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P.S.R.ENGINEERING COLLEGE, SIVAKASI-626 140

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

YEAR: I

SEMESTER: I

ENGINEERING PRACTICES LABORATORY

(12F1Z9)

LAB MANUAL

[Group B]

I

P.S.R.ENGINEERING COLLEGE, SIVAKASI-626 140

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

 Class/ Semester : I/ I Sub & Code : 12F1Z9 - Engineering Practices Laboratory [Group B]

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

STUDY OF SYMBOLS

SIMPLE WIRING CONNECTION

STAIRCASE WIRING

FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING

MEASUREMENT OF POWER USING WATTMETER

MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY USING SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

STUDY OF MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING COLOR CODING

MEASUREMENT OF AC SIGNAL PARAMETERS USING CRO

STUDY OF BASIC LOGIC GATES

HALF WAVE AND FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO EARTH OF ELECTRICAL

EQUIPMENT

II

STUDY OF SYMBOLS

AIM:

To study the various symbols used in electric circuits.

 COMPONENT CIRCUIT SYMBOL DESCRIPTION WIRE CONNECTIONS Wire To pass current very easily from one part of a circuit to another. A 'blob' should be drawn where wires are Wires joined connected (joined), but it is sometimes omitted. Wires connected at 'crossroads' should be staggered slightly to form two T- junctions, as shown on the right. In complex diagrams it is often necessary to draw wires crossing even though they are not connected. I prefer the 'bridge' Wires not joined symbol shown on the right because the simple crossing on the left may be misread as a join where you have forgotten to add a 'blob'! POWER SUPPLIES Cell Supplies electrical energy. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). A single cell is often called a battery, but strictly a battery is two or more cells joined together. Battery Supplies electrical energy. A battery is more than one cell. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). The smaller terminal (on the right) is negative (-). Supplies electrical energy. DC supply DC = Direct Current, always flowing in one direction. Supplies electrical energy. AC supply AC = Alternating Current, continually changing direction. A safety device which will 'blow' (melt) if Fuse the current flowing through it exceeds a specified value.

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 Two coils of wire linked by an iron core. Transformer Transformers are used to step up (increase) and step down (decrease) AC voltages. Energy is transferred between the coils by the magnetic field in the core. There is no electrical connection between the coils. A connection to earth. For many electronic Earth circuits this is the 0V (zero volts) of the power supply, but for mains electricity and some radio circuits it really means the earth. It is also known as ground. (Ground) OUTPUT DEVICES: LAMPS, HEATER, MOTOR, etc. A transducer which converts electrical Lamp (lighting) energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp providing illumination, for example a car headlamp or torch bulb. A transducer which converts electrical Lamp (indicator) energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp which is an indicator, for example a warning light on a car dashboard. A transducer which converts electrical Heater energy to heat. A transducer which converts electrical Motor energy to kinetic energy (motion). A transducer which converts electrical Bell energy to sound. A transducer which converts electrical Buzzer energy to sound. A coil of wire which creates a magnetic Inductor field when current passes through it. It may have an iron core inside the coil. It can be used as a transducer converting electrical energy to mechanical energy by pulling on something. (Coil, Solenoid) Switches A push switch allows current to flow only Push Switch (push-to-make) when the button is pressed. This is the switch used to operate a doorbell.

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 Push-to-Break This type of push switch is normally closed (on), it is open (off) only when the button is pressed. Switch On-Off Switch SPSTS = Single Pole Single Throw Switch. An on-off switch allows current to flow only when it is in the closed (on) position. (SPSTS) 2-way Switch SPDTS = Single Pole Double Throw Switch. A 2-way changeover switch directs the flow of current to one of two routes according to its position. Some SPDT switches have a central off position and are described as 'on-off-on'. (SPDTS) Dual On-Off DPST = Double Pole, Single Throw Switch. A dual on-off switch which is often used to switch mains electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections. Switch (DPSTS) Reversing Switch (DPDTS) DPDT = Double Pole, Double Throw Switch. This switch can be wired up as a reversing switch for a motor. Some DPDT switches have a central off position. Relay An electrically operated switch, for example a 9V battery circuit connected to the coil can switch a 230V AC mains circuit. NO = Normally Open, COM = Common, NC = Normally Closed. Resistors Resistor A resistor restricts the flow of current, for example to limit the current passing through an LED. A resistor is used with a capacitor in a timing circuit. Some publications still use the old resistor symbol: Variable Resistor (Rheostat) This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a rheostat) is usually used to control current. Examples include: adjusting lamp brightness, adjusting motor speed, and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit.

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 This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (a potentiometer) is usually used Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) to control voltage. It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal. This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without Variable Resistor (Preset) further adjustment. Presets are cheaper than normal variable resistors so they are often used in projects to reduce the cost. CAPACITORS A capacitor stores electric charge. A Capacitor capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. It can also be used as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals. A capacitor stores electric charge. This type must be connected the correct way Capacitor round. A capacitor is used with a resistor in polarized timing circuit. It can also be used as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals. a A variable capacitor is used in a radio Variable Capacitor tuner. This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small screwdriver or Trimmer Capacitor similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. DIODES Diode A device which only allows current to flow in one direction. LED A transducer which converts electrical Light Emitting Diode energy to light. A special diode which is used to maintain a Zener Diode fixed voltage across its terminals.

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 Photodiode A light-sensitive diode. TRANSISTORS Transistor NPN A transistor amplifies current. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. Transistor PNP A transistor amplifies current. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. Phototransistor A light-sensitive transistor. AUDIO AND RADIO DEVICES A transducer which converts sound to Microphone electrical energy. A transducer which converts electrical Earphone energy to sound. A transducer which converts electrical Loudspeaker energy to sound. A transducer which converts electrical Piezo Transducer energy to sound. An amplifier circuit with one input. Really Amplifier (general symbol) it is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component.

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Aerial

(Antenna)

A device which is designed to receive or

transmit radio signals. It is also known as

an antenna.

 METERS AND OSCILLOSCOPE A voltmeter is used to measure voltage. Voltmeter Voltmeter must be connected across the terminal. An ammeter is used to measure current. It Ammeter is always connected in series with the circuit. A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter Galvanometer which is used to measure tiny currents, usually 1mA or less. An ohmmeter is used to measure Ohmmeter resistance. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting. Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be used to measure their voltage and time period. SENSORS (INPUT DEVICES) A transducer which converts brightness LDR (light) to resistance (an electrical property). LDR = Light Dependent Resistor Thermistor A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property). LOGIC GATES A NOT gate can only have one input. The 'o' on the output means 'not'. The output of NOT a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false. A NOT gate is also called an inverter. An AND gate can have two or more inputs. AND The output of an AND gate is true when all its inputs are true.

6

 A NAND gate can have two or more NAND inputs. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not AND gate. The output of a NAND gate is true unless all its inputs are true. OR An OR gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an OR gate is true when at least one of its inputs is true. NOR A NOR gate can have two or more inputs. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not OR gate. The output of a NOR gate is true when none of its inputs are true. EX-OR An EX-OR gate can only have two inputs. The output of an EX-OR gate is true when its inputs are different (one true, one false). EX-NOR An EX-NOR gate can only have two inputs. The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing that it is a Not EX-OR gate. The output of an EX-NOR gate is true when its inputs are the same (both true or both false).

RESULT:

Thus the various symbols in electric circuits were studied and drawn.

7

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

LAYOUT DIAGRAM:

8

SIMPLE WIRING CONNECTION

AIM:

To

study

connections.

REFERENCE:

and

practice

the

various

types

of

electrical

wiring

circuit

1.Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2.Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications. TOOLS REQUIRED:

 S.No. TOOLS QUANTITY (No.) 1. Tester 1 2. Electrician Knife 1 3. Wire Cutter 1 4. Screw Driver 1 MATERIAL REQUIRED: 1. Single Pole One Way Switch - 3 No.s 2. Lamps - 3 No.s 3. Wires - Required 4. Two Pins or Three Pins Wall Socket - 1 No. 5. Batten Holder - 3 No.s

THEORY:

Any conductor which is composed of a conducting material, and is uniform in diameter and circular in cross section is called wire. A length of single insulated conductor or two or more such conductors each provided with its own insulation which are laid up together is called a cable. A cable consists of the following three main parts: a) Conductor, b) Insulation Covering and c) Protective covering.

9

CONDUCTOR:

Any pure metal which offers low resistance to the passage of electric current is called a conductor. The current is taken from one place to the other by means of a conductor. Copper is used as a conductor in majority of applications. INSULATION CONVERING:

It is the covering which bounds the current flow in a definite path. The insulation of the cable must be strong enough because a leakage current will start giving electrical shocks and cause fire. PROTECTIVE COVERING:

It protects the insulation covering against any mechanical injury. VARIOUS TYPES OF WIRES:

The various types of wires are vulcanized Insulation Rubber(VIR) wires, Cab Type Sheathed(CTS), Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) wires,flexible Wires,etc out of these for house hold applicatios PVC wires are used. PRECAUTIONS:

The circuit should be checked by series test lamp. Bare portion of the conductor should not come out of the terminal and the insulation of the conductor should keep up to the end of the terminal. All the connections should be tight. All the switches should be connected in positive wire. Always keep the live wires on the right hand side. PROCEDURE:

First the layout diagram of the electrical circuit is made. The circuit is made with the given material. The output is verified by switching ON the switches. RESULT:

Thus the various electrical circuit connections were made and studied.

11

STAIRCASE WIRING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

12

STAIRCASE WIRING

AIM:

To construct and control the status of lamp using two way switch by Stair Case wiring. REFERENCE:

1.Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers. 2.Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications. TOOLS REQUIRED:

 S.No. TOOLS QUANTITY (No.) 1. Tester 1 2. Electrician Knife 1 3. Wire Cutter 1 4. Screw Driver 1 5. Combination Plier 1 MATERIAL REQUIRED: 1. Two Way Switches - 2 No.s 2. Lamp - 1 No 3. Wires - Required 4. Lamp Holder - 1 No

PRECAUTIONS:

The circuit should be checked by series test lamp. Bare portion of the conductor should not come out of the terminal and the insulation of the conductor should keep up to the end of the terminal. All the connections should be tight.

All the switches should be connected in positive wire. Always keep the live wires on the right hand side.

13

LAYOUT DIAGRAM:

TABLULATION:

 Sl.NO Switch A Switch B Output-Lamp 1 1 2 OFF 2 3 4

14

PROCEDURE:

First the layout diagram of the electrical circuit is made. The connections are made as per the wiring diagram. The output table is verified by switching ON the switches.

RESULT:

Thus the stair case wiring was constructed and output was verified.

15

FLUORESCENT TUBE WIRING

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

16

FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING

AIM:

To construct and study the working of a fluorescent lamp circuit. REFERENCE:

1.Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers. 2.Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications. TOOLS REQUIRED:

 S.No. TOOLS QUANTITY (No.) 1. Tester 1 2. Electrician Knife 1 3. Wire Cutter 1 4. Screw Driver 1 5. Combination Plier 1

MATERIAL REQUIRED:

 1. Choke - 1 No. 2. Starter - 1 No. 3. Tube light holder, frame - 1 No. 4. Tube light - 1 No. 5. Connecting wires - Required

PRECAUTIONS:

All the connections should be tight. Twisting of wires should be avoided. Always keep the live wires on the right hand side. THEORY:

The fluorescent tubes are usually available in lengths of 0.61 m and 1.22 m. The various parts of fluorescent tube include.

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1. Glass tube

2. Starter

3. Choke

4. Fluorescent materials

5. Filaments

The inside surface of the fluorescent tube is coated with a thin layer of fluorescent material in the form of powder. The tube also contains low pressure argon gas and one or two drops of mercury. The two filaments are coated with electron emissive material. The starter (initially in closed position) puts the filaments directly across the supply mains at the time of starting, there by initiating emission of electrons. After 1 or 2 seconds the starter switch gets opened. The interruption of current makes the choke to act like ballast providing a voltage impulse across the filaments. Due to this, ionization of argon takes place. Mercury vapour arc provides a conducting path between the filaments. The starter used may be of thermal starter or glow starter whose function is to complete the circuit initially for

preheating the filaments (to initiate emission of electrons) and then to open the circuit for high voltage across choke for initiating ionization. PROCEDURE:

First the layout diagram of the electrical circuit is made. The connections are made as per the wiring diagram. The output is verified.

RESULT:

Thus the fluorescent lamp circuit connection was given and studied.

19

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

(0 10A) MI
300V, 10A, UPF
P
10 A
M
L
A
D
C
V
L
P
O
230 V, 1
S
V (0 300V) MI
A
T
D
50 Hz, A.C.
S
N
10 A

TABULATION:

1 Variac (0 270V)

Multiplication Factor = .

Voltage
Current
S.No.
(Volts)
(Ampere)
Observed value
Actual value

20

MEASUREMENT OF POWER USING WATTMETER

AIM:

To measure the Power consumed by a Single Phase Resistive Load by using Wattmeter. REFERENCE:

1.Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers. 2.Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications. APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 S.No. APPARATUS TYPE / RANGE QUANTITY 1. Ammeter (0 10A) MI 1 2. Voltmeter (0 300V) MI 1 3. Wattmeter 300V, 10A, UPF 1 4. Single Phase Resistive Load 1 5. Connecting Wires Required

FORMULA USED:

Multiplication Factor = Current Coil Rating x Voltage Coil Rating x Power Factor Full Scale Reading of Wattmeter Actual Power in Watts = Observed Reading x Multiplication Factor THEORY:

A wattmeter is an instrument specially designed to measure average power consumed by a load. It has two coils:A current coil that measures the current and a voltage coil that measures the voltage. The wattmeter takes into account the phase shift, if there is any between the current sensed by its current coil and the voltage sensed by its voltage coil. If the voltage drop across as measured the voltage coil is Vm cos( t + ) A, then the average power P measured by the wattmeter in watts is

½ Vm Im Cos ,where = is the power factor angle. The voltage coil of the wattmeter, its reading will be 0.707 Vm.

21

PRECAUTIONS:

Single phase variac should be kept at minimum position, during starting period. No load should be connected when the DPSTS is closed or opened. PROCEDURE:

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Rated Voltage is set in the voltmeter, by gradually varying the single phase variac. Resistive load is switch ON. Load is gradually increased and the ammeter, voltmeter & wattmeter readings are noted.

RESULT:

Thus the power consumed by a single phase resistive load was measured.

23

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

(0 10A) MI
Energy Meter
P
10 A
S1
C1
C2
L1
A
D
L
P
P1
P2
O
S
V
A
230 V, 1
(0 300V) MI
T
D
50 Hz, A.C.
S
N
10 A
S2
L2

TABULATION:

1 Variac (0 270V)

Energy Meter Constant =

Actual
True
Sl.
Voltage
Current
Power
Time
Number of
%
Energy
Energy
No.
(Volts)
(Ampere)
(Watts)
(Seconds)
Revolutions
Error
(KWh)
(KWh)

24

MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY USING SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

AIM:

To measure the Energy consumed by a Single Phase Resistive Load by using

Single Phase Energy Meter.

REFERENCE:

1.Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2.Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 S.No. APPARATUS TYPE / RANGE QUANTITY 1. Ammeter (0 10A) MI 1 2. Voltmeter (0 300V) MI 1 3. Single Phase Energy Meter 1 4. Stop Watch Analog 1 5. Single Phase Resistive Load 3 KW, 230 V 1 6. Connecting Wires Required

FORMULA USED:

Actual Energy in KWh = Power in Watts x Time Taken in Seconds 1000 x 3600

Power in Watts = Voltage in Volts x Current in Amperes

True Energy in KWh = No. of Revolution / Energy Meter Constant

% Error = True Energy Actual Energy x 100 Actual Energy

THEORY:

An induction type meter is commonly used. It consists of two magnets, the

upper and lower magnets. The upper magnet carries a pressure coil, which is made

up of a thin wire and has large number of turns. This coil has to be connected in

parallel with the supply. The lower magnet carries the current coil which is made

25

up of a thick wire and has only few turns. This coil is to be connected in series with the load. An aluminum disc mounted on the spindle is placed between the upper and lower magnets. The disc can rotate freely between the magnets. Another permanent magnet called as brake magnet is used for providing breaking torque on the aluminium disc. The power consumed is measured in terms of number rotations of the disc. For example 1800 revolutions of the disc means 1 KWH power consumed by the load connected to the energy meter. PRECAUTIONS:

Single phase variac should be kept at minimum position, during starting period. No load should be connected when the DPSTS is closed or opened. PROCEDURE:

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Rated Voltage is set in the voltmeter, by gradually varying the single phase variac. Resistive load is switch ON. Load is gradually increased and the ammeter, voltmeter & Energy meter readings are noted.

RESULT:

Thus the Energy consumed by a single phase resistive load was measured.

27

RESISTOR COLOUR CODING:

RESISTOR STANDARD COLOUR CODE TABLE:

 Colour Value Digit Multiplier Tolerance Black 0 x10 0 Brown 1 x10 1 ±1% Red 2 x10 2 ±2% Orange 3 x10 3 Yellow 4 x10 4 Green 5 x10 5 ±0.5% Blue 6 x10 6 ±0.25% Violet 7 x10 7 ±0.1% Grey 8 x10 8 ±0.05% White 9 x10 9 Gold x10 -1 ±5% Silver x10 -2 ±10% None ±20%

28

STUDY OF MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING COLOR CODING AIM:

To study the measurement of value of resistance using color coding REFERENCE:

1. Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2. Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

1. Resistors

2. Multimeter

THEORY:

A resistor is a passive component. It introduces resistance in the circuit.

Resistance is basic property of conducting material and is given by R = L/ A

Where,

 - Specified resistivity. L - Length of the material. A - Area of cross section of material.

We have a number of type of resistors such as carbon composition, metal film, carbon film wire wound and variable resistors.

In our laboratory carbon resistors are used. For resistance of the order of

mega ohms, we use powdered carbon mixed with a suitable building material in the proper proportion. Carbon resistors are quite cheap, but the value of resistance

may be easily affected by atmospheric changes and is also susceptible to high tolerance.

29

TABULATION:

Sl. No.

Resistance Value by Colour Coding ( )

Resistance Value by Multimeter ( )

30

IDENTIFICATION MARKING OF RESISTORS Universally recognized approaches have been established to identify the electrical values. Two such markings are

 (i) Colour code. (ii) Alpha numeric code.

Normally in our laboratories low wattage general purpose resistors are used. In this colour coding method is used to identify the value of the resistance. In our colour coding method the value of the resistance is coded on the resistor using three or four colour bands. The first two colour band gives the first two significant digital values. The third band gives the value of multiplier. Fourth band gives the tolerance value.

RESULT:

Thus the value of resistor using colour coding was studied and measured.

31

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Measurement of AC Voltage amplitude and frequency

AFO

TABULATION:

CRO

 Maximum voltage , Vm in Volts Peak- to- RMS Time in Seconds Sl. Peak Voltage Frequency f = 1/T in Hz Voltage Vrms No Per No of Actual Per No of Actual Vpp= 2Vm = Vm / In Volts division divisions Value division divisions Value in Volts 1. 2. 3. 4.

32

MEASUREMENT OF AC SIGNAL PARAMETERS USING CRO

AIM:

To measure the following when a sinusoidal voltage is applied.

1. Peak Peak Magnitude of the Voltage,

2. RMS Value of the Voltage

3. Time Period

4. Frequency,

REFERENCE:

1. Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2. Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 QUANTITY S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE (NO.S) 1. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) Analog 30 MHz 1 2. Audio Frequency Oscillator Digital 2 MHz 1 3. Bread Board 1 4. Connecting Probes, wires As Required

FORMULA USED:

Measurement of unknown frequency = F V / F H (Hz) = Number of loops cut in the horizontal axis Number of loops cut in vertical axis

Where,

F V frequency of waveform given to the vertical plane F H frequency of waveform given to the horizontal plane V RMS = V m / 2 (Volts) f = 1 / T (Hz)

= 2 f

33

MODEL GRAPH: (Using CRO) AC input Voltage:

Measurement of DC Voltage amplitude and frequency:

RPS (0-30V)

TABULATION:

+
-

CRO

 SI.No. Applied Voltage Number of Volt/Division Measured (V) divisions Voltage (V) 1. 2. 3. 4. 34

THEORY:

The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope is an extremely useful and versatile as laboratory instrument for studying wave shapes of alternating currents and voltages as well as for measurement of voltage, current and frequency. It generates the electron a high velocity, deflects the beam to create the image and contains a phosphor beam, to screen where the electron beam becomes visible. For accomplishing these tasks various electrical signals and voltages are required, which are provided by the power supply circuit of the oscilloscope. Low voltage supply is required for the heater of the electron gun for generation of electron beam and high voltage is required for cathode ray tube to accelerate the beam. Normal voltage supply is required for other control circuits of the oscilloscope. Electron beam deflects in two directions horizontal on X axis and vertical on Y axis. For measurement of direct voltage, firstly the spot is centered on the screen without applying signal any voltage to the deflection plates. Then direst voltage to be measured is applied between a pair of depletion plates and deflection of the spot is observed on the screen. The magnitude of the deflection multiplied is the deflection factor gives the value of direct voltage applied. In case of measurement alternating voltage of sinusoidal waveform it is applied between a pair of deflection plates and the length of the straight line is measured. Knowing be determined the deflection sensitivity the peak to peak value of applied ac voltage can be determined.

PROCEDURE:

1. The circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The sinusoidal voltage is applied with the help of AFO.

3. Readings are taken for different magnitudes and frequencies.

RESULT:

Thus the Peak Peak Magnitude of the voltage, RMS Value of the Voltage, Time Period, Frequency are measured with help up CRO.

35

AND GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7408 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.No INPUT OUTPUT A B Y = A . B 1. 0 0 0 2. 0 1 0 3. 1 0 0 4. 1 1 1

OR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7432 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.No INPUT OUTPUT A B Y = A + B 1. 0 0 0 2. 0 1 1 3. 1 0 1 4. 1 1 1

36

STUDY OF BASIC LOGIC GATES

AIM:

To verify the truth table of basic logic gates of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR gates. REFERENCE:

1. Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2. Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 S.No Name of the Apparatus Range Quantity 1. Digital IC trainer kit 1 2. AND gate IC 7408 1 3. OR gate IC 7432 1 4. NOT gate IC 7404 1 5. NAND gate IC 7400 1 6. NOR gate IC 7402 1 7. EX-OR gate IC 7486 1 8. Connecting wires As required THEORY:

a. AND gate:

An AND gate is the physical realization of logical multiplication operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of 1 only if all the input signals are 1 .

b. OR gate:

An OR gate is the physical realization of the logical addition operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of 1 if any of the input signal is 1 .

37

NOT GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7404:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.N INPUT OUTPUT o A Y = A 1. 0 1 2. 1 0

NAND GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7400 :

CIRCUIT DIARAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.No INPUT OUTPUT A B Y = (A. B) 1. 0 0 1 2. 0 1 1 3. 1 0 1 4. 1 1 0

38

c.

NOT gate:

A NOT gate is the physical realization of the complementation

operation. It is an electronic circuit which generates an output signal which is the reverse of the input signal. A NOT gate is also known as

an inverter because it inverts the input.

d. NAND gate:

A NAND gate is a complemented AND gate. The output of the NAND

gate will be 0 if all the input signals are 1 and will be 1 if any one of the input signal is 0 .

e. NOR gate:

A NOR gate is a complemented OR gate. The output of the OR gate

will be 1 if all the inputs are 0 and will be 0 if any one of the input signal is 1 .

f. EX-OR gate:

An Ex-OR gate performs the following Boolean function,

A

B = ( A . B ) + ( A . B )

It is similar to OR gate but excludes the combination of both A and B

being equal to one. The exclusive OR is a function that give an output

signal 0 when the two input signals are equal either 0 or 1 .

PROCEDURE:

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram For all the ICs 7 th pin is grounded and 14 th pin is given +5 V supply. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for all gates.

39

NOR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7402 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.No INPUT OUTPUT A B Y = (A + B) 1. 0 0 1 2. 0 1 0 3. 1 0 0 4. 1 1 0

EX-OR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7486 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

 S.No INPUT OUTPUT A B Y = A B 1. 0 0 0 2. 0 1 1 3. 1 0 1 4. 1 1 0

40

RESULT:

The truth table of all the basic logic gates were verified.

41

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Half Wave Rectifier:

P
IN 4007
100 F
230 V, 50 Hz
1 Supply
1 K

N

Step-down Transformer (0 12V)

CRO

Full Wave Rectifier:
P
D 1
D 2
230 V, 50 Hz
1 Supply
D 4
D 3
100 F
1 K
N

TABULATION:

CRO

 Without Filter With Filter Rectifier V m (V) T (mS) V m (V) T (mS) Charging Discharging Half Wave Rectifier Full Wave Rectifier 42

HALF WAVE AND FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

AIM:

To obtain the output of Half wave and Full Wave rectifier and to plot the characteristics. REFERENCE:

1. Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2. Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 QUANTITY S.NO. NAME OF THE EQUIPMENT TYPE RANGE (NO.S) 1 Diode IN 4001 4 2 Resistor 1 K 1 3 Capacitor 100 F 1 Transformer Step-down 230 V / 1 4 (12 0 12) V 5 CRO Analog 30 MHz 1 6 Bread Board 1 7 Connecting wires and probe As Required

THEORY:

Half wave rectifier converts alternating voltage into unidirectional pulsating voltage. The half wave rectifier circuit using a diode with a load resistance R. The diode is connected in series with the secondary of the transformer and the load resistance R, the primary of the transformer is being connected to the supply mains. The AC voltage across the secondary winding changes polarities after every half cycle. During the positive half cycles of the input AC voltage i.e. when upper end of the secondary winding is positive with respect to its lower end, the diode is forward biased and therefore

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WAVEFORMS:

V in (V)
V
m
0
Time
V out (V)
Output of Half Wave Rectifier without filter
0
Time
V
m
Output of Half Wave Rectifier with filter
0
Time
V
Output of Full Wave Rectifier without
m
filter
0
Time
V
m
Output of Full Wave Rectifier with
filter
0
Time

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current conducts. During the negative half cycles of the input AC voltage i.e. when lower end of the secondary winding is positive with respect to its upper end, the diode is reverse biased and does not conduct. Thus for the negative half cycles no power is delivered to the load. Since only one half cycles of the input wave is converted as output, it is called as Half Wave Rectifier. In Full Wave Rectifier the diode D2 and D4 will conduct during the positive half of the input signal and during the negative half cycle of the input signal the diode D1 andD3 conducts. Hence both the half cycles are converted into output and the efficiency is high compared with the half wave rectifier.

PROCEDURE:

1. Circuit connections were given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Input waveform s magnitude and frequency was measured with the help of CRO.

3. Supply is switched ON and the output waveform was obtained in the CRO.

4. Output waveform s magnitude and time period was measured.

5. Graphs were plotted for Half wave and Full wave rectifier outputs.

RESULT:

Thus the output of Half wave and Full wave rectifiers were obtained and the curves were plotted.

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MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO EARTH OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

AIM:

To measure the resistance to earth / insulation resistance of the order of mega ohms. REFERENCE:

1. Engineering Practices Laboratory by V. Ramesh Babu VRB Publishers.

2. Engineering Practice by M.S. Kumar D D Publications.

THEORY:

Megger is the equipment used in this experiment. It is an instrument for testing the insulation resistance of the order of mega ohms. PRINCIPLE:

A megger consists of an EMF source and a Voltmeter. The voltmeter scale is calibrated in ohms. In measurement, the EMF of the self contained source should be equal that of the source used in calibration. The deflection of

the moving system depends on the ratio of the currents in the coils and is independent of the applied voltage. The value of unknown resistance can be found directly from the scale of the instrument. Figure shows the detailed diagram of a megger. It consists of hand driven dc generator and ohmmeter, a small permanent magnet. Hand driven dc generator generates a EMF about 500V. The permanent dc meter has two moving coils. First one is deflecting coil and another one controlling coil. The deflecting coil is connected to the generator through a resistor R. The torque due to the two coils opposes each other. It consists of three terminals E, L and G. OPERATION:

When the terminals are open circuited, no current flows through the deflecting coil. The torque due to the controlling coil moves the pointer to one end of the scale. When the terminals are short circuited, the torque due to the

controlling coil and the pointer is deflected to the other end of the scale, i.e.

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zero mark. In between the two extreme positions the scale is calibrated to indicate the value of unknown resistance directly. The unknown insulation resistance is connected across E and L terminals. The effective insulation resistance is the combination of insulation volume resistance and surface leakage resistance. The guard wire terminal makes the surface leakage current to by pass the instrument hence only insulation resistance is measured.

RESULT:

Thus the resistance to earth / insulation resistance of the order of mega ohms can be measured.

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