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True-False Questions
1. One problem with information systems development is the difficulty of establishing information requirements, both for individual end users and for the organization as a whole. Answer: True 2. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 446

An information system is a sociotechnical entity. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 446

3.

An essential component of the organizational planning process is deciding which new systems to build. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 447

4.

An information systems plan should be decided on before selecting specific projects within the overall context of a strategic plan. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

5.

When developing an information systems plan, the organization is only required to have a basic understanding of its short-term information requirements. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

6.

Business systems planning theory argues that the firms information requirements can only be understood by looking at the entire organization to identify key entities and attributes. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

7.

The weakness of enterprise analysis is that it produces an enormous amount of data that is expensive to collect and difficult to analyze. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

8.

The principle method used in CSF analysis is JAD. Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 449

9.

The strength of the CSF method is that it produces a smaller data set to analyze than the enterprise analysis method. Answer: True Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 449

10.

The most common form of IT-enabled organizational change is business process reengineering. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 451

11.

Paradigm shifts often fail because organizational change is so difficult to orchestrate.

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Answer: True 12.

Difficulty: Medium

Reference: p. 452

If organizations wait to apply computing power until after they rethink and redesign their business processes, they may obtain large payoffs. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 452

13.

Mortgage banks have achieved remarkable efficiencies by redesigning their approach to mortgage processing. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 453

14.

Before reengineering, management must understand and measure the performance of existing processes as a baseline. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 455

15.

The conventional method of designing systems establishes how information technology can support the processes, and then establishes the information requirements of each business function. Answer: False Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 455

16.

The majority of reengineering projects achieve breakthrough gains in business performance. Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 455

17.

TQM derives from concepts developed by American quality experts, but popularized in Japan. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 457

18.

BPR is considered to be more incremental than TQM. Answer: False Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 457

19.

The fewer steps in a process, the less time and chance for error to occur. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 457

20.

Improving customer service will improve the quality of the product. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 458

21.

Longer cycles mean that errors are often caught earlier in production. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 458

22.

The most challenging task of the systems analyst is often defining the information requirements. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 460

23.

User information requirements drive the system-building effort.

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Answer: True 24.

Difficulty: Easy

Reference: p. 460

The amount of testing time needed for a new system is consistently underrated. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 461

25.

Testing should focus on finding all possible ways to make the program fail. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

26.

Improper training and inadequate documentation contribute to system failure. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 463

27.

More than half of all maintenance work consists of changes in data, files, reports, hardware, or system software. Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

28.

The systems lifecycle is still used today for large, complex systems projects. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 464

29.

A formal division of labor between end users and IS specialists is part of the systems lifecycle methodology. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 464

30.

The first step in the prototyping model of systems design is to identify the users basic requirements. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 465

31.

Iteration is part of prototyping. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 466

32.

Systems wholly created through rapid prototyping may fail when required to accommodate large quantities of data. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 466

33.

If a software package solution is selected, the organization loses some control over the system design process. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 466

34.

When a software package solution is selected, the major design effort will be to mold the user to the package. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 466

35.

An advantage of fourth-generation tools is that they can easily handle processing large numbers of transactions or applications with extensive procedural logic and updating requirements.

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Answer: False 36.

Difficulty: Hard

Reference: p. 467

The role of information centers is diminishing as end users become more computer literate. Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 468

37.

In some forms of outsourcing, a company hires an external vendor to create the software for its system, but operates the system on its own computer. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 469

38.

In the digital firm environment, organizations must be able to add, change, and retire technology capabilities much more rapidly than traditional development methods will allow. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 471

39.

Object-oriented frameworks have been developed to provide reusable, semi-complete applications a company can customize into finished applications. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 472

40.

The middle layer of Web services consists of a service grid to create the environment essential for carrying out essential business activities. Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 476

Multiple Choice Questions


41. Major risks and uncertainties in systems development occur because: a. b. c. d. e. it is difficult to establish information requirements on all fronts. time and cost factors are difficult to analyze. managing organizational change is difficult. managerial change cannot always be planned or controlled. All of the above Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 446

Answer: e 42.

The introduction of a new information system involves changes in: a. b. c. d. e. jobs. skills. management. the organization. All of the above Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 446

Answer: e 43.

Which of the following is a road map indicating the direction of systems development, the rationale, the current situation, new developments to consider, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget? a. Project plan

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b. c. d. e.

Request for proposal Strategic plan Information systems plan Mission statement Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

Answer: d 44.

The two principal methodologies for establishing the essential information requirements of the organization as a whole are: a. b. c. d. e. enterprise analysis and reengineering. strategic analysis and rationalization of procedures. paradigm shift and business systems planning. enterprise analysis and critical success factors. strategic analysis and paradigm shift. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

Answer: d 45.

A small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization best describes: a. b. c. d. e. strategic objectives. management objectives. critical success factors. information plan objectives. information systems objectives. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 446

Answer: c 46.

__________________ is a deeper form of organizational change and quickly follows from automation. a. b. c. d. e. Reengineering Rationalization of procedures Paradigm shift Work flow management Differentiated processing Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 451

Answer: b 47. A paradigm shift involves: a. b. c. d. e.

rethinking the nature of the business itself. rethinking the nature of the information systems process itself. rethinking the nature of the organization itself. Both a and b Both a and c Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 452

Answer: e 48.

The radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology best describes: a. business process reengineering.

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b. c. d. e.

paradigm shift. automation. rationalization of procedures. process alignment. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 452

Answer: a 49.

Workflow and document management software: a. b. c. d. e. automates processes involved in routing documents. allows two or more people to work simultaneously on the same document. can affect the content of the document. Both a and b All of the above Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 453

Answer: d 50.

James Champy calls the joint redesign of interorganizational business processes: a. b. c. d. e. object-oriented modeling. X-engineering. joint application design. rapid application development. business process reengineering. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 455

Answer: b 51.

Information technology can create new design options for various processes because: a. b. c. d. e. more tools are available. management understands information technology options. most employees are now computer-literate. it can be used to challenge standing assumptions about work arrangements. fewer people are required to make information technology work. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 455

Answer: d 52.

A reengineered business process always affects: a. b. c. d. e. jobs. skill requirements. workflows. reporting relationships. All of the above Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 455

Answer: e 53.

A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities best describes: a. b. c. d. e. return on investment. activity-based cost. internal rate of return. total quality management. six sigma.

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Answer: e 54. TQM focuses on: a. b. c. d. e.

Difficulty: Medium

Reference: p. 457

mid-level management. a series of continuous improvements. production employees. eliminating design errors. decreasing cycle times. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 457

Answer: b 55.

For benchmarking, companies use: a. b. c. d. e. external industry standards. standards set by other companies. internally developed high standards. all of the above. none of the above. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 458

Answer: d 56.

Dramatic quality improvements in a wide range of manufacturing businesses have been made possible by: a. b. c. d. e. CAD. RFP. PDR. benchmarking. workflow management. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 458

Answer: a 57.

New information systems are an outgrowth of: a. b. c. d. e. new IS capabilities. increasing demands on the IS. organizational problem solving. systems development. specific information requirements. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 459

Answer: c 58.

In the design of a new system, stakeholders are: a. b. c. d. e. managers who control the information input to the new system. those who have a direct interest in the information affected by the new system. end users who use the reports from the new system. those who will pay for the new system. the entire organization. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 459

Answer: b 59.

Who needs what information, where, when, and how describes the most basic description of:

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a. b. c. d. e.

the feasibility study. TQM. information requirements. the systems development process. acceptance testing. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 460

Answer: c 60. Systems design: a. b. c. d. e.

describes what a system should do to meet information requirements. shows how the new system will fulfill the objectives. always tries to increase precision. includes the testing phases. All of the above Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 460

Answer: b 61. The test plan:

a. includes all the preparations for a series of tests. b. tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned. c. tests each program separately. d. provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. e. asks end users to evaluate the system. Answer: a 62. Acceptance testing: a. includes all the preparations for the trials. b. tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned. c. tests each program separately. d. provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. e. asks end users to evaluate the system. Answer: d 63. Unit testing: a. includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system. b. tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned. c. tests each program separately. d. provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. e. asks end users to evaluate the system. Answer: c 64. System testing: Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462 Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462 Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

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a. includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system. b. tests the functioning of the system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned. c. tests each program separately. d. provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. e. asks end users to evaluate the system. Answer: b 65. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

In the pilot study conversion strategy, the new system: a. b. c. d. e. is tested by an outsourced company. replaces the old one at an appointed time. and the old are run together. is introduced to a limited area until it is proven to work properly. is introduced in stages or parts. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

Answer: d 66.

In the phased approach conversion strategy, the new system: a. b. c. d. e. is tested by an outsourced company. replaces the old one at an appointed time. and the old are run together. is introduced to a limited area until it is proven to work properly. is introduced in stages or parts. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

Answer: e 67.

In the parallel conversion strategy, the new system: a. b. c. d. e. is tested by an outsourced company. replaces the old one at an appointed time. and the old are run together. is introduced to a limited area until it is proven to work properly. is introduced in stages, or parts. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

Answer: c 68.

In the direct cutover conversion strategy, the new system: a. b. c. d. e. is tested by an outsourced company. replaces the old one at an appointed time. and the old are run together. is introduced to a limited area until it is proven to work properly. is introduced in stages or parts. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

Answer: b 69.

The oldest method for building information systems is the: a. b. c. d. pilot study. systems approach. iterative process. systems lifecycle.

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e. prototype. Answer: d 70. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 464

The _____________ occurs after the system is in production. a. b. c. d. e. documentation iterative process report design process post implementation audit feasibility audit Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

Answer: d 71.

The use of _______________ is most likely to produce systems that fulfill user requirements. a. b. c. d. e. documentation prototyping a pilot study a parallel strategy a phased approach Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 466

Answer: b 72.

If an organizations requirements conflict with the software package chosen and the package cannot be customized, the organization will have to: a. b. c. d. e. write its own software. redesign the RFP. change the evaluation process. retest the benchmarks. change its procedures. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 467

Answer: e 73.

Management should control the development of end-user applications by: a. b. c. d. e. developing a formal development methodology. requiring cost justification for end-user IS projects. establishing standards for user-developed applications. Both b and c None of the above Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 467

Answer: d 74. ASPs are a form of: a. b. c. d. e.

information center. outsourcing. end-user development model. prototyping. business process reengineering. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 469

Answer: b

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75.

__________________ is/are helping systems builders create working systems much more rapidly than before. a. b. c. d. e. Object-oriented software tools Reusable software Prototyping Fourth-generation tools All of the above Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 472

Answer: e 76.

Object-oriented software is expected to: a. b. c. d. e. reduce the time and cost of writing software. reduce testing needs. use the system life cycle. develop IS plans. fit the business paradigm better. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 472

Answer: a 77. Web services use: a. b. c. d. e.

a proprietary architecture. a plug and play architecture. JAD. RAD. unique homegrown systems. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 475

Answer: b 78.

A set of rules that allows Web services applications to pass data and instructions to one another best describes: a. b. c. d. e. SOAP. WSDL. UDDI. HTTP. XML. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 475

Answer: a 79.

A common framework for describing the tasks performed by a Web service so that it can be used by other applications best describes: a. b. c. d. e. SOAP. WSDL. UDDI. HTTP. XML. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 475

Answer: b 80.

Which of the following allows a Web service to be listed in a directory of Web services so that it can be easily located by other organizations and systems?

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a. b. c. d. e.

SOAP. WSDL. UDDI. HTTP. XML. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 475

Answer: c

Fill In the Blanks


81. A(n) information systems plan is a road map indicating the direction of systems development. Difficulty: Medium 82. Reference: p. 447

A(n) enterprise analysis is an analysis of organization-wide information requirements that examines the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 447

83.

Critical success factors are a small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 448

84.

Using the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks is called automation. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 451

85.

Rationalization of procedures is the streamlining of standard operating procedures to eliminate obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 451

86.

Business process reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminate repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 452

87.

A(n) paradigm shift is the radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the organization. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 452

88.

Work flow management is the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently from one location to another. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 453

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89.

The concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all the people in an organization is called total quality management (TQM). Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 457

90.

Benchmarking is the setting of strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 458

91.

Systems development refers to the activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 459

92.

Systems analysis is the examination of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 459

93.

A(n) feasibility study is the way the organization determines whether the solution is achievable, given the organizations resources and constraints. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 460

94.

Information requirements are the detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 460

95.

A(n) systems design details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 460

96.

Programming is the process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design state into program code. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 461

97.

Unit testing is the process of testing each program in the system separately. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

98.

Acceptance testing provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 462

99.

Conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new system. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 462

100. Parallel strategy is a safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one

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functions correctly. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

101. A(n) direct cutover is a risky conversion approach whereby the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 462

102. A(n) pilot study introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional. Difficulty: Medium 103. A(n) phased approach introduces the new system in stages. Difficulty: Easy 104. Documentation describes how an information system works. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463 Reference: p. 463 Reference: p. 463

105. Production is the stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

106. Systems lifecycle refers to a traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 464

107. A(n) post implementation audit is a formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how well the system has met the original objectives. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 463

108. Prototyping is the process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 465

109. Iteration is the process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 465

110. A(n) end-user interface is the part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 466

111. A(n) application software package is a set of prewritten, precoded software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 466

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112. The modification of a software package to meet an organizations unique requirements without destroying the package softwares integrity is called customization. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 466

113. A(n) request for proposal (RFP) is a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors to determine the suitability of the vendors product to the organizations requirements. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 466

114. End-user development is the development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 467

115. A(n) information center is a special facility within an organization that provides training and support for end-user computing. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 468

116. The practice of contracting information systems work to external vendors is outsourcing. Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 469

117. Object-oriented development is an approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. Difficulty: Medium Reference: p. 471

118. Joint application design (JAD) is a process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 473

119. Rapid application development (RAD) is a process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 472

120. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) refers to a set of rules that allows Web services applications to pass data and instructions to one another. Difficulty: Hard Reference: p. 475

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Essay Questions
121. The authors emphasize that an information system is a sociotechnical entity. What should this statement mean to an information systems professional? A sociotechnical entity is an arrangement of both scientific and communal elements. The introduction of a new information system involves much more than new hardware and software. It includes changes in jobs, skills, management, and organization. One cannot install new technology without considering the people who must work with it. New information systems, or major changes in old ones, affect the lives of all within the organization, and frequently affect those outside the organization as well. 122. Briefly describe the four kinds of structural organizational change. Automation, rationalization, reengineering, and paradigm shifts are the four changes discussed in the textbook. Automation uses the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks. Rationalization of procedures streamlines standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient. Business process reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminate repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve costs, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology. A paradigm shift is the radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization. 123. Discuss at least four ways in which information systems can contribute to the firms commitment to total quality management. Information systems can simplify products or processes, meet benchmarking standards, make improvements based on customer demands, reduce cycle time, and improve the quality and precision of design and production. 124. Define the systems development model, listing the six steps to be taken using this model. Systems development is the set of activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity. The activities usually take place in sequential order, with each activity being completed before the next is begun. Systems development consists of six steps, including systems analysis, systems design, programming, testing, conversion, and production and maintenance. During systems analysis, a problem that the organization is trying to solve is analyzed. During systems design, details about how the system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis are specified. During programming, system specifications are translated into program code. Testing determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions. During conversion, the organization transitions from the old system to the new system. Production is the stage after the new system is installed and conversion is complete. The maintenance step is concerned with changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency. 125. Identify the five approaches to systems development. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of each. The systems lifecycle, prototyping, applications software package, end-user development, and outsourcing are the five approaches mentioned in the textbook. For the systems

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development lifecycle, it is useful for large, complex systems and projects. However, it can be slow and expensive. Prototyping is rapid and inexpensive, while being inappropriate for large complex systems. Applications software packages can save time and cost when used to develop common business applications. However, they may not meet the organizations unique requirements. End-user development provides the users with control over systems building. However, it can lead to proliferation of uncontrolled information systems and data. Outsourcing can reduce control costs. Outsourcing can lead to the loss of control over the information systems function. 126. End-user development is a tempting path to follow. What are its advantages and disadvantages? End-user systems can be created rapidly and are highly customized. The primary benefits are improved requirements determination, reduced application backlog, and increased enduser participation in, and control of, the systems development process. The disadvantages are that new organizational risks are introduced when information systems and data resources are developed that do not necessarily meet quality assurance standards and are not easily controlled by traditional means. Other potential problems arise when the documentation is insufficient or unintelligible, the problem turns out to be more complex than expected, the original creators leave the company, or the organization outgrows the system before anyone truly understands it. 127. Discuss the uses of RAD and JAD. RAD is the process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, software objects, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists. Joint application design accelerates the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions. 128. How might an organization go about the process of reengineering in a way that would maximize the potential of success? Senior management must develop a broad strategic vision before calling for redesigned business processes, and then identify a few core business processes for the redesign, focusing on those with the greatest potential payback. The performance of the existing processes must be understood and measured as a baseline so that success will be recognizable. The conventional method of designing systems establishes the information requirements of a business function or process and then determines how they can be supported by information technology. However, information technology can create new design options for various processes because it can be used to challenge long-standing assumptions about work arrangements that used to inhibit organizations. Once all this is done, the processes may be redesigned. It is wise to remember that such redesigning will result in dislocations and stresses in the company regarding jobs, skill requirements, workflows, and reporting relationships. A public relations campaign within the company, and allowing the stakeholders a voice in the process, will help minimize the difficulties. 129. Describe the four types of conversion. Parallel, direct cutover, pilot study, and phased are four types of conversion processes. The parallel strategy is a safe, conservative approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly. The direct cutover approach is a risky conversion approach whereby the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day. Pilot strategy introduces the

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new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional. The phased approach introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units. 130. Briefly describe the two principal methodologies for establishing the essential information requirements of the organization. Enterprise analysis and critical success factors are two principal methodologies for establishing the essential information requirements of the organization. Enterprise analysis is the analysis of organization-wide information requirements that examines the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements. Critical success factors are a small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization.