
.
() () ,
, AR-500.
AR-140
AR-141
, 15 (. AR-145
) ,
AR-142.
AR-142
() ,
.
, ,
105% , , (b).
(b) ,
- ,
, 110% (. AR-150 (c)).
15

,
, .

234

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-143
,
.
AR-144
, , ,
, 1.25
, .
.
AR-145
AR-120 AR-130 ,
, ,
.
AR-150
, , ()
, (), (b) (),
.
() ,
, , 10% 3 psi (20.6 kPa), , ,
, , (b) (). AR-140,
.
(b) , , ,
AR-142 () 16% 4psi (28kPa), , ,
.

235

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


() 21% ,
.
(d) ,
() () (b) (), AR-140.
AR-160
() , , 1.10 , AR-140
AR-150, .
:

SI :

= , psi (kPa)
H = psi (kPa)
1.500 psi (10.000kPa), .
1.500 psi (10.000kPa), 3.200 psi (22.100kPa),
1.10 ,
AR-523
.
AR-161
,
, 10.

236

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

R-2

AR-200

() ,
.

(b) ,
80%
. (
(
) , , 10

),
0.5%
.
() ,
( 1400F (600)) ,

,
75%
. ,
,
, ,
, ,

,
.
(d)
, ,

() ,
.
(f)
,

.

,
,
. , NPS (DN 15),

.
(h) ,

,
.
,
,
,
.
AR-210
() .

(b) ,
,
.

.
,
,

.
:
, .

() ,
, II
. , ,
,
,
:

(g)
,
,

.

.

(1) II;
(2) ASTM;
(3)
,

,

,
ASTM.

237

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-211

,
, NPS
(DN 15).
AR-213
() ,
,

,
(b) .
(b) ,
,
() , :
(1) ,

;
(2)
, AR-610 (c)

.
(3)
,
AR-400.
AR-214

, ,
,
,
,
.
AR-220

()


ASME


, ,
,
.
(b) , ,
,
,
, ASME.
()
UV
,
AR-500,
.

5
. 5 ,
, , ,
6
.
(1)

ASME,

ASME.
(2)
,

ASME, ASME.



. ,

,
7% 3 psi,
, .

.
(3)
,
,

, AR-220 ()
(1) .
(4)



, 60
.
,


,
AR-220 ().
(d)



() AR-401,

.
.
: AR-220, AR230
,
, ,
, ,
,
.

238

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,


,
,
,
,
.

,
.
AR-230


() ,
,
,
.

,

.
(b)
, NPS 1
(DN 25) 300 psi (270
kPa) ,
1.5
.

.
.
()
,
, NPS 1 (DN 25),
,
30 psi (207 kPa).
.
(d)
. ,
,
, ,
,
,
.

.
,

,
. ,
,
.

,

,

)
AR-401.
,

,

,
AR-120(d).
()
(d) ,

API 527.
(f)

, ,
, ,
.
AR-240


AR-220, ASME ,
AR-200 (a) (b)


.

239

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

R-4

AR-400
AR-401 ,


NPS (DN 15)


, ,
.
,
. UV

,
, ,
.
:
() ,
;
(b) ;
() NPS (
);
(d) psi ,
AR-230(d),
psi.
() (
);
(1) / ,
10% 3 psi (20.6 kPa),
,
,
AR-511;
(2) / 700F
(210C), 10% 3 psi
(20.6 kPa), , ,

;
(3) SCFM (
600F (160C) 10%
3 psi (20.6 kPa), ,
.
(4) ,

(.
10);
(f) , ,
, ,
,
;

AR- AR-401.1


(g) ASME AR-401.1.

,

,
psi ,

.
NPS (DN 15)

,
.
AR-401.1

.
,

,
I,
, ,

.
,
, ,
10 (. AR-550).
AR-401.2 .
AG-151.
AR-402



, AR-131.4 (b) (
0.80)

AR-561 AR-562,
AR-401 AR-405.
,
.

240

:
() ;
(b) ;
() ;
(d)
;
()
;
(f) ,
.
,

,
.
AR-403



AR-401. ,

.
AR-404

, ,
.

,
.
:
() ;
(b) ;

() ;
(d) ;
() ();
(f) psi;
(g) 0F;
(h)
/ / (60
0
F 14.7 psi).
: ,

(. 10).
(), (b) (),
.
AR-405



AR-401, ,

, AR-500,
AR-410.
AR-410
1,
(. AR-401.1)

,

,
.
1

R-5


AR-500

() ,
,
, ,
.
(b)


, ,
,
,
,
.

,
, 3 psi (20.6 kPa)
.
.
, ,

, ,
5% 3
psi (20.6 kPa), , .
,

,
.
AR-513

AR-510

AR-511

()

,
, ,
.
,
98% 200F
(110C) .

. ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
(b)
,
400F (40C)
1250F (520C).
AR-512

,
,
10% 3 psi (20.6 kPa), ,
..


,
, ,

, ,

, 5%
3 psi (20.6 kPa),
, ,
, ,
.
AR-520

AR-521

,
,
.
,
, 90%

.
, + 5%
.
,
, .

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-522

,
.
,

,

. ,
.
() W/P

,
:

W
=
P

psi

, ,
+ 5% :
= 0.95
= 1.05

, ,

,
,
,
.
,
90%
:
= 0.90

( 1.10 + 14.7) (
+ 3 psi + 14.7 ) , .

(b) ,


( )
.
,
,
,
. ,
5%
.

.

90% ,
.
AR-523

, AR-521 AR-522

,
() (b).
()
,

( ),
, .

.
(b)

,

.
:

KD =


, :

WT = 51.5AP
: ,
1,500 psig (10290 kPa) 3,200 psig (21950kPa)
WT ,
, ,
.
:

SI :

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


AR-530

=

(2)
=
(. 10 - 100.1)
k = cp / cv
=
= ( 1.10)
psia (kPa)
Pd = psia (kPa)
T = 0F + 460 (0 +
273.15)
WT / (/)
Z =
w =
KD
0.90

.

0.878 (
0.9 0.975).
:
KD + 5% KD
,
.
/ /
/ 1/500.

()

,
(b),
,
(b),
(. 10).
(d) ,
(
) 0.15 0.75,

KD
+ 5%
. ,
,

(L/D).

AR-524
,
KD , 0.90
, 10-101
10.


,

,
ASME PTC 25.

. , ,
,

ASME.

AR-540

, ,
,

ASME .1 ,

,
.

AR-550
, I
1,500 psi (10342 kPa),
PG69.2 I 103% ,
. ,
,
, ,
AR-512, 110%
:
:

SI :

= psig (kPa)
1

.

. 1055 , , 43229.

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



AR-401.

, .
1,500 psig (10324 kPa),
.
1,500 psig (10324 kPa)
3,200 psig (22063 kPa),


AR-523 c
(1.10 + 14.7
; 1.10 + 100 SI)
.

AR-560

AR-561
,

()

,

,
() (d).
(b)
, .
,
.
()


,
.
, ,
(),
.
(d)
.


. ( )

, ,
10% .


, ,

(2)

10%
,

.
(3)


,
,
.

, 10%

.
,

.
(4)


,
,
.

,
ASME

,
.


, .
(5)

, ASME,

.
AR-562

() ,
, AR-561(d)
(3) (d) (4),

,

(1)

, 90 100%
.
-

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

,
, .

,
,
.
(b)
, AR561 (d) (3) AR-561 (d) (4),
,
, ,
.
AR-570


() ,
,
AR-522 AR-523.
(b)
,
,
.

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

R-6


AR-600
,

AR-601

,


,

. ,

,
, AR-100(e).
AR-602

,
.
NPS
1 /2 (DN 15) 1/2 (15 ).
AR-610
()

, ,

.
,
,
,


.


.
(b)
,

,

() . (.
).
()


,
.
.
,
, ,

,

. (. ).

AR-615



:
()
,

,
;
(b) , .

AR-620

,
,

.

247

I 1

248

I
I-1
I-100
I-101
I-102
I-110
I-120

245
245
245
246
246
246

I-2
I-200
I-201
I-210
I-220
I-220.1
I-230

248
248
248
248
248
248
248

I-3
I-300
I-301
I-310
I-311


249

249
- 249

249


249

I-4
I-400
I-410

I-5
I-500
I-501
I-510
I-511
I-511.1
I-512
I-513


251

251
251

251

251

251
,
252

252

250
250
250

244

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

I-1

-I-100

()
,
,
,
,
.
(b) .
I-1 I-4
.
,
, ,

(. AF-810.20 (d) ).

AI-101
()
,

,

,

, ,
, ,
(AG-302.1(b) ).
(b)
, .
, ,
,
(. 18-115).
(.
18-115),
. (. AI-120 18-123).
,
,
,
.
, ( )
:
(1) ASME

,
,
(. S-2);
(2)
(. G-3);
(3)
,
(. -101)

(. -110),
.
(4) ,
-105 AS-310;
(5)
AI-120 18-123;

(6)
,
,
(. AF-105),
(. AF-112 AF-770) ,
(.
-100)

(. AF-102 AF-771).
(7)
,
(. -204, A-310, AF-704 -200);
(8)
F-104,AF-752 18-116;
(9)
,

(. AF-130 AF-710);
(10)
(. AF-210 A-200);
(11)
(.AF-210);
(12) ,
,


. (.AF-140);
(13)
(. AF-102),
;
(14) ,

(. AF-400, AF-550, AF605, AF-640 AF-730);
(15)

, .

245

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



(. 1-5);
(16)


(. -3 -4);
(17) /
,
(. S-1);
(18)
(. S-1);

(11)
,
AS-131, ,

(. S-1);
(12)

,

(.
S-3)4

(19) (.AS320).

AI-102
(a)
,

,

,

, (. AG303).
(b)
,
, ,
, :
(1)

,

(. AG-304);
(2)

, ,
(. AG-303);
(3)
,
, -1 - 5 (. 1-2).
(4)
,
(. AF210 AI-300);
(5)
,
(. AF-210 AI-300);
(6)

PWHT (. AI-101 (b)(14)
AF-776)
(7)
,
(. AF-104 AF-752);
(8)
,
, ,

(. AI-310);
(9)
,

(. AF-102 AF-771);
(10) ,

(. AI-220, 3 -4);

(13)
(. AS-302).

AI-110
(a)

,
.
:
(1) ,

38,
,
,
,

(2)

,

, .
.(2)
.

,
.
(b)

,

18.

AI-120


.
, .
38

Authorized Inspection Agency


AIA , ,

ASME
ASME QAI-1,
.
-
246

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2



,
,
, ,
,
.




.
1


.
ASME
ASME QAE-1 ,
.

247

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

I-2

AI 200 C

,
,
.

(. -101).

,

.
AI-201
. AF-112.1.


,
, ;
(a) ,
,

,
(. AD-912.1);
(b)
.
, .
AI-220.1

(),
(. AF-130).

AI-210
,
, ,
,
,
-105.1 -105.2.

,

AF-102.1.

AI-230


,
,
.
, ,
, ,

AI-220


, :

248

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

I-3

AI-300



, ,

,
IX
.

. ,

,
,
, .
AI-301
-
,

-,

IX.

,
.

()

.
AI-310

,
1-5

9,

,
,
, ,

,
. ,
,


,
.
,
.
AI-311


,

:
() ,
,

2 12 (305
.)

.
(b)
,
,
, ,
,
,
.

249

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

I-4

AI 400

,
,

-3,

,
-4.
AI-410

,
-3, ,
-4.

250

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

I-5

AI-500


AI-501
C

,
2 V, ,
, .
()
,
,
AF-221.3 ( 2, .
AF-222.1).
(b)
,
-291 -292 2

V,


.
()
,

,
,


.
SNT-TC-1A1

,
,
,
.


SNT-TC-1A1
,
ASNT ()
CH-1891. ,

,
,

(.
18).

(d)

..

,

2 V.
() -285 2 V


.
AI-510

A-511

,

, ,

AF-252,

AF-253:
()
;
(b) ,
, , :
(6.) t (19)
1/3 t (19 .) 2
(57 .)
(19 .) t 2
(57.)

t = .

, t
.
,
t

t.

111 SNT-TC-1A ACCP CP-189


. 1711
/ 43228-058.

251

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()


, t 12 t, ,

6 L, L
;
(d) ,

,
8.
AI-511.1

,
,
, ,


,

AI-512 ,

,


, .
AI-513


, ,
,
,
,

,

. , ,

252

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-1
-100
-110
-111
-112
-113
-114
-115
-115.1
-115.2
-115.3
-115.4

-2
-200
-201
-202
-202.1
-202.2
-202.3
-203
-203.1
-203.2

-3
-300
-301
-302
-310
-310.1
-310.2
-310.3
-310.4
-320
-330
-340
-350
-351
-352
-353
-355







,


P-No 1
AF-402.2

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
257




, ,









,

,



,
,



,
,

, ,




258
258
258
258
259
259
259
259
259
259
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
260
261
261
261
261
261
261
261
261

254

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-4
-400
-400.1
-400.2
-410
-411
-420
-421
-422
-423

-5
-500
-501
-502
-510



,
,






262
262
262
262
262
262
262

264
264
264
264
264

262
262
262

255

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-1

-100
,
,
.
-110

-110
,
,
, 9000F
(4280) .

-112

,
, ,
,
,
,
.

(. -202).

-113

, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,

.
,
,
. ,
,
,
,
.
, 80%

,
,
.

-114
,


,
,
,
,
.

-115

-115.1
. -112
-113 ,
-105.
,
,
.
.
-115.2 -No 1
. ,
, -No 1 1 2
QW/QB-422 IX ,
-112 -113,

,
.
-115.3 AF-402.2
.
QW/QB-422, -No 1 3 -No 3 1 2,
-112 -113,

, AF402.1, ,

, AF402.2.

256

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-115.4

. ,

,
,


.

257

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-2


-200
() ,

(
),
.
(b)
,

,
,
.
F-4, T-1 -201
, -115.3,

P-No 3, 1 2.
P-No 1, 1, 2 3,
,

, ,


,

AF-402.1

, ,
AF-402.2.
-201 , ,


.
()
.


1/16
(1.6 ) .
1
(38) ,

1/16 (1.6 )
,

, .
QW-200.4() IX.

(b) ,
, ,
, .
,

.
()
,
,

, ,
.
,
1/16
(1.6 ) .
(d)
, ,
, (. 211).

-202

()
,
,
-213 () -218.2.
(b)
,
( -213),
.
,
,
.

.

.

258

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


()
, ,

.

, -204
-211 .
,
IX QW202.2 P-No 11.

-202.1


IX ,QW-250

.
-202.2
.
,
,
,

.
-202.2
.
ACS-1,

, ,
:
()
;
(b) , ;
() -211
,
( 211).
-203

()
,

, 201
,
.

,
,

(b) ,

,

,
,
,
.

-203.1

()

,
, (b) .

, .
(1)

,

, .
(2)

,

, ,
,

(
).

,

.
(3)
,

,
QW-451.1 QW-451.2,
( ) IX, ,
5/8 (16 ),

.
(b)
,
,
(6 ) 25%
, ,
,
400
(122 ) ,
.
-203.2 .

.

.

259

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-3

-300

-330 400,
,
,
1,25
(. AD-121.1)

(

Sm

Sm
(. AD-150.1).
-301 ,

,
,
.

,

1
.
,
,
,
,

, 1 II D,
. ,
,
.
-302

-300

,
, -330.

-301

, .

.

, AD-151
AD-151.1.

,
,
-301, ,
,
,
. (. -330).

-310

.
-310.1 ,
.
,
,

; ,

.
-310.2 ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
,
,


, ,
-300.
-310.3 .
,
-310.2

(. -300 -301).

,
.
-310.4

.

,

(. AS-101, AS-300 AS-301).

260

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


-320 ,

,

,
,

,
,
-4.
1


.
-330

,
, ,
.
-340 ,

,
,
,
.
,
,
.
-350

-351

,
.

352

, ,
, ,

.
1100F (430C),
, ,
.
,

300F (170C)
, 1200F (490C),

.

,
.
1200F (490C),
, -355,
1200F (490C).
-353


,
,

,
,
.
-355
,
,
,
,
.
,


. ,
,

.

261

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-4

-400

1
,2 ,
,
-3,
-400.1 -400.2

-400.1 ,
.

, ,
;
,
.

-400.2 ,

,
,
,
,

, -3.

-410

,

, ,
,

1.15 ,
1


.

.
2

,
.
, .

Sm

Sm .

-411

-410

,
.
, AD-151 AD151.2.

-420

-421
,
,
,
,


.

-422

,
300F
(170C)
, 1200F (490)
.


.
1200F (490) ,
-423, ,
1200F (490).

-423

262

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2




,
.




-355.

263

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

-5

-500

-501
,
,

,
, ,
.

.

-502

,
1
.

,
,

-510



6
,
.

264

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AS

,
,

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

AS

S-1
AS-100
AS-100.1
AS-101
AS-101.1
AS-101.2
AS-110
AS-120
AS-130
AS-131
AS-132

267
267
267
267
267
267
267
267
268
268
268

S-2
AS-200
AS-201
AS-202
AS-203
AS-204
AS-205

269
269
269
269
269
270

AS-206

S-3
AS-300
AS-300.1
AS-301
AS-310
AS-320

271
271
271
271
271
271

S-4
AS-400
AS-410
AS-420

273
273
273
273

,
-

267
268

AS-100.1

270
270

AS-131.1

266

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

S-1

AS-100
,

:
() ,
AS-100.1;
(b)
_________;
() , 1,2 psi 0F;
(d) ;
() ;
(f) .
AS-100.1 .
AG-151.
AS-101



,

.

.
AS-101.1
.

, ,
,

,
.


,
(. AD120.1).
2

.

AS-100.1
,

AS-101.2
.


,
, ,
,

AS-110
() , ,

, .

,
, ,
.
(b) , () ,

.
()
.
,

,

,
.
AS-120
,
,
AS-310,
:

267

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


() ,
AS-100.1, ;
(b)
;
() ;
(d) 3 psi
0F.
,

.

AS-130
() , AS-100,
,
.


, 30 (762 ).

.
(1)
, .
(2)
.
(3)
,

,
23.
,
,
(13
), 1/4 (6) ,
.

(. AF-102.1).
3

( )
________ psi __________0F
_____________0F
(

)
( )

( )
AS-131.1
(b)
,
.
,
, ,
.
.

.

AS-131
,
,
, , ,
.
5/32 (4) .
. 131.1.
AS-132

,
,

.
,
(. AF-102.1 AF670).

268

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

S-2

AS-200



U2 UV, AS-100.1
AR-401.1
,

,
.
.
AS-201
() ,

,
,


.
,
,
, ,
.
,

,
.

.
,
,

,
,

,
.

.
1

,


ASME , 3 , -,
10016-5990.

AS-202
,

.
,
,
,
, .
,
,
(. L).


.


.


.

,

,

.
AS-203

,
U2,

, AI-110.

,



.


.

269

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2


,

.
AS-204
,

U2 UV,
,
,
, ,

,
,

(),
( ),
.
,
18.

AS-205
,
U2,

ASME,

.

,

,
.
,
,
ASME
, .

,
,
, .

.

.
,
, , ,

.

UV,


ASME.


,


, ,
.
ASME,

,
,
.

.

,

.


, .

,
,

.
UV,

ASME.
,
,
ASME,
, ,
ASME ASME.

,
,
ASME.

AS-206

,


, .
()
.
(b)
.
()


(
).

270

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

S-3


AS-300


( -1)
,
,


I.
AS-300.1 .
AG-151.
AS-301
() :
(1)

;
(2)

, ,
.
(3)
, , 10
, ,
.
(b) (2) (3), ,


, 1055
, , 43229.
AS-310


,
.

I.
() ,
,
, ,

,
.
(. AG-302).


, ,
,

(. AS-110). -2,

-1.
, ,
,

, ,
,
, ,
.
(b)

, ,
,
-2

.
, AS-320,

.

AS-320
AS-301

:
() .

/

,
,
,
, ,
.

.
,
.
(b)

.

,
,
,
24
.

271

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2




.
() .
5
. ,

,
,
.

272

2001 SECTION VIII DIVISION 2

S-4


AS-400

,
, S-1 S-3.
, .

AS-410
,
AS-100, WL
.

AS-420


,
-1 (
)

.

,
, ,
.
-3 ,
( ) I200 I-220. -3,
,
, I-221.

273