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ITPI JOURNAL 1 : 3 (2004) 40-54

I T P I JOURNAL
www.itpindia.org

TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS FOR DEHRADUN CITY USING GIS


Dr. S.K.Ghosh
Associate Professor of Civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee

Dr. M.Parida
Associate Professor of Civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee

Jay K.Uraon
M.Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee.
ABSTRACT Indias share of road accident in the world is an area of serious concern. With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The city of Dehradun, the capital of Uttaranchal in northern part of India has been selected for study. Five years of police records reveal that nearly 72% of accidents lead to fatal and grievous injuries. Cars, jeeps and vans are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 2PM to 10PM. The study reveals that a proper traffic management is required for the city to check the growth of traffic accidents.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

The economic growth of any country depends upon its transportation network, comprising of road, rail and air connectivity. Of these road is the critical one. A good network of road is important as it provides connectivity between rural and urban areas. Alongwith this, road safety is an equally important aspect. It plays a key role towards a sustainable transportation development strategy. The adverse impact of modern road transportation systems is injury and loss of life due to road accidents. While the road accident situation is improving in the high income industrialized countries, most developing countries are facing a worsening situation. The continuous socio-economic growth over the years is causing an increase in demand for transport service including road transport. With the number of vehicles on the road growing rapidly, more road conflicts develop vis-vis traffic accidents (Saxena, 2000). It is observed that most of these accidents result from human error and carelessness on the part of the drivers or pedestrians. However, the probability of occurrence, and its severity, can often be reduced by the application of proper traffic control devices, and sound roadway design practice. The success or failure of such control devices and design specifications however, depend extensively upon the analysis of traffic accident records at specific locations. It has long been recognized that one of effective means towards accident reduction lies in a systematic and scientific approach based on the use

of accurate and reliable traffic accident data. However, the data required for such an analysis is not always available. Most of the accident information available in police records is incomplete and therefore, may not be utilized to the fullest extent. In addition, records are also needed to provide facts to guide programs including enforcement, education, maintenance, vehicle inspection, emergency medical services, and engineering to improve streets and highways (Sarin, 2000). 2.0 TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN INDIA

In India, every year nearly 85,000 persons are reported to be killed and 300,000 are injured due to accidents on road. An accident takes place every 3 minutes and a person killed every 10 minutes on Indian roads and this number is continuously increasing. Increase in accidents is coincident with the increase in vehicle population. More than ten million road accidents have taken place on Indian roads after motor vehicles came to India and almost 1.5 million people have lost their lives and many more have suffered injuries. The Indian share in world vehicle population is as small as 1% but its share of road accident is 6%, while the motorization level is second lowest of the world (Pasricha, 1997). Government is taking appropriate steps to improve the situation but the results are not encouraging. Every year numerous seminars are arranged on Road Safety. Road Safety Week is observed all over the country, yet the problem is increasing day by day. Table 1 shows the road accidents that have occurred in India for years 19711998.

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Table 1: Road Accidents in India for years 1971-1998 (Nadaf, 1999)

Year

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Registered Vehicles ( in 1000) 1865 2045 2109 2327 2472 2700 3260 3614 4059 4521 5391 6055 6973 7949 9170 10577 12618 14818 16920 19152 21374 23507 25505 27660 30295 33783 37231 40939

No. of Accidents (in 1000) 120.2 122.3 121.6 114.3 116.8 124.7 135.4 146.3 144.4 153.2 161.2 166.2 177 195 207 215 234 246.7 270 282.6 293.4 260.3 280.1 320.4 348.9 355.1 290.4 306

Casualties (in 1000) Killed Injured 15 16.1 17.6 17.3 16.9 17.8 20.1 21.8 22.6 24.4 28.4 30.7 32.8 35.1 39.2 40 44.4 46.6 50.7 54.1 56.4 52.2 60.7 64 70.6 72 61 65.5 70.7 76.4 79.3 76.7 77 82.5 95.6 99.5 102.9 109.1 114 126 134.1 156.2 163.4 176.4 139 214.8 229.7 244.1 255 267.2 287.8 311.5 323.2 330 290.8 304.6

Total Casualties ( in 1000) 85.7 92.5 96.9 94 93.9 100.3 115.7 121.3 125.3 133.5 142.4 156.7 166.9 191.3 202.6 216.4 234.4 261.4 280.4 298.2 311.4 324.4 348.5 375.5 393.8 402.8 351.8 370.1

No. of Accidents per 1000 Vehicles 64.45 59.8 57.65 49.11 47.24 46.18 41.53 40.48 35.57 33.89 29.9 27.45 25.38 24.53 22.57 20.37 18.54 16.65 15.96 14.76 13.73 11.07 10.98 11.58 11.52 10.51 7.8 7.47

Dhir and Sarin (1993) carried out an exhaustive study regarding the analysis of accident data. According Table 2: Traffic Safety Scenarios in India (Dhir & Sarin, 1993) S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cause Drivers Faults Passengers fault Bad weather Bad Road Mechanical Pedestrians fault Others Percentage Accidents Fatalities 47 1.1 0.3 1.2 1.7 2.4 46.3 49.7 1 0.5 0.6 1.6 0.8 45.8
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to them, for the year 1991, nearly 40% of accidents and 48% of fatalities occurred on the primary system i.e. on National and State highway. As per the official record for the year 1991, the cause wise distributions of accidents and fatalities on all India-basis are given in Table 2. It can be noted that nearly half the accidents and fatalities are caused due to drivers fault and no cause is identified for almost the remaining half. Only 5-7% of accidents and fatalities are said to have occurred due to causes 2 to 6 as mention above. 3.0 REVIEW OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT STUDIES

In order to mitigate the accidents, various studies have been undertaken and different model have been developed such as Vehicle Ownership Model (Srinivasan and Prasad, 1979), Registered Vehicle Model (Tuladhar and Justo, 1981), Road Accident

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Forecast Model (Kadiyali and Venkatesan, 1984), etc. Basically, these are regression models which have tried to correlate the annual accident data (D) to the number registered motor vehicles (N) and the corresponding population (P) for different cities. For Delhi, the regression model for fatality rate is (Srinivasans and Prasad, 1979) (D/P) = 4.2371125*10 *(N/P)
-4 0.461271

with R = 0.84 (1)

while for Bangalore city, Tuladhar and Justo (1981) have given the following regression model. D/P = 0.0056*(N/P) and for Chennai as D/P = 0.00099*(N/P)
0.69 0.56

data primarily the FIR data from police departments. It requires consistency and accuracy in location reference and simultaneous consideration of FIR Data, Roadway Inventory Data and Work-zones. Analysis based on these different streams of data in-relation having impact and cause of dependency on each other parameters requires patience and skill. The different source makes the process complex though preference is for general, uniformed aggregate approach i.e. a macro level approach, which includes micro analysis as well. To deal with these limitations, to make the actions visible, to identify accidents patterns, GIS is a gateway to move ahead. (Saxena et.al, 2002) 4.0 GIS POTENTIALITY

(2) GIS is Geographical Information system that supports the display and analysis of spatial data. GIS has its strength in providing capabilities to model the physical proximity of spatial features. The powerful aspect of GIS is the flexibility in modeling spatial objects to suit particular application requirement. It provides capability to store and maintain large data sets. GIS provides relational link between different streams of accident data FIR Data, Inventory Data, etc. It provides facilities to understand one to many, many to many and many to one relation-ship, which exists in spatial data. An expert may put his concentration on an intersection or a culvert or a type of accident or on a combination of parameters. GIS provides new capabilities of data comparison and analysis that were not available in non-GIS linear reference system. GIS enables the safety experts to compare accidents along a road way segment with land use and zoningdata or population and other demographic data to gain a better understanding of the relationship of crash incidents or the zone-data could be integrated with accidents records to provide a true picture. Visual ability of GIS permits the mapping of FIR data, Inventory data and geometry data. Maps can be created to show the accidents of several targets groups (Pedestrian, cyclist, intersection, etc.) but also of various subgroups of victims or accident circumstances. The mapping provides beside a spot / intersection identification a way to establish zones and understanding of accident patterns. Patterns may cluster in linear or circular form or in other shapes. (Saxena et.al, 2002)
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(3)

For Mumbai, Shenkar (1981) has suggested the following regression model D/P = 0.0006*(N/P)
0.45

(4)

Similarly, Sarin (1998) has carried out studies regarding the analysis of age wise fatalities in metropolitan cities of India. The study reveals that majority of the road accident victims fall in the agegroup of 15-39 years (50% to 65%) followed by victims of the age group of 40-59 (20% to 30%) being most vulnerable. The highest road traffic fatalities observed in the age group 15-39 years may be due to the fact that the drivers of this age group are comparatively inexperienced, somewhat aggressive and also have higher exposure levels. It is suggested that adequate measures must be adopted to educate people regarding traffic regulations, road signs and safety norms. Further, the law enforcement agencies must exercise their powers in prosecuting traffic regulation offender and also must restraint in giving driving license to people. Vehicles must be checked for their road worthiness and drivers are subjected to medical check at regular intervals. However, it may be noted that the above models and studies do not take the spatial and temporal aspect of road accidents and types of vehicle involved into account. The accident problem perceptions are mostly handled out to bring the conclusion based on

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 1: The study area showing the important roads. Study Area of Dehradun City

5.0

STUDY AREA

The city of Dehradun, the capital of Uttaranchal State has been selected for study. Located in the lower Shiwalik range of the Himalayan range of mountain is one of the major towns of the state. It is the gateway to the Queen of hill station Mussorie, which attracts hundreds of thousands of tourist during the summer and winter months. The city is famous for its educational institutes and since it has become the capital, it has also become the hub of administration too. There has been a sudden spurt of vehicles as there is a large influx of government officials and staff. The traffic volume has increased, yet the road infrasturcture has remained the same. Recently 3 roads Saharanpur Road, Haridwar Road and Mussorie Road have been designated as National Highway (refer map above). Hence, this city has been selected as case study for analysing accidents using GIS. 6.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

(i) Road accident analysis according to yearly variations. (ii) Road accident analysis according to monthly variations. (iii) Accident analysis according to comparative vehicle wise. (iv) Accident analysis according to time slot wise. (v) Accident analysis according to person. (vi) Accident analysis according to type of accident. Accident data has been collected from secondary sources like police stations for identification of black spots and linear stretches in Dehradun. The details of data collected are given in the next section. 7.0 DATA COLLECTION

(1) Topo-sheets (53J/3) from the Survey of India at the scale of 1:50,000 (Year-1984). (2) Guide Map of Dehradun City from Survey of India at the scale of 1:20,000 (Year-1965). (3) IRS LISS III Satellite data (4) IKONOS Satellite data (5) Accident record from 6 Police Stations of
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The objective of the study is to make an assessment of accident pattern considering spatial temporal aspects in the following manner.

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Dehradun for the year 1998 to 2002. The various information collected are : 1) Type of Accidents 2) Modes Involved 3) Name of the Road

4) Police Station Area 5) Time of Accident 6) Date of Accident 7) Name of Intersection

Table No. 3 Field Data Related to Road Accident within Dehradun City

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5

Year

Fatal Accidents 16 12 26 22 21 97 5 10 7 13 7 42 5 9 3 10 7 34 3 1 1 1 4 10 1 4 2 10 0 17 1 5 2 2 1 11

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1 2 3 4 5

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1 2 3 4 5

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1 2 3 4 5

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1 2 3 4 5

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

1 2 3 4 5

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Grievous Minor Accidents Accidents Zone Kotwali 31 12 27 6 30 8 32 13 19 12 139 51 Zone Dalanwala 8 15 15 9 15 4 18 4 20 9 76 41 Zone Cantt 4 10 7 1 8 1 9 5 13 3 41 20 Zone Raipur 2 0 4 1 2 0 4 2 3 0 15 3 Zone Rajpur 1 1 1 1 1 0 4 1 2 2 9 5 Zone Clement Town 3 2 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 2 11 5
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Non Injury

Total

7 6 9 6 2 30 2 5 2 8 5 22 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 1 0 2

66 51 73 73 54 317 30 39 28 43 41 181 19 18 13 24 23 97 5 6 3 8 8 30 4 7 3 16 5 35 7 7 7 5 3 29

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

The Table 3 gives the summary of the Data collected from Dehradun City according to FIR reports available at various Police Station Zones. The accident related information is multi-dimensional in nature, it is not possible to show all the information, hence as an illustration, the distribution of accident is shown as per type of accident only. However, all data characteristics of accident as listed above has been entered into the spatial database. Table 3 also shows the distribution of accidents under various Police Stations for the years 1998-2002. 8.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

data. All these information was registered on to a single layer and verified through satellite. Small discrepancies in road discontinuities were resolved by edge matching and proper editing in order to achieve a seamless digital database. The non-spatial data related to accident records available from police records were attached to the spatial data layers. A proper integration of the spatial and non-spatial was carried out by using ESRI ARC GIS. Sufficient care was taken to ensure that the database remained dynamic, so that any change in attribute database was reflected in the GIS spatial layers (Fig.2). Using the ERSI ARC GIS as the base, customized query for analysis of road accident data were defined. The query modules were designed so that a structured output as per a given set of inputs was available. If accident growth trends as per month is required the following inputs are given.

In order to perform analysis related to road accident, a spatial database incorporating all the desired information be created. First of all, the existing road network was extracted from the toposheet and guide map. The updating of road network was carried out with the help of IRS LISS III and IKONOS Satellite

Fig 2: Flow chart showing the methodology adopted.

Topographical and Guide Map of Dehradun

Accident Data Records for Police Record

Extract Road Network Creation of Accident Database Satellite Data Updation of Road Network

Integration of Spatial and Non Spatial Data

Datatabse Query System

Tabular Data
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Graphical Data

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Layer Fatal Accidents in 2002 Method New Selection Field Date Query Date >= date 9/30/2002

Buffering is then done on attribute Fatal Accident in 2002 and then by using Selection by attribute, the above query is generated and summarized in Tabular form. 9.0 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

carry out proper traffic management studies in order to regulate the traffic. Further, it can be seen that the area under Kotwali Police station is most accident prone area. In the last 5 years, total of 317 accidents of different types have occurred. Out of this, 97 accidents have lead to fatal injuries (30.6%). It may be noted that the railway station, bus stand and the Paltan Bazar are located in this area. Hence, it is natural that more accidents occur in this area. (Table 4.) Fig 3. shows the distribution of different types of accidents in Dehradun city during 1998-2002. Subsequently, on the basis of the data collected, the same was analysed so that temporal aspect of the accidents could be studied. Hence the analysis of data was carried out as follows:(i) Accidents on yearly variation (ii) Accidents on monthly variation

On the basis of the data collected total of 699 accident related injuries have taken recorded. It is observed that nearly 41.6% injuries are grievous followed by fatal injuries (30.2%). These figures clearly show that rising out the type of accidents occurring in Dehradun, there is an urgent need to

Table 4: Total Accidents during 1998-2002

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Zone

Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total

Total No. of Accident 317 181 107 30 35 29 699

Fatal Accidents 97 42 34 10 17 11 211

Grievous Injury 139 76 41 15 9 11 291

Minor Accidents 51 41 30 3 5 5 135

NonInjury 30 22 2 2 4 2 62

Fig 3: Distribution of type of Accidents Mode of Accidents 70 60 50 No. of Accident 40 30 20 10 0 .1998 1999 2000 Year
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Legends Fatal Accidents Grievous Accidents Minor Accidents Non Injury

2001

2002

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Table 5: Road Accidents during the 1998 - 2002

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Zone

Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total Kotwali Dalanwala Cantt Raipur Rajpur Clement Town Total

No. of Fatal Grievous Minor Accident Accidents Injury Accidents Road Accident during the Year-1998 66 16 31 12 30 5 8 15 19 5 4 10 5 3 2 0 4 1 1 1 7 1 3 2 131 31 49 Road Accident during the Year-1999 51 12 27 39 10 15 18 9 7 6 1 4 7 4 1 7 5 2 128 41 56 Road Accident during the Year-2000 73 26 30 28 7 15 13 3 8 3 1 2 3 2 1 7 2 4 127 41 60 Road Accident during the Year-2001 73 22 32 43 13 18 24 10 9 8 1 4 16 10 4 5 2 2 169 58 69 Road Accident during the Year-2002 54 21 19 41 7 20 23 7 13 8 4 3 5 0 2 3 1 0 134 40
9.1

NonInjury 7 2 0 0 1 1 11 6 5 1 0 1 0 13 9 2 1 0 0 0 12 6 8 0 1 1 1 17 2 5 0 1 1 0 9

40 6 9 1 1 1 0 18 8 4 1 0 0 1 14 13 4 5 2 1 0 25 12 9 3 0 2 2 28

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

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(iii) Accidents as per type (iv) Accidents as per time (v) Accidents on the basis of sex On the basis of the above, detailed analysis was carriedout.
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Accidents on yearly basis

Here the query was carried on the whole data set as per year and categorised as per level of injury and Police Station. Fig 4. shows the procedure for query using ARC GIS in order to show the distribution of different levels of accidents injury under each police

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 4: Road Accidents in Dehradun during 1998-2002

station from the years 1998-2002 (Table 5.). It is seen that the total number of accident is more or less the same except for the year 2001. However, the number of total accidents and grievous injury is continuously rising. This could be due to rise in number of vehicles plying within the city. Table 6: Accidents Growth Trends Month wise Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month January February March April May June July August September October November December No. of accident 63 62 65 64 74 58 58 47 60 42 42 55

9.2

Accidents Analysis on Monthly Basis

Here the database has been queried for accidents as per month for the years 1998-2002 using the ARC GIS. The procedure for calculation of monthly variations in accidents is shown in Fig 5. This query yield results for accidents occurring in each month for the years 1998-2002 (Table 6.) It is clearly seen that the maximum number of accidents occurs in the month of May (Fig 6.). This could be due to large number of tourist vehicles, which pass through to the city, as Dehradun is the gateway to the hill station Mussorie and to holy places like Yamnotri, Gangotri and Kedarnath 9.3 Accidents as per Type of Vehicle

The query to the database is performed using type of vehicle involved in accidents. The vehicles have been classified into three categories (a) Heavy Vehicles Truck, Bus and Tractor (b) Medium Vehicles Private Car, Jeep, Van, AutoRickshaw, Taxi (c) High vehicles Motorcycle, Scooter, Cycle
48

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 5. Procedure for calculation Accidents as per Monthly Variations.

Fig 6. Accidents as per Monthly Variations

Accidents according to Monthly Variations

Legends January

80 70 60 50 No. of Accidents 40 30 20 10 0 Months

February March April May June July August September October November December

Fig 7. shows the procedure for calculating types of vehicle involved in accidents. This query window yield the tabular result as given in Table No 7.
49

It can be clearly seen that medium type of vehicles are more involved in accidents as compared to other vehicles. This is due to the fact the normally tourists

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 7. Procedure for Calculating Types of Vehicle Involved in Accidents

Table 7. Accidents Classified According to Comparative Vehicle wise

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5

Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total

Heavy Vehicles 45 68 61 54 58 286

Medium Vehicles 97 103 70 68 76 414

Light Vehicle 68 85 40 54 45 292

Unknown Vehicles 3 13 6 12 7 41

passing through the town are traveling in Cars, Taxis, Vans and Jeeps. Also light vehicles are next in number with regards to accidents. The possible reason could be the availability of different types of motorcycles and scooters which high engine power and pick up capabilities (Fig 8.) . Another reason for such high number of accidents involving medium and light vehicles may be due to disregard for traffic rules. The remedial measures for enforcement of traffic rules have to be strictly enforced by traffic police. 9.4 Accidents as per Time

during the day is more than during the night time. In this study, the time of accident occurrence has been split into five time stop (a) 6 AM to 10 AM School and office goers rush time (b) 10 AM to 2 PM (c) 2 PM 6 PM House wife shopping rush (d) 6 PM 10 PM Evening hour rush (e) 10 PM - 6 Am (next day) Night time Here the query to the database has been carried out as per time stop and categories as per level of injury
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Accidents do tend to display a specific trend as per time of the day. The number of accidents occurring

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 8: Distribution of Accidents as per Vehicle Type. Vehicles involved in Road Accident s

120 100 80 No. of Accident 60 40 Year-2001 20 0 Year-2002 Heavy Vehicles Medium Vehicles Light Vehicles Unknown Vehicles Year-1998 Year-1999 Year-2000

incurred (Fig.9). It is observed that the total number of accidents occurring is concentrated between 2 PM to 6 PM and between 8 PM to 10 PM (Fig 10.). Maximum number of accidents occur during 6 PM to 10 PM and may be attributed to the combined rush in evening along with poor lighting. This gives a clear indication that proper traffic management alongwith proper street lighting is required (Table 8). It is also observed that the majority of the accidents lead to grievous injuries and is spread between 10 AM to 6 PM. Similarly the number of accidents

leading to fatal injuries is next in order and is spread between 10 AM to 10 PM. This gives a clear indication that there is lack of proper traffic management. (Table 9) 9.5 Accidents on the basis of Sex

Here the query is made as per the sex on the person (Fig 11.). Table 10 shows that nearly 85% of males are involved in the accident (Fig 12.). Unfortunately, the age of the person is not recorded in the Accident Recording Form by Police or else, the age group could also be studied.

Fig 9: Procedure for Calcutaing Accidents with respect to Time

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Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 10: Road Accidents with Respect to Time


Road Accident in Dehradun With Respect to Time 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Year 2002 Year 2001 Year 2000 Year 1999 Year 1998
6:00 AM - 10:00 AM 10:00 AM - 2:00 PM

No. of Accident

2:00 PM - 6:00 PM 6:00 PM - 10:00 PM 10:00 PM - 6:00 AM

in Decreasing Order (2002-1998) (2002-1998) Year Year in Decreasing Order Table 8. Total Road Accidents in Dehradun with respect to Time

Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total

0600 hr 1000 hr 9 9 7 30 12 67

1000 hr 1400 hr 25 27 31 25 26 134

Time 1400 hr 1800 hr 31 33 26 32 32 154

1800 hr 2200 hr 33 28 34 31 32 158

2200 hr 0600 hr 16 17 21 32 21 107

Fig 11: Procedure for Calculating Accidents as per Sex

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Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Fig 12. Accidents as per Sex

Persons Involved in Road Accident 160 140 120 100 No. of Accidents 80 60
Female Legends Male

40 20 0 Year 1998 Year 1999 Year 2000 Year 2001 Year 2002 Year (1998-2002)

Table 9 Distribution of Accidents with respect to Time

Year

0600 hr 1000 hr 1 4 3 1 7 16 10 16 6 4 7 43 0 5 2 0 1 8 1 2 0 1 0 4

1998 1999 2000 2002 2001 Total 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 Total 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 Total 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 Total

Time 1000 hr 1400 hr 1400 hr 1800 hr Fatal Accidents 6 13 10 12 7 6 13 6 6 11 42 48 Grievous Accidents 11 11 18 13 16 13 9 15 16 13 70 65 Minor Accidents 2 12 3 5 5 5 3 3 1 2 14 27 Non Injury 0 3 0 3 3 2 5 3 2 3 10 14
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1800 hr 2200 hr 11 7 8 10 11 47 9 8 12 15 13 57 8 4 13 6 3 34 5 8 1 0 4 18

2200 hr 0600 hr 5 2 4 5 20 36 10 7 8 6 6 37 4 4 6 5 3 22 2 1 3 4 2 12

Dr. S.K.Ghosh / Dr. M.Parida / Jay K.Uraon / ITPI Journal 1: 3 (2004) 40-54

Table 10: Accidents Classified According to Person Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 10.0 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 CONCLUSIONS Male 136 104 116 158 127 Female 19 19 19 25 20

no age group can be specifically identified. Inclusion of such data in accident record is essential to identify the vulnerable groups. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifacet nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This paper is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Dehradun as a case study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.
References 1. Dhir, M.P., & S.M. Sarin, 1993, Some Special Features on Traffic safety Situations in India, Proc. Int., Conf. On Road safety in Two Continents, the Netherlands, VTI Conferences I a Part 1, pp. 16-30. Kadiyali L.R., & S. Venketesan, 1984, Traffic Accidents, forecast and remedies, Indian Highway, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 7-12. Nadaf, A.M., 1999, Accident and Drivers, Indian Journal of Transport Management, Vol-23, No-6, pp 361-369 Pasricha, P.S.(1997), Road Accident Management Strategies, Indian Journal of Transport Management, Oct 1997, in Road Safety- A book of readings published Centre of Road Safety, Central Institute for Road Safety, Pune. Sarin S.M., 1998, Road Traffic Safety In Indian-Issues and Challenges Ahead, Indian Highway. Saxena A., Ganesh Babu, R. K. Bajpai and S.M. Sarin, 2000, G IS as an aid identify accidents patterns, http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/Utility/ transport/GIS as an aid to identity accidents patterns. htm. Srinivassan N., & K. Prasad, 1979, Fatal Accident Rates in Delhi, Indian Highways, Vol. 4, No. 3. Tuladhar S.B.S., & C.E.G. Justo, 1981, Analysis of Accident Rates-A Case Study, Highways Research Bulletin No. 16.

The study clearly indicates that as per accident records, there is an urgent need to adopt proper traffic management procedures to check the growth of accidents. Nearly 72% of accident lead to fatal and grievous injuries. Further it is observed that number of accidents are highest during the month of May. This sudden increase in the number of accidents may due to tourist vehicles passing through Dehradun, as it is the gateway to Mussoriee, Yamnotri and Gangotri. This fact is further substantiated by the fact that the number of medium type of vehicles is higher than any other type of vehicle. Accidents occur generally between 2 P.M and 10 P.M. This is the time when people return from offices or go for shopping. Heavy traffic and poor street lighting may be the cause for it. In India the majority of drivers are male, hence this is the vulnerable group. It is an indication that proper enforcement of driving education has to be imparted to the drivers. In the absence of the age of the person, involved an accident, not being recorded in police record, thus

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

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