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Combined Heating, Cooling & Power Handbook: Technologies & Applications

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO ENERGY RESOURCE OPTIMIZATION


By Neil Petchers

THE FAIRMONT PRESS, INC. Lilburn, GA

MARCEL DEKKER, INC. New York and Basel

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Petchers, Neil. Combined heating, cooling & power handbook : technologies and applications : an integrated approach to energy conservation/resource optimization / by Neil Petchers. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-88173-433-0 (Electronic) 1. Cogeneration of electric power and heat. I. Title: Combined heating, cooling and power handbook. II. Title. TK1041 .P48 2002 621.199--dc21 2001059204 Combined heating, cooling & power handbook: technologies and applications by Neil Petchers 2003 by The Fairmont Press. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Published by The Fairmont Press, Inc. 700 Indian Trail, Lilburn, GA 30047 tel: 770-925-9388; fax: 770-381-9865 http://www.fairmontpress.com Distributed by Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 http://www.dekker.com Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0-88173-433-0 (The Fairmont Press, Inc.) 0-8247-4233-8 (Marcel Dekker, Inc.)


While every effort is made to provide dependable information, the publisher, authors, and editors cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

Table of Contents
Part/Section/Chapter Dedication Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction PART 1 THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY SECTION I Optimizing Heat and Power Resources 1 Heat and Power Resources Overview 2 Expressing Power Cycle Performance 3 Localized vs. Central Station Power Generation 4 Selection of Power Generation Systems SECTION II Thermal Technologies 5 Heating Value and Combustion of Fuel 6 Properties and Value of Steam 7 Boilers 8 Heat Recovery SECTION III Prime Mover Technologies 9 Reciprocating Engines 10 Combustion Gas Turbines 11 Steam Turbines 12 Combined and Steam Injection Cycles 13 Controlling Prime Movers 14 Renewable and Alternative Power Technologies PART 2 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT SECTION IV Environmental Considerations 15 Air Pollution Regulatory Programs 16 Air Permitting Process 17 Emissions Control Measures 18 Refrigerants and the CFC Issue SECTION V Utility Industry and Energy Rates 19 Natural Gas Industry Overview 20 Electric Industry Overview 21 Utility Rate Structures
Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

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Utility Bill Analysis

PART 3 APPLICATIONS SECTION VI Localized Electric Generation 23 Localized Electric Generation Applications Overview 24 Electricity 25 Electric Generators 26 Generator Driver Applications and Selection 27 Electric Generator Switchgear and Controls 28 Interconnecting Electric Generators SECTION VII Mechanical Drive Services 29 Mechanical Drive Applications Overview 30 Air Compressors 31 Pumps 32 Fans SECTION VIII Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 33 Refrigeration Cycles and Performance Ratings 34 Psychrometrics 35 Heat Extraction Evaporators, Chilled Water, Economizers and Thermal Storage 36 Heat Rejection Condensers, Cooling Towers, Heat Pumps and Heat Recovery 37 Vapor Compression-Cycle Systems 38 Absorption Cooling Systems 39 Desiccant Dehumidification Technologies PART 4 ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION SECTION IX Integrated Approach to Energy Resource Optimization Projects 40 Integrated Approach to Energy Resource Optimization Projects 41 Technical Analysis 42 Evaluating Project Financial Potential 43 Project Contracting and Financing Options 44 Program Implementation and Operation Appendix: Conversion Tables

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

DEDICATION
In memory of Phil Zacuto

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
In writing this book over the past decade, I sought to bring the collective knowledge of an industry to bear with solid engineering documentation covering a wide range of topics. Yet, I felt compelled to tell this story of energy, environmental, and cost efficiency with a single voice for consistency of purpose. In pursuing these objectives, I sought out leading experts in the field to review, edit, confirm, or challenge every chapter, formula, and statement. They were also an invaluable source of photographs, graphics, and a wealth of performance data and technical descriptions. More than one hundred manufacturers, vendors, public agencies, trade associations, utilities, engineering firms, and colleagues contributed to this effort, providing more than one thousand graphics and countless technical descriptions, edits, and revisions so that the story could be told with knowledge and fact beyond the capabilities of any single author. At the end of this long and difficult endeavor, my hope is that the reader will hear a single voice that really is a choir, with thousands of notes contributed by hundreds of individual voices. I ask the reader to consider the source of each graphic and data table as a footnote and a part of the books bibliography. I extend my appreciation to each of these contributing companies, agencies, associations, and individuals. Particularly, I acknowledge Gary Melickian and the American Gas Association and its member companies for their early support and technical assistance. I warmly thank many of my colleagues for their editorial and technical review contributions, notably Paul Pimentel, Jerry Reilley, Scott Silver, and Phil Zacuto, who have been beacons of light in supporting this effort over many years. I acknowledge the contributions of several other individuals, including Pentti Aalto, Anthony Bobelis, Anthony Catner, Wasi Choundhury, Tim Costello, James Daley, Robert Dawson, Linda Factor, Manfred Grove, Kevin Harper, Robert Jorgenson, Fred Jones, Naveen Kapur, Jim Moore, Glenn Petty, Joe Singer, Steve Stultz, Sarah Wade, and Neil Zobler. I thank Anne Turner, for designing and executing the entire layout and artistic contributions, including numerous illustrations, Teri Sharpe for line editing, and John OKeefe and Bryan Gianninoto for endless administrative support. Finally, I thank my parents for their encouragement and my wife Lori and my sons Brian and Adam for their support and patience. This is at best a partial list and I hope that those I have omitted will forgive the oversight and know that all contributions and supporting efforts have been gratefully received. In spite of all care to avoid error, a work of this magnitude cannot be expected to be without flaw. I apologize for any such oversight or omission and will be indebted to those who discover mistakes and take the trouble to let me know so that they will be corrected at the earliest opportunity. Neil Petchers

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

FOREWORD
For several decades, we have seen dramatic fluctuations in fuel and electricity prices accompanied by real and perceived uncertainty about energy availability. These conditions, and the resultant public policy initiatives they have spawned, have promoted investment in energy efficiency. The energy efficiency industry has had its fits and starts, but over time it has steadily increased our overall resource utilization efficiency. The evolving deregulated energy market has opened some opportunities and closed others. However, the dynamics and complexity of utility deregulation has also led some consumers to delay acting on energy efficiency initiatives until the market matures. Environmental regulatory intensity has also fluctuated, but generally the trend has also been toward increasing incentive to reduce pollution, notably air emissions associated with energy conversion and consumption. Concerns over environmental protection, national energy security, and reliance on imported oil and nuclear power have spawned many energy regulations, utility sponsored demand-side management programs, and other public policy initiatives. There is a pervasive feeling among many that resources such as energy, water, and clean air remain undervalued. The reasoning is that the full range of external cost factors security, public health, and environmental damage mitigation to name a few have not been captured, or monetized, through the combined impact of market price and regulation. Hence, price signals may still not match the true cost benefits of resource conservation and environmental protection. As recently as one-half century ago, low market prices, subsidies promoting increased energy use, and widespread disregard for environmental protection led to market decisions that were generally both polluting and energy inefficient. Today, market pricing and public policy signals generally encourage energy efficiency and environmental protection. While these efforts have perhaps not succeeded to the extent warranted, they are certainly much more mainstream than in the past. Much of the potential for conservation of resources, dramatically increased energy efficiency, and decreased pollution still lies ahead. Increased vehicular efficiency, expansion of renewable resource utilization, cogeneration technology, and a litany of other energy efficiency improvements are well within our grasp, requiring only modest additional shifts forward in public policy. While public consciousness and associated policies are certainly needed, within current economic and regulatory conditions, much can be gained by simply pursuing economic efficiency. Therefore, while the author honors past public policy accomplishments and acknowledges the need for more, this book is not intended to promote energy resource efficiency from a socio/ethical standpoint. In its time, one-half century ago, Rachel Carsons Silent Spring was perhaps the only viable route to elevating the public consciousness toward environmental protection. Today, there are sufficient commercially available technologies and mechanisms in place to achieve some of these ends through pursuit of economic efficiency. What is needed to more fully capture this potential is a better road map. The purpose of this book is to provide such a road map. While the author wishes to facilitate and encourage commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities to become more energy efficient for its pure environmental benefits, this book focuses on the alignment of self-interest with these objectives. Hence, other than in this introduction, there is no preaching to be greener . Instead, this book provides information, guidance, and techniques to achieve better economic returns through investment in energy resource optimization. It is, therefore, intended to be useful for the concerned public, as well as the self-interested, because generally speaking, it pays to be energy and environmentally efficient.

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

INTRODUCTION
While intended as a road map for overall energy resource optimization, the principal theme of this book is to evaluate heat and power requirements interactively with an integrated approach to energy and costefficiency project development, seeking a match between power production and heating/cooling requirements. Therefore, there is a strong interrelationship between most of the chapters. The parts and sections are built upon each other in a sequential flow that weaves building blocks of information along the way into one overall fabric. The book has been organized into four parts. Part 1 provides the basic building blocks, Part 2 sets the stage, Part 3 provides potential solutions, and Part 4 guides the reader through steps and best practices to choose and implement such solutions. While each chapter is a thread in this fabric, they have also been developed to stand on their own. The author hopes that much of the specific subject content will prove useful independently from the rest of the book. Hence, a balance was sought between the redundancy of fully developed, independent chapters with all necessary background provided in one place versus weaving crossreferences throughout chapters in an integrated tapestry. Part 1, Theory And Technology, provides a theoretical basis for understanding the interrelations of heat and power resources. It provides an introduction to basic heat and power thermodynamics and includes sections on heat and power generation technologies and equipment. Section I, Optimizing Heat and Power Resources, presents thermodynamic theory on heat and power resources. It includes an introduction to various power cycles simple, cogeneration, and combined cycles and basic power cycle performance expressions. There is also a comparative discussion on localized and central station power generation and a brief overview on selection of power-generating systems. Section II, Thermal Technologies, presents processes and equipment used to generate useful thermal energy streams, such as steam and hot water. It starts with background theory on fuel characteristics, the combustion process, and the properties and values of steam, and proceeds with chapters on the main thermal technologies. This includes components and systems used in the main boiler technologies conventional fuel-fired firetube and watertube designs. Details are provided on systems designed for operation on renewable and waste recovery energy sources, and heat recovery heat exchangers used with reciprocating engines and gas turbines to generate hot water and steam. Section III, Prime Mover Technologies, includes a series of chapters on the main classes of prime movers used to generate shaft power reciprocating engines, combustion gas turbines, and steam turbines and on combined and steam injection cycles that use recovered heat to augment power generating capacity and performance. The chapters focus on how shaft power is generated and made available as a driver for various applications, rather than on a particular application, such as electric power generation or mechanical drive service. Additional chapters are included on control technologies for prime mover operation and alternative power generation technologies hydropower, wind power, solar photovoltaic, and hydrogen-powered fuel cell technologies. Part 2, Operating Environment, describes the infrastructure in which the theories and technologies described in Part 1 must be applied. Having learned of the theory and available technologies, applications cannot be effectively devised, analyzed for cost-effectiveness, and implemented without knowledge of environmental factors and utility rate structures. Section IV, Environmental Considerations, covers the regulatory status of air pollution programs and prescribes ways to permit projects and control emissions, with chapters on the national framework of air pollution regulatory programs, permitting process, permitting strategies, and techniques for controlling air emissions. Information is also provided on environmental regulations for refrigerants, with emphasis on CFC phaseout.

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

Section V, Utility Industry and Energy Rates, presents extensive overviews of the gas and electric utility industry. It describes the role of the pipelines, merchants, and utilities in the evolving deregulated environment of the natural gas industry and parallel aspects of the electric utility industry, with treatment of utility integrated resource planning and interaction with non-utility generators. Detail is also included on utility rate structures reasoning behind their construction and how they work, and on utility bill analysis to determine discrete and weighted average costs for operation on specific load profiles. Part 3, Applications, presents detail on a series of different types of applications and discusses how opportunities can be identified and successfully exploited. It builds on the understanding of the infrastructure and the technologies developed in the first two parts of the book. Whereas in Part 1, the thermal and prime power technologies were described generically, in this part they are combined with secondary technologies such as electric generators and mechanical drive equipment in specific site applications. Additional theories and technologies are introduced as they relate specifically to these applications. Section VI, Localized Electric Generation, focuses on non-utility electric generation applications for commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities, as well as district systems and independent power production. This largely consists of applying traditional prime movers to electric generators to produce electricity in simple-, cogeneration-, combined- and steam injection-cycle applications, but also includes renewable and alternative power production technologies. Chapter topics include a basic introduction to electricity and electric generators and an extensive review of generator driver applications. It covers application and equipment selection processes and provides an example of a detailed electric cogeneration system feasibility study. Also included are chapters on generator switchgear, controls, and grid interconnection. Section VII, Mechanical Drive Services, focuses on applying electric motor and prime mover drivers to mechanical equipment. An overview of mechanical drive applications is provided with detail on electric motors and prime movers as mechanical equipment drivers, with performance information and guidance for application-specific driver selection. Additional chapter topics include air (and gas) compressors, pumps, and fans, providing technology descriptions and detail on performance and application compatibility for different driver and equipment combinations. Section VIII, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, focuses on various space and process cooling applications. Theory in refrigeration cycles and psychrometrics is provided to support a more complete understanding of application requirements and options. Technical detail is provided on heat extraction evaporators, chilled water systems, economizers, and thermal storage and on heat rejection condensers, cooling towers, heat pumps, and heat recovery. Additional chapter topics include vapor compression-cycle, absorption-cycle, and desiccant dehumidification system technologies and applications. Part 4, Analysis And Implementation, has only one section. Section IX, Integrated Approach to Energy Resource Optimization Projects, puts the information presented in the first three parts to practical use. Knowing the application options available and the theory and technology behind them, as well as the energy and environmental infrastructure in which they are to be applied, the next steps involve project development, implementation, and operation. The first chapter provides an overview of the development and implementation of multi-technology application projects using an integrated approach that considers a facility as a dynamic entity with interrelated systems. The next chapter provides detail on technical analysis for identifying project opportunities and analyzing their technical merit, with a step-by-step multi-phased development approach. Ensuing chapters include detail on financial analysis techniques to evaluate project financial performance potential and contract vehicles and funding sources to secure and support project implementation. The final chapter covers project implementation and operation, with approaches to project design engineering, construction, and long-term operations, maintenance, and repair.

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.

This book should not be considered an engineering reference manual, as much as a preliminary source of information and, hopefully, inspiration to pursue development of integrated energy and environmentally efficient projects that will provide solid financial returns. The author has chosen a presentation style and a show and tell format to add real-world perspective. For most topics, the text is heavily supplemented with graphic support from credible sources. The book includes in excess of one thousand graphics, including photographs, cutaway drawings, layout schematics, performance curves, and data tables. When reading about a technology or application, one can find numerous photographs of equipment from a wide range of manufacturers. To facilitate a more in-depth understanding, components are featured both independently and with labeled cutaway and schematic drawings of entire systems. Building upon this, a wide range of performance information is provided, based on manufacturers data and on contributions from various independent engineering sources. Numerous examples are provided of actual field applications, with supporting documentation of system layouts and performance. Many comparative analyses are also provided showing both simplified and more complex examples of how equipment and systems are selected for various applications. A recurring warning to the reader is not to take the conclusions of these examples as definitive and not to convert them into firmly preconceived notions. Applications must be evaluated against actual site conditions and with consideration of local infrastructure, energy rates, and environmental regulations. Hence, the purpose of these examples is to show different ways to analyze opportunities; it is the approach that is paramount, not the conclusions. Equipped with this information, the reader must then evaluate actual situations and prevailing conditions and solicit more detailed design information to make the necessary adjustments for each potential application under consideration.

Copyright 2003 by The Fairmont Press.