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# Fiber Optics: Refresher

What is the maximum fiber length if the maximum bit rate is 5 MB/s and the fiber dispersion is 4 ms/km? a. 16 mm b. 250 km c. *10 km d. 0.1 km SOLUTION: t = 1 / 5BZ : Z = 1 / 5(5)(4E-3) = 10 km 2. Proved that light rays bend. a. *John Tyndall b. Charles Townes c. Arthur Schawlow d. Theodore Maiman 3. What is the frequency of red light? a. *4.4E+14 Hz b. 7E+14 Hz c. 5.6E+14 Hz d. 3.8E+14 Hz 4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of waveguide dispersion? a. This is caused by a portion of light energy (about 20% of it) traveling in the cladding. b. The cladding has lower refractive index than the core resulting to pulse dispersion caused by velocity variation. c. This is wavelength dependent and can have different polarity (which can completely cancel each other out) and occurs near 1.3 micron. d. * This results in pulse spreading since light source will have multiple frequencies of light. 5. Calculate the wavelength of red light? a. 680 micron b. 68 micron c. 6.8 micron d. *680 nanometer 6. Calculate the wavelength of violet light? a. 430 micron b. 43 micron c. 4.3 micron d. *430 nanometer 7. What is Plancks constant? a. 8.85 x 10-12 F/m b. *6.63 X 1034 J-s c. 6.67 x 1011 N-m2 /kg2 d. 1.381 x 1023 J/K 8. How do we get the amount of energy, U, contained in one photon of light? a. U = f/h b. *U = hc/ c. U = / hc d. U = c/h 9. How do we get the power, P, in one photon of light? a. P = Ut b. P = t / U c. *P = U/t d. P = Wt 10. Plancks constant is represented by a. f b. *h c. c d. W 11. Calculate the energy of one photon of infrared light energy at 1.55 micron? a. 1.28 x 10-17 J b. 12.8 x 10-24 J c. 128 x 10-19 J d. *128 x 10-21 J 12. Calculate the power in a 1ms pulse of one photon for infrared light energy at 1.55 micron. a. *1.28 x 10-6 J b. 12.8 x 10-6 J c. 128. x 10-6 J d. 0.128 x 10-6 J 13. What is Snells Law? a. n1sin2 = n2 sin1 b. *n1sin1 = n2 sin2 c. n1 / n2 = sin1 / sin2 d. n2 / n1 = sin2 / sin1 1.

## Fiber Optics: Refresher

14. Half angle of the cone of acceptance for propagated light in the fiber. a. critical angle b. angle of incidence c. angle of reflection d. *numerical aperture 15. Relates to the light gathering of the fiber. a. cone of acceptance b. *numerical aperture c. critical angle d. half angle of the cone of acceptance 16. The angle of reflection is determined by the a. critical angle b. *angle of incidence c. angle of reflection d. numerical aperture 17. The light reflected from a smooth surface is a result of a. an entrance ray b. *an incident ray c. a reflected ray d. a critical ray 18. Result of light being reflected by an irregular surface. a. *diffuse reflection b. diffracted reflection c. refracted reflection d. dispersion 19. Caused by a change in the speed of light as it passes through different media. a. reflection b. *refraction c. dispersion d. diffraction 20. Refractive index is given as: a. n = v / c b. n = v / f c. *n = c / v d. n = *c 21. Process of separating light into each of its component frequencies. a. reflection b. refraction c. *dispersion d. diffraction 22. Bending of light as it passes through an opening in an obstacle. a. reflection b. refraction c. dispersion d. *diffraction 23. Takes place when light strikes a flat black surface and light is converted into heat through an exchange of energy with the atoms of the surface. a. *absorption b. refraction c. scattering d. luminescence 24. Occurs when light strikes a substance which in turn emits light of its own at the same wavelength as the incident light. a. absorption b. refraction c. *scattering d. luminescence 25. If the substance emits light of a wavelength longer than that of the incident light. a. emission b. *luminescence c. phosphorescence d. bioluminescence 26. Particle of light. a. atom b. photo c. *photon d. lumen 27. A small portion of light reflected when light passes from one index to another.

## Fiber Optics: Refresher

a. *fresnel reflection b. photon c. index of reflection d. photolet 28. The energy of a photon is given as: a. E = Uf b. *E = hf c. E = Pt d. E = vf 29. Fresnel reflection is given as: a. p = (n-2 / n+2)2 b. p = (n-2 / n+2) c. p = (n-1 / n+1) d. *p = (n-1 / n+1)2 30. States that the relationship between the incident and refracted rays. a. Coles Law b. *Snells Law c. Tyndalls Law d. Maimans Law 31. The angle of incidence that moves away from the normal to a point 90 O away from it. a. angle of incidence b. angle of reflection c. *critical angle of incidence d. angle of diffraction 32. Calculate the angle of incidence between 2 substances with different refractive indices where n1 = 1.5 and n2 = 1.46. a. 45.8o b. 44.2o c. *76.7 o d. none of these SOLUTION: c = sin-1 (n2/n1) = 76.7o 33. Response time is not one of the following statements: a. the time between the 10% and 90% points. b. the time a device takes to convert electronic energy to light energy or vice versa. c. affects the overall bandwidth of the device. d. *none of these 34. Response time of a fiber optic cable. a. 1 5 nanosec. b. *5 10 nanosec c. 10 15 nanosec d. 15 20 nanosec 35. Rise time is also known as ____. a. *response time b. wake time c. lift time d. slope time 36. The cladding has lower refractive index than the core resulting to pulse dispersion caused by velocity variation. a. material dispersion b. *waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 37. The Bandwidth of a fiber optic cable is determined as: a. 0.35 BW b. *0.35 / tr c. 1 / tr d. 0.35tr 38. The Bandwidth affected by RC-time constants is given as: a. BWRC = 0.35 BW b. BWRC = 2RLCd x BW c. BWRC = *1 / 2RLCd d. BWRC = BW / 2RLCd 39. What is the BW of a photodiode with a rise time of 2 ns and a capacitance of 2 pF? What would be the resistance of the diode? a. *175 MHz b. 61.25 MHz c. 500 MHz d. 7 Mhz

## Fiber Optics: Refresher

SOLUTION: BWRC = 0.35 / tr = 175 Mhz 40. What is the resistance of a photodiode with a rise time of 2 ns and a capacitance of 2 pF? a. *455 b. 1.3 K c. 160 d. 11.4 K SOLUTION: RL = 1 / 2(BWRC)Cd = 455 41. An optical fiber and its cladding have refractive indices of 1.535 and 1.49 respectively. Calculate its Numerical Aperture. a. 0.971 b. 0.437 c. *0.369 d. 0.191 SOLUTION: N.A. = n12 n22 = 0.369 42. Numerical aperture is given as: a. N.A. = n12 x n22 b. N.A. = n1 x n2 c. N.A. = n1 / n2 d. *N.A. = n12 n22 43. Numerical Aperture as: a. *sinin(max) b. cos in(max) c. tan in(max) d. cot in(max) 44. An optical fiber and its cladding have refractive indices of 1.535 and 1.49 respectively. Calculate in(max). a. 68.3o b. *21.7o c. 20.3o d. none of these 45. Which of the following does not affect the choice of fiber type: a. bandwidth b. *wavelength c. signal losses d. ease of light coupling and interconnection 46. Which of the following is not a descriptive of Pulse Dispersion? a. It limits the maximum rate at which data (pulses of light) can be practically transmitted. b. *The output pulse is the same as the input pulse. c. The longer the fiber, the worse the effect will be. d. The output pulse has reduced amplitude and increased width. 47. The rating of fiber optic cable is determined as: a. Rating = BW x length b. *Rating = BW / length c. Rating = length / BW d. Rating = BW / (2 x length) 48. What is the rating of a fiber optic cable that can transmit pulses at the rate of 400 MHz for 1 km? a. 400 Mhz-km b. *400 Mhz / km c. 2.5 x 10-3 km/Mhz d. 200 Mhz / km 49. What type of fiber optic cable has core diameters ranging from 50 to 100 micron? a. dual-mode fibers b. single-mode fibers c. graded-index fiber d. *step-index multimode fiber 50. Fibers are often specified by the _______________. I. diameter of their core II. diameter of their cladding III. index IV. fiber mode a. *I and II b. II and III c. III and IV d. IV and I 51. A 50/125 fiber means ______. a. *50 micron core diameter and 125 micron cladding diameter b. 50 micron cladding diameter and an index of 125 c. an index of 50 and a fiber mode of 125 d. a fiber mode of 50 and core diameter of 125 52. Breakable, expensive, low-loss fiber optic cable.

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## Fiber Optics: Refresher

65. Carries light using single waveguide mode. a. dual-mode fibers b. *single-mode fibers c. graded-index fiber d. step-index multimode fiber 66. Transmit a single mode for all wavelengths longer than the cutoff wavelengths. a. dual-mode fibers b. *single-mode fibers c. graded-index fiber d. step-index multimode fiber 67. Widely used in long-haul communications. a. dual-mode fibers b. *single-mode fibers c. graded-index fiber d. step-index multimode fiber 68. The cutoff wavelength for a single mode fiber is given as: a. c = *2a(n12 ) / 2.405 b. c = s / 2.405 c. c = / s d. c = 2.405 / s 69. Determine the cutoff wavelength for a fiber with a 0.000003 meter diameter core. The core and cladding indices of refraction are 1.545 and 1.510, respectively. a. 1.5 micron b. *1.3 micron c. 0.023 micron d. none of these SOLUTION: c = 2a(n12 ) / 2.405 ; = (n1 n2) / n1 = 0.023 ; a = 3 micron / 2 = 1.5 micron c = 1.3 micron 70. The optical pulse propagating along a fiber is attenuated ______. a. linearly b. geometrically c. algebraically d. *exponentially 71. For a single mode fiber at 1.55 micron, the lowest attenuation is_____. a. 1 dB/km b. 0.5 dB/km c. *0.1 dB/km d. 0.05 dB/km 72. The optical power is given as: a. P = l PT x 10-(A /10) b. *P = PT x 10-(Al /10) c. P = PT x 10-(A / 10l) d. P = (PT / l )x 10-(A / 10) 73. Calculate the optical power 50 km from a 0.1-mW source on a single mode fiber that has 0.25 dB/km loss. a. *0.00562 mW b. 4.72 mW c. 99.88 microW d. 1.29 microW 74. The ratio of the diodes output current to the input optical power. a. response time b. *responsivity c. responsibility d. optical ratio 75. This is wavelength dependent and can have different polarity (which can completely cancel each other out) and occurs near 1.3 micron. a. material dispersion b. *waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 76. Responsivity is given as: a. *R = (uA / uW) b. R = (uW / uA) c. R = (uW x uA) d. None of these 77. If a typical light detector produces 40 uA of current for 80 uW of incident light, what is the responsivity? a. 2 W/A

## Fiber Optics: Refresher

b. 3200 A-W c. *0.5 A/W d. none of these 78. The available power (or power budget) in a fiber optic communications system is given as: a. Available Power = Pt Pr b. Available Power = Pr Pt c. *Available Power = Pt (dBm) Pr (dBm) d. Available Power = Pr / Pt 79. Dispersion is given as: a. t = Z / 5B b. *t = 1 / 5BZ c. t = 5 / BZ d. t = 5BZ 80. What is the power budget if the transmitted power is 0.1 mW and the received power is 0.002 mW? a. 98 uW b. 17 dBm c. *17 dB d. 0.02 SOLUTION: Available Power = Pt (dBm) Pr (dBm) = 17 dB 81. What has been the most prominent problem for multimode fiber? a. reflection b. refraction c. *dispersion d. diffraction 82. Limits the BW and bit rate of step-index fibers to about 20 MHz/km length. a. material dispersion b. waveguide dispersion c. *modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 83. What type of fiber should be used to increase the bit-rate capability of fiber optic cables to 1 GHz/km? a. dual-mode fibers b. single-mode fibers c. *graded-index fiber d. step-index multimode fiber 84. Which of the following does not exhibit modal dispersion? a. dual-mode fibers b. *single-mode fibers c. graded-index fiber d. step-index multimode fiber 85. This is caused by a slight variation of the refractive index (a characteristic that a prism exhibits). a. *material dispersion b. waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 86. This results in pulse spreading since light source will have multiple frequencies of light. a. *material dispersion b. waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 87. This is caused by a portion of light energy (about 20% of it) traveling in the cladding. a. material dispersion b. *waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 88. Otherwise known as Zero-dispersion wavelength. a. material dispersion b. *waveguide dispersion c. modal dispersion d. bandwidth dispersion 89. Operated the first laser. a. John Tyndall b. Charles Townes c. Arthur Schawlow d. *Theodore Maiman 90. Connection losses are classified as: I. Axial misalignment and angular misalignment. II. Poor material and air gap. III. Rough surface and wrong index of refraction.

## Fiber Optics: Refresher

IV. Air gap and rough surface. a. II and III b. *I and IV c. II and IV d. I and III 91. Calculate the optical power 50 km from a 0.1-mW source on a single mode fiber that has 0.25 dB/km loss. a. *22.5 dBm b. 12.5 dB c. 22.5 dBm d. none of these SOLUTION: Pt Pr = m + L; 10 log (0.1mW/1mW) Pr = 0 + (0.25 dB/km)(50 km) -10 Pr = 12.5 dB m = (loss margin) Pr = 22.5 dBm L = losses