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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIONS : Amplitude Modulation Transmission

Modulation process of impressing lowfrequency information signals onto a highfrequency carrier signal Demodulation received signals are transformed back to their original form AMPLITUDE MODULATION It is the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. It is relatively inexpensive, low-quality form of modulation that is used for commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals. Also used for two-way radio such as Citizens Band (CB) radio. Radio Frequencies (RF) these are frequencies that are high enough to be efficiently radiated by an antenna and propagated through free space. AM Envelop the shape of the modulated wave Double Sideband Full Carrier DSBFC is a type of AM which is the most commonly used. Sometimes called as conventional AM Components of an AM modulated signal 1. Frequency Spectrum 2. Bandwidth = 2fm(max) 3. Phasor Representation Sample Problem No. 01 For an AM DSBFC modulator with a carrier frequency fC = 100kHz and a maximum modulating signal frequency fm(max) = 5 kHz, determine a. frequency limits for the upper and lower SB b. bandwidth c. upper and lower side frequencies produced when the modulating signal is a singlefrequency 3 kHz tone Coefficient of Modulation and Percent Modulation Coefficient of modulation (m) is a term used to describe the amount of amplitude change (modulation) present in an AM waveform. Percent modulation (%m) is simply the coefficient of modulation stated as percentage. More specifically, %m gives the percentage change in the amplitude of the output wave when the carrier is acted on by a modulating signal. Pc = carrier power (watts) Sample Problem No. 04 For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage Vc = 10Vp, a load resistance RL = 10, and a modulation coefficient m=1, determine a. powers of the carrier and the upper and lower SB b. total sideband power c. total power of the modulated power d. draw the power spectrum e. Repeat steps a through d for a modulation index of 0.5 AM Current Calculations m = modulation index It = total transmit current (A) Ic = carrier carrier (A) Modulation by a Complex Information Signal

AM Voltage Distribution where m = modulation coefficient (unitless) Vm = peak change in amplitude of the output waveform voltage (volts) Vc = peak amplitude of the modulated carrier voltage (volts) %m = percent modulation If the modulating signal is a pure, singlefrequency sine wave and the modulation process is symmetrical, (positive and negative excursions of the envelops amplitudes are equal)

where Vcsin(2fct) = carrier signal (volts) -(mVc/2)cos[2(fc + fm)t] = USF signal (volts) +(mVc/2)cos[2(fc - fm)t] = LSF signal (volts) Sample Problem No. 03 One input to a conventional AM modulator is a 500 kHz carrier with amplitude of 20 Vp. The second input is a 10 kHz modulating signal that is of sufficient amplitude to cause a change in the output wave positive-negative 7.5Vp. Determine a. upper and lower side frequencies b. modulation coefficient and percent modulation c. peak amplitude of the modulated carrier and the upper & lower side frequency voltages d. maximum and minimum amplitudes of the envelop e. expression for the modulated wave f. draw the output spectrum AM Power Distribution

Therefore

where

Vmax = Vc + Vm and Vmin = Vc - Vm

where mt = total coefficient of modulation m1, m2, m3 & mn = coefficients of modulation for input signals 1, 2, 3 and n Sample Problem No. 05 For an AM DSBFC transmitter with an unmodulated carrier power Pc = 100W that is modulated simultaneously by three modulating signals with coefficients of modulation m1 = 0.2, m2 = 0.4, m3 = 0.5, determine a. Total coefficient of modulation b. Upper and lower sideband power c. Total transmitted power AM MODULATING CIRCUITS The location in a transmitter where modulation occurs determines whether the circuit is a low- or high-level transmitter Low-Level Modulator

Sample Problem No. 02 For the Am waveform shown, determine a. peak amplitude of the upper and lower side frequencies b. peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier c. peak change in the amplitude of the envelop d. coefficient of modulation e. percent modulation

Where

Pc = carrier power (watts) Vc = peak carrier voltage (volts) R = load resistance (ohms) PUSB = upper sideband power (watts) PLSB = lower sideband power (watts) Pt = total power of an AM DSBFC envelop (W)

Engr. A. P. Aquino ECE 43225

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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIONS : Amplitude Modulation Transmission


The modulation takes place prior to the output element of the final stage of the transmitter, in other words, prior to the collector of the output transistor in a transistorized transmitter, prior to the drain of the output FET in a FET transmitter, or prior to the plate of the output tube in a vacuum-tube transmitter. An advantage of low-level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to achieve a high percentage of modulation. Obviously, disadvantage is in high-power applications when all the amplifiers that follow the modulator stage must be linear amplifiers, which is extremely inefficient. LINEAR INTERGRATED-CIRCUIT AM MODULATORS Linear integrated-circuit function generators use a unique arrangement of transistors and FETs to perform a signal multiplication, which is a characteristic that makes them ideally suited for generating AM waveforms. Integrated circuits, unlike their discrete counterparts, can precisely match current flow, amplifier voltage gain, and temperature variations. Linear integrated-circuit AM modulators also offer excellent frequency stability, symmetrical modulation characteristics, circuit miniaturization, fewer components, temperature immunity, and simplicity of design and troubleshooting. Their disadvantages include low output power, a relatively low usable frequency range, and susceptibility to fluctuations in the dc power supply. where fc = oscillating frequency Sample Problem No. 07 For an XR-2206 LIC modulator with a power supply voltage V+ = 12Vdc, a modulating signal amplitude Vm = 2Vp , a modulating signal frequency fm = 4kHz, a dc bias Vbias = +4Vdc, timing resistor R1 = 10k, and timing capacitor C1 = 0.001F, determine a. carrier frequency b. upper and lower side frequencies c. sketch the output waveform d. from the output waveform, determine coefficient of modulation and percent modulation AM TRANSMITTERS Low-Level Transmitter
Block diagram for a low-level AM DSBFC transmitter.

For voice or music transmission, the source of the modulating signal is generally an acoustical transducer, such as microphone, a magnetic tape, a CD or a phonograph record. The preamplifier is typically a sensitive, class A linear voltage amplifier with a high input impedance. The function of the amplifier is to raise the amplitude of the source signal to a usable level while producing minimum nonlinear distortion and adding as little thermal noise as possible. The driver for the modulating signal is also a linear amplifier that simply amplifies the information signal to an adequate level to sufficiently drive the modulator. More than one drive amplifier may be required. High-Level Transmitter The modulating signal is processed in the same manner as in low-level transmitter except for the addition of power amplifier. With high-level transmitters, the power of the modulating signal must be considerably higher than is necessary with low-level transmitter. This is because the carrier is at full power at the point in the transmitter where modulation occurs and, consequently, requires a highamplitude modulating signal to produce 100% modulation.
Block diagram for a low-level AM DSBFC transmitter.

It is a form of amplitude distortion introduced when the positive and negative alternations in the AM modulated signal are not equal. If the positive alteration of the modulated signal has a larger amplitude than the negative alternation, positive carrier shifts results. If the negative alternation is larger than the positive, negative carrier shift results. Carrier shift is an indication of the average voltage of an AM modulated signal. If the positive and negative halves of the modulated signal are equal, the average voltage is 0V. If the positive half is larger, the average voltage is positive, and if the negative half is larger, the average the voltage is negative. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION It is a form of amplitude modulation where signals from two separate information sources modulate the same carrier frequency at the same time without interfering each other. The information sources modulate the same carrier after it has been separated into two carrier signals that are 90O out of phase with each other.

where Av(max) = maximum amplifier voltage gain (with modulation) (unitless) Av(min) = minimum amplifier voltage gain (with modulation) (unitless) Aq = amplifier quiescent (without modulation) voltage gain (unitless) High-Level Modulator The modulation takes place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude and, thus, requires a much higher amplitude modulating signal to achieve a reasonable percent modulation. The final modulating signal amplifier must supply all the sideband power, which could be as much as 33% of the total transmit power. Sample Problem No. 06 For a low-level AM modulator with a modulation coefficient m = 0.8, a quiescent voltage gain of 100, an input carrier frequency of 500 kHz with an amplitude of 5mV and a 1000-Hz modulating signal, determine a. maximum and minimum voltage gains b. maximum and minimum amplitude for Vout

CARRIER SHIFT It is a term that is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. It is sometimes called upward or downward modulation and has absolutely nothing to do with the frequency of the carrier.

Figure 4.1 QAM modulator

Engr. A. P. Aquino ECE 43225

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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIONS : Amplitude Modulation Transmission


a. peak amplitudes of the upper and lower side frequencies b. peak amplitude of the unmodulated carrier c. peak change in the amplitude of the envelop 2, One input to the conventional AM modulator is a 500kHz carrier with an amplitude of 20Vp. The second input is a 10kHz modulating signal that is of sufficient amplitude to cause a change in the output wave of positivenegative 7.5Vp, determine a. maximum and minimum amplitudes of the envelop b. expression for the modulated wave c. output spectrum 3. What is the modulation index for an AM having maximum voltage of 2.9V and minimum voltage of 2.6V? (ECE Board, November 2002) 4. An AM signal has the equation vam(t) = [25 + 5sin(44E3t)] [sin(46.5E6t)] a. find the carrier frequency b. find the modulating frequency c. find the coefficient of modulation d. what are the frequencies comprising the AM signal 5. Let us consider a frequency range of 405.0125 MHz to 405.0875 MHz and a 25kHz channelling plan. Determine the center frequency of the second channel from the lower limit. (ECE Board, November 1999) 6. 100% modulation in AM means a corresponding increase in the total power by? (ECE Board, Apr 1997) 7. An antenna current of an AM transmitter is 11A when unmodulated but increases to 14A when modulated. Find the percent modulation. 8. An AM transmitter has a carrier voltage of 50Vrms and a carrier frequency of 10MHz. It is modulated at 75% by a 1kHz sine wave. How much is the total rms voltage transmitted?

Figure 4.2 QAM demodulator

Seatwork No. 03 1. For an AM DSBFC modulator with a carrier frequency of 100 kHz and a maximum modulating signal of 5 kHz, determine a. frequency limits for the upper and lower sidebands b. bandwidth c. upper and lower side frequencies produced when modulating signal is single-frequency 3kHz tone 2. For an AM DSBFC envelop with maximum voltage of 40 V and minimum voltage equal to 10 V, determine a. unmodulated carrier amplitude b. peak change in amplitude of the modulated wave c. coefficient of modulation and percent modulation. 3. For a modulation coefficient m=0.2, and an unmodulated carrier power of 1000 watts, find a. total sideband power b. upper and lower sideband power c. modulated carrier power d. total transmitted power Assignment No. 03 1. If maximum voltage is 18Vp and minimum voltage is 2Vp, determine

Engr. A. P. Aquino ECE 43225

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