Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

# 9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

Home Contents Quick navigation 1. Objectives and Applications > 1.1 Defining a Problem > 1.1.1 Deciding what to calculate 1.1.2 Defining geometry 1.1.3 Defining loading 1.1.4 Choosing physics 1.1.5 Defining material behavior 1.1.6 A representative problem 1.1.7 Choosing a method of analysis 2. Governing Equations > 2.1 Deformation measures > 2.1.1 Displacement and Velocity 2.1.2 Deformation gradient 2.1.3 Deformation gradient from two deformations 2.1.4 Jacobian of deformation gradient 2.1.5 Lagrange strain 2.1.6 Eulerian strain 2.1.7 Infinitesimal Strain 2.1.8 Engineering Shear Strain 2.1.9 Volumetric and Deviatoric strain 2.1.10 Infinitesimal rotation 2.1.11 Principal strains 2.1.12 Cauchy-Green deformation tensors 2.1.13 Rotation tensor, Stretch tensors 2.1.14 Principal stretches 2.1.15 Generalized strain measures 2.1.16 Velocity gradient 2.1.17 Stretch rate and spin 2.1.18 Infinitesimal strain/rotation rate 2.1.19 Other deformation rates 2.1.20 Strain equations of compatibility 2.2 Internal forces > 2.2.1 Surface traction/body force 2.2.2 Internal tractions 2.2.3 Cauchy stress 2.2.4 Kirchhoff, Nominal, Material stress 2.2.5 Stress for infinitesimal motions 2.2.6 Principal stresses 2.2.7 Hydrostatic, Deviatoric, Von Mises stress 2.2.8 Stresses at a boundary 2.3 Equations of motion > 2.3.1 Linear momentum balance 2.3.2 Angular momentum solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

1/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

2.3.2 Angular momentum balance 2.3.3 Equations using other stresses 2.4 Work and Virtual Work > 2.4.1 Work done by Cauchy stress 2.4.2 Work done by other stresses 2.4.3 Work for infinitesimal motions 2.4.4 Principle of virtual work 2.4.5 Virtual work with other stresses 2.4.6 Virtual work for small strains 3. Constitutive Equations > 3.1 General requirements 3.2 Linear elasticity > 3.2.1 Isotropic elastic behavior 3.2.2 Isotropic stress-strain laws 3.2.3 Plane stress & strain 3.2.4 Isotropic material data 3.2.5 Lame, Shear, & Bulk modulus 3.2.6 Interpreting elastic constants 3.2.7 Strain energy density (isotropic) 3.2.8 Anisotropic stress-strain laws 3.2.9 Interpreting anisotropic constants 3.2.10 Anisotropic strain energy density 3.2.11 Basis change formulas 3.2.12 Effect of material symmetry 3.2.13 Orthotropic materials 3.2.14 Transversely isotropic materials 3.2.15 Transversely isotropic data 3.2.16 Cubic materials 3.2.17 Cubic material data 3.3 Hypoelasticity 3.4 Elasticity w/ large rotations 3.5 Hyperelasticity > 3.5.1 Deformation measures 3.5.2 Stress measures 3.5.3 Strain energy density 3.5.4 Incompressible materials 3.5.5 Energy density functions 3.5.6 Calibrating material models 3.5.7 Representative properties 3.6 Viscoelasticity > 3.6.1 Polymer behavior 3.6.2 General constitutive equations 3.6.3 Spring-damper approximations 3.6.4 Prony series 3.6.5 Calibrating constitutive laws

2/22

9/13/13

laws 3.6.6 Calibrating material models 3.6.7 Representative properties 3.7 Rate independent plasticity > 3.7.1 Plastic metal behavior 3.7.2 Elastic/plastic strain decomposition 3.7.3 Yield criteria 3.7.4 Graphical yield surfaces 3.7.5 Hardening laws 3.7.6 Plastic flow law 3.7.7 Unloading condition 3.7.8 Summary of stress-strain relations 3.7.9 Representative properties 3.7.10 Principle of max. plastic resistance 3.7.11 Drucker's postulate 3.7.12 Microscopic perspectives 3.8 Viscoplasticity > 3.8.1 Creep behavior 3.8.2 High strain rate behavior 3.8.3 Constitutive equations 3.8.4 Representative creep properties 3.8.5 Representative high rate properties 3.9 Large strain plasticity > 3.9.1 Deformation measures 3.9.2 Stress measures 3.9.3 Elastic stress-strain relations 3.5.4 Plastic stress-strain relations 3.10 Large strain viscoelasticity > 3.10.1 Deformation measures 3.10.2 Stress measures 3.10.3 Stress-strain energy relations 3.10.4 Strain relaxation 3.10.5 Representative properties 3.11 Critical state soils > 3.11.1 Soil behavior 3.11.2 Constitutive laws (Camclay) 3.11.3 Response to 2D loading 3.11.4 Representative properties 3.12 Crystal plasticity > 3.12.1 Basic crystallography 3.12.2 Features of crystal plasticity 3.12.3 Deformation measures 3.12.4 Stress measures 3.12.5 Elastic stress-strain relations 3.12.6 Plastic stress-strain relations 3.12.7 Representative properties 3.13 Surfaces and interfaces > 3.13.1 Cohesive interface models

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

3/22

9/13/13

3.13.1 Cohesive interface models 3.13.2 Contact and friction 4. Solutions to simple problems > 4.1 Axial/Spherical linear elasticity > 4.1.1 Elastic governing equations 4.1.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.1.3 General spherical solution 4.1.4 Pressurized sphere 4.1.5 Gravitating sphere 4.1.6 Heated spherical shell 4.1.7 Axially symmetric equations 4.1.8 General axisymmetric solution 4.1.9 Pressurized cylinder 4.1.10 Spinning circular disk 4.1.11 Interference fit 4.2 Axial/Spherical elastoplasticity > 4.2.1 Plastic governing equations 4.2.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.2.3 Pressurized sphere 4.2.4 Cyclically pressurized sphere 4.2.5 Axisymmetric equations 4.2.6 Pressurized cylinder 4.3 Spherical hyperelasticity > 4.3.1 Governing equations 4.3.2 Spherically symmetric equations 4.3.3 Pressurized sphere 4.4 1D elastodynamics > 4.4.1 Surface subjected to pressure 4.4.2 Surface under tangential loading 4.4.3 1-D bar 4.4.4 Plane waves 4.4.5 Wave speeds in isotropic solid 4.4.6 Reflection at a surface 4.4.7 Reflection at an interface 4.4.8 Plate impact experiment 5. Solutions for elastic solids > 5.1 General Principles > 5.1.1 Governing equations 5.1.2 Navier equation 5.1.3 Superposition & linearity 5.1.4 Uniqueness & existence 5.1.5 Saint-Venants principle 5.2 2D Airy function solutions > 5.2.1 Airy solution in rectangular coords 5.2.2 Demonstration of Airy solution 5.2.3 Airy solution in polar coords 5.2.4 End loaded cantilever 5.2.5 Line load perpendicular to surface 5.2.6 Line load parallel to surface 4.4.7 Pressure on a surface 4.4.8 Uniform pressure on a strip

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

4/22

9/13/13

4.4.8 Uniform pressure on a strip 4.4.8 Stress near a crack tip 5.3 2D Complex variable solutions > 5.3.1 Complex variable solution 5.3.2 Demonstration of CV solution 5.3.3 Line force 5.3.4 Edge dislocation 5.3.5 Circular hole in infinite solid 5.3.6 Slit crack 5.3.7 Bimaterial interface crack 5.3.8 Rigid flat punch on a surface 5.3.9 Parabolic punch on a surface 5.3.10 General line contact 4.3.11 Frictional sliding contact 4.3.12 Dislocation near a surface 5.4 3D static problems > 5.4.1 Papkovich-Neuber potentials 5.4.2 Demonstration of PN potentials 5.4.3 Point force in infinite solid 5.4.4 Point force normal to surface 5.4.5 Point force tangent to surface 5.4.6 Eshelby inclusion problem 5.4.7 Inclusion in an elastic solid 5.4.8 Spherical cavity in infinite solid 5.4.9 Flat cylindrical punch on surface 5.4.10 Contact between spheres 4.4.11 Relations for general contacts 4.4.12 P-d relations for axisymmetric contact 5.5 2D Anisotropic elasticity > 5.5.1 Governing equations 5.5.2 Stroh solution 5.5.3 Demonstration of Stroh solution 5.5.4 Stroh matrices for cubic materials 5.5.5 Degenerate materials 5.5.6 Fundamental elasticity matrix 5.5.7 Orthogonality of Stroh matrices 5.5.8 Barnett/Lothe & Impedance tensors 5.5.9 Properties of matrices 5.5.10 Basis change formulas 5.5.11 Barnett-Lothe integrals 5.5.12 Uniform stress state 5.5.13 Line load/dislocation in infinite solid 5.5.14 Line load/dislocation near a surface 5.6 Dynamic problems > 5.6.1 Love potentials 5.6.2 Pressurized spherical cavity

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

5/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

5.6.3 Rayleigh waves 5.6.4 Love waves 5.6.5 Elastic waves in waveguides 5.7 Energy methods > 5.7.1 Definition of potential energy 5.7.2 Minimum energy theorem 5.7.3 Simple example of energy minimization 5.7.4 Variational approach to beam theory 5.7.5 Estimating stiffness 5.8 Reciprocal theorem > 5.8.1 Statement and proof of theorem 5.8.2 Simple example 5.8.3 Boundary-internal value relations 5.8.4 3D dislocation loops 5.9 Energetics of dislocations > 5.9.1 Potential energy of isolated loop 5.9.2 Nonsingular dislocation theory 5.9.3 Dislocation in bounded solid 5.9.4 Energy of interacting loops 5.9.5 Peach-Koehler formula 5.10 Rayleigh Ritz method > 5.10.1 Mode shapes, nat. frequencies, Rayleigh's principle 5.10.2 Natural frequency of a beam 6. Solutions for plastic solids > 6.1 Slip-line fields > 6.1.1 Interpreting slip-line fields 6.1.2 Derivation of slip-line fields 6.1.3 Examples of solutions 6.2 Bounding theorems > 6.2.1 Definition of plastic dissipation 6.2.2 Principle of min plastic dissipation 6.2.3 Upper bound collapse theorem 6.2.4 Lower bound collapse theorem 6.2.5 Examples of bounding theorems 6.2.6 Lower bound shakedown theorem 6.2.7 Examples of lower bound shakedown theorem 6.2.8 Upper bound shakedown theorem 6.2.9 Examples of upper bound shakedown theorem 7. Introduction to FEA > 7.1 Guide to FEA > 7.1.1 FE mesh 7.1.2 Nodes and elements 7.1.3 Special elements 7.1.4 Material behavior 7.1.5 Boundary conditions 7.1.6 Constraints 7.1.7 Contacting surface/interfaces solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

6/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

7.1.7 Contacting surface/interfaces 7.1.8 Initial conditions/external fields 7.1.9 Soln procedures / time increments 7.1.10 Output 7.1.11 Units in FEA calculations 7.1.12 Using dimensional analysis 7.1.13 Scaling governing equations 7.1.14 Remarks on dimensional analysis 7.2 Simple FEA program > 7.2.1 FE mesh and connectivity 7.2.2 Global displacement vector 7.2.3 Interpolation functions 7.2.4 Element strains & energy density 7.2.5 Element stiffness matrix 7.2.6 Global stiffness matrix 7.2.7 Boundary loading 7.2.8 Global force vector 7.2.9 Minimizing potential energy 7.2.10 Eliminating prescribed displacements 7.2.11 Solution 7.2.12 Post processing 7.2.13 Example code 8. Theory & Implementation of FEA > 8.1 Static linear elasticity > 8.1.1 Review of virtual work 8.1.2 Weak form of governing equns 8.1.3 Interpolating displacements 8.1.4 Finite element equations 8.1.5 Simple 1D implementation 8.1.6 Summary of 1D procedure 8.1.7 Example 1D code 8.1.8 Extension to 2D/3D 8.1.9 2D interpolation functions 8.1.10 3D interpolation functions 8.1.11 Volume integrals 8.1.12 2D/3D integration schemes 8.1.13 Summary of element matrices 8.1.14 Sample 2D/3D code 8.2 Dynamic elasticity > 8.2.1 Governing equations 8.2.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.2.3 Finite element equations 8.2.4 Newmark time integration 8.2.5 Simple 1D implementation 8.2.6 Example 1D code 8.2.7 Lumped mass matrices 8.2.8 Example 2D/3D code 8.2.9 Modal time integration 8.2.10 Natural frequencies/mode shapes 8.2.11 Example 1D modal dynamic code 8.2.12 Example 2D/3D modal dynamic code

7/22

9/13/13

dynamic code 8.3 Hypoelasticity > 8.3.1 Governing equations 8.3.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.3.3 Finite element equations 8.3.4 Newton-Raphson iteration 8.3.5 Tangent moduli for hypoelastic solid 8.3.6 Summary of Newton-Raphson method 8.3.7 Convergence problems 8.3.8 Variations on Newton-Raphson 8.3.9 Example code 8.4 Hyperelasticity > 8.4.1 Governing equations 8.4.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.4.3 Finite element equations 8.4.4 Newton-Raphson iteration 8.4.5 Neo-Hookean tangent moduli 8.4.6 Evaluating boundary integrals 8.4.7 Convergence problems 8.4.8 Example code 8.5 Viscoplasticity > 8.5.1 Governing equations 8.5.2 Weak form of governing eqns 8.5.3 Finite element equations 8.5.4 Integrating the stress-strain law 8.5.5 Material tangent 8.5.6 Newton-Raphson solution 8.5.7 Example code 8.6 Advanced elements > 8.6.1 Shear locking/incompatible modes 8.6.2 Volumetric locking/Reduced integration 8.6.3 Incompressible materials/Hybrid elements 9. Modeling Material Failure > 9.1 Mechanisms of failure > 9.1.1 Monotonic loading 9.1.2 Cyclic loading 9.2 Stress/strain based criteria > 9.2.1 Stress based criteria 9.2.2 Probabilistic methods 9.2.3 Static fatigue criterion 9.2.4 Models of crushing failure 9.2.5 Ductile failure criteria 9.2.6 Strain localization 9.2.7 High cycle fatigue 9.2.8 Low cycle fatigue 9.2.9 Variable amplitude loading 9.3 Elastic fracture mechanics > 9.3.1 Crack tip fields 9.3.2 Linear elastic fracture mechanics

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

8/22

9/13/13

mechanics 9.3.3 Calculating stress intensities 9.3.4 Using FEA 9.3.5 Measuring toughness 9.3.6 Values of fracture toughness 9.3.7 Stable tearing 9.3.8 Mixed mode fracture 9.3.9 Static fatigue 9.3.10 Cyclic fatigue 9.3.11 Finding cracks 9.4 Energy methods in fracture > 9.4.1 Definition of energy release rate 9.4.2 Energy based fracture criterion 9.4.3 G-K relations 9.4.4 G-compliance relation 9.4.5 Calculating K with compliance 9.4.6 Integral expression for G 9.4.7 The J integral 9.4.8 Calculating K using J 9.5 Plastic fracture mechanics > 9.5.1 Dugdale-Barenblatt model 9.5.2 HRR crack tip fields 9.5.3 J based fracture mechanics 9.6 Interface fracture mechanics > 9.6.1 Interface crack tip fields 9.6.2 Interface fracture mechanics 9.6.3 Stress intensity factors 9.6.4 Crack path selection 10. Rods, Beams, Plates & Shells > 10.1 Dyadic notation 10.2 Deformable rods - general > 10.2.1 Characterizing the x-section 10.2.2 Coordinate systems 10.2.3 Kinematic relations 10.2.4 Displacement, velocity and acceleration 10.2.5 Deformation gradient 10.2.6 Strain measures 10.2.7 Kinematics of bent rods 10.2.8 Internal forces and moments 10.2.9 Equations of motion 10.2.10 Constitutive equations 10.2.11 Strain energy density 10.3 String / beam theory > 10.3.1 Stretched string 10.3.2 Straight beam (small deflections) 10.3.3 Axially loaded beam 10.4 Solutions for rods > 10.4.1 Vibration of a straight beam 10.4.2 Buckling under gravitational loading 10.4.3 Post buckled shape of a rod 10.4.4 Rod bent into a helix

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

9/22

9/13/13

10.4.4 Rod bent into a helix 10.4.5 Helical spring 10.5 Shells - general > 10.5.1 Coordinate systems 10.5.2 Using non-orthogonal bases 10.5.3 Deformation measures 10.5.4 Displacement and velocity 10.5.5 Deformation gradient 10.5.6 Other strain measures 10.5.7 Internal forces and moments 10.5.8 Equations of motion 10.5.9 Constitutive relations 10.5.10 Strain energy 10.6 Plates and membranes > 10.6.1 Flat plates (small strain) 10.6.2 Flat plates with in-plane loading 10.6.3 Plates with large displacements 10.6.4 Membranes 10.6.5 Membranes in polar coordinates 10.7 Solutions for shells > 10.7.1 Circular plate bent by pressure 10.7.2 Vibrating circular membrane 10.7.3 Natural frequency of rectangular plate 10.7.4 Thin film on a substrate (Stoney eqs) 10.7.5 Buckling of heated plate 10.7.6 Cylindrical shell under axial load 10.7.7 Twisted open walled cylinder 10.7.8 Gravity loaded spherical shell A: Vectors & Matrices B: Intro to tensors C: Index Notation D: Using polar coordinates E: Misc derivations Problems 1. Objectives and Applications > 1.1 Defining a Problem 2. Governing Equations > 2.1 Deformation measures 2.2 Internal forces 2.3 Equations of motion 2.4 Work and Virtual Work 3. Constitutive Equations > 3.1 General requirements 3.2 Linear elasticity 3.3 Hypoelasticity 3.4 Elasticity w/ large rotations 3.5 Hyperelasticity 3.6 Viscoelasticity 3.7 Rate independent plasticity 3.8 Viscoplasticity

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

10/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

3.9 Large strain plasticity 3.10 Large strain viscoelasticity 3.11 Critical state soils 3.12 Crystal plasticity 3.13 Surfaces and interfaces 4. Solutions to simple problems > 4.1 Axial/Spherical linear elasticity 4.2 Axial/Spherical elastoplasticity 4.3 Spherical hyperelasticity 4.4 1D elastodynamics 5. Solutions for elastic solids > 5.1 General Principles 5.2 2D Airy function solutions 5.3 2D Complex variable solutions 5.4 3D static problems 5.5 2D Anisotropic elasticity 5.6 Dynamic problems 5.7 Energy methods 5.8 Reciprocal theorem 5.9 Energetics of dislocations 5.10 Rayleigh Ritz method 6. Solutions for plastic solids > 6.1 Slip-line fields 6.2 Bounding theorems 7. Introduction to FEA > 7.1 Guide to FEA 7.2 Simple FEA program 8. Theory & Implementation of FEA > 8.1 Static linear elasticity 8.2 Dynamic elasticity 8.3 Hypoelasticity 8.4 Hyperelasticity 8.5 Viscoplasticity 8.6 Advanced elements 9. Modeling Material Failure > 9.1 Mechanisms of failure 9.2 Stress/strain based criteria 9.3 Elastic fracture mechanics 9.4 Energy methods in fracture 9.5 Plastic fracture mechanics 9.6 Interface fracture mechanics 10. Rods, Beams, Plates & Shells > 10.1 Dyadic notation 10.2 Deformable rods - general 10.3 String / beam theory 10.4 Solutions for rods 10.5 Shells - general 10.6 Plates and membranes 10.7 Solutions for shells A: Vectors & Matrices B: Intro to tensors C: Index Notation D: Using polar coordinates E: Misc derivations FEA codes Maple Matlab
solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm 11/22

9/13/13

## Appendix A Review of Vectors and Matrices

A.1. VECTORS
A.1.1 Definition For the purposes of this text, a vector is an object which has magnitude and direction. Examples include forces, electric fields, and the normal to a surface. A vector is often represented pictorially as an arrow and symbolically by an underlined letter or using bold type . Its magnitude is denoted or . There are two special cases of vectors: the unit vector A.1.2 Vector Operations Addition Let and be vectors. Then is also a vector. The vector and may be shown has ; and the null vector has .

## head to tail, as shown in the

Multiplication by a scalar. Let be a vector, and direction of is parallel to and its magnitude is given by

a scalar. Then . .

is a vector. The

Note that you can form a unit vector n which is parallel to a by setting 2.

Dot Product (also called the scalar product). Let a and b be two vectors. The dot product of a and b is a scalar denoted by , and is defined by

,
where . If perpendicular. 3. is the angle subtended by a and b. Note that and then if and only if , and ; i.e. a and b are

Cross Product (also called the vector product). Let a and b be two vectors. The cross product of a and b is a vector denoted by . The direction of c is perpendicular to a and b, and is chosen so that (a,b,c) form a right handed triad, Fig. 3. The magnitude of c is given by Note that and .

## Some useful vector identities

A.1.3 Cartesian components of vectors Let be three mutually perpendicular unit vectors which form a right handed triad, Fig. 4. Then are said to form and orthonormal basis. The vectors satisfy We may express any vector a as a suitable combination of the unit vectors
solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

and

## . For example, we may

12/22

9/13/13

Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices We may express any vector a as a suitable combination of the unit vectors , and . For example, we may write

where are scalars, called the components of a in the basis a simple physical interpretation. For example, if we evaluate the dot product in view of the properties of the three vectors , and . Recall that

## Then, noting that

, we have

Thus, represents the projected length of the vector a in the direction of , as illustrated in the figure. Similarly, and may be shown to represent the projection of in the directions and , respectively. The advantage of representing vectors in a Cartesian basis is that vector addition and multiplication can be expressed as simple operations on the components of the vectors. For example, let a, b and c be vectors, with components respectively. Then, it is straightforward to show that

and

A.1.4 Change of basis Let a be a vector, and let are known to be second Cartesian basis, To do so, note that be a Cartesian basis. Suppose that the components of a in the basis . Now, suppose that we wish to compute the components of a in a . This means we wish to find components , such that

## This transformation is conveniently written as a matrix operation

,
where is a matrix consisting of the components of a in the basis , and , is a matrix consisting of the components of a in the basis is a `rotation matrix as follows

## Note that the elements of where

have a simple physical interpretation. For example, and axes. Similarly where and

## is the angle between the is the angle between the

axes. In practice, we usually know the angles between the axes by putting the cosines of the known

that make up the two bases, so it is simplest to assemble the elements of angles in the appropriate places. Index notation provides another convenient way to write this transformation: You dont need to know index notation in detail to understand this

## all you need to know is that

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

13/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

The same approach may be used to find an expression for will find that

in terms of

## Comparing this result with the formula for

in terms of

, we see that

where the superscript T denotes the transpose (rows and columns interchanged). The transformation matrix is therefore orthogonal, and satisfies where [I] is the identity matrix.

A.1.5 Useful vector operations Calculating areas The area of a triangle bounded by vectors a, band b-a is

The area of the parallelogram shown in the picture is 2A. Calculating angles The angle between two vectors a and b is

Calculating the normal to a surface . If two vectors a and b can be found which are known to lie in the surface, then the unit normal to the surface is

If the surface is specified by a parametric equation of the form , where s and t are two parameters and r is the position vector of a point on the surface, then two vectors which lie in the plane may be computed from

Calculating Volumes The volume of the parallelopiped defined by three vectors a, b, c is The volume of the tetrahedron shown outlined in red is V/6 .

## A.2. VECTOR FIELDS AND VECTOR CALCULUS

A.2.1. Scalar field. Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let

denote the position vector of a point in space. A scalar field is a scalar valued function of position in space. A scalar field is a function of the components of the position vector, and so may be expressed as . The value of at a particular point in space must be independent of the choice of basis vectors. A scalar field may be a function of time (and possibly other parameters) as well as position in space.
solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm 14/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

A.2.2. Vector field Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let

denote the position vector of a point in space. A vector field is a vector valued function of position in space. A vector field is a function of the components of the position vector, and so may be expressed as . The vector may also be expressed as components in the basis The magnitude and direction of at a particular point in space is independent of the choice of basis vectors. A vector field may be a function of time (and possibly other parameters) as well as position in space.

A.2.3. Change of basis for scalar fields . Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Express the position vector of a point relative to O in and let Let as be a scalar field. be a second Cartesian basis, with origin P. Let

denote the position vector of P relative to O. Express the position vector of a point relative to P in as

To find , use the following procedure. First, express p as components in the basis the procedure outlined in Section 1.4: where

, using

or, using index notation where the transformation matrix Now, express c as components in is defined in Sect 1.4. , and note that

so that

A.2.4. Change of basis for vector fields . Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Express the position vector of a point relative to O in as and let Let be a vector field, with components be a second Cartesian basis, with origin P. Let
15/22

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

9/13/13

Let

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

denote the position vector of P relative to O. Express the position vector of a point relative to P in

## To express the vector field as components in

and as a

function of the components of p, use the following procedure. First, express in terms of using the procedure outlined for scalar fields in the preceding section

for k=1,2,3 . Now, find the components of v in Using index notation, the result is

## using the procedure outlined in Section 1.4.

A.2.5. Time derivatives of vectors Let a(t) be a vector whose magnitude and direction vary with time, t. Suppose that independent of time. We may express a(t) in terms of components in the basis is a fixed basis, i.e. as

.
The time derivative of a is defined using the usual rules of calculus

,
or in component form as The definition of the time derivative of a vector may be used to show the following rules

A.2.6. Using a rotating basis It is often convenient to express position vectors as components in a basis which rotates with time. To write equations of motion one must evaluate time derivatives of rotating vectors. Let be a basis which rotates with instantaneous angular velocity . Then,

A.2.7. Gradient of a scalar field. Let be a scalar field in three dimensional space. The gradient of , and is defined so that is a vector field denoted by or

## for every position r in space and for every vector a.

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

Let

16/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

Let

be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let as a function of the components of r .

denote the position vector of a point in space. Express The gradient of in this basis is then given by

A.2.8. Gradient of a vector field Let v be a vector field in three dimensional space. The gradient of v is a tensor field denoted by , and is defined so that or

Let

## be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let

denote the position vector of a point in space. Express v as a function of the components of r, so that . The gradient of v in this basis is then given by

## Alternatively, in index notation

A.2.9. Divergence of a vector field Let v be a vector field in three dimensional space. The divergence of v is a scalar field denoted by . Formally, it is defined as (the trace of a tensor is the sum of its diagonal terms). Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let . or

denote the position vector of a point in space. Express v as a function of the components of r: The divergence of v is then

A.2.10. Curl of a vector field. Let v be a vector field in three dimensional space. The curl of v is a vector field denoted by or . It is best defined in terms of its components in a given basis, although its magnitude and direction are not dependent on the choice of basis. Let be a Cartesian basis with origin O in three dimensional space. Let .

denote the position vector of a point in space. Express v as a function of the components of r The curl of v in this basis is then given by

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

17/22

9/13/13

## Using index notation, this may be expressed as

A.2.11 The Divergence Theorem. Let V be a closed region in three dimensional space, bounded by an orientable surface S . Let n denote the unit vector normal to S, taken so that n points out of V. Let u be a vector field which is continuous and has continuous first partial derivatives in some domain containing T. Then

## alternatively, expressed in index notation

For a proof of this extremely useful theorem consult e.g. Kreyzig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wiley, New York, (1998).

A.3. MATRICES A.3.1 Definition An matrix is a set of numbers, arranged in m rows and n columns

A square matrix has equal numbers of rows and columns A diagonal matrix is a square matrix with elements such that The identity matrix

for

## is a diagonal matrix for which all diagonal elements

A symmetric matrix is a square matrix with elements such that A skew symmetric matrix is a square matrix with elements such that

A.3.2 Matrix operations Addition Let and be two matrices of order with elements and . Then

## Multiplication by a matrix. Let of order such that with elements

be a matrix of order

with elements

, and let

be a matrix matrix

. The product

## is defined only if n=p , and is an

Note that multiplication is distributive and associative, but not commutative, i.e.

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

18/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

The multiplication of a vector by a matrix is a particularly important operation. Let b and c be two vectors with n components, which we think of as matrices. Let be an matrix. Thus

Now,

i.e.

Transpose. Let If is an

## with elements , then , i.e.

. The transpose of

is denoted

Note that

Determinant The determinant is defined only for a square matrix. Let components . The determinant of is denoted by or and is given by

be a

matrix with

Now, let

be an

## matrix. Define the minors . For example, the minors

of

as the determinant formed by omitting the ith and for a matrix are computed as

Then

of

as

## Then, the determinant of the

matrix

is computed as follows

The result is the same whichever row i is chosen for the expansion. For the particular case of a

matrix

## The determinant may also be evaluated by summing over rows, i.e.

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm 19/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

and as before the result is the same for each choice of column j . Finally, note that

Inversion. Let

be an

is denoted by

The inverse of

## . A matrix which has no inverse is said to be singular. The with components as

inverse of a matrix may be computed explicitly, by forming the cofactor matrix defined in the preceding section. Then

In practice, it is faster to compute the inverse of a matrix using methods such as Gaussian elimination. Note that For a diagonal matrix, the inverse is

For a

be an

## . Consider the vector

(1) where x is a vector with n components, and is a scalar (which may be complex). The n nonzero vectors x and corresponding scalars which satisfy this equation are the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of . Formally, eighenvalues and eigenvectors may be computed as follows. Rearrange the preceding equation to (2) This has nontrivial solutions for x only if the determinant of the matrix vanishes. The equation

is an n th order polynomial which may be solved for . In general the polynomial will have n roots, which may be complex. The eigenvectors may then be computed using equation (2). For example, a matrix generally has two eigenvectors, which satisfy

## Solve the quadratic equation to see that

The two corresponding eigenvectors may be computed from (2), which shows that

so that, multiplying out the first row of the matrix (you can use the second row too, if you wish since we chose to make the determinant of the matrix vanish, the two equations have the same solutions. In fact, if , you will need to do this, because the first equation will simply give 0=0 when trying to solve for one of the eigenvectors)
solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm 20/22

9/13/13

eigenvectors)

## which are satisfied by any vector of the form

where p and q are arbitrary real numbers. It is often convenient to normalize eigenvectors so that they have unit `length. For this purpose, choose p and q so that ) One may calculate explicit expressions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors for any matrix up to order , but . (For vectors of dimension n , the generalized dot product is defined such that

the results are so cumbersome that, except for the results, they are virtually useless. In practice, numerical values may be computed using several iterative techniques. Packages like Mathematica, Maple or Matlab make calculations like this easy. The eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix are always real, and its eigenvectors are orthogonal, i.e. the ith and j th eigenvectors (with ) satisfy .

The eigenvalues of a skew symmetric matrix are pure imaginary. Spectral and singular value decomposition. Let (real) eigenvalues of by , and let be a real symmetric matrix. Denote the n

## . Then, for any arbitrary vector b,

Let be a diagonal matrix which contains the n eigenvalues of a matrix consisting of the n eigenvectors as columns, i.e.

## as elements of the diagonal, and let

be

Then Note that this gives another (generally quite useless) way to invert

where

## is easy to compute since Let

is diagonal. be a real symmetric matrix. Denote the singular value denotes the square

## One way to compute where

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

21/22

9/13/13

## Applied Mechanics of Solids (A.F. Bower) Appendix A: Vectors and Matrices

where

(c) A.F. Bow er, 2008 This site is made freely av ailable for educational purposes. You may extract parts of the text for non-commercial purposes provided that the source is cited. Please respect the authors copyright.

solidmechanics.org/text/AppendixA/AppendixA.htm

22/22