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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CODE AND TITLE OF COURSEWORK


Course code:

Title:

MECH 3004

VIBRATING BEAM LAB

STUDENT NAME:

ERKEL, DANIEL

DEGREE AND YEAR:

EBF, 3rd YEAR

LAB GROUP:

AM4

DATE OF LAB. SESSION:

08/03/2013

DATE COURSEWORK DUE FOR SUBMISSION:

26/04/2013

ACTUAL DATE OF SUBMISSION:

01/04/2012

LECTURERS NAME:

DR YURIY SEMENOV

PERSONAL TUTORS NAME:

DR KEVIN DRAKE

RECEIVED DATE AND INITIALS:

I confirm that this is all my own work (if submitted electronically, submission will be taken as
confirmation that this is your own work, and will also act as student signature)

Signed:

Daniel Erkel

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
2
2
3

2 Experimental Procedure
2.1 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
4

3 Results from the


3.1 Part I . . . .
3.2 Part II . . . .
3.3 Part III . . .

5
5
6
6

Experiment
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Analysis and Discussion of Results


4.1 Comparison with Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Changing the Material of the Beam and a Few Words on Earthquake

. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
Engineering .

.
.
.
.
.

7
7
7
9
10
11

5 Conclusion

12

6 Appendix
6.1 Complete Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Excel Calculation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
15
16

Applied Mechanics - Report on Coursework


Vibrating Beam
Daniel Erkel, 3rd year, EBF
Abstract
The present report discusses the results of a laboratory experiment conducted on the subject
of vibration of beams. In the course of the experiment a suspended beam (with one end fixed
and one end free) was excited using an actuator controlled from a computer. The vibration
was recorded on the computer and analysed in this report. The first three normal modes of the
beam were found, with the corresponding natural frequencies and mode shapes. The experimental
results were then compared with the results of a theoretical analysis, based on the Bernoulli-Euler
beam-model. Good correlation was found with the greatest error still being small, only 5%. The
report also discusses the position of the nodes found investigating each mode shape during the
experiment, and again finds good correlation with theory. Finally the effect of changing the
material of the beam and the effect of adding mass is investigated and the possible use of this
method for vibration control is discussed, with concluding remarks on the use of the method in
civil engineering.

1
1.1

Introduction
Objectives

The laboratory experiment presented in the followings aimed at demonstrating the behaviour of
a vertically suspended beam excited by an actuator hence providing means for the comparison of
results obtained from a theoretical analysis with experimental values. Changing the frequency of
excitation, the beam vibrated in different normal modes (or a certain combination of amplitudes of
all modes, if the frequency did not match the natural frequency associated with a particular mode).
Registering the displacement during the vibration using a laser distance measure connected to the
computer made it possible to observe the frequency and amplitude of the vibration and plot these
variables on the computer screen. The plots obtained this way were then used to determine the
natural frequencies of the beam and find normal modes. The experiment also showed how the mass,
inertia and the material of the vibrating body affect its vibration. These objectives were formalised
in the three parts of the experiment:
Part I Determining the beams natural frequencies
Part II Assessing the mode shape associated with each natural frequency
Part III Altering the natural frequencies of the beam

1.2

Background

On a macroscopic scale, real life objects can be modeled as elastic continua [1]. In the case of simple
(simple meant on a macroscopic scale) vertical structures, such as skyscrapers, the simple beam is a
model that is capable of well predicting the dynamic behaviour of the body under certain conditions.
The model is useful for example for predicting the physical response given by the building to the
excitation produced by an earthquake. Equally useful is this model for giving a simple prediction
of how the structure of an airplane wing will behave, vibrating in turbulent air. For this reason,
studying the vibration of beams is vital for engineers to understand the vibration of many complex
structures in real life.
2

Daniel Erkel

1.3

Vibrating Beam

Theory

The formal and thorough presentation of the complete theoretical background of this experiment is
omitted here, as this would, among others, include the derivation of equations used and this is beyond
the scope of the report. Also, the introduction of the entire underlying theoretical background is not
required for understanding the observations made here. All vital equations and fragments of theory
are presented along with the calculations and in the discussion part of the report. The theory of
beam bending can be found in (for example) Ref. [2], while the equations used here are derived in
Ref. [3] or in in Timoshenkos famous Vibration Problems in Engineering (Ref. [4]).

2
2.1

Experimental Procedure
Apparatus

Detailed diagrams showing the equipment used in the experiment can be found in the Appendix part
of the present report. The dimensions of the beam are presented on the following diagram:

Figure 1: Diagram showing the beam used in the experiment (dimensions are given in mm)
The beam was fixed with clamps at two points, at the top, where the beam was suspended from,
and at a point somewhat lower. The clamps used at the latter were connected to the actuator and a
strain gauge. The actuator, controlled by an amplified signal coming from a computer, was a strong
electric motor, exciting the beam, inducing the vibration. Between the actuator and the clamps on
the beam, there was a strain gauge to measure the force exerted on the beam. A laser distance
measuring device registered the amplitude and frequency of the vibration at two different points
and fed back the data to the computer. This data was then plotted on the computer monitor. The
beam was fixed in a cabinet with a glass door for added safety.

Daniel Erkel

2.2

Vibrating Beam

Procedure

The signal controlling the vibration was sent to the actuator from a computer next to the cabinet
with the beam (a software named LabVIEW was used on the computer). The digital signal converted
to analogue (voltage) travelled through an amplifier and moved the electric motor in the actuator,
which in turn induced the forced vibration of the beam. The vibration, as said before, was registered
using laser distance measuring devices fixed at two points. The experiment consisted of three parts:
Part I Determining the beams natural frequencies
a)

The dimensions of the beam recorded (this was given in a table provided as a handout
for the experiment [5]), a frequency-sweep was carried out. The different frequencies and
corresponding amplitudes were registered on the computer on a frequency response plot,
from which approximate values for the natural frequencies can be found.

b)

To locate the natural frequencies more precisely (with an accuracy of 1Hz), a number of
different frequencies were chosen to stimulate the beam and the amplitudes were recorded
from the computer, writing both down in an Excel table.

Part II Assessing the mode shape associated with each natural frequency
a)

The beam was simulated at each of the natural frequencies so that the associated mode
shape could be observed.

b)

The position or positions of the nodes (on the mode shape) were found visually and
observed by touch.

Part III Altering the natural frequencies of the beam


a)

An additional weight was attached with a clamp to the point where lower node of the
second mode shape was found on the beam to observe how this affects the natural frequency.

b)

A frequency-sweep similar to that in the first part of the experiment was performed by
the demonstrator the results of which were again registered on the computer. The results
were then compared to the those obtained without the added weight.

Daniel Erkel

3
3.1
a)

Vibrating Beam

Results from the Experiment


Part I
The result of the first frequency-sweep is presented on the following two graphs:

Figure 2: Frequency response graph for the first frequency-sweep with no extra mass attached to the
beam
From the graph it can be observed, that the natural frequencies of the first three modes are
approximately 2Hz, 18Hz and 47Hz.
b)

The beam was then stimulated at a number of different frequencies (chosen to be close to the
natural frequencies observed from the graph previously) and the corresponding amplitudes are
shown in the following table:
Table 1: Frequency response
f (Hz)

Amplitude (A/Aex )

First natural frequency


2.7
3
2.8
6
2.9
20
3
8
Second natural frequency
17
2
18
9
19
1.5
Third natural frequency
46
1.2
47
1.4
47.5
1.6
48
1.3
49
1.4
The amplitudes are given as a ratio, normalized by the amplitude multiplied by the gain,
5

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

a common form of representation (see Ref. [6]). It can be seen that the values previously
observed from the graph are close to the exact (determined with an accuracy of 1Hz) values.

3.2

Part II

The mode shapes were observed and the nodes located by pushing a loosely held pen against the
beam and moving until a point was found where there was no vibration. The exact location of these
nodes are given in the following table (from [5]):
Table 2: Table showing the location of the nodes for the different modes
Mode
1
2
3

3.3

Node positions (cm)


1st
N/A
148
92

2nd

162

Part III

In the third part of the experiment a mass was attached at the point of the (second) node of the
second mode shape and a frequency-sweep was conducted again. The plot resulting from this is
presented below:

Figure 3: Frequency response graph for the first frequency-sweep with extra mass attached to the
beam
It can be seen from this plot that the natural frequencies of the system have decreased compared to
the beam with no mass.

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

Analysis and Discussion of Results

4.1
4.1.1

Comparison with Theory


Part I

The natural frequency of the nth mode can be obtained using the following equation (from Ref. [3]):
n = (aL)

EI
mL
4

1/2
(1)

EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam (with E being the Youngs modulus and I the second moment
of inertia of the beam) [2], m
is the mass per unit length (also equal to A), L the length and finally
aL is the solution of the frequency equation (see Ref. [4]), the values of which are given in the next
table with the results of the theoretical analysis. The density and Youngs modulus of the material
of the beam in the first set of calculations, aluminum, can be found in engineering handbooks and
databases, such as The Engineering ToolBox 1 . The moment of inertia of the beam can be calculated
using the following equation (from Ref. [2]):
I=

bh3
12

(2)

From this, the variables used in equation (1) are collected in the following table:
Table 3: Variables used in equation (1)
b (m)
h (m)
L (m)
I (m4 )
E (GP a)
(kg/m3 )
m
(kg/m)

0.0762
0.012
1.9
1.10E-08
69
2700
2.47

The aL and a calculated from this is given for the first three modes in the following table:
Table 4: Solutions to the frequency equation (see Ref. [4])

aL
a

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

1.875
0.987

4.694
2.471

7.855
4.134

The theoretical natural frequencies were calculated for the first three modes using the above values.
These are compared with results obtained in the experiment:

The Engineering ToolBox - www.engineeringtoolbox.com, downloaded: March 30, 2013

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

Table 5: Comparison of natural frequencies obtained in the experiment and through theoretical
analysis
f (Hz)
Mode
1
2
3

Theoretical

Experimental

Error in percentage

2.71
17.01
47.64

2.9
18
47.5

6.84%
5.81%
0.29%

It can be seen that the error in all three three cases is below 10% and thus perceivable but not
significant. In the case of the first and second modes, the difference is around 6-7%, whereas in the
case of the third mode it is less than 0.3%. There are several reasons for these differences. Firstly
the beam is modeled using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, which approximates the infinitesimally
small differential element of the beam as a parallelogram and does not include rotational inertia. This
model however is known to break down at high frequencies, when the wiggling of the beam is too
large, or in other words, the deformations at a microscopic scale are greater and shear deformation
effects are more dominant [7]. Here what is seen however is that the difference is greater for smaller
frequencies, therefore using the more accurate Timoshenko beam-theory could increase the accuracy
of the results, but not significantly. Another possible source of error is related to the material
properties chosen for the calculations, which may not be completely accurate, as the density or
the Youngs modulus of the type of aluminum used for the beam could be (in fact it is likely to
be) slightly different. The error from this however may be insignificant. The first one of the more
likely sources of error is the non-uniformity of the material. While it was assumed that the beam
is uniform, this is very unlikely, in fact, it is physically impossible. Small impurities in the material
can alter the behaviour of the beam. The second likely cause for the difference, and possibly the
most important one, is that resulting from the damping being ignored. The beam here is assumed to
vibrate freely with no damping. In reality however this is not the case. Firstly there is a structural
or hysteretic damping, that is in fact inversely proportional to the frequency, therefore it could well
explain the decreasing difference [3]. Secondly, the actuator also has a certain internal damping as
the electric motor within the machine definitely has a damping coefficient. There can be viscous
damping, if there is a hydraulic component, or Coulomb damping if there is friction between the
metallic parts within the actuator. Also, if the clamps did not hold completely tight, this could have
caused further damping. Finally errors in measurement and errors in the calculations have to be
taken into consideration as well. The list of measurement errors ranges from errors that may have
occurred measuring the length of the beam to errors in certain components of the equipment, such
as the laser distance measuring device or the strain gauge, Small errors may have also resulted from
truncation of decimals in the calculations.

Daniel Erkel

4.1.2

Vibrating Beam

Part II

The mode shapes were plotted using the following equation (see Ref. [4] also found in Ref. [5]):


cos aL + cosh aL
(x) = A1 cos ax cosh ax
(sin ax sinh ax)
(3)
sin aL + sinh aL
Where A1 is an arbitrary constant that is set equal to 1 here. Using this equation, the following
graph was plotted:

Figure 4: Mode shapes plotted using equation (3)


The equation (and consequently the plot) can be used to find the nodes analytically. These are
compared with experimental results in the following table:
Table 6: Comparison of the results for the location of the nodes from the experiment and the
theoretical analysis
Mode

Node positions (cm)

Error

Node positions (cm)

1st

1
2
3

Error

2nd

Theoretical

Experimental

N/A
148
92

N/A
149
95.5

0.68%
3.80%

Theoretical

Experimental

162

164.9

1.79%

Error in locating the nodes can have similar reasons as the error in the natural frequencies found
previously. In this case it is likely that the most significant contributing factor was the measurement
error, if the node was located manually (not using the laser distance measuring device).
9

Daniel Erkel

4.1.3

Vibrating Beam

Part III

Comparing the plot resulting from the second frequency-sweep with the mass attached to the beam
it is clearly visible that the first and the third modes natural frequencies decreased, while the second
is approximately the same. This seems obvious if one observes the equation of the natural frequency,
where the mass is in the denominator of the fraction with the flexural rigidity (and hence the inertia)
in the numerator and also considers the location of the added mass (the node of the second mode).
Because the mass was placed at a point which is stationary in the second mode, it did not affect
that natural frequency, while it changed the other too.
Adding mass to the vibrating structure provides an effective way to control the natural frequency of
it, and makes it possible to in a way tune the structure by affecting its inertia. This can be very
important if for example one knows the frequency of the vibration induced by the wind blowing at
a building at a given speed (where the vortices shed by the building lead to its vibration) or the
frequency of the vibration induced by an earthquake. The method however does not eliminate the
resonance, or significantly lower the amplitude (it can be seen from the two plots that the highest
peak of the three modes is approximately equal) therefore further safety measures are necessary.
Nevertheless if one knows the average strength of earthquakes in a given area or the wind blowing,
this method can help preventing the collapse of a building. A more advanced method is discussed
in the next section.

Figure 5: Comparison of the two frequency-sweeps - the graph on the top is the one without the
mass, the one on the bottom is the sweep performed with the mass. The green lines are vertical and
the red arrows show the change in natural frequency in the case of the first and the third normal
modes

10

Daniel Erkel

4.2

Vibrating Beam

Changing the Material of the Beam and a Few Words on Earthquake Engineering

Before discussing more sophisticated methods to control the vibration of large structures such as
buildings, first the effect of changing the beams material is investigated. If the beam would be made
of steel, that would effect both the inertia of the beam (the mass) and the elasticity, by changing the
Youngs modulus of the beam. Therefore the effect on the natural frequency is not straightforward,
as the natural frequency is determined by an interplay between the two. The following table shows
the effect of changing the material on the natural frequency of the beam from aluminum to ASTMA36 steel (the properties of which were obtained from The Engineering ToolBox once again):
Table 7: The effect of changing the material on the natural frequency of the beam
f (Hz)
Mode

Steel

Aluminum

Error in percentage

1
2
3

2.72
17.04
47.72

2.71
17.01
47.64

0.17%
0.17%
0.17%

It can be seen that the balance between inertia and elasticity is almost unaffected, with the difference
between the results for natural frequencies obtained from theoretical analysis being an insignificant
0.17%. However using a more advanced beam-theory (the Timoshenko beam-model [4]) or Finite
Element Analysis would probably yield different results. The position of the nodes do not change,
as the equation describing the mode shapes is not affected by the flexural rigidity or the mass.
As described in the previous section, adding extra mass provides means to control the natural
frequency of a structure, building. Lowering the natural frequency can help to prevent a disastrous
resonance catastrophe. A more sophisticated way of controlling the vibration of a building however
is using an active mass. An example of a similar system is that of the Roseau Tower, an offshore
structure, where the added mass is an underwater tank with porous boundaries, through which water
can move. Since it is underwater, the water in the tank does not add extra load to the structure, it
only affects it when the tower starts swaying. Also, by using water, there is an active control as the
water floating inside the tank also oscillates and can absorb the energy of the vibrating tower [8].
Another example for this type of motion control is the tuned mass damper used in many buildings,
such as the Shanghai World Finance Center. The active mass here is not fixed rigidly to the structure,
but instead suspended from flexible joints, or cables in a frame inside the building. This system
vibrates with a phase difference compared to the buildings natural frequency and thus not only
helps tuning it through the extra added mass, but also absorbs the energy of the vibration [9]. The
image on the next page shows the structure of the tuned mass damper used in the Shanghai World
Finance Center, and the building itself.

11

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

Figure 6: Images showing the iconic Shanghai World Finance Center, often mockingly referred to as
the bottle opener (on the right) and the tuned mass damper built in the building, and its position on
one of the floor-plans (on the left) - The images were downloaded from www.sh.chinanews.com.cn,
www.thetoptenz.net on March 29, 2013, the one with the floor plan is from Ref. [9])

Conclusion

The experiment successfully demonstrated the vibration of a suspended beam and helped the understanding of the important concept of natural frequency, mode shapes, nodes and the control of
natural frequency and vibration. Theoretical calculations corresponded well with experimental results and showed that the simple Bernoulli-Euler beam-model can accurately model the behaviour of
simple structures vibrating at the first few normal modes. A more accurate model may be necessary
at more complex structures, and in the case of large buildings Finite Element Analysis is what can
be sufficiently accurate. Overall the experiment was successful and the present report found good
correlation between theory and experimental results.

12

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

References
[1] G. Genta, Vibration Dynamics and Control. Mechanical Engineering Series, Springer, 2009.
[2] J. M. Gere, Mechanics of Materials. Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning, 6th ed., 2004.
[3] S. Rao, Mechanical Vibrations. Addison-Wesley, 1995.
[4] J. W. Weaver, S. Timoshenko, and D. Young, Vibration Problems in Engineering. A WileyInterscience publication, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
[5] Dr Yuriy Semenov - University College London, E466: Vibrating Beam - Laboratory Handout.
[6] D. Seborg, D. Mellichamp, T. Edgar, and I. Francis J. Doyle, Process Dynamics and Control.
John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
[7] B. Tongue, Principles Of Vibration 2E C. Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2002.
[8] S. Chakrabarti, Handbook of Offshore Engineering. No. v. 1 in Handbook of Offshore Engineering,
Elsevier, 2005.
[9] W. Shi, J. Shan, and X. Lu, Modal identification of shanghai world financial center both from
free and ambient vibration response, Engineering Structures, vol. 36, pp. 1426, 2012. cited By
(since 1996) 0.

13

Daniel Erkel

Vibrating Beam

List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5

Diagram showing the beam used in the experiment (dimensions are given in mm) . .
Frequency response graph for the first frequency-sweep with no extra mass attached
to the beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency response graph for the first frequency-sweep with extra mass attached to
the beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mode shapes plotted using equation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of the two frequency-sweeps - the graph on the top is the one without
the mass, the one on the bottom is the sweep performed with the mass. The green
lines are vertical and the red arrows show the change in natural frequency in the case
of the first and the third normal modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Images showing the iconic Shanghai World Finance Center, often mockingly referred
to as the bottle opener (on the right) and the tuned mass damper built in the building,
and its position on one of the floor-plans (on the left) - The images were downloaded
from www.sh.chinanews.com.cn, www.thetoptenz.net on March 29, 2013, the one with
the floor plan is from Ref. [9]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete diagram showing all components of the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
5
6
9

10

12
15

List of Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Frequency response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table showing the location of the nodes for the different modes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variables used in equation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solutions to the frequency equation (see Ref. [4]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of natural frequencies obtained in the experiment and through theoretical
analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of the results for the location of the nodes from the experiment and the
theoretical analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The effect of changing the material on the natural frequency of the beam . . . . . .

5
6
7
7
8
9
11

14

Daniel Erkel

6
6.1

Vibrating Beam

Appendix
Complete Diagrams

Figure 7: Complete diagram showing all components of the system

15

Daniel Erkel

6.2

Vibrating Beam

Excel Calculation Examples

(See next page)

16

1
=1*(COS(H$3*$A3)-COSH(H$3*$A3)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A3*H$3)-SINH($A3*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A4)-COSH(H$3*$A4)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A4*H$3)-SINH($A4*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A5)-COSH(H$3*$A5)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A5*H$3)-SINH($A5*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A6)-COSH(H$3*$A6)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A6*H$3)-SINH($A6*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A7)-COSH(H$3*$A7)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A7*H$3)-SINH($A7*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A8)-COSH(H$3*$A8)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A8*H$3)-SINH($A8*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A9)-COSH(H$3*$A9)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A9*H$3)-SINH($A9*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A10)-COSH(H$3*$A10)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A10*H$3)-SINH($A10*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A11)-COSH(H$3*$A11)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A11*H$3)-SINH($A11*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A12)-COSH(H$3*$A12)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A12*H$3)-SINH($A12*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A13)-COSH(H$3*$A13)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A13*H$3)-SINH($A13*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A14)-COSH(H$3*$A14)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A14*H$3)-SINH($A14*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A15)-COSH(H$3*$A15)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A15*H$3)-SINH($A15*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A16)-COSH(H$3*$A16)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A16*H$3)-SINH($A16*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A17)-COSH(H$3*$A17)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A17*H$3)-SINH($A17*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A18)-COSH(H$3*$A18)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A18*H$3)-SINH($A18*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A19)-COSH(H$3*$A19)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A19*H$3)-SINH($A19*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A20)-COSH(H$3*$A20)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A20*H$3)-SINH($A20*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A21)-COSH(H$3*$A21)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A21*H$3)-SINH($A21*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A22)-COSH(H$3*$A22)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A22*H$3)-SINH($A22*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A23)-COSH(H$3*$A23)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A23*H$3)-SINH($A23*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A24)-COSH(H$3*$A24)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A24*H$3)-SINH($A24*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A25)-COSH(H$3*$A25)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A25*H$3)-SINH($A25*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A26)-COSH(H$3*$A26)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A26*H$3)-SINH($A26*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A27)-COSH(H$3*$A27)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A27*H$3)-SINH($A27*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A28)-COSH(H$3*$A28)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A28*H$3)-SINH($A28*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A29)-COSH(H$3*$A29)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A29*H$3)-SINH($A29*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A30)-COSH(H$3*$A30)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A30*H$3)-SINH($A30*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A31)-COSH(H$3*$A31)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A31*H$3)-SINH($A31*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A32)-COSH(H$3*$A32)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A32*H$3)-SINH($A32*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A33)-COSH(H$3*$A33)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A33*H$3)-SINH($A33*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A34)-COSH(H$3*$A34)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A34*H$3)-SINH($A34*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A35)-COSH(H$3*$A35)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A35*H$3)-SINH($A35*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A36)-COSH(H$3*$A36)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A36*H$3)-SINH($A36*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A37)-COSH(H$3*$A37)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A37*H$3)-SINH($A37*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A38)-COSH(H$3*$A38)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A38*H$3)-SINH($A38*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A39)-COSH(H$3*$A39)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A39*H$3)-SINH($A39*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A40)-COSH(H$3*$A40)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A40*H$3)-SINH($A40*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A41)-COSH(H$3*$A41)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A41*H$3)-SINH($A41*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A42)-COSH(H$3*$A42)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A42*H$3)-SINH($A42*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A43)-COSH(H$3*$A43)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A43*H$3)-SINH($A43*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A44)-COSH(H$3*$A44)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A44*H$3)-SINH($A44*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A45)-COSH(H$3*$A45)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A45*H$3)-SINH($A45*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A46)-COSH(H$3*$A46)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A46*H$3)-SINH($A46*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A47)-COSH(H$3*$A47)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A47*H$3)-SINH($A47*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A48)-COSH(H$3*$A48)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A48*H$3)-SINH($A48*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A49)-COSH(H$3*$A49)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A49*H$3)-SINH($A49*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A50)-COSH(H$3*$A50)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A50*H$3)-SINH($A50*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A51)-COSH(H$3*$A51)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A51*H$3)-SINH($A51*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A52)-COSH(H$3*$A52)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A52*H$3)-SINH($A52*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A53)-COSH(H$3*$A53)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A53*H$3)-SINH($A53*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A54)-COSH(H$3*$A54)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A54*H$3)-SINH($A54*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A55)-COSH(H$3*$A55)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A55*H$3)-SINH($A55*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A56)-COSH(H$3*$A56)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A56*H$3)-SINH($A56*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A57)-COSH(H$3*$A57)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A57*H$3)-SINH($A57*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A58)-COSH(H$3*$A58)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A58*H$3)-SINH($A58*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A59)-COSH(H$3*$A59)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A59*H$3)-SINH($A59*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A60)-COSH(H$3*$A60)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A60*H$3)-SINH($A60*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A61)-COSH(H$3*$A61)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A61*H$3)-SINH($A61*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A62)-COSH(H$3*$A62)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A62*H$3)-SINH($A62*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A63)-COSH(H$3*$A63)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A63*H$3)-SINH($A63*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A64)-COSH(H$3*$A64)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A64*H$3)-SINH($A64*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A65)-COSH(H$3*$A65)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A65*H$3)-SINH($A65*H$3))))

=1*(COS(H$3*$A66)-COSH(H$3*$A66)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A66*H$3)-SINH($A66*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A67)-COSH(H$3*$A67)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A67*H$3)-SINH($A67*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A68)-COSH(H$3*$A68)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A68*H$3)-SINH($A68*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A69)-COSH(H$3*$A69)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A69*H$3)-SINH($A69*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A70)-COSH(H$3*$A70)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A70*H$3)-SINH($A70*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A71)-COSH(H$3*$A71)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A71*H$3)-SINH($A71*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A72)-COSH(H$3*$A72)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A72*H$3)-SINH($A72*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A73)-COSH(H$3*$A73)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A73*H$3)-SINH($A73*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A74)-COSH(H$3*$A74)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A74*H$3)-SINH($A74*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A75)-COSH(H$3*$A75)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A75*H$3)-SINH($A75*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A76)-COSH(H$3*$A76)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A76*H$3)-SINH($A76*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A77)-COSH(H$3*$A77)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A77*H$3)-SINH($A77*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A78)-COSH(H$3*$A78)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A78*H$3)-SINH($A78*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A79)-COSH(H$3*$A79)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A79*H$3)-SINH($A79*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A80)-COSH(H$3*$A80)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A80*H$3)-SINH($A80*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A81)-COSH(H$3*$A81)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A81*H$3)-SINH($A81*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A82)-COSH(H$3*$A82)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A82*H$3)-SINH($A82*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A83)-COSH(H$3*$A83)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A83*H$3)-SINH($A83*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A84)-COSH(H$3*$A84)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A84*H$3)-SINH($A84*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A85)-COSH(H$3*$A85)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A85*H$3)-SINH($A85*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A86)-COSH(H$3*$A86)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A86*H$3)-SINH($A86*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A87)-COSH(H$3*$A87)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A87*H$3)-SINH($A87*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A88)-COSH(H$3*$A88)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A88*H$3)-SINH($A88*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A89)-COSH(H$3*$A89)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A89*H$3)-SINH($A89*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A90)-COSH(H$3*$A90)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A90*H$3)-SINH($A90*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A91)-COSH(H$3*$A91)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A91*H$3)-SINH($A91*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A92)-COSH(H$3*$A92)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A92*H$3)-SINH($A92*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A93)-COSH(H$3*$A93)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A93*H$3)-SINH($A93*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A94)-COSH(H$3*$A94)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A94*H$3)-SINH($A94*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A95)-COSH(H$3*$A95)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A95*H$3)-SINH($A95*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A96)-COSH(H$3*$A96)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A96*H$3)-SINH($A96*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A97)-COSH(H$3*$A97)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A97*H$3)-SINH($A97*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A98)-COSH(H$3*$A98)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A98*H$3)-SINH($A98*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A99)-COSH(H$3*$A99)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A99*H$3)-SINH($A99*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A100)-COSH(H$3*$A100)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A100*H$3)-SINH($A100*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A101)-COSH(H$3*$A101)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A101*H$3)-SINH($A101*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A102)-COSH(H$3*$A102)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A102*H$3)-SINH($A102*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A103)-COSH(H$3*$A103)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A103*H$3)-SINH($A103*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A104)-COSH(H$3*$A104)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A104*H$3)-SINH($A104*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A105)-COSH(H$3*$A105)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A105*H$3)-SINH($A105*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A106)-COSH(H$3*$A106)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A106*H$3)-SINH($A106*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A107)-COSH(H$3*$A107)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A107*H$3)-SINH($A107*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A108)-COSH(H$3*$A108)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A108*H$3)-SINH($A108*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A109)-COSH(H$3*$A109)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A109*H$3)-SINH($A109*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A110)-COSH(H$3*$A110)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A110*H$3)-SINH($A110*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A111)-COSH(H$3*$A111)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A111*H$3)-SINH($A111*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A112)-COSH(H$3*$A112)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A112*H$3)-SINH($A112*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A113)-COSH(H$3*$A113)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A113*H$3)-SINH($A113*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A114)-COSH(H$3*$A114)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A114*H$3)-SINH($A114*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A115)-COSH(H$3*$A115)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A115*H$3)-SINH($A115*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A116)-COSH(H$3*$A116)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A116*H$3)-SINH($A116*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A117)-COSH(H$3*$A117)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A117*H$3)-SINH($A117*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A118)-COSH(H$3*$A118)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A118*H$3)-SINH($A118*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A119)-COSH(H$3*$A119)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A119*H$3)-SINH($A119*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A120)-COSH(H$3*$A120)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A120*H$3)-SINH($A120*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A121)-COSH(H$3*$A121)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A121*H$3)-SINH($A121*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A122)-COSH(H$3*$A122)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A122*H$3)-SINH($A122*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A123)-COSH(H$3*$A123)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A123*H$3)-SINH($A123*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A124)-COSH(H$3*$A124)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A124*H$3)-SINH($A124*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A125)-COSH(H$3*$A125)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A125*H$3)-SINH($A125*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A126)-COSH(H$3*$A126)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A126*H$3)-SINH($A126*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A127)-COSH(H$3*$A127)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A127*H$3)-SINH($A127*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A128)-COSH(H$3*$A128)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A128*H$3)-SINH($A128*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A129)-COSH(H$3*$A129)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A129*H$3)-SINH($A129*H$3))))

=1*(COS(H$3*$A130)-COSH(H$3*$A130)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A130*H$3)-SINH($A130*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A131)-COSH(H$3*$A131)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A131*H$3)-SINH($A131*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A132)-COSH(H$3*$A132)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A132*H$3)-SINH($A132*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A133)-COSH(H$3*$A133)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A133*H$3)-SINH($A133*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A134)-COSH(H$3*$A134)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A134*H$3)-SINH($A134*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A135)-COSH(H$3*$A135)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A135*H$3)-SINH($A135*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A136)-COSH(H$3*$A136)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A136*H$3)-SINH($A136*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A137)-COSH(H$3*$A137)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A137*H$3)-SINH($A137*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A138)-COSH(H$3*$A138)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A138*H$3)-SINH($A138*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A139)-COSH(H$3*$A139)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A139*H$3)-SINH($A139*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A140)-COSH(H$3*$A140)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A140*H$3)-SINH($A140*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A141)-COSH(H$3*$A141)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A141*H$3)-SINH($A141*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A142)-COSH(H$3*$A142)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A142*H$3)-SINH($A142*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A143)-COSH(H$3*$A143)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A143*H$3)-SINH($A143*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A144)-COSH(H$3*$A144)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A144*H$3)-SINH($A144*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A145)-COSH(H$3*$A145)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A145*H$3)-SINH($A145*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A146)-COSH(H$3*$A146)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A146*H$3)-SINH($A146*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A147)-COSH(H$3*$A147)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A147*H$3)-SINH($A147*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A148)-COSH(H$3*$A148)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A148*H$3)-SINH($A148*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A149)-COSH(H$3*$A149)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A149*H$3)-SINH($A149*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A150)-COSH(H$3*$A150)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A150*H$3)-SINH($A150*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A151)-COSH(H$3*$A151)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A151*H$3)-SINH($A151*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A152)-COSH(H$3*$A152)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A152*H$3)-SINH($A152*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A153)-COSH(H$3*$A153)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A153*H$3)-SINH($A153*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A154)-COSH(H$3*$A154)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A154*H$3)-SINH($A154*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A155)-COSH(H$3*$A155)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A155*H$3)-SINH($A155*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A156)-COSH(H$3*$A156)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A156*H$3)-SINH($A156*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A157)-COSH(H$3*$A157)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A157*H$3)-SINH($A157*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A158)-COSH(H$3*$A158)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A158*H$3)-SINH($A158*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A159)-COSH(H$3*$A159)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A159*H$3)-SINH($A159*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A160)-COSH(H$3*$A160)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A160*H$3)-SINH($A160*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A161)-COSH(H$3*$A161)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A161*H$3)-SINH($A161*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A162)-COSH(H$3*$A162)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A162*H$3)-SINH($A162*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A163)-COSH(H$3*$A163)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A163*H$3)-SINH($A163*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A164)-COSH(H$3*$A164)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A164*H$3)-SINH($A164*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A165)-COSH(H$3*$A165)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A165*H$3)-SINH($A165*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A166)-COSH(H$3*$A166)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A166*H$3)-SINH($A166*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A167)-COSH(H$3*$A167)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A167*H$3)-SINH($A167*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A168)-COSH(H$3*$A168)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A168*H$3)-SINH($A168*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A169)-COSH(H$3*$A169)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A169*H$3)-SINH($A169*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A170)-COSH(H$3*$A170)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A170*H$3)-SINH($A170*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A171)-COSH(H$3*$A171)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A171*H$3)-SINH($A171*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A172)-COSH(H$3*$A172)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A172*H$3)-SINH($A172*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A173)-COSH(H$3*$A173)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A173*H$3)-SINH($A173*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A174)-COSH(H$3*$A174)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A174*H$3)-SINH($A174*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A175)-COSH(H$3*$A175)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A175*H$3)-SINH($A175*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A176)-COSH(H$3*$A176)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A176*H$3)-SINH($A176*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A177)-COSH(H$3*$A177)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A177*H$3)-SINH($A177*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A178)-COSH(H$3*$A178)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A178*H$3)-SINH($A178*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A179)-COSH(H$3*$A179)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A179*H$3)-SINH($A179*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A180)-COSH(H$3*$A180)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A180*H$3)-SINH($A180*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A181)-COSH(H$3*$A181)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A181*H$3)-SINH($A181*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A182)-COSH(H$3*$A182)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A182*H$3)-SINH($A182*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A183)-COSH(H$3*$A183)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A183*H$3)-SINH($A183*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A184)-COSH(H$3*$A184)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A184*H$3)-SINH($A184*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A185)-COSH(H$3*$A185)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A185*H$3)-SINH($A185*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A186)-COSH(H$3*$A186)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A186*H$3)-SINH($A186*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A187)-COSH(H$3*$A187)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A187*H$3)-SINH($A187*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A188)-COSH(H$3*$A188)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A188*H$3)-SINH($A188*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A189)-COSH(H$3*$A189)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A189*H$3)-SINH($A189*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A190)-COSH(H$3*$A190)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A190*H$3)-SINH($A190*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A191)-COSH(H$3*$A191)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A191*H$3)-SINH($A191*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A192)-COSH(H$3*$A192)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A192*H$3)-SINH($A192*H$3))))
=1*(COS(H$3*$A193)-COSH(H$3*$A193)-((COS(H$2)+COSH(H$2))/(SIN(H$2)+SINH(H$2))*(SIN($A193*H$3)-SINH($A193*H$3))))

b (m)
h (m)
L (m)
I (m^4)
E (GPa)
\rho (kg/m^3)
m (kg/m)

Variables used in equation (1)


0.0762
0.012
1.9
=(B2*B3^3)/(12)
200
7800

=B7*B2*B3
Mode 1

Mode 2
4.694
=C11/$B$4

Mode 3
7.855
=D11/$B$4

aL
a

1.875
=B11/$B$4

Mode
1
2
3

omega
Steel
Aluminum
Error in percentage
=(B11)^2*SQRT(($B$6*$B$5*10^9)/($B$8*$B$4^4))/(2*PI())
2.71424321071458 =ABS((B16-C16)/B16)
=(C11)^2*SQRT(($B$6*$B$5*10^9)/($B$8*$B$4^4))/(2*PI())
17.0110995684569 =ABS((B17-C17)/B17)
=(D11)^2*SQRT(($B$6*$B$5*10^9)/($B$8*$B$4^4))/(2*PI())
47.636362865886
=ABS((B18-C18)/B18)