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Question 1 - Answers (a) Identify and compare basic classifications of materials. 1. Metals 2. Ceramics 3.

Polymers Density Metals Ceramics Polymers Highest Comparatively Low Lowest Stiffness High High Comparatively Low Strength Strongest Comparatively Strong Comparatively Weak Electrical Conductivity Highest Low Low

(b) Describe composite material types with examples. 1. 2. 3. 4. Particulate ex: unreinforced concrete Short fiber ex: Fiber glass Long fiber ex: Carbon fiber, Aramid fiber (Kevlar) Laminate ex: Formica

(c) Give examples of advanced materials. 1. 2. 3. 4. Semiconductors Biomaterials Smart Materials Nanoengineered Materials

(d) Describe smart materials and nano engineered materials with examples. 1. Smart materials are a group of new and state-of-the-art materials which have a great influence on todays technology. These materials are capable of sensing the environmental conditions around them and responding to changes that occurs in the surrounding. Ex: shape memory alloys, piezoelectric ceramics, magnetostrictive materials, electro rheological / magneto rheological fluids.

Nano engineered materials are materials which the atoms and molecules are changed and manipulated in the atomic-level. By changing the formation of atomic-level constituents into a totally new structure in a certain material a Nano engineered material is made. These materials are carefully arranged to get specific mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties which are not available in general.

Ex: Carbon Nanotube Question 2 Answers (a) Write the differences between atomic mass and atomic weight. Atomic mass - is the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons within the nucleus Atomic weight - the weighted average of the atomic masses of the atoms naturally occurring isotopes (b) Describe and compare Bohr and wave- mechanical atomic models. Bohr Atomic model In this model electrons are assumed to revolve around the atomic nucleus in discrete orbital, and the position of any particular electron is more or less well defined in terms of its orbital.

Wave- mechanical model The electron is considered to exhibit both wave-like and particle-like characteristics. With this model, an electron is no longer treated as a particle moving in a discrete orbital. Electrons position is described by a probability distribution or electron cloud.

(c) What is Pauli Exclusion Principle? Another important quantum-mechanical concept. This principle stipulates that each electron state can hold no more than two electrons, which must have opposite spins. Thus, s, p, d, and f subshells may each accommodate, respectively, a total of 2, 6, 10, and 14 electrons. (d) Write the electron configuration of F, Br, K and P. F - 1s 2s 2p
2 2 2 2 5

Br - 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p K - 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s P - 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p Question 3 Answers
2 2 6 2 3 2 2 6 2 6 1


(a) Identify and compare the three primary bonds. 1. Metallic 2. Ionic 3. Covalent Metallic

relatively weak bond (1 -2 eV) complicated mixture of electrostatic and quantum attraction and repulsion no direction to bonds o => easy to deform

examples: most metals, Fe, Ni, Cr . . .


strong bonds (2 -10 eV) Coulomb attraction of oppositely charged ions Coulomb and quantum repulsions no direction to bonds examples: NaCl, MgF2, ZnS


strong bonds (2- 10 eV) "sharing" of electrons bonds are directional o => hard to deform examples: Si, Ge, GaAs

(b) Explain the differences between Vander Waals & Hydrogen bonding. Vander Waals Vander Waals forces arise because electrons in an orbital are spinning and moving very fast. So at any point in time more electrons may lie on one side of a molecule than the other. This creates a negative dipole on the side with the most electrons and a positive dipole on the side with least electrons. These dipoles induce more dipoles to be created in neighboring molecules. The positive dipole on one molecule is attracted to the negative dipole on another molecule and this is called Vander Waals force. Strength of them depends on the number of electrons per molecule. Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonding arises because the electronegative atom covalently bonded to hydrogen draws the shared electrons towards each itself exposing a proton in hydrogen. The proton is very positive. It is attracted to oxygens lone pair and the lone pair has a high electron density.

(c) Describe Dipole bonds. A dipolar bond is a kind of 2-centre, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom. Typically, a dipolar bond is formed when a Lewis base donates a pair of electrons to a Lewis acid. There are 3 main types of Dipolar Bonds as follows; 1. Induced Dipole Bonds 2. Polar Molecule-Induced Dipole Bonds 3. Permanent Dipole Bonds

(d) Silicon has 3 naturally occurring isotopes: 92.23% of 28Si, with an atomic weight of 27.9769 amu, 4.68 % of 29Si, with an atomic weight of 28.9765 amu, and 3.09% of 30Si, with an atomic weight of 29.9738 amu. On the basis of these data, confirm that the average atomic weight of Si is 28.0854 amu. 92.23% of 28Si 4.68% of 29Si 3.09% of 30Si atomic weight = 27.9769 amu atomic weight = 28.9765 amu atomic weight = 29.9738 amu

amu (This result is confirmed according to given Data) =======

(e) The net potential energy between two adjacent ions is sometimes represented by the expression,

In which r is the interionic separation and C, D and are constants whose value depends on the specific material. Derive an expression for the bonding energy Eo in terms of the equilibrium interionic separation ro and the constants D & .

By setting the resulting expression equal to zero; (At r = r0, dEn/dr = 0,)

By substituting C value from