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Semper expeditus Always Prepared in Readiness PHYSICAL TRAINING AND CONDITIONING 1. Objectives of Physical Conditioning Programs.

The objectives of the Physical Conditioning Program are: To develop a reserve level of physical fitness that will enhance their chance of winning in a combat situation. To be physically capable of performing duties in garrison and in combat. To provide a medium for developing the self-confidence and thereby enhance overall discipline, morale, esprit-de-corps, unit efficiency and the desire to. To contribute to the health and well-being through regular exercise and health education. Guidance Training will be progressive and practical in nature. Training will include appropriate background reading. Units should not train to pass tests. Units should train for combat. Training must be focused on winning in combat. Units will train for what Marines expect to meet on the field of battle. Units will integrate curricula.

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3. Principles of Physical Training. Individuals should focus on training factors such as Frequency (repetition of the activity), Intensity of the exercise, duration (Time) of workouts, and Type of training (the FITT principle). Proper physical conditioning is based on several principles. The most importance are the principles of specificity, overload, progression, individual differences and detraining. a. Specificity of exercise principle. The principle of specificity states that the body will adapt to a certain activity (i.e., cardiovascular, strength, or endurance training) depending on the type of overload (stress). The more similar the training exercise is to the activity (movement), the more likely the individual is to improve in that activity. b. Overload principle. This principle states that by physically training at levels above normal, an individual can bring about physical improvement and a training change. This principle can be applied by changing the training frequency, intensity, mode and duration. c. Progression principle. Gradual progression from a low intensity state of conditioning to a higher state is possible through a progressive physical training program. Individuals should balance the frequency, intensity and duration of physical training with the risk of injury. However, too little stress results in little to no improvement. d. Individual differences principle. An individual's relative conditioning level at the start of training is important. An individual can optimize training benefits from conditioning programs that are developed to meet his or her needs. However, this ONLY applies to a Marine's own program. Unit PT should enhance, not be basis for, the Marine's physical performance. e. Detraining (reversibility) principle. Detraining occurs rapidly when a Marine stops exercising. Significant reductions can be measured after only one or two weeks of detraining. To maintain a level of conditioning the training frequency is one session per week. The loss from not training is twice as fast as the gain. f. Overtraining. When physical training is conducted too frequently and too intensely, overtraining invariably results, leading to an increased risk of injury and a decrease in performance. Constant, severe training regiments do not provide adequate recovery. g. Rest and recovery. Rest refers to the time interval between repetitions or training sessions. Active rest is time off from training but not from daily activity. This allows the muscles to work and the nerves to rest. Recovery is an actual planned event in the training schedule. It can occur when a hard training day is followed by an easy training day. h. Warm-up and cool-down. The warm-up and cool-down are also critical components of hastening recovery. These activities are a transition between inactivity and the physical training event to be performed. i. Intensity. The optimal range for exercise improvement is between 65 percent - 85 percent intensity.

Greater than 85 percent intensity increases the risk of musculoskeletal injury. 4. Factors That Affect Physical Training. The major factors that relate to training improvement are the initial fitness level, frequency and intensity of exercise, duration (time), type, and progression of exercise (FITT-P). a. Frequency. Individuals can achieve results in as little as three nonconsecutive days per week. Optimally, training frequencies should be between three and five days per week. b. Intensity. The intensity of aerobic exercise can be checked by monitoring one's heart rate. Intensity of resistance training can be modified by changing the resistance, repetitions, and sets of an exercise, the number of exercises per muscle group, or decreasing the amount of rest between sets. c. Time (Duration). The time required to effect physical improvement depends on the total work done, training intensity, training frequency and initial fitness level. Twenty to thirty minutes are optimal for aerobic training with an intensity at 70 percent maximum heart rate. With high-intensity, anaerobic interval training, significant improvements occur with 10 to 15 minute exercise periods per workout. Conversely, if one trains at a low-intensity level, he or she may need to train for at least 45 minutes to achieve improvements. d. Type (Mode). Training effects are specific to the type of training performed (specificity).

e. Maintenance. If an individual maintains training intensity, he or she can remain at the same fitness level with less frequency and duration of physical activity. 5. Warm-Up and Flexibility Training. It is fundamental that Marines warm up gradually before conducting strenuous activities. A proper warm-up increases heart rate which prepares the body for a training overload, and helps reduce the risk of injury to muscles and ligaments. A warm-up is both general and specific to an activity. Flexibility should be an integral part of any warm-up or cool-down. A total warm-up program includes a general warm-up period followed by an activity specific warm-up. a. Warm-up. A general warm-up period consists of 5 to 10 minutes of low-intensity aerobic exercise such as walking, slow jogging, etc. A general warm-up increases heart rate, blood flow, deep-muscle temperature, respiration rate, lubrication of joints, and perspiration. A warm muscle exhibits a greater amount of flexibility. Additionally, a specific warm-up uses movements that are similar to the movements of the activity. The more power necessary for the activity, the more important the warm-up. b. Flexibility. Flexibility is the range of possible movement in a joint and its surrounding muscles. Stretching is the type of activity that increases flexibility. There is some evidence that stretching may aid in the prevention of injuries. Stretching after a warm-up and before activities should normally be 8 to 12 minutes. c. FITT-P for flexibility training. The goal of flexibility training is pain free joint range of motion. Type: Frequency: Time: Intensity: Progression: Static Stretching. 3 - 5 days/week. Stretching can be performed daily. Hold stretches for 20 seconds. Easy stretch - Move into the stretch until you feel a mild tension, and relax. Hold stretches that feel good. Developmental stretch - with improved flexibility, carefully increase the tension.

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Guidelines for stretching (1) Warm-up prior to stretching (2) Stretch slowly with control. (3) Use proper form. (4) Relax with rhythmic breathing. (5) Hold only tension that feels good. 2

(6) No bouncing. e. Stretching adaptations. Proper stretching has many benefits, listed below. (1) Reduces muscle tension and makes the body feel more relaxed. (2) Aids coordination and motor skills by allowing for freer, easier movement. (3) Increases joint range of motion. (4) Allows a muscle to resists stress better than an unstretched muscle. (5) Promotes circulation. (6) Reduces stiffness and soreness following intense physical training.

6. Muscular Strength and Endurance Training. At the core of effective resistance training is safe and proper execution of exercises. Proper lifting techniques reduce stress in the lower back and help prevent back injuries. a. Muscle actions. There are three major types of muscle actions in resistance training: isometric, concentric, and eccentric actions. Isometric muscle actions occur when a Marine pushes or pulls on an immovable object. Concentric muscle actions occur when force is applied while a muscle shortens and a joint moves. Eccentric muscle actions occur when force is produced while a muscle is lengthening, as when a Marine lowers an object. b. Proper lifting technique. Proper lifting technique includes keeping a stable base of support, maintaining proper curvature of the spine, keeping the load close to the body, and breathing properly. A stable base of support enables an individual to maintain proper body alignment during lifting, placing appropriate stress on muscles and joints. One should NOT hold his or her breath throughout the lift; failure to exhale when lifting decreases blood to the brain and heart which may cause fainting or increase the risk of injury. c. FITT-P for strength training. Strength training goals can include improving muscle tone, increasing strength and power, and body building. The FITT-P principle for strength training uses the 2-for-2 rule to make load adjustments. When an individual can perform 2 (or more) repetitions beyond the number listed in the last set for 2 consecutive workouts, increase the weight. Type: Frequency: Sets X Repetitions: +Intensity: Progression: Resistance Training for Muscle Tone. 2 - 3 nonconsecutive days/week. 2 - 3 sets X 12 - 20 repetitions. The last repetition of each set should be difficult to complete. Rest 20 - 30 seconds between sets. Add repetitions to 20 repetitions. Add sets to 3 sets. Add resistance following the 2-2 rule. * Resistance Training for Muscle Strength. 4 - 6 days/week. 3 - 5 + sets X 1 - 8 repetitions. The last repetition of each set should be difficult to complete. Rest 2 - 5 minutes between sets. Add repetitions to 8 repetitions. Add sets to 5 + sets. Add resistance following the 2-2 rule. * Resistance Training for Muscle Bulk. 4 - 6 days/week. 3 - 6 sets X 8 - 12 repetitions. The last repetition of each set should be difficult to complete. Rest 30 - 90 seconds between sets. Add repetitions to 12 repetitions. Add sets to 6 sets. 3

Type: Frequency: Sets X Repetitions: Intensity: Progression:

Type: Frequency: Sets X Repetitions: Intensity: Progression:

Add resistance following the 2-2 rule.* Program design considerations (1) Establish goals for resistance training. (2) Exercise selection to develop all the major muscle groups. (3) Determine training frequency. (4) Exercise order: Multiple-joint exercises to isolated-joint exercises.* (5) Do not exercise the same muscle groups on consecutive days, allow for at least a 48-hour rest period. * Multiple joint exercises include working the larger muscle groups of the back, chest, and legs, which require the use or movement of more than one joint. e. Interval training. Interval training uses intervals that can consist of running, swimming, calisthenics, or resistance training. Work intervals of less than 30 seconds are typically done with rest intervals of approximately 3 times the exercise duration. Marines should recover fully between exercise intervals. Guidelines for interval training are presented below: Guidelines for Interval Training: Interval Interval Interval Sprint Middle-Distance Distance Training Training Training Primary Energy Immediate Short-Term Long-Term System Duration of Work 10 sec - 30 sec 30 sec - 2 minutes 2 - 5 minutes (seconds) Duration of 30 sec - 90 sec 60 sec - 4 minutes 2 -5+ Recovery minutes (seconds) Work : Recovery 1:3 1:2 1:1 Repetitions 25 - 30 10 - 20 3-5 Baechle TR, Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Human Kinetics, 1994: p. 411. (1) Intensity. The intensity of the exercise (work) interval and length of the active rest (recovery) intervals can be determined by monitoring the heart rate. The optimal training range is between 65 percent and 85 percent of the maximum heart rate. Exercise intensity should be increased or decreased if the heart rate is less than or greater than 85 percent heart rate maximum, respectively. The heart rate should return to 65 percent heart rate maximum during the recovery interval. (2) Determining training heart rate. The method for estimating training heart rate (train HR) involves first finding an individual's maximum, age-related heart rate (HR max): 220 minus (your age) = HR max 65 percent HR max = .65 (220 minus age) 85 percent HR max = .85 (220 minus age) 7. Aerobic Endurance Training. An individual trains the cardiovascular system with aerobic endurance training. "Aerobic" means that oxygen is used to release energy. Examples of aerobic exercise are such large-muscle group activities as walking, conditioning marches, running, nonsprint cycling, swimming, etc. In optimal aerobic training, there is sufficient cardiovascular overload which should occur by the appropriate, specific muscle groups. Simply stated, runners should run, swimmers should swim, and cyclists should cycle to improve that activity. a. Methods of aerobic training. Both interval training and continuous training enhance aerobic capacity as long as the intensity is sufficient to overload the aerobic system. Interval, continuous, and fartlek training are three common methods to improve aerobic fitness. (1) Interval aerobic training. Interval training uses intervals of work and rest. More work can then be accomplished than could normally be completed in a continuous-exercise workout. Interval intensity and duration, 4 d.

the length and type of rest interval, the number of work intervals (repetitions), and the number of repetition blocks (sets) per workout can all be modified in interval training. The work-recovery interval ratio is usually 1:1 or 1: 1.5. (2) Continuous aerobic training. Continuous or long slow distance training involves steady-paced exercise performed at either moderate or high aerobic intensity (65 percent to 85 percent heart rate maximum) for a sustained duration. Overload generally occurs by increasing exercise duration, although the better one gets, the more it takes to improve. (3) Fartlek training. Fartlek training is speed play. Fartlek training is an adaptation of interval and continuous training that is well suited for exercising over natural terrain. With this system, alternate running is done at fast and slow speeds on both a level and hilly course. b. Cross-training. Marines who train aerobically by running may find that lower impact aerobic activities such as cycling, swimming, deep-water running in place ("aquajogging"), and walking can complement their training. This may decrease common overuse and stress injuries. Cross-training workouts serve three major purposes: it provides a valid substitute for the training activities during injury periods; it also provides a mental break when a particular routine has gone flat. Moreover, cross-training can provide active rest-day activities. To provide active recovery, cross-training (supplemental) workouts generally will remain low intensity and brief in duration. FITT-P: For cardiovascular endurance training. Type: Aerobic endurance exercise that uses large muscle groups, in rhythmic movements. Continuous aerobic, interval aerobic, fartlek aerobic training. Frequency: Minimum of 3 nonconsecutive days per week. Preferably 3 - 6 days per week for maximum benefit. Duration: Minimum of 20 minutes of continuous activity. Preferably 30 - 50 minutes. Intensity: 65 percent to 85 percent HR max. Progression: Increase the frequency to 5 - 6 days per week. Increase the duration to 40 - 60 minutes. Exercising within the 65 percent to 85 percent HR max will insure progression. With cardiovascular adaptations the body will work harder to exercise within the training heart rate zone. 8. Conditioning Order. An important variable in fitness program is the sequence of exercises in the workout. The individual's strengths and weaknesses should be considered. The areas of weakness should demand priority in the Training (*) order. a. Warm-up (1) General warm-up. (2) Specific activity warm-up. Training (1) Flexibility training. (*) Motor skills training. (*) Muscular strength training. (*) Muscular endurance training. (*) Cardiovascular endurance training. Cool-down (1) Decreased activity intensity. (2) Stretching. Recovery. 5

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9. Adaptations to Physical Training Programs. The main objective of physical training is to cause adaptations to improve performance in specific tasks. Training must be carefully planned and evaluated. A Marine's body can be overtrained in which adaptation to the training is ineffective or in which risks of injury and illness can produce major setbacks. Proper exercise training and recovery will optimize one's ability to improve performance. a. Energy requirements, sources and usage. An individual's ability to perform is based on the ability to gain needed energy. Energy requirements for an activity may be short term or long term. Lower-intensity, long-term performance requires more energy from aerobic (in the presence of oxygen) energy systems. Physical training that enhances the individual's ability for prolonged endurance activities is referred to as aerobic training or endurance training. In contrast, higher-intensity, short-term performance uses energy without the need for oxygen (anaerobic); this type of training is called anaerobic training. Anaerobic training consists of many different training modes (types), from lifting weights to sprint running. b. Aerobic (cardiovascular endurance) training. Aerobic (endurance) training requires proper progression, variation, specificity and overload to improve performance. Many physical activities involve continuous movements mixed with bursts of sprint and power activities. Proper conditioning of the aerobic system is vital to an individual's ability to sustain these activities and adequately recover. Marines, especially, should be capable of sustaining low-intensity activities, most of which can be achieved using a wide variety of training methods and programs. (1) Effects of aerobic training. Aerobic overload training significantly improves several functions related to oxygen uptake, transport and use. Aerobic conditioning: (a) Increases energy levels. (b) Increases ability to mobilize and burn fat for energy. (c) Increases energy stores in muscles. (d) Increases heart size. (e) Decreases resting heart rate. (f) Increases efficiency of the heart and circulatory system. (g) Increases ability of the cardiorespiratory system to take-up and transport oxygen to working muscles. (h) Increases capability of working muscles to take-up and use oxygen. (i) Reduces blood pressure. c. Anaerobic training. Anaerobic training involves a wide range of muscular strength and endurance training methods. Sprint workouts, stair running, plyometrics, and resistance training are all part of an anaerobic conditioning program. Anaerobic training requires proper progression, variation, specificity and overload for maximum adaptation and improvement. (1) Effects of anaerobic training. (a) Increase in energy stores in muscles. (b) Increase muscle fiber size. (c) Delay the onset of fatigue. (d) Increase in muscle strength, endurance and power. (e) Increase in muscle tone. (f) Increase in sprint speed. (g) Increase in lean body mass (LBM). d. Other conditioning benefits. Finally, there are other excellent benefits to be gained from a comprehensive aerobic and anaerobic conditioning program, including: (1) Enhanced physical performance. (2) Reduced risk of injury. (3) Decreased rest and recovery. (4) Decreased time needed to acclimatize to different environments and altitudes. (5) Improved flexibility with stretching. (6) Body weight management. (7) Decreased tension. (8) Improved sleep. 6

(9) Improved mood. (10) Improved self-image. (12) Increased tolerance of pain. (13) Improved appetite control. (14) Enhanced ability to inhibit anxiety and depression. 10. Conclusion. Physical fitness is an inherent part of the Marine Corps. Proper conditioning allows a Marine to be the optimal contribution to mission accomplishment and unit readiness. Physical training and conditioning has several aspects which include muscular strength and endurance and cardiovascular endurance. To enhance their physical conditioning, Marines can use the FITT-P principle in a comprehensive strength training and aerobic conditioning program. NUTRITION, WEIGHT MANAGEMENT, AND PERFORMANCE Introduction. Individuals require an adequate, balanced nutritional lifestyle for optimal health and performance. What Marines eat influences their health, physical and mental performance, and combat physical readiness. Considering the abundance of food, nutritional deficiencies are surprising - a more significant nutritional problem is overnutrition from excessive amounts of calories, fat, cholesterol and sodium. This period of instruction focuses on what constitutes a healthy nutritional lifestyle, how to use nutrition to optimize physical performance and weight management, and how Marine leaders can encourage positive changes in these areas. 1. Energy. Energy may be defined as the capacity or ability to do work. Food consumed in the form of carbohydrate, fat, or protein molecules provides energy to the body. 2. Basic Foods and Functions. More than 50 known nutrients are needed by the body. These nutrients are divided into six classes: carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. The three essential energy nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Given the active lifestyles of the average Marine, his or her daily intake should consist of 60-70 percent carbohydrates, 15-25 percent protein and 10-20 percent fat. This is also the amount suggested by the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). a. Carbohydrates. Dietary carbohydrates are one of the most important nutrients for both health and performance. Marines involved in heavy endurance activities and training (prolonged conditioning marches) often require 70 percent or more caloric intake from carbohydrates. The two types of carbohydrates are simple and complex. One gram of carbohydrate supplies four kilocalories (KCal) of energy. (1) Simple carbohydrates. Simple sugars include glucose, fructose, and sucrose (table sugar), and can be found in foods such as candy, cake, soda and jelly. They supply "empty calories" with few useful nutrients. The RDA recommends that only 10 percent of total calories come from simple sugars. (2) Complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are made from chains of simple sugars and include foods such as pasta, bread, cereal, rice, fruits, and vegetables. (3) Glucose. Most ingested (dietary) carbohydrates are initially converted into blood glucose and used for energy. Blood glucose is the best fuel for muscles. (4) Stored glucose. Blood glucose is stored as glycogen in muscle, the liver and bloodstream. Glycogen is an efficient source of energy. After the glycogen stores are filled, the remaining glucose is converted to fat for long-term storage. (5) Fiber. Dietary fiber is the nondigestible portion of carbohydrate. The best sources are foods high in complex carbohydrates. Fiber may benefit weight management by creating a feeling of fullness without a high level of calories. b. Protein. Proteins are composed of amino acids and are found in both plant and animal products. Protein is used primarily to build and repair muscles. Eight of the 20 amino acids in proteins are essential, meaning they cannot be manufactured by the body and must be supplied in the diet. Protein from both plant and animal sources generally 7

contains all the essential amino acids and is considered complete. Protein rich foods include beef, fish, chicken and legumes. One gram of protein supplies four KCal of energy. The average recommended daily intake is 0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight. c. Fats and cholesterol. Fat is stored in large quantities in adipose tissue and represents a large potential energy source during low-intensity activities. It also provides insulation for vital organs. Dietary fats transport and store the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. One gram of fat supplies nine KCal of energy. (1) Energy source. If a Marine is trained for periods of low-level (60 to 70 percent aerobic capacity) activity, the body can derive up to 80 percent of its energy needs from fat stores. Carbohydrates (glycogen) are not only preserved for the brain and nervous system but remain available to support sudden intense (anaerobic) activity, i.e., sprinting or climbing obstacles. (2) Dietary fats. Dietary fats are categorized as either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats come primarily from animal products and are solid at room temperature. (Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut oil, palm oil and cocoa butter.) Unsaturated fats (most vegetable oils) are liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats are widely used in commercially prepared foods (crackers, cookies and pastries). Because they can become a significant source of fat in the diet, saturated fats should be minimized. (3) Essential fatty acids (EFA). Essential fatty acids are required for proper growth and healthy skin. EFAs, which are unsaturated fats, cannot be synthesized by the body and must be supplied by the diet. Some EFAs include corn oil, flax or linseed oil, and fish oils. (4) Overall dietary fat. The RDA for dietary fat states that no more than 30 percent of one's total calories should come from fat, and no more than 10 percent of daily calories should be from saturated fat. (5) Fat substitutes. Fat substitutes mimic the taste and feel of fat in the mouth. Food products with fat substitutes may help one lower his or her total fat and caloric intake. However, these foods should be consumed in moderation and should not take the place of more nutrient- and fiber-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains. (6) Cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance essential and unique to all animal life. The body can use body fat to produce sufficient cholesterol; it does not need to obtain cholesterol through the diet. When too much saturated fat is consumed, the body produces excess cholesterol which can put individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. d. Vitamins. The body cannot manufacture vitamins but requires them in small amounts. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are stored in the fat (adipose) tissues of the body. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body, so it is important to consume adequate amounts daily. Water-soluble vitamins include the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Taking too many vitamins may pose serious health hazards and can be expensive. Megadoses of fat-soluble vitamins can lead to potential liver and kidney damage. Vitamin supplements should not be used to make up for poor dietary habits. A daily multi-vitamin and mineral supplement may used to insure the RDA is met. e. Minerals. Minerals are also vital to the body's functioning. Over fifteen minerals have been identified but dietary allowances have been established for only six (calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron, zinc, and iodine). The major minerals include phosphorous, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium and chloride. The trace minerals are iron, iodine, copper, zinc, fluorine, selenium, manganese, molybdenum and chromium. All minerals are important to the body because they work together to perform essential functions in the body. f. Fluids. Water is another vital nutrient, acting as a lubricant between cells and regulating body temperature by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. If an individual is dehydrated, his or her urine will be darker yellow and will have a stronger odor than usual. Certain vitamins and mineral supplements may also change the color of one's urine. 3. Reading Nutrition Labels. Knowledge is the first step in helping a Marine develop proper nutritional lifestyles. Food labels may provide some useful information to guide individuals in more nutritious food selections.

a. Nutrition facts. The new food label is called Nutrition Facts." It provides information on the major nutrients. b. The daily value (DV). A new label reference value, the Daily Value, was created to help consumers see how foods may be part of a daily nutritional plan. c. Fat percentages. To calculate the percentage of fat calories in one serving, divide the value for Calories from fat by the total Calories and multiply by 100. For example if one serving contains 70 Calories from fat and the total number of Calories is 120, the food contains 58 percent fat Calories (70/120 X 100 = 58 percent). d. Other carbohydrates. As listed on nutrition labels, sugars include both natural and added sugars. Dietary fiber is total dietary fiber, but may be listed as soluble and insoluble. Other carbohydrates represent total carbohydrates minus sugars and dietary fiber. 4. Healthy Weight Management. The following is an excerpt from an article submitted to the Marine Corps Gazette: Every officer knows Marines are assigned to weight control because they eat too much and do not have any discipline. 'If you give me a fat body, I can PT that Marine into shape. Every officer knows a combination of not eating and running will help an overweight Marine make weight. Do not lift weights because this is just excess weight. Do not eat a lot of food and do not eat a day prior to weigh-in. Do not drink a lot of water because it will just add to your weight. Run, run, run, and run some more. If that does not work you may want to try to increase the size of your neck so you can beat the charts. This advice will guarantee that you will make weight for the next weigh-in and you will be okay.' In the February 1997 edition of the Marine Corps Gazette, Captains Palmer and Rabine suggest that many officers give this advice to overweight Marines, and observe that it is no wonder that weight control programs fail. Captains Mark T. Palmer & John D. Rabine, Weight Control: A Different Look, Marine Corps Gazette, February 1997, 19-23. a. Marine Corps guidance on Weight Control. Marine Corps Order 6100.10B Weight Control and Military Appearance provides direction on weight control as it represents a Marine's character to maintain a self -disciplined standard of ...health, fitness, and appearance. T he Marine Corps has traditionally been associated with a military image that is neat and trim in appearance. It is essential to the day-to-day effectiveness and combat readiness of the Marine Corps that every Marine maintain the established standards of health, fitness, and appearance. The habits of self-discipline required to gain and maintain a healthy body, inherent in the Marine Corps way of life, must be part of the character of every Marine. MCO 6100.10b, 1993. b. Weight management. Weight control should not be meeting the height-weight or body fat standard every six months through crash diets. It should not be a punishment for the Marine who ...eats too much, and is NOT simply physical training sessions. Weight MANAGEMENT programs can provide Marines with the tools they need to gain lean body mass, maintain body composition, or lose body fat, and ultimately physically prepare them for combat. c. Body weight. The focus on the scale during weigh-in is misleading. The scale measures total body weight and does not differentiate between lean body mass (muscle, bone, organs, etc.) and fat mass. Lean Body Mass (LBM) is what a body weighs minus body fat. A Marine may increase lean body mass and lose fat, but remains at the same body weight, a good weight gain. Many individuals mistakenly believe that all a person needs to do to lose weight is eat less. d. Percent body fat. Marines who are overweight should be tested to determine their percent body fat. When evaluating a Marine for weight management, leaders must consider that every Marine is different. Individuals should be educated about healthy nutritional lifestyles, how to physically train to lose fat and keep or build LBM, and how to modify their eating behavior. Male Marines must maintain a body fat of 18 percent or below to avoid being placed on weight control; female Marines' body fat must remain 26 percent or below. e. The low calorie diet. A low calorie diet virtually guarantees an additional weight gain in the future. When individuals starve themselves to make weight, they lose a little fat, a lot of LBM, and slow their metabolism. The 9

body has adjusted to maintain its slowed metabolism on fewer calories. When the Marine returns to his or her eating habits, the body stores the excess calories as fat. Additionally, since he or she now has less muscle mass, even fewer calories will be used than were burned PRIOR to dieting. The same Marine will try to cut calories again to make weight. The body will adjust again by slowing its metabolism. The result is a vicious cycle; this is the reason some Marines are on and off weight control programs. Marines must be thoroughly educated and counseled on weight management to begin lifestyle changes, not quick fixes. f. A comprehensive weight management program. Weight control problems are not easily remedied by simple advice for Marines to eat less and PT more. A comprehensive weight management program (gaining LBM, maintaining body weight, losing body fat) involves a balanced nutritional lifestyle, a physical training program, and appropriate behavior changes. (1) Proper nutrition. Adequate nutrition and appropriate caloric intake are solid goals for weight management: ENERGY BALANCE = ENERGY IN MINUS ENERGY OUT. The Marine desiring to INCREASE lean body mass (LBM) needs to have a positive energy balance. To maintain body weight, adequate nutrition and appropriate calories must be balanced with energy expenditure. To lose body fat a Marine needs a NEGATIVE energy balance. Individuals can monitor their caloric intake by counting calories or using the exchange plan. Using the latter, individuals are instructed to eat a specific number of exchanges within food groups. Exchanges represent amounts of different foods within a group that are equivalent in nutrition and calories, i.e., fat exchange, carbohydrate exchange, etc. (2) Physical training. Physical training is critical to a weight management program, benefitting both the body and the mind. Individuals may increase their energy expenditure considerably while experiencing improvements in mood, energy levels, physical appearance, and self-esteem. (3) Behavioral changes. To succeed in a weight management program, individuals must identify and modify the behaviors that cause the problem. Behavioral changes include learning the relationship between hunger and appetite and how to make healthier, nutritional choices. Exercise may have an effect on curbing appetite on a short-term basis. g. Gaining lean body mass. A weekly increase of one pound is a sound approach for gaining primarily muscle and not fat. To effectively increase LBM, one needs adequate rest and sleep, an appropriate increase in calories, and a proper resistance-training program. (1) Nutritional guidance. The Food Exchange System can be used as the basis for increasing calories to gain lean body weight. Increased calories should be in the form of three balanced meals plus several high-calorie, high-nutrient snacks, ensuring adequate protein for muscle growth. (2) Physical training guidance. One underlying principle of resistance-training programs is the overload principle, which simply means the muscles should be stressed beyond normal daily levels. Progressive resistance is another basic principle. This means that as an individual gains strength through the overload principle, he or she must progressively increase the resistance. Marines should incorporate aerobic exercise with resistance training to develop endurance and stamina. (3) FITT principle for LBM gain. The frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise (FITT principle) all contribute to the conditioning effect a Marine will get from an exercise program. The following chart applies the FITT principle in developing LBM. To increase LBM, one should exercise near the strength continuum performing fewer repetitions with greater resistance. One should begin with a weight he or she you can lift for 5 repetitions, and progressively increase the repetitions to 10. After reaching 10 repetitions, the individual should increase the resistance (weight) until he or she can only perform 5 repetitions. Then, the cycle is repeated.

FITT Component Type Frequency

Resistance Training supplemented with aerobic endurance training. 3-5 days per week. 10

Time Intensity

3-5 sets per exercise. 5-10 repetitions per set.

h. Losing body fat. The recommended fat loss is one to two pounds of bodyfat per week. This can be done by combining a low-calorie lifestyle with physical training. Fat-reduction training programs must involve large muscle groups for extended periods of time, i.e., aerobic endurance exercise. Resistance training is also needed to maintain LBM while burning fat. Moreover, helping Marines to identify when they are physiologically hungry (hunger) or psychologically hungry (appetite) will help them develop sound nutritional lifestyles. (1) Nutritional guidance. Marines can use the food exchange system to select low-calorie foods, thus making more nutritional choices in the chow hall. Individuals should become educated in nutrition and be aware of the hidden fats and empty calories in certain (many processed) foods. The intent is for Marines to make healthy nutritional choices without being forced and constantly controlled. (2) Physical training guidance. To burn fat, training sessions must involve aerobic endurance exercises. The following FITT principle mobilizes fat for use as an energy source. (a) FITT principle for burning fat: FITT Component Type Aerobic exercise, (running, cycling, hiking, swimming, etc.). Frequency 3-5 days per week. Time 20- 50 minutes. Intensity 60 percent to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate. (b) A common misconception is that overweight Marines do not need to build muscle. Actually, increased muscle mass burns more fat. Strength training should consist of three nonconsecutive days per week. All major muscle groups should be exercised with three sets of 8-10 repetitions. 5. Nutritional Guidelines for Improved Performance. Regular training increases the muscles' ability to store and use carbohydrates for energy production. However, there are some short-term nutritional steps one can take before endurance events (such as a long conditioning march) to improve performance. a. Carbohydrate loading. Two to three days before an endurance activity Marines should begin eating high carbohydrate meals that may include pasta, rice, potatoes, whole grain breads and cereals, etc., and prehydrate with water. Caffeine and alcohol intake should be curtailed as these will dehydrate the body. The night before the event, one should have a smaller carbohydrate meal and hydrate with water. A light carbohydrate snack before retiring may also be consumed. b. Pre-activity meal. In general, the pre-activity meal should allow for the stomach to be relatively empty at the start of the activity. It should help to prevent or minimize gastrointestinal distress and help the individual to avoid sensations of hunger, lightheadedness, or fatigue. This meal also provides adequate fuel (primarily carbohydrates) for the blood and muscles, and provides for an adequate amount of body water. (1) Carbohydrates. In general, a carbohydrate meal should be eaten about three to four hours prior to endurance activities. This allows the stomach to be relatively empty at the time of the event while minimizing hunger pangs. The meal should be high in complex carbohydrates, low in fat and protein, and easily digestible. Beans, spicy foods and bulk foods like bran products should be avoided. High-sugar foods can cause insulin rebound which results in a drop in blood glucose. Examples of pre-activity meals with substantial amounts of carbohydrate are presented in Appendix A, Table IV. (2) Fluids. Adequate fluid intake prior to activity is vital, particularly if the activity will be for a long duration or in a hot or humid environment. Again, caffeine and alcohol should be avoided. Individuals should also avoid large amounts of protein, as this increases water output of the kidneys. Taking in fluids up to 15 to 30 minutes prior to activities will help ensure adequate hydration.

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(a) Thirst mechanism. A substantial level of dehydration can occur before one feels thirsty. Therefore, fluid intake should be 8 to 12 ounces 15 minutes before the event, and 3 to 4 ounces every 10 to 15 minutes during the activity. Afterwards, one should take in 16 ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight lost. (b) Prolonged activities. For endurance activities lasting less than 60 minutes, water should be the primary fluid replacement. After one hour of activity, sports drinks can be beneficial in restoring fluid levels. (c) Fluid replacements. The best fluid replacement drink is one that tastes good, does not cause gastrointestinal distress, promotes rapid fluid absorption, and provides energy (8 ounces of sports drink should provide between 14 and 19 grams of carbohydrate, about 56 to 76 calories per serving). (3) General recommendations. Meals other than the pre-activity meal eaten on the same day should not be skipped. They should follow the basic principles discussed earlier. Morning Activities: Eat a pre-activity meal similar to breakfast; for example, Meal A in Table IV. Early to Mid-Afternoon Activities: Eat breakfast and lunch. Consume a more substantial breakfast, along with Meal B in Table IV. Late Afternoon Activities: Eat breakfast, lunch and a snack. Eat a substantial breakfast and lunch, and consume snacks that are appealing (such as fruit, bagels, or other easily digestible foods.) Evening Activities: Eat breakfast, lunch and a preactivity meal for dinner. (4) Liquid meals. Liquid meals have some advantages over solid meals for pre-activity nutrition; they have a high carbohydrate content, have no bulk, are easily digested and assimilated, and may be more practical than a solid meal. Most liquid meals are high in carbohydrates, low in protein and fat, and may have added vitamins and minerals. (a) Formula. The following formula will provide one quart of liquid meal: cup water. cup nonfat dry milk powder. 1/4 cup of a glucose polymer (available at running and health stores). 3 cups of skim milk. 1 teaspoon of flavoring for taste (cherry, vanilla or chocolate extract). (b) Liquid meal substitutes. Liquid meals should be used primarily as a substitute for pre-activity nutrition. They should not be used on a long-term basis to replace a balanced nutritional lifestyle. c. Eating during activities. There is no need to consume anything during most types of endurance activities except possibly carbohydrates and water. Carbohydrates taken during these activities may help delay the onset of fatigue, while water is critical to regulate body temperature. d. Eating after activities. Carbohydrates and fat are the main nutrients used during exercise and can be replaced easily from foods. For those individuals performing daily physical endurance events, their post-activity meal should stress complex carbohydrate foods. This will help replenish the muscle stores of glucose (glycogen) necessary for continued daily training at high intensity. e. Eating on the run. The following are nutritional choices of high -carbohydrate and low-fat foods that can be easily be bought, prepared, or packed. (1) Breakfast English muffins, unbuttered, with jelly. Whole wheat pancakes with syrup. French toast. Bran muffins, fat-free or low-fat. 12

High-fiber cereal. Hot whole grain cereal, oatmeal. Skim or low-fat milk. Orange juice. (2) Lunch or Dinner Low-fat sandwiches, no mayonnaise or high-fat sauces. Grilled chicken breast sandwich on whole grain bun. Baked or broiled fish sandwich. Lean roast beef sandwich, on a whole grain bun. Single, plain hamburger on a whole grain bun. Baked potato, with toppings on the side (add sparingly). Pasta dishes, spaghetti and macaroni, with low-fat sauces. Rice dishes. Lo mein noodles, not chow mein (fried noodles). Soups, rice and noodle. Salsas, made with tomatoes. Chicken or seafood tostadas, made with cornmeal tortilla. Bean and rice dishes. All whole grain and other breads. Salads, low-fat dressings. Salad bar, focus on vegetables and high-carbohydrate foods; avoid high-fat items. Pizza, thick crust, vegetable type with minimum cheese topping. Skim or low-fat milk. Orange juice. Frozen yogurt, fat-free or low-fat. Sherbet. (3) Snacks. See Appendix A, Table V for easily packed snacks. 6. Conclusion. Marines can optimize physical performance in combat-related and recreational activities if they are properly educated. All Marines should be educated about a weight management program that includes developing healthy lifestyles that include nutrition, exercise, and perhaps modified behavior. Effective weight management will not only keep a Marine off a mandated weight control program but will allow that individual to be a continued, healthy asset to the Marine Corps. APPENDIX A NUTRITION, PERFORMANCE AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT TABLES Table I: Foods high in carbohydrate content Fruit Exchange Vegetable Milk Exchange Meat Exchange Exchange Apples Corn Ice Milk Kidney Bananas Peas Skim Milk Beans Blueberries Lima Beans Yogurt, fruit Navy Beans Cantaloupe Potatoes Split Peas Cherries Sweet Potatoes Lentils Dried Fruits Squash Chestnuts Oranges Peaches Pears Pineapple Plums Tangerines

Grains/Cereal Exchange Whole Grains -Brown Rice -Granola -Oatmeal -Cereals -Whole Grain Breads, Crackers, Pasta, Cereals Enriched Grains Bagels -Biscuits

Sports Drinks/ Sports Bars Exceed Gatorade Gatorlode Exceed Sports Bar Power Bar

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-Cornbread -English Muffins -Macaroni -Noodles -Pasta -Cereals* -White Bread, Rice Dietary carbohydrates: Of the six Food Exchanges, the vegetable, fruit, grains and cereal exchanges are the three primary contributors of carbohydrates to the diet. Some foods in the meat and milk groups contain moderate to high amounts of carbohydrates. *Cereals may be whole wheat or enriched depending on the brand. Williams, MH, Nutrition for Fitness and Sport, Brown & Benchmark, Chicago, IL, 4th, 1995, p.86. Table II: Vitamins Vitamins Main Function Food Sources A Maintenance of skin, bone growth, vision and Eggs, cheese, margarine, milk, carrots, broccoli, teeth. squash and spinach. D Bone growth and maintenance. Milk, egg yolk, tuna and salmon. E Prevents oxidation of polyunsaturated fats. Vegetable oils, whole-grain cereal, bread, dried beans, and green leafy vegetables. K Blood clotting. Cabbage, green leafy vegetables, and milk. Thiamin (B1) Energy-releasing reactions. Pork, ham, oysters, breads, cereals, pasta, and green peas. Riboflavin (B2) Energy-releasing reactions. Milk, meat, cereals, pasta, and dark green vegetables. Niacin Energy-releasing reactions. Poultry, meat, tuna, cereal, pasta, bread, nuts, and legumes. Pyridoxine (B6) Metabolism of fats and proteins and formation of Cereals, bread, spinach, avocados, green beans, red blood cells. and bananas. Cobalamin Formation of red blood cells and functioning of Meat, fish, eggs and milk. (B12) nervous system. Folacin Assists in forming proteins and in formation of Dark-green leafy vegetables, wheat germ. red blood cells. Pantothenic Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, Bread, cereals, nuts, eggs, and dark green Acid formation of hormones. vegetables. Biotin Formation of fatty acids and energy-releasing Egg yolk, leafy green vegetables. reactions. C Bones, teeth, blood vessels and collagen. Citrus fruits, tomato, strawberries, melon, green pepper and potato. Steen SN, Brownell KD, Nutrition, in ACSM, Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 2 nd ed., Lea & Feiberger, Philadelphia, PA, 1993:466-482. Table III: Minerals Vitamins Calcium Phosphorous Magnesium Sodium Main Function Formation of bones, teeth, nerve impulses and blood clotting. Formation of bones and teeth, acid-base balance. Activation of enzymes and protein synthesis. Acid-base balance, body water balance, and 14 Food Sources Cheese, sardines, dark green vegetables, clams, milk. Milk, cheese, meat, fish, poultry, nuts and grains. Nuts, meats, milk, whole-grain cereal, and green leafy vegetables. Most foods except fruit.

Meat, milk, many fruits, cereals, vegetables, and legumes. Chloride Table salt, seafood, milk, meat, and eggs. Sulfur Protein foods. Iron Meats, legumes, eggs, grains, and dark-green, vegetables. Zinc Component of enzymes, digestion. Milk, shellfish and wheat bran. Iodine Component of thyroid hormone. Fish, dairy products, vegetables and iodized salt. Copper Component of enzymes, digestion. Shellfish, grains, cherries, legumes, poultry, oysters, and nuts. Manganese Component of enzymes, fat synthesis. Greens, blueberries, grains, legumes, and fruit. Fluoride Maintenance of bones and teeth. Water, seafood, rice, soybeans, spinach, onions and lettuce. Chromium Glucose and energy metabolism. Fats, meats, clams and cereals. Selenium Functions with Vitamin E anti-oxidant. Fish, poultry, meats, grains, mil, and vegetables. Molybdenum Component of enzymes. Legumes, cereals, dark-green leafy vegetables. Steen SN, Brownell KD, Nutrition, in ACSM, Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 2 nd ed., Lea & Feiberger, Philadelphia, PA, 1993:466-482. Table IV: Examples of Pre-activity meals Meal A Meal B Glass of orange juice. One cup low-fat yogurt. Bowl of oatmeal. One banana. Two slices of toast with jelly. One toasted bagel. Sliced peaches with skim milk. One ounce turkey breast. One-half cup of raisins. Williams, MH, Nutrition for Fitness and Sport, Brown & Benchmark, Chicago, Ill 4th, 995, p. 86. Each meal contains about 500-600 Calories. Table V: Easily Packed Snacks for Humps, or Brown Bag Lunches Bread/Cereal Exchange Meat Exchange Vegetable Exchange Bagels Small can of baked beans Sliced carrots Pita Bread Cooked chicken or turkey, small 2 oz Broccoli stalks Muffins commercial packages, packed in airtight Cauliflower pieces Fig Newtons plastic bags. Tomatoes Vanilla Wafers Small can of sardines Canned vegetable Whole Wheat Crackers Peanut butter juices Graham Crackers Reduced-fat cheese slices Certain Dry Cereals Nuts Wheat Chex Grapenuts Plain Popcorn Fruit Exchange Milk Exchange Small cans of fruit in own Small containers of skim or low-fat milk. juice Dried skim milk powder to be Small containers of fruit juice reconstituted. Oranges Packaged yogurt. Apples 15

Potassium

nerve function. Acid-base balance reactions, body water balance, and nerve function. Gastric juice formation and acid-base balance. Component of tissue, cartilage. Component of hemoglobin and enzymes.

Other raw fruits Dried fruits Williams, MH, Nutrition for Fitness and Sport, Brown & Benchmark, Chicago, IL, 4th, 1995, p. 86. INJURY PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION Introduction. Marines by nature perform vigorous physical activity and training. They risk injuries to muscles, bones, tendons, or ligaments, also known as musculoskeletal injuries. Leaders must understand the potential for injuries associated with physical activity and training. This includes recognizing certain conditions or warning signs that could lead to injury. The earlier the injuries are identified, evaluated, and aggressively treated, the more quickly Marines are back on duty. 1. Occurrence of Musculoskeletal Injuries. Musculoskeletal injuries are the most frequent type of injuries encountered throughout the Marine Corps during training and in operational environments other than combat. Fortunately, many severe and minor musculoskeletal injuries are preventable if recognized and treated early. Most Marine Corps conditioning programs involve vigorous weight-bearing activities; with these come higher injury rates. The optimal physical conditioning program includes a combination of weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing activities. 2. Risk Factors for Injuries. Risk factors for weight bearing, physical training-related injuries are categorized as either extrinsic or intrinsic. a. Extrinsic risk factors. Extrinsic factors are variables external to the Marine, such as training parameters, environmental conditions, equipment, and technique. (1) Training parameters (a) Training errors. Higher risks of injury are associated with greater frequency, higher intensity, and longer training sessions. To minimize the risk of injury, Marines should progress with any new activity gradually so that the overloaded muscles, tendons, and ligaments have time to recover. Fortunately, the individual can easily modify training frequency, duration, and intensity to reduce the risks of injury. (b) Type of training. The type of activity also determines the risks of injury. Repetitive-motion, weight-bearing exercises, such as running, conditioning marches, and other such training, commonly lead to overuse injuries such as stress fractures and Achilles tendinitis. Activities which require dexterity, balance, and skill - such as the Obstacle Course, cycling, and skiing, more often lead to traumatic, acute injuries (broken bones or severe sprains). (2) Environmental conditions. Running up and down hills places more stress on the musculoskeletal system. Various surfaces such as roads, sidewalks, trails, or grass will also affect the risks of injury for running and conditioning marches. Running on softer, more shock-absorbent, but irregular surfaces such as trails or grass may reduce the risk of overuse injuries, but increase the risk of acute traumatic injuries such as ankle sprains. (3) Equipment. Using improper training equipment also affects the risks of injury. Cross-trainers may be used in several athletic activities, but cushioning, support, and stability for specific events are sacrificed for economy. Old or worn footwear may equate to having an anatomic defect and result in injuries. (4) Technique. Improper and outdated physical training activities, stretching, and lifting techniques also place Marines at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. b. Intrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors pertain to the individual's anatomy, biomechanics, or physiology. Some factors include poor flexibility, lack of physical fitness, and inadequate rehabilitation. (1) Flexibility. Individuals with very little flexibility may sustain more muscle and tendon strains, whereas those who are highly flexible experience more sprains and dislocations. (2) Physical fitness. Those who are less fit experience higher relative levels of physiologic and 16

biomechanical stress at any given level of activity. (3) Inadequate rehabilitation. Failure to rehabilitate an injury may leave a muscle, tendon, or ligament weak, predisposing it to injury. 3. Training Injuries. Injuries from physical training can be broadly classified as either acute (traumatic) or chronic (overuse) injuries. Figure 1 provides a summary of common injuries. a. Acute injuries. Acute traumatic injuries result when ligaments, bones or muscle-tendon units are subjected to an abrupt force, such as twisting an ankle on a trail or breaking a bone in contact with an obstacle, i.e., an opponent's jaw. The two most common traumatic injuries are sprains and strains. (1) Sprains. Injuries to ligaments are termed sprains. Ligaments are connective tissues that connect bones or cartilage; they provide support and strength to joints. Sprains are classified into three categories: first, second, and third degree. (a) First-degree sprains. First-degree sprains occur when the fibers within the ligament are stretched. There is mild pain and swelling but no joint instability. (b) Second-degree sprains. Second-degree sprains are more severe, with partial tearing of the ligament and possibly the joint capsule. There is severe pain and swelling and considerable loss of strength. A second-degree sprain inadequately treated may result in further injury or complete tearing of the ligament. (c) Third-degree sprains. Third-degree sprains result from a complete tear of the ligament. There is severe pain at the time of injury and obvious joint instability. Third degree sprains usually require reconstructive surgery and should be promptly evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon (bone doctor). (2) Strains. Strains are commonly referred to as muscle pulls and generally result from stretching or tearing muscle tissue. Strains are classified as first-, second- or third-degree strains by the severity of muscle damage and the resulting loss of function. (a) First-degree strains. First-degree strains produce mild signs and symptoms with minimal local pain. There is often a sensation of muscle tightness with activity. (b) Second-degree strains. Second-degree strains are more severe, with partial tearing of the injured muscle. There is substantial pain, considerable loss of function, and discoloration from bruising. (c) Third-degree strains. Third-degree strains cause marked muscle disruption and possible avulsion of the muscle-tendon unit. These injuries usually require surgical intervention and should also be promptly evaluated by a bone doctor. (d) Muscle strain restoration. Most strains of the lower extremity are mild to moderate in severity but may require up to three weeks for recovery. More severe muscle strains may require several months to heal. Muscle strains often recur, particularly if there has been inadequate rehabilitation. Both flexibility and strength of the injured part should be restored to near full capacity before returning to activity. (3) Fractures and dislocations. Fractures (broken bones) and dislocations (separation of joints) are more serious but less frequent injuries. Individuals with these injuries should be immobilized and transported immediately to an appropriate medical facility for evaluation and treatment. (4) Blisters. Blisters result from friction between the skin and equipment. The blister top should remain intact and be covered with sterile dressing to promote faster healing and reduce the risk of infection. If the blister is painful and must be punctured, this should be done in sterile conditions. The area should remain clean and covered. b. Chronic injuries. Overuse injuries result from small, repetitive, overload forces on the musculoskeletal system. Although some degree of trauma is likely with any training program, these small repetitive forces may 17

eventually result in a noticeable injury. Common overuse injuries include tendinitis, strains, sprains, and stress fractures. (1) Tendinitis. Tendinitis, or painful inflammation of a tendon, results from the repetitive stress of forceful muscle contractions. Tendon overload occurs more frequently with eccentric (lengthening) muscle contractions, such as running downhill or lowering weight, than with concentric contractions (shortening). (2) Sprains and strains. Many sprains and strains are acute injuries. When they result from or are aggravated by overuse, they are then classified as chronic injuries. Whatever the cause, the symptoms are the same as for acute injuries but are generally milder. Treatment is the same as for acute injuries. (3) Stress fractures. Most stress fractures from overuse occur to the lower extremities, especially in the tibia of the leg and metatarsal of the feet. They occur in response to repetitive overloading forces to bones during activities such as running, walking or marching. Any individual with aching bone pain from exercise which does not abate in a few days or worsens should be evaluated by appropriate medical personnel. (4) Shin splints. Shin splints (i.e., shin soreness) is a vague term for overuse injurie s involving the lower leg. This injury may involve inflammation or stresses to the muscle-tendon units attached to the tibia or the bone itself. Rapid changes in intensity, frequency or duration of activities such as running, walking, marching, or biking can result in these conditions. (5) Low back injuries. Low back pain is a common symptom of injury either associated with or exacerbated by exercise. Low back pain resulting from a musculoskeletal injury may indicate damage to the vertebrae, discs, or the back and abdominal muscles. If neurologic symptoms develop, i.e., pain radiating into the buttocks or down one or both legs, numbness or tingling in the legs, or weakness, a physician should be consulted. Chronic back pain of unknown origin and severe pain are additional reasons to consult a physician. (a) Initial care of back injuries. The most common causes of low back pain are sprains or strains. Initial treatment consists of rest, ice and anti-inflammatory medication such as aspirin or motrin. A few days of complete bed rest may also be beneficial, but longer periods of complete rest may be counterproductive. (b) Preventing back injuries. The best strategy for preventing back strains and sprains is an overall conditioning program that includes nonballistic stretching of the back muscles, hamstrings and hip muscles and exercises specifically to strengthen not only the back but the abdomen as well. (6) Overuse injury care. Pain occurring at the beginning of exercise, disappearing during activity, and then returning in the cool down phase indicates a soft tissue injury. Pain that persists during exercise and improves with rest suggests bone injury. Immediate care is essentially the same for all overuse conditions: active rest, ice, compression, elevation and anti-inflammatory medication. 4. Basic Principles of Care for Musculoskeletal Injuries. The objectives of initial treatment of training-related injuries are to decrease pain, limit swelling and excessive inflammation that might slow the healing process, and prevent further injury. In acute injuries, these objectives may be accomplished by a combination of rest, ice, compression and elevation of the injured part (RICE). Chronic injuries may require additional treatment modalities, such as heat or ultrasound, and therapeutic exercises. Anti-inflammatory medication may be helpful for both chronic and acute injuries. a. Rest. For both acute and chronic conditions, the initial rest period should be at least 24 to 48 hours until inflammation has lessened. For some mild cases of acute and chronic conditions, rest may be "active rest," requiring only a decrease in the intensity, duration and frequency of exercise. In most cases normal exercise may be resumed when activity is pain free. b. Ice. Ice and other cold applications (cryotherapy) are used to reduce swelling, bleeding, inflammation, and pain. Cryotherapy is especially helpful in the first 24 to 72 hours following acute injuries. For chronic injuries, cold applications help limit inflammation, particularly when daily activities reactivate the inflammatory process. Common types of cold therapy include ice packs, ice baths, ice towels, ice massage, gel packs, and chemical packs. 18

The type, duration and frequency of application of cold should be specifically tailored for each injury. Application of ice should be for only 20 minutes, or increased swelling and bleeding may result. (1) Acute injuries. Cold applications may be used on acute injuries every hour for the first several hours (20 minutes on, 40 minutes off). Later, they can be applied twice a day if pain has diminished. Some injuries, especially those to the hands or feet, may be immersed in a cold water bath made by adding ice to cold water. (2) Chronic injuries. For chronic injuries, ice massage with ice frozen in a paper cup is an effective means to apply cold locally. Slow, circular movements are applied for 20 minutes. Brief applications may be sufficient for tendinitis, bursitis and sprains. Ice massage two to three times per day with range-of-motion exercises can be effective in treating these chronic injuries. Caution should be used as cold injuries may result from improper application. c. Compression. Compression helps to reduce swelling and bleeding. It is achieved with direct pressure or elastic wraps. Compression enhances the benefits of cold and may be applied simultaneously by wrapping an ice pack over an elastic bandage. Care should be taken not to compromise circulation with excessive compression. d. Elevation. Elevating the injured area decreases blood flow and excessive pressure. This allows gravity to assist in tissue drainage and decreasing swelling. For elevation to be most effective, the injured extremity should be raised above the level of the heart and placed on a comfortable padded surface. e. Heat. Heat therapy (thermotherapy) is a commonly used treatment to relieve pain, increase blood flow, and reduce stiffness. Heat therapy should not be used until two to three days after an acute injury because it may increase swelling. Furthermore, heat should not be applied when swelling and bleeding persist because it may aggravate inflammation. Heat application is not advised for patients with impaired sensation, skin circulation or thermal regulation. f. Anti-inflammatory medication. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin), or naproxen (Naprosyn/Anaprox) are used to treat both acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries. They are most beneficial in relieving chronic inflammatory conditions like tendinitis and bursitis and are also good pain relievers. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is not an NSAID but is a good analgesic. Therefore, it is useful to relieve pain but not to reduce inflammation. All medication should be taken as directed by a physician. 5. Preventing Musculoskeletal Injuries. Many musculoskeletal injuries can be prevented or made less serious by reducing or eliminating risk factors. Prevention includes a gradual progression of training, the individualization of exercise activities, a good warm-up and cool-down, proper stretching, and use of appropriate equipment. A comprehensive program of physical fitness will also assist in injury prevention. Such a program includes stretching, strength training, endurance training, proper lifting techniques, and good motor skills. a. Progression of training. Probably the most common mistake individuals make is progressing too quickly. The cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal systems must be overloaded to make improvements in physical fitness. If the overload is too great too soon, however, the systems break down rather than building up (overtraining principle). For optimal fitness improvements and injury prevention, training should increase gradually. This will allow the body to recover. b. Individualization of training. Optimally, a physical fitness program should be balanced to develop all fitness components (endurance, strength, flexibility, etc.). To improve fitness and prevent injuries, an individual's program should be tailored to him or her to some extent. As the individual's fitness and experience increase, he or she can progressively increase the duration, intensity and frequency of exercise. c. Warm-up. A structured warm-up prepares the body for more vigorous activity and will reduce the risk of injury. Adequate warm-up allows a gradual redistribution of blood flow to the muscles. The increased blood flow to exercising muscle has a literal warming effect, which increases the elasticity of connective tissue and other muscle components. The warm-up should last 15 to 20 minutes, gradually progressing to target activity levels and involving large muscle groups.

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d. Cool-down. An appropriate cool-down period is recommended to allow the body to gradually return to the resting state. The cool-down should last 10 to 15 minutes and involve the same large muscle groups as the exercise activity. e. Stretching. Stretching exercises increase or maintain the range of motion of joints. This theoretically reduces the risk of injury to tight muscles and joints with constricted range. Static stretching is recommended - NO bouncing. The stretch position of an exercise should be held from 10 seconds to 60 seconds. Stretching should be performed AFTER muscles are warmed up and may be incorporated into the warm-up and cool-down routine. f. Protective equipment. The most important item of equipment for weight-bearing activities is a good shoe or boot. Individuals should select appropriate footwear offering maximum protection for a particular activity. The shoe should provide adequate shock absorbency, heel stability, forefoot flexibility and durability for the activity. For instance, a running shoe is designed with the right amount of shock absorbency for the impact of running and appropriate lateral stability. It does NOT have the right amount of lateral support, traction and durability for basketball which requires more lateral support. Individuals who hyperpronate or supinate may require a prescription for orthotics if they experience injuries associated with physical training or activity. All footwear should be well maintained and replaced or resoled when excessive wear is apparent. g. Proper lifting techniques. Establishing a good base of support (i.e., feet at shoulder width apart and one foot ahead of the other) and maintaining the natural curves of the spine when lifting or reaching will reduce the risk of back injury. The back muscles, tendons and ligaments are most efficient in this position. Individuals should also keep their center of gravity within their base of support to reduce the risk of injury. h. Proper exercise biomechanics. Total body strength is important to prevent back problems. The back is supported by the back, abdominal, and upper leg muscles. Weights should always be lifted using the leg muscles. If the legs are not strong, there is a greater demand on the muscles, tendons and ligaments of the back. i. Monitoring warning signs of injury. Marines who train and those in leadership positions should monitor for signs of early or impending injury. Fatigue or lack of enthusiasm are indicators that exercise intensity or frequency is too great, or that rest and recovery are inadequate. The remedy for these symptoms is decreased intensity and frequency of activity, and in some instances a period of complete rest before resumption. Pain is another important warning sign. It indicates that a body part has been overstressed or injured. Training should be curtailed until the pain improves or abates. If adequate changes in training are not made in response to warning signs, overuse injuries will result. j. Proactive injury prevention strategy. A proactive injury prevention strategy will optimize performance and increase readiness and productivity. Again, a program of musculoskeletal injury prevention involves: Proper physical training warm-up. Proper stretching. Proper physical training progression. Proper strengthening program. Proper endurance program. Cool-down. Proper lifting techniques and equipment. Monitoring warning signs. 6. Rehabilitation. As stated earlier, failure to rehabilitate an injury may leave a muscle, tendon, or ligament weak, predisposing it to injury. Rehabilitation is defined as restoration, not only to daily activity but to physical training. The three phases of rehabilitation are immediate care, restoring range of motion and strength, and return to physical training. If Marines include these three phases in their recovery, they will greatly reduce the chance of recurrent injuries. a. 4. b. Restoring range of motion (ROM) and strength. ROM and strength exercises should begin as soon as pain free activity is possible. This phase is the most crucial part of rehabilitation. RICE is usually applied during this 20 Immediate care. Immediate care includes applying the RICE principle as explained previously in paragraph

phase as well to hasten progress in ROM and strength. (1) ROM. ROM exercises are used to improve the joint range of motion and muscle flexibility. ROM exercises can be either passive or active. (2) Strength exercises. Strength exercises are applied after ROM is established. They are specific to the injured part and range from performing isometric contractions (applying force against an immovable object) to using exercise machines. c. Return to physical training. After the individual has regained his ROM and strength, he or she should develop the endurance, motor skills, and proprioception (sensory awareness of one's position in space) necessary to return to play. 7. Conclusion. Most training injuries result from excessive intensity, duration, or frequency of a physical training activity. Training routines should be based on each Marine's physical fitness level and potential risk factors. The majority of exercise-related injuries can be prevented by the use of good judgment and moderation. Periodic re-evaluation of training should be conducted, especially if warning signs of injury such as pain, fatigue or markedly decreased performance occur. If an injury does occur, the individual should cease training and receive prompt treatment. Individuals should seek medical attention when an injury is severe or if symptoms persist after rest and first aid measures. Moreover, proper rehabilitation is critical to avoid the recurrence of an injury. Figure 1. Summary of Common Physical Training Induced Chronic (Overuse) Injuries Location Signs/Symptoms Treatment Bony prominence Bursae Pain, swelling, warmth, limitation of RICE* motion. Anti-inflammatory** Tendinitis Tendon Pain, swelling, limitation of motion. RICE* Anti-inflammatory** Patellar-femoral Knee cap, patellar tendon, Pain, grating, instability. RICE* syndrome cartilage, ligament Anti-inflammatory** Sprain Ligament Same as acute but milder. RICE* Anti-inflammatory** Strain Muscle, muscle-tendon unit Same as acute but milder. RICE* Anti-inflammatory** Stress fracture Bone Persistent pain, X-ray/Bone scan. RICE* Anti-inflammatory** Low back injury Vertebrae, disk, ligament, Pain, limitation of motion, neurological RICE* muscles of back symptoms. Anti-inflammatory** Shin splints Bone, tendon, fascia of Pain, swelling. RICE* lower leg Anti-inflammatory** Metatarsalgia Bone, joint, nerves of foot Pain, swelling. RICE* Anti-inflammatory** Jones BH, Reynolds KL, Rock PB, Moore MP, Exercise-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries: Risks, Prevention, and Care, Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, American College of Sports Medicine, 2nd ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1993:378-393. * RICE = Active Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. ** Reconstructive surgery may be required. Type Bursitis COMBAT PHYSICAL READINESS TRAINING Introduction. The Marine Corps' purpose is to serve as ...an expeditionary force in readiness. Physical readiness training in the Marine Corps is principally ..to prepare Marines to physically withstand the rigors of combat. All other goals of physical training must support the physical requirements of combat. The idea that only infantry or reconnaissance units face the physical demands of combat is wrong. Commanders should not allow this error to influence the priority they give to the physical readiness training of combat support, combat service support, aviation, and headquarters units. Physical readiness training for combat has a high priority for all Marines. Units and their 21

leaders that do not have the mental and physical strength to overcome fear will not be able to fight effectively. 1. History of Marine Physical Readiness. Every war has revealed Marine military physical deficiencies during the initial periods of mobilization (FMFRP 01-B). Frequently, casualties in initial engagements were attributed to ... the inability of Marines to physically withstand the rigors of combat over rugged terrain and under unfavorable climatic conditions. Costly lessons learned from Marine experiences in several wars over a period of years led to an increasing interest in the physical conditioning of Marines. Marines cannot afford to emphasize physical readiness during wartime and de-emphasize it during peacetime. 2. The Marine Corps Philosophy and Principles of Training. The history of battle, the experience of commanders, and the wisdom of Marine leaders all confirm the direct correlation between training and victory in battle. Successful combat units train as they intend to fight and fight as they are trained. Based on this, the Marine Corps has developed the basic philosophy that training must have (Unit Training Management Guide, FMFM 0-1): a. Mandate for physical readiness training (PRT). The Marine Corps mandate for physical readiness training is simple. Combat-ready units should be manned with motivated, disciplined, and proficient Marines "...conditioned through physically tough and mentally demanding training that runs from individual Marines, through drills to combined arms, to joint and combined exercises." Quality physical training in the Marine Corps must be a way of life. The battlefield fixes the directions and goals of training and makes rigorous physical, psychological and moral demands. Physical training must make Marines and leaders, "...physically and mentally tough enough to survive and to win..." under conditions of extreme fear and fatigue. 3. Physical Readiness Training Leadership. The full development of a Marine's resources is not all physical. The Physical Readiness Training for Combat reference publication (FMFRP 0-1B) recognizes to be an effective leader in developing physical readiness, mind and attitude are also important to success. Leadership helps to ... promote an understanding of the value of physical readiness, maintain a positive approach, and seek cooperation and develop morale. a. Understanding the value of physical readiness. The desire to be physically ready should be instilled in all Marines. Marines take greater interest in their individual physical fitness if they understand the benefits of physical training. Leaders should also impress ... the relation of physical readiness to survival in combat on their Marines. b. Developing morale. Combat physical readiness training is strenuous and demanding. It is a responsibility of leadership to create a positive atmosphere for training. For those Marines needing remedial training, an effective physical training program is essential to counter and eliminate weaknesses. As physical readiness grows, morale also grows. 4. Physical Demands of Combat. FMFRP 01-B describes three primary elements of effective physical training for combat: muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and a competitive, combative spirit. a. Lower body physical demands. Demands of lower body flexibility, agility, muscular strength and endurance, and cardiovascular endurance include: (1) Marching long distances under load and functioning effectively at the destination. (2) Moving quickly and evasively under fire. (3) Carrying wounded Marines to safety. b. Upper body physical demands. Demands of upper body flexibility, agility, muscular strength and endurance, and cardiovascular endurance include: (1) Rapidly employing crew-served weapons. (2) Handling large-caliber ammunition. (3) Clearing walls, cliffs and other obstacles. (4) Performing field maintenance on aircraft or heavy machinery. c. Competitive, combative spirit. Demands of a competitive, combative spirit include: (1) Mental and emotional training. (2) Vigorous physical conditioning. 22

(3) Physical aggressiveness. (4) Overcoming natural physical fear, which leads to fatigue. 5. Combat Physical Readiness. Physical Readiness Training (PRT) for Combat states that total combat readiness includes both technical proficiency, and mental and physical fitness. It defines a physically fit Marine as one who can achieve a skillful and sustained performance and can recover from exertion rapidly. A physically fit Marine also has the desire to complete the assigned task and the confidence to face any situation. a. Objective of combat physical readiness training. The objective of the Marine Corps PRT program is to develop individuals and units who are able and ready to accomplish the mission in training and combat. Fitness programs can assist in attaining combat physical readiness by developing a Marine's flexibility, motor skills (agility, balance, coordination), muscular strength and endurance, and cardiovascular endurance. (1) Flexibility and motor skills training. A Marine must be able to change direction quickly and as effectively as possible. The ability to react effectively (agility) and to maintain body position during rapid changes of direction is important to survival. Agility is the ability to move all parts of the body in a balanced, efficient and concerted effort. Marines can develop their agility by developing balance, coordination, and reactive movements with plyometric exercises and obstacle courses. (2) Muscular strength and endurance training. Every Marine needs enough strength ...to perform the heaviest task encountered in routine and emergency activities. Physical Readiness Training (PRT) for Combat recognizes that strength is required in the arm and shoulder girdle, abdomen, back and legs. Performing both resistance and interval training will optimize a Marine's muscular strength and endurance. (3) Cardiovascular endurance training. Marines need stamina to exert a ...maximum ability without undue fatigue. Cardiovascular endurance will allow Marines to continue the fight under the most tiring combat conditions and to sustain near maximum effort over a longer period of time. b. Principles of physical readiness. Marines should progress with a careful program of training to optimize physical readiness training benefits and minimize the risk of injury. A progressive overload program will bring a Marine to a higher state of conditioning. An effective physical training program concurrently develops strength, endurance and basic motor skills. Some programs fail because the routine becomes boring. The more successful programs include conditioning activities (variety with progression), competitive events (knowledge of progress), and military physical skill development (application of progress). Training consistency is crucial, with frequent conditioning preferred. c. Physical motor skills. Developing military physical skills is essential to personal safety and effective combat performance. As flexibility and agility are developed then higher physical skill levels can be attained: (1) Marching under load. (2) Sprinting and running for prolonged periods. (3) Jumping to clear obstacles and jumping down from heights. (4) Changing body direction rapidly while running. (5) Vertically climbing ropes, poles, walls and cargo nets. (6) Traversing horizontal ropes, pipes and ladders. (7) High crawling and low crawling for speed and stealth. (8) Throwing grenades for distance and accuracy. (9) Vaulting low objects (fences and barriers) with hand assists. (10) Carrying objects and evacuating casualties. (11) Maintaining proper body balance on narrow walkways and at heights above normal. (12) Contacting the ground from standing, running and jumping postures. 6. Physical Readiness Training Leadership Functions. FMFRP 0-1B recognizes the commitment of Marine leaders to support PRT. a. Commanders PRT leadership. Commanders at all levels should conduct physical training. The Unit Training Management Guide (FMFM 0-1) states that the commander should train Marines to be physically fit and to 23

have the combative aggressive spirit essential to win on the battlefield. To achieve this goal, commanders should: - Lead by personal example. - Instill command interest and present to Marines the importance of PRT to the welfare of the command. - Allot sufficient time for the achievement of objectives and monitor the use of PRT time. - Assign and utilize qualified personnel to supervise and conduct PRT. - Assess the physical readiness of Marines and units. - Evaluate the program. b. Subordinate leaders should: - Schedule PRT using the principles of physical conditioning. - Ensure that all Marines participate in PRT. - Establish an objective for each PRT program. - Make remedial physical training available to strengthen individual weaknesses. - Make PRT effective and efficient. - Ensure that PRT follow the progressive overload principle. - Insist on a positive approach to PRT. - Guide small-unit leaders concerning approved techniques, directives and literature. - Personally participate in PRT sessions.

7. Phases of Training Management. The Unit Training Management Guide (FMFM 0-1) identifies five phases of training management; analysis, design, development, implementation and maintenance. All five phases occur simultaneously. a. Unit physical readiness training management

(1) Analysis and design. Planning requires a mission statement from higher headquarters. It also requires feedback from evaluation of current unit and individual proficiency. The mission statement should include goals and objectives, resources, and priorities. Commanders should analyze tasks performed by unit and individuals. They can then determine the specific conditioning needs such as muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, agility, and flexibility. Leaders must also assess the unit's and individual's current level of physical readiness. Deficient areas must be given priority in the training program. To design a training program, short-, mid- and long-range needs (goals) should be developed. (2) Development. Effective PRT programs should follow the concepts and principles previously described. Each training session should include a warm-up, physical conditioning, cool-down and recovery component. Conditioning exercises for all major muscle groups can be made from the needs analysis. Exercises developed for the physical conditioning component will follow the FITT -P principle, or frequency, intensity, time and type of activity. The following periods are included in the training cycle. (a) General conditioning period. The general conditioning period is divided into three phases: muscular size and endurance, muscular strength, and muscular power. The first phase develops a conditioning base. This consists of nonspecific exercises that train all major muscle groups. During the strength phase, more activity-specific movements are introduced. Many of these exercises involve multiple joints and should be trained first. During the power phase, activity-specific motor activities should be placed first in the exercise session. This includes multiple-joint exercises such as plyometrics and speed drills. -Muscular size and endurance, and cardiovascular endurance (1-6 weeks, nonspecific activities. As time approaches the PRT program-activities should become more specific: low-intensity and high-repetitions, follow appropriate recovery guidelines.) -Muscular strength (Gradually phase in more specific training activities. Increase intensity to 80 percent maximum with moderate-repetitions, follow recovery guidelines.) -Muscular power (Gradually phase in more specific training activities. Increase intensity to 90 percent maximum with low-repetitions, full recovery between bouts of exercise.) -Emphasize PT gear, limit frequency of boots and utilities. (b) Transition period. The next period is the transition period, where the Marine performs all activities 24

at a low level of intensity and repetitions. This allows for physical recovery and mental preparation. - Duration of 1-2 weeks. - Phase in specific PRT program activities. - Low-intensity and high-repetition levels. - Follow recovery guidelines. - Emphasize PT gear, increase frequency of boots and utilities, and combat loads. (c) Specific PRT period. The transition period progresses to a more specific, high-intensity and low-repetition level program. - Duration of months. - Specific PRT program activities. - High-intensity and low-repetition levels. - Follow recovery guidelines. - Increase training frequency in boots and utilities, and combat loads. (d) PRT program maintenance period. The last period is a maintenance period. During this time, activities are less structured and nonspecific or specific. - Duration of months. - Nonspecific or specific PRT program activities. - Low-intensity and low-repetition levels. - Limit psychological stress from specific training. - Moderate training frequency in boots and utilities, and combat loads. (3) Implementation. Marine units are inherently different in organization and mission. The PRT program must be tailored to the mission and to the current physical condition of most unit personnel. A warm-up, physical conditioning, cool-down and recovery period should be included to minimize the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Training programs must be balanced to reduce the risk of joint injury. -From the PRT program objectives, determine the training emphasis (muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, etc.) - Determine the place, frequency and time required. -Organize for various group sizes and determine levels of monitoring and supervision. - Plan for seasonal, environmental condition, and training area changes. - Consider facilities needed. - Specify appropriate uniforms. - Specify qualified instructors. - Secure command participation and support. (4) Maintenance. Once the training program is initiated, Marines should maintain physical readiness as a lifestyle. Evaluating a training program's progress, like chow and camouflage, is continuous. This allows the commander to ensure that training is mission-oriented and builds toward combat physical readiness. Unit leaders, individual training performance, and the trainers themselves should be evaluated and critiqued to ensure that PRT sessions are constructive and progressive. b. Individual PRT management. The Marine Corps mission requires all Marines to maintain a high level of readiness that prepares them for the demands of combat. While Marines have many different military occupational specialties, FMFRP 0-1B states that all Marines should be prepared for certain training standards such as marching under load and performing basic infantry tasks such as rear security and patrolling. (1) Physically substandard Marines. By following the unit's physical readiness training management, supervisors can strengthen individual weaknesses and improve unit readiness. Leaders can: - Conduct an assessment to identify individual areas of weakness. - Design individualized training to strengthen weaknesses. - Develop an individualized training program based on the unit training plan. - Determine and provide the level of supervision for the physical training sessions. - Periodically evaluate the training program to determine training progression, motivation of the Marine, and to reevaluate supervisory needs. 25

8. Physical Readiness Training Courses. Physical readiness courses can vary in duration, intensity, and muscular or cardiovascular demands. Most of the locations where Marines now PT can be adapted to accommodate these courses. a. Circuit courses. Circuit courses intermix exercises (active rest) with sprinting or fast running interval training (work). Circuit courses will be run in PT gear. The work interval should take two to three seconds to two minutes to complete. The circuit repetitions can be run 3-6 times with appropriate active rest (intermixed exercises) intervals. The distance of the intervals can be fixed or varied between 20 meters to 600 meters. The exercises should be specific to progress to movements in the other courses. b. Assault courses. Assault courses simulate physical demands that might be encountered in an actual combat assault. The assault course is run in combat loads (boots and utilities with full load bearing vest (LBV), helmet, flak jacket and rifle). The assault course should have a combination of 12 to 14 high and low obstacles spread over a 600-800 meter circuit with a time limit of about 4.5 to 9 minutes. Obstacles can be separated by 20 to 80 meters. The course can be combined with a rope climb at the beginning (and at the end) and a fireman's carry on a flat course 60-80 meters long progressing to 200 meters. Assault courses should be designed to develop aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. c. Battle courses. Battle courses can be designed to develop small unit cohesion. The battle course should be at least five miles and is negotiated by units of four to six Marines under the direction of a fire team leader who ensures appropriate tactical formations and fire and movement techniques as the unit advances from obstacle to obstacle. Intervals of sprints, fast running, easy running, and resistance running up hill are mixed with crawling, rolling, jumping, and climbing over obstacles. The course can include rope climbs, commando crawls, vertical/incline/ladder walls, barbed wire tanglefoot crawls, balance logs, fighting positions, and water obstacles. Units can carry logs, resupply items, or stretchers with simulated casualties, attack bunkers or perform whatever mission the commander chooses to vary his objective. Each Marine is in combat load gear. d. Endurance courses. Endurance courses are designed to develop cardiovascular and muscular endurance over a prolonged period. They are run over a six mile circuit wearing combat loads. The courses alternate low and medium obstacles with short steep hills. Some obstacles should require Marines to low/high crawl 15 to 30 meters. e. Conditioning speed marches. Speed marches develop the ae robic conditioning system continuously over an extended period of time. Speed marches should be between 4 and 9 miles with a 10 to 12 minute per mile pace. Speed marches will be conducted wearing combat loads. Different protocols have been established for conducting the speed marches with a 10-12 minute per mile pace (6 miles/hour), for example, ...hiking uphill and running on the downhill and flats. With added weight, however, running on the downhill exposes the knees to increased risk of ligament and cartilage damage, and should be limited. f. Conditioning marches with a load. Conditioning marches are designed to develop Marines load bearing, long-term energy system over an extended period. Hikes are conducted wearing gear to include combat loads and pack. Conditioning marches should follow the progression principle of training. Hikes can be made progressively more challenging by adding distance or weight, for example. 9. Conclusion. The circuit courses, assault courses, endurance courses and conditioning marches should be introduced and conducted using the principles of progressive overload and recovery. This should minimize the risk of injuries. PRT programs should follow the conditioning model, including a general and specific warm-up period, stretching before and after, and a cool-down period with recovery. Proper nutrition is critical during prolonged conditioning periods. Hydration is crucial, using electrolyte replacements after three hours of activity. Leaders must ensure that Marines have a good pair of well-broken-in boots. Medical personnel, if involved from the planning and initiation of any activity, can provide invaluable preventive measures and post-exercise evaluations. WORKOUT PROGRAMS Monday X Tuesday X Wednesda y X 26 Thursday X Friday X Saturday X Sunday -

Stretch

Lift-LB Lift-UP Abs Run HTH

X X X

X Tuesday X X X X X

X X X Wednesda y X X X X X Before 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 After 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

X X Thursday X X X X X

X X Friday X X X X X X

X X Saturday Before 25 15 15 10 10 10

Sunday After 10 10 10 5 5 5

Warm-up Speed Plyometric Agility Strength Core Cool-down Flexibility

Monday X X X X X

STRETCHING Neck-Forward/Back/Left/Right Arm-Front/Back Handcuff Toe Touch Trailer-Left/Right Grab-Ankles/Toes/Instep Butterfly Spinal Twist-Left/Right Foot to Axilla-Left/Right Sole to Thigh Knee to Chest-Left/Right Sit and Stretch-Middle/Left/Right Hurdler's Stretch-Left/Right Groin Stretch-Middle/Left/Right SEAL WORKOUT EXERCISE PULL-UPS 1. Regular 2. Reverse 3. Close-Grip 4. Behind-the-Neck 5. Commando BAR DIPS PUSH-UPS 1. Regular 2. Triceps 3. Dive Bomber

Warm-Up Jumping Jacks Half Jumping Jacks Arm Rotations Fore/Aft Press Press Fling Hi Jack, Hi Jill Up, Back Over

BEGINNING 1-2-3-2-1 1-2-3-2-1 1-2-3-2-1 1-2-3-2-1 1-2-3-2-1 4x5 2-4-6-4-2 2-4-6-4-2 2-4-6-4-2

INTERMEDIATE 1-2-3-4-5-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-3-2-1 1-2-2-1 4x15 2-4-6-8-10-8-6-4-2 2-4-6-8-6-4-2 2-4-6-8-6-4-2

ADVANCED 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-5-6-5-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-5-6-5-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-5-6-5-4-3-2-1 1-2-3-4-3-2-1 4x20 2-4-6-8-10-12-14-12-10-8-6-4-2 2-4-6-8-10-12-10-8-6-4-2 2-4-6-8-10-12-10-8-6-4-2

27

4. Wide-Angle LOWER BODY 1. Sit-Up 2. Hand-to-Toe 3. Crunch 4. Side Sit-Up(each side) 5. Oblique(each side) 6. Flutter Kick(4 count) 7. Leg Raise 8. Cutting Edge(4 Count) 9. Knee Bend 10. Abdominal Twister 11. Knee-Up LEGS/BACK 1. Lunges 2. Star Jumps 3. Back Extensions

2-4-6-4-2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 30 10 20

2-4-6-8-6-4-2 30 30 30 30 30 20 30 20 30 30 30 50 15 40

2-4-6-8-10-12-10-8-6-4-2 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x30 2x35 2x30 2x35 2x35 2x35 100 2x20 2x50

SPECIAL OPS/PARARESCUE/RANGER/GREEN BERET/FORCE RECON/SEAL EXERCISE OPS PJ RANGER GB WARM-UP Jumping Jacks 30 30 30 30 1 Half Jumping 30 30 30 30 2 Jacks Iron Mikes 30 30 30 30 3 STRETCHES V Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 1 Upper Back 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 2 Stretch Lower Back 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 3 Twist Hamstring Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 4 Trunk Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 5 Groin Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 6 Quad Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 7 Straight-Leg 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 8 Stretch ITB Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 9 10 Tricep Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 11 Forearm Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 13 Butterfly 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 14 Calf Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 15 Cobra Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 16 Cat Back Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 17 Chest Stretch 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 18 Upper Body 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec Stretch 19 Side-to-Side 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec Stretch BODY UPPER Pull-Up 4xMax 4xMax 10/8/6/4 7x8 1 28

RECON/SEA L 30 30 30 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30 sec 30/25/20/15

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Close Grip Pull-Up Wide Grip Pull Up Dip Regular Push-Up Diamond Push-Up Ranger Push-Up 3x Push-Up Dive Bomber Push-Up LOWER BODY 8-Count Body Builder Lunge Wall Sit Frog Hop Star Hop ABDOMINALS Airplane Back Raises Hand-to-Toe Crunches X Sit-Up Hibberty Jibberty Cross Crunch Obliques Sky Hop Flutter Kick Straight Leg Crunch Lift Scissor

2xMax 2xMax 4xMax 4xMax 4xMax 4xMax 4xMax 2xMax 8/6/4/2 50/25/25 10 min 50 3x20 30/20/10 30/20/10 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60

4x25 100/30/20 30/30/15 30 4x20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

25/20/15/10 4x20 4x20 4x9 4x20 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60

4x15 100 4x20 20 8 100 65 65 65 65 65 65 65

20/15/10 15/10/5 4x25 100/75/50/25 25/20/15/10 4x15 4x50 65 65 65 65 65 65 90

12 WEEK PT PROGRAM FOR HRT SELECTION Mon 1 PT Test (5 min between events) 30 min cardio. row/swim 8 pull-up/dip grinder PT Test (5 min between events) 30 min cardio. row/swim 10 pull-up/dip grinder PT Test (5 min Tues Weight Training Lunge Grinder Wed 4 mile run@ 2 mile mark 50 pushups/60 situps 40 min low impact cardio Thur Off Fri 20 min Grinder D-B-H Sat 6 mile run Sun Off

Off

800m<3:00 jog 200m walk 200m repeat 5x 7 mile run

Off

Weight Training Lunge Grinder

5 mile run@ 2& 4 mile mark 50 pushups/60 sit-ups 40 min low impact cardio

Off

20 min Grinder D-B-H

Off

Off

400m<1:30 walk 200m repeat 10x 100 builds x5

Off

Weight

6 mile run@ 2, 4 & 29

20 min

5 6

between events) 30 min cardio. row/swim 12 pull-up/dip grinder PT Test (5 min between events) 30 min cardio. row/swim 14 pull-up/dip grinder PT Test (5 min between events) 30 min cardio. row/swim 16 pull-up/dip grinder PT Test (5 min between events)

Training Lunge Grinder

6 mile mark 50 pushups/60 sit-ups 50 min low impact cardio

Off Off

Grinder D-B-H

8 mile run Hill 1:15 to 1:30. Jog down, repeat x8 1 mile j/s* 9 mile run

Off Off

Weight Training Lunge Grinder

6 mile run@ every mile mark 50 pushups/60 sit-ups 60 min low impact cardio

Off

20 min Grinder D-B-H

Off

Off

800m<3:00x3 400m,1:30x4 200m<:40x5 Sprint Starts x6 10 mile run

Off

Weight Training Lunge Grinder

6 mile run@ every mile mark 50 pushups/60 sit-ups 40 min low impact cardio

Off

20 min Grinder D-B-H

Off

1 0

Off

Sprint Starts x6 200m<:40 x10 1 mile j/s* 10 mile run

Off

1 1

Weight Training

4 mile run @ 2 mile mark 50 pushups/60 sit-ups (Compare to week 1) 30 min cardio pull-ups, pushups, sit-ups

Off

20 min Grinder (compare to week 1) Off

Off

1 2

Off

60 min Cardio

2 mile run

Off

Off

12 WEEK PT PROGRAM FOR HRT SELECTION PT Test: Pull-Ups; Situps, 2min; Pushups; 2 mile run; stair climb; rope climb; 200 meter swim. 5 minutes between events Weight Training: Thrusters- 75 lbs/15 reps, 1/2 max pull-ups, Squats-135 lbs/15 reps, lunges 50 yards (no weight), sumo high pull-75lbs/15 reps, Complete exercises in order for three rounds. Adjust weight accordingly. See www.crossfit.com for exercise definition/examples. 20 Minute Grinder: 5 pull-ups, 10 pushups, 15 air squats; repeat. Complete as many sets as you can in twenty minutes. By the end of your cross training cycle you should be able to complete 20 to 30 sets in 20 minutes. Pull-Up/Dip Grinder: Begin grinder with the number listed (8, 10, etc), complete a set of pull-ups and dips, rest 30 seconds, repeat with one less rep each set until you reach 1 rep per set. Lunge Grinder: 50 yard lunge, 25 crunches, 25 box jumps ( 24" box), 25 air squats, 25 burpies, 25 back extensions. Complete 3 rounds as fast as possible with one minute break between rounds. See www.crossfit.com for exercise definition/examples. D-B-H: Dead-Lift (Body Weight), Bench (3/4 Body Weight), Hang-Clean (1/2 Body Weight). Begin workout with 10 reps of each exercise, repeat deceasing reps by 1 each set. Adjust weight as necessary. Speed Work: All speed work should begin with a 1 mile warm-up and end with a 1 mile warm-down. Sprint Starts: An explosive 10-15 meter sprint meant to get you up to sprint speed as fast as possible. 100m Builds: Runner should slowly build to 75-80 percent sprint speed over the first 75 meters and maintain this speed from 75-100 meters. Hills: if a suitable hill cannot be found, stairs can be substituted. However, runner should walk down stairs to minimize stress to knees and joints. J/S: On a track, sprint the straight-aways and jog the corners.

30

300 WORKOUT CHALLENGE Pull-Ups Deadlifts (135 Lbs) Push-Ups Box Jumps (24" Box) Floor Wipers Kettle Bell Clean&Press (35) Pull-Ups Barbarian Horde 5 10 10 10 10 10 5 Greek Hoplite 10 20 20 20 20 20 10 Do circuit two Do circuit two times, times, resting 30 resting 1 minute seconds between between exercises. exercises. Elysian Fields 15 30 30 30 30 30 15 Do circuit two times, resting 15 seconds between exercises. 300 Workout 25 50 50 50 50 50 25

SCHEDULE I Exercise Push-Ups Sit-Ups Pull-Ups SCHEDULE II Exercise Push-Ups Sit-Ups Pull-Ups Dips

Week 1 4x15 4x20 3x3

Week 2 5x20 5x20 3x3

Week 3 5x25 5x25 3x4

Week 4 5x25 5x25 3x4

Week 5 6x25 6x25 2x8

Week 6 6x25 6x25 2x8

Week 7-9 6x30 6x30 2x10

Week 1 6x30 6x35 3x10 3x20

Week 2 6x30 6x35 3x10 3x20

Week 3 10x20 10x25 4x10 10x15

Week 4 10x20 10x25 4x10 10x15

Week 5 15x20 15x25 4x12 15x15

Week 6 20x20 20x25 5x12 20x15

Week 7-9 20x20 20x25 5x12 20x15

SCHEDULE III, SHORT CARD Exercise Bent Leg Crunches Stomach Flutter Kicks Raised Bent Leg Crunches Half Sit-Ups Wave-Offs Trunk Rotations Push-Ups Lunges Dips Half Knee Bends SCHEDULE III, LONG CARD Exercise Push-Ups Bent Leg Crunches Dips 12 Weeks Phase I 3x25 4x25 3x15 31 11 Weeks Phase II 5x25 4x35 3x25 11 Weeks Phase III 5x35 4x40 3x30 12 Weeks Phase I 2x25 2x25 2x25 2x20 2x10 2x15 3x20 2x15 2x15 2x15 11 Weeks Phase II 2x35 2x35 2x25 2x20 2x10 2x18 3x25 2x20 3x12 2x20 11 Weeks Phase III 3x35 3x35 3x35 2x25 3x12 3x15 3x30 2x25 3x15 2x25

Stomach Flutter Kicks Hanging Knee-Ups (L/R) Hanging Knee-Ups (straight) Eight Count Body Builders Trunk Rotations Wave-Offs Lunges Half-Deep Knee Bends Standard Pull-Ups Wide Grip Pull-Ups Side-to-Side Pull-Ups TOTAL BODY WORKOUT EXERCISE LOWER BODY 1A. Leg Extension 1B. Leg Curl 2A. Squat 2B. Lunge 3A. Deadlift 3B. Calf Raise UPPER BODY 1A. Bench Press 1B. Fly 2A. Military Press 2B. Upright Row 3A. Curl 3B. Push-Ups 4A. Dips 4B. Pull-Ups ABDOMINAL Sit-Ups Side Sit-Ups Hand to Toe Crunches Side Crunches Flutter Kicks Leg Raises Cutting Edges Reverse Crunches Rocking Chair

4x25 2x12 2x12 2x12 3x15 3x10 3x12 3x15 3x10 3x10 3x10

4x30 3x12 3x12 3x15 3x18 3x12 2x15 3x25 3x12 3x12 3x12

4x30 3x15 3x15 3x15 3x20 3x15 3x20 3x30 4x15 4x15 4x15

WEEKS 1-3 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x15 1x12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

WEEKS 4-6 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 2x12 2x12 2x12 2x12 2x12 2x20 2x12 2x10 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

WEEKS7-12 3x15 3x15 3x15 3x15 3x15 3x15 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x12 3x25 3x15 2x15 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35 2x35

The Armstrong Pull-up Program This program was developed by Major Charles Lewis Armstrong. Major Armstrong developed this workout to prepare him to set a new world record in number of pull-ups completed in a single exercise session. The program provides the necessities for any successful physical improvement regime, namely variety, overload and regularity. 32

Users have achieved remarkable results in only 6-8 weeks. This means that most, if not all, have been able to achieve the performance level they desired, a set of 20 repetitions, as long as they are consistent with the program. It cannot be overemphasized that this program depends upon regularity. Daily performance of the exercises listed in the following paragraphs holds the true key to reaching and maintaining the 20-repetition level. The Morning Routine Each morning, perform 3 maximum effort sets of normal push-ups. This is very important!! The push-up is one of the best exercises for strengthening the entire set of muscles making up the shoulder girdle. Major Armstrong described this morning routine in the following manner: After rising, I would drop to the deck and do my first set of push-ups. I would then move into the head and start my morning toilet. I would return after a few minutes and do my second maximum effort set after which, I would go back into the head and shave. After shaving I would return to the bedroom and complete the third and final set. Having completed all of the push-ups, I was awake and ready for a relaxing shower. This routine should be followed during the entire training period. Since it takes most of us at least four weeks to reach our goals, you will probably find that you have inadvertently established a morning routine that is easy enough to keep as a lifetime habit. If not you will at least appreciate the morning shower a little more. I have noted that the push-up routine helps to alleviate any soreness during the first couple of weeks. I recommend that you use the push-up routine every day during this period so that you feel more comfortable during your initial adjustment to this regime of exercises. Training Regimen The following represents the heart of the training program. I recommend that you do not attempt the pull-ups until two to three hours after the push-up routine is completed. The program is conveniently divided into five training days. This is easily translated into a Monday to Friday training schedule. It is important to cease the pull-ups for two days, Saturday and Sunday. Further it is necessary to use consecutive days (not to skip days) when on the pull-up routine. Finally, it is obviously more important to do the pull-ups than the push-ups. This training program was specifically designed to improve performance in the overhand pull-up (palms facing away). The overhand method is the preferred method, but for now do what you need to in order to complete the most repetitions for your PFT. Mix up your training between underhand and overhand until you can do twenty both ways. The program depends upon quality exercises number of repetitions are secondary. When you are doing these exercises, you should concentrate on perfect execution of each repetition. The only person you can fool with less than your best is yourself. Day 1 Five maximum effort sets. Rest 90 seconds between each set. Do not concern yourself with numbers. You will find that you increase the numbers in the last two sets before you see much improvement in the first three. Make sure that each set is a maximum effort set. Day 2 Pyramid day. Start the pyramid with one repetition, the next set has two, and the next set has three. Continue in this fashion until you miss a set (e.g. your last set was four then five, your next set should be six but you only do four repetitions. You missed the set) Do one more set at maximum effort. Rest 10 seconds for each repetition in the previous set. Day 3 Do three training sets (training sets are defined later) with a normal grip (palms away or toward you, hands slightly wider than shoulder width). Rest 60 seconds between each set. Slide your hands together and palms toward you so your little fingers are 0-4 inches apart and complete three more training sets resting 60 seconds between each set. Finally do three training sets with a wide overhand grip (palms facing away) resting 60 seconds between each set. Day 4 Do the maximum number of training sets that you can accomplish. Rest 60 seconds between each set. You do training sets until you fail to do a perfect training set. This day can wind up being the longest training day as you continue with the program because you will find it easy to do lots of training sets. If you can do more than nine training sets, increase by one repetition next week. Day 5 Repeat the day that you found to be the hardest in the previous four days. This may change from week to week. You can also try to doing weighted pull-ups or a pull-up assist machine for this day. Training Sets Training sets are easy to define, but require some experimentation to determine for the individual participating in the program. A training set has a specified number of repetitions. That means that one individual may have seven 33

repetitions in his training set, but another could have more or less. The key to determining the proper number of repetitions in a training set comes on day 3. You must perform 9 training sets that day. If you only do 12 repetitions on a max effort set, then your training set would probably only be 1-3 repetitions. Remember, it is much more important that you complete all nine sets than doing an extra rep and only completing 6 or 7 sets. Day 3 calls for you to do nine training sets. Adjust your training set so that you can complete this routine properly. The best gauge for the number of repetitions in a training set comes on day 4. If you successfully complete day 3, try increasing the number of repetitions in your training set by one when you do day 4. If you complete at least 9 training sets, then you know your training set should be that higher number. If you do less than nine sets, stick with the number you used for day 3. It is important that you do not change the repetitions in a training set in midstream. When you schedule yourself to do the days routine using three repetitions in your training set, do not change it to two when the exercises get hard. If you miss, you miss. There is always tomorrow. Modifications Ladies will find that this program adapts well to the flexed arm hang. Training sets are simply translated into hang times. Chin-ups may be substituted for those who prefer this technique, however, day 3 must still be completed exactly as described with 6 sets done with the overhand grip. It is highly recommended that you follow this program using overhand grip as most of the obstacles that you will have to get over at OCS require an overhand grip. Final Thoughts This program will work for anyone who makes a sincere effort. You may notice a drop in your maximum effort set. This is a normal physiological reaction called "tear down." As you continue, you will improve. Most of my midshipmen were able to reach the 20-repetition level in a short period of time. They started the program able to do only twelve to fifteen repetitions. If you are not at this level, it will take longer than four weeks to reach 20 repetitions. However, if you stay with the program, you will reach this goal. Disclaimer: It is very important to note that none of these physical training programs should be started by anyone until you have consulted a licensed physician and you are told you are medically qualified to begin this specific type of physical training The Table Wee k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 1 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 0 0

Set 1 6 7 8 8 9

Set 2 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 Set 3 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 Set 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 Set 5 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 Total 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 3 6 8 0 2 4 6

The MARSOC Short Card 1. 30 Push-ups 2. 30 Air squats 3. 30 Crunches 4. 10 Burpees 5. 10 Windmills 6. 30 Push-ups 7. 30 Mountain climbers 8. 30 Flutter kicks 9. 10 Burpees 10. 10 Cherry pickers (4-count) 34

11. 30 Push-ups 12. 30 Star jumpers (or jumping jacks) 13. 30 Back Extensions ("supermans") 14. 10 Burpees 15. 10 Chain breakers 16. 30 Push-ups 17. 30 Lunges 18. 30 Hello dollies 19. 10 Burpees 20. 10 Trunk twists 21. 3 Max sets of dead-hang pull-ups or flexed-arm hangs RECON LONG CARD * Side Straddle Hops 30-4 * Half Jacks 30-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Wind Mills 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Chest Press Flings 15-4 * Dive Bombers 20-2 * Boat House Boogie 15-4 * Wind Mills 10-4 * Tricep Push Ups 25-2 * Up Back and Over 10-4 * Cherry Pickers 15-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Bend Fore Aft 10-4 * Sit Ups 200-2 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Leg Lifts 30-2 * Half Sit Ups 50-2 * Sun Gods 10-4 * Quad Stretch 1 min * 8 Count B Builders 50 * V-Ups 20-2 * Lunges 20-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Flutter Kicks 300-4 * Hello Dollies 100-4 * Bend Fore Aft 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Press Chest Flings 15-4 * UDT Flutter Kicks 50-2 * Crunches 50-2 * Inboard/Outboard 10-4 * Up Back and Over 10-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Neck Rotations 10-4 * Tricep Push Ups 25-2 * Boat House Boogie 15-4 * Dive Bombers 15-2 * Steam Engines 30-4 * Boot Slappers 20-4 * Stand HString Stretch 1 min * Squats 30-4 35

* Calf Raisers 2 min * Calf Stretch 1 min * Star Jumpers 20-2 * 12 Count B-builders 25 * 3 Mile Run FORCE RECON LONG CARD * Side Straddle Hops 30-4 * Half Jacks 30-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Wind Mills 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Chest Press Flings 15-4 * Dive Bombers 20-2 * Boat House Boogie 15-4 * Wind Mills 10-4 * Tricep Push Ups 25-2 * Up Back and Over 10-4 * Cherry Pickers 15-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Bend Fore Aft 10-4 * Sit Ups 200-2 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Leg Lifts 30-2 * Half Sit Ups 50-2 * Sun Gods 10-4 * Quad Stretch 1 min * 8 Count B Builders 50 * V-Ups 20-2 * Lunges 20-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Flutter Kicks 300-4 * Hello Dollies 100-4 * Bend Fore Aft 10-4 * Push Ups 50-2 * Press Chest Flings 15-4 * UDT Flutter Kicks 50-2 * Crunches 50-2 * Inboard/Outboard 10-4 * Up Back and Over 10-4 * Trunk Rotations 10-4 * Neck Rotations 10-4 * Tricep Push Ups 25-2 * Boat House Boogie 15-4 * Dive Bombers 15-2 * Steam Engines 30-4 * Boot Slappers 20-4 * Stand HString Stretch 1 min * Squats 30-4 * Calf Raisers 2 min * Calf Stretch 1 min * Star Jumpers 20-2 * 12 Count B-builders 25 * 3 Mile Run ----------------------------36

FORCE RECON SHORT CARD * Side Straddle Hops 30-4 * Push Ups 20-4 * Chest Press Flings 10-4 * Squats 30-4 * Cherry Pickers 10-4 * Lunges 30-4 * Push Ups 20-4 * Chest Press Flings 10-4 * Flutter Kicks 100-4 * Hello Dollies 25-4 * Half Jacks 30-4 * Star Jumpers 20-2 * 12 Count B-builders 20 * UDT Flutter Kicks 20-4 * Leg Lifts 20-2 * Hello Dollies 25-4 * Dirty Dogs 15-4 * Squats 30-4 * Push Ups 20-4 * Chest Press Flings 10-4 * Mountain Climbers 20-4 Instructions 10-second rest between exercises. Count like this: 1, 2, 3, 11, 2, 3, 21, 2, 3, 31, 2, 3, 4... Do what you can of each exercisebut do each exercise. Move to the Long Card only after you can complete the Short Card. P90X CHEST & BACK Repeat twice EXERCISE 1. Standard Push-Ups 2. Wide Front Pull-Ups 3. Military Push-Ups 4. Reverse Grip Chin-Ups 5. Wide Fly Push-Ups 6. Closed Grip Overhand Pull-Ups 7. Decline Push-Ups 8. Heavy Pants 9. Diamond Push-Ups 10. Lawnmowers 11. Dive Bomber Push-Ups 12. Back Flys PLOYMETRICS RepxWt RepxWt

1. Jump Squat (30 sec)

37

2. Run-Stance Squat (30 sec) 3. Airborne Heisman (30 sec) 4. Swing Kick (30 sec) Repeat Previous Sequence 5. Squat Reach Jump (30 sec) 6. Run-Stance Squat Switch Pick-Up (30 sec) 7. Double Airborne Heisman (30 sec) 8. Circle Run (30 sec/30 sec) Repeat Previous Sequence 9. Jump Knee Tuck (30 sec) 10. Mary Katherine Lunge (30 sec) 11. Leapfrog Squat (30 sec) 12. Twist Combo (60 sec) Repeat Previous Sequence 13. Rock Star Hop (15 sec/15 sec) 14. Gap Jump (30 sec) 15. Squat Jack (30 sec) 16. Military March (60 sec) Repeat Previous Sequence 17. Run Squat 180 Jump Switch (30 sec) 18. Lateral Leapfrog Squat (30 sec) 19. Monster Truck Tire (30 sec) 20. Hot Foot (30 sec/30 sec) Repeat Previous Sequence Bonus Round 21. Pitch and Catch (30 sec/30 sec) 22. Jump Shot (30 sec/30 sec) 23. Football Hero (30 sec) SHOULDERS & ARMS Repeat twice, exercises 12-15 are the bonus round EXERCISE 1. Alternating Shoulder Presses 2. In and Out Biceps Curls 3. Two-Arm Tricep Kickbacks 4. Deep Swimmer Presses 5. Full Supination Concentration Curls 6. Chair Dips 7. Upright Rows 8. Static Arm Curls 9. Flip-Grip Twist Tricep Kickbacks 10. Two-Angle Shoulder Flys 11. Crouching Cohen Curls 12. Lying-Down Tricep Extensions RepxWt RepxWt

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13. In and Out Straight Arm Shouder Flys 14. Congdon Curls 15. Side Tri-Raises YOGA

Moving Asanias 1. Runner's Pose 2. Crescent Pose 3. Warrior One 4. Warrior Two 5. Reverse Warrior 6. Triangle Pose 7. Twisting Triangle 8. Chair to Twisting Chair 9. Right-Angle Pose to Extended Right-Angle Pose and Grab 10. Prayer Twist from Runner's Pose to Side Arm Balance 11. Warrior Three to Standing Splits 12. Half Moon to Twisting Half Moon Balance and Postures 13. Tree 14. Royal Dancer 15. Standing Leg Extension Floor Work 16. Crane 17. Seated Spinal Stretch 18. Cat Stretch 19. Frog 20. Bridge or Wheel 21. Plough into Shoulder Stand with Leg Variations into Plough 22. Table 23. Cobbler Pose Yoga Belly 24. One-Legged Hamstring Stretch into Two-Legged Hamstring Stretch 25. Touch the Sky 26. Boat 27. Half-Boat 28. Scissor 29. TorsoTwist Hold 30. Deep Torso Twist Hold 31. Touch the Sky 32. Side Twist 33. Glute Stretch 34. Happy Baby

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35. Child's Pose 36.Shavasana 37. Fetal Pose 38. Meditation Pose LEGS & BACK Perform each pull-up exercise twice 1. Balance Lunges 2. Calf Raise Squats 3. Reverse Grip Chin-Ups 4. Super Skater 5. Wall Squat 6. Wide Front Pull-Ups 7. Step Back Lunge 8. Alternating Side Lunge 9. Closed Grip Overhead Pull-Ups 10. Single Leg Wall Squats 11. Dead Lift Squat 12. Switch Grip Pull-Ups 13. Three-Way Lunges 14. Sneaky Lunges 15. Reverse Grip Chin-Ups 16. Chair Salutations 17. Toe-Roll Iso Lunge 18. Wide Front Pull-ups 19. Groucho Walk 20. Calf Raises 21. Closed Grip Overhead Pull-Ups 22. 80-20 Siebers Speed Squats KENPO

1. Twist and Pivot 2. Twist and Pivot with Hook and Unppercut 3. Jabs 4. Jab/Cross 5. Jab/Cross/Hook 6. Jab/Cross/Hook/Uppercut Cardio Break 7. Step Drag/High-Low Punch 8. Jab/Cross/Switch 9. Hook/Uppercut Switch 10. Knee Kick

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11. Ball Kick Cardio Break 12. Side Kick 13. Back Kick 14. Three-Direction Kick 15. Side Lunge with High Swoard/Low Hammer 16. Step/Drag/Claw/Low Punch Cardio Break 17. High Block 18. Inward Block 19. Outward Block 20. Downward Block 21. Star Block Cardio Break 22. Front Shuffle with High Block/Low Punch 23. Knee/Back Kick 24. Front and Back Knuckles/Ball Kick/Back Kick 25. Hook/Uppercut/Low Side Kick 26. Elbow Series 27. Vertical Punches Cardio Break STRETCHING

1. Sun Salutations 2. Neck Stretch 3. Back up the Car 4. Head Roll 5. Expand/Contract Back-Chest-Shoulder-Stretch 6. Topas Shoulder Stretch 7. Wrist-Forearm Flex Stretch 8. Dreya Forearm Stretch 9. Arm Circles 10. Shoulder-Triceps Combo Stretch 11. Ballistic Stretches 12. Standing Side Stretch 13. Roller 14. Plough 15. Seated Spinal Stretch 16. Cat Stretch 17. Glute Stretch 18. Wide-Feet Forward Stretch 19. Side Twist 20. Camel 41

21. Cat Stretch 22. Back Hero 23. Kenpo Quad Stretch 24. Bow 25. Low Squat 26. Frog 27. Seated Single-Leg Hamstring Stretch 28. Seated Two-Leg Hamstring Stretch 29. Ballistic Hamstring Stretch 30. Split-Leg Hamstring Stretch 31.Toe-Flexor 32. Downward Dog with Calf Stretch 33. Downward Dog with Ankle Stretch 34. Child's Pose with Right and Left Side Stretch CORE

1. Stacked Foot/Staggered Hands Push-Up 2. Banana Roll 3. Leaning Cresent Lunges 4. Squat Run 5. Spinx Push-Up 6. Bow to Boat 7. Low Lateral Skaters 8. Lunge and Reach 9. Prison Cell Push-Ups 10. Side Hip Raise 11. Squat X-Press 12. Plank to Chaturanga Run 13. Walking Push-Up 14. Superman Banana 15. Lunge Kickback Curl Press 16. Towel Hoppers 17. Ballistic Stretch 18. Reach High & Under Push-Ups 19. Steam Engine 20. Dreya Roll Bonus Round 21. Plank to Chaturanga Iso 22. Halfback 23. Table Dip Leg Raise CHEST, SHOULDERS & TRCEPS

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1. Slow-Motion 3in-1 Push-Up 2. In & Out Shoulder Fly 3. Chair Dip 4. Plange Push-Up 5. Pike Press 6. Side Tri-Rise 7. Floor Fly 8. Scarecrow 9. Overhead Triceps Extension 10. Two-Twitch Speed Push-Up 11. X-Press 12. Lying Triceps Extension 13. Side-to-Side Push-Up 14. Pour Fly 15. Side-Leaning Triceps Extension 16. One-Arm Push-Up 17. Weighted Circle 18. Throw the Bomb 19. Clap orPlyo Push-Up 20. Slow-Mo Throw 21. Front-to-Back Triceps Extension 22. One-Arm Balance Push-Up 23. Fly-Now-Press 24. Dumbbell Cross-Body Blows BACK & BICEPS

1. Wide Front Pull-Ups 2. Lawnmower 3. Twenty-One 4. One-Arm Cross-Body Curl 5. Switch Grip Pull-Up 6. Elbows-Out Lawnmower 7. Standing Bicep Curl 8. one-Arm Concentration Curl 9. Corn Cob Pull-Up 10. Reverse Grip Bent-Over Row 11. Open-Arm Curl 12. Static Arm Curl 13. Towel Pull-Up 14. Congdon Locomotive 15. Crouching Cohen Curl 16. One-Arm Corkscrew

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17. Chin-Up 18. Seated Bent-Over Back Fly 19. Curl-Up/Hammer Down 20. Hammer Curl 21. Max Rep Pull-Up 22. Superman 23. In-Out Hammer Curls 24. Strip Set Curl AEROBIC

Yoga 1. Vinyasas 2. Runner's Pose 3. Warrior One 4. Warrior Two 5. Reverse Warrior Kenpo 6. Ball Kick 7. Hook/Uppercut/Side Kick 8. Front & Back Knuckles/Ball Kick/Back Kick 9. Jab/Cross/Hook/Uppercut 10. Three-Direcdtion Kick 11. Airborne Heisman 12. Swing Kick 13. Jump Shot 14. Tire 15. Wacky Jacks Repeat Previous Sequence 16. Squat X-Press 17. Steam Engine 18. Dreya Roll 19. Squat Run 20. Superman/Banana AB RIPPER X

1. In & Out 2. Seat Bicycle 3. Seated Crunchy Frog 4. Crossed Leg/Wide Leg Sit-Up 5. Fifer Scissor 6. Hip Rock-n-Raise

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7. Pulse-Up 8. Roll-Up/V-Up Combo 9. Oblique V-Up 10. Leg Climb 11. Mason Twist UPPER PLUS

1. Double Double Dip'll Do Ya 2. Dead Leg Switch Pull-Up 3. 2-Direction Cicle Flies 4. Lunge Curls 5. Hammer Kick 6. Frog Push-Ups 7. "L" Chin-Ups 8. Fly Blaster 9. Lean Back Curls 10. 1-Legged Bridge Dips 11. Spiderman Push-Ups 12. 7-Point Pull-Ups 13. Warrior Swim 14. Pumper Curls 15. Side Hammer Kick 16. Iso Climber Push-Ups 17. Clean to Negative 18. Shoulder Everything 19. Bicep Everything 20. Combat Push-Ups TOTAL BODY PLUS

1. O Crunch Push-Ups 2. Pull-Up Crunch 3. Dead Lift Curl Press 4. Step Kick Back Chair Position 5. Sumo Chair 6. Chuck Ups Position 1 Position 2 Position 3 7. Clink on Run 8. Lunge Press Bella Twist 9. Balance Curls

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10. Running Man 11. Hindu Pike Push-Ups 12. Lunge Squat Lunge 13. Mr. Moon 14. Kid Play 15. 3 & 3 16. 1/2 Dervish 17. Weighted Warrior 18. 1 & 1 19. Lara Lunge Crunch 20. Spiderman Jumps Bonus 1. Plyo Push-Ups

ABS/Core Plus

1. Hanging Tip Top Knee Raises 2. Tip Toe O-Crunch 3. Scorpion Plank 4. Banana Cannonball 5. Haning Up & Overs 6. Discuss Throwers 7. Warrior Bow 8. Scissor Climbers 9. Hanging Knee Kicks 10. Wood Chopper 11. Down Dog Crunch 12. Banana Mason 13. Mixed Bike 14. X-Crunch 15. Plank Sphinx with Plange 16. Seated Backstroke 17. Hanging Pelvic Tilt 18. Straight Leg X Crunch 19. 300 Chataranga Run 20. Cherry Bomb SPLIT ROUTINE V1 LEGS Squat Straight-Leg Deadlift Leg Extension Leg Curl Calf Raise

CHEST AND TRICEPS Bench Press Incline Bench Press Dumbbell Bench Press Dumbbell Pec Fly Dip 46

BACK AND BICEPS Chin-Up Dumbbell Row Straight Bar Curl Dumbbell Curl

Lunge SPLIT ROUTINE V2 LEGS Squat Straight-Leg Deadlift Leg Extension Leg Curl Lunge Calf Raise

Triceps Extension

CHEST AND TRICEPS Bench Press Dumbbell Fly Military Press Dip Triceps Extension

BACK AND BICEPS Chin-Up Row Barbell Curl Dumbbell Curl

WEIGHT TRAINING CYCLING V1 PHASE OBJECTIVE Phase I Endurance/Hypertrophy Phase II Strength Phase III Power/Sports Phase IV Competition/Maintenance WEIGHT TRAINING CYCLING V2 WEEK SETS REPS 1-3 3 15 4-6 4 10 7-8 4 8 9 5 5 10 Rest

SETS 3 3 3 3

REPS 12 6 3 10

INTENSITY 65% 80% 85% 70%

RESISTANCE 65% 70% 75% 80%-85%

MODIFICATIONS

WEIGHT TRAINING CALCULATION TABLE EXERCISE BWT COEFF. TRIAL WT. CHEST Bench Press x.60 Bent-Arm Fly x.55 BACK Bent Over Row x.45 SHOULDERS Standing Press x.35 BICEPS Biceps Curl x.30 TRICEPS Triceps Extension x.35 LEGS Lunge x.10 Squat x1.30 ABDOMINAL WEIGHT ADJUSTMENT TABLE Goal Reps Reps Completed with Trial Weight

REPS COMP.

ADJ.

TRNG WT.

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14-15 12-13 10-11 8-9 6-7 4-5 2-3

>18 +10 +15 +15 +20 +25 +30 +35

16-17 +5 +10 +15 +15 +20 +25 +30

14-15 +5 +10 +15 +15 +20 +25

12-13 -5 +5 +10 +15 +15 +20

10-11 -10 -5 +5 +10 +15 +15

8-9 -15 -10 -5 +5 +10 +15

6-7 -15 -15 -10 -5 +5 +10

4-5 -20 -15 -15 -10 -5 +5

2-3 -25 -20 -15 -15 -10 -5 -

TRAINING WEIGHT DETERMINATION TABLE Goal Repetitions 1RM Value 10 25 50 80 100 150 200 12-15 6 15 30 48 60 90 120 10-12 7 18 35 56 70 105 140 8-9 8 19 38 60 75 113 150 6-7 8 20 40 64 80 120 160 4-5 9 22 43 68 85 128 170 2-3 9 23 45 72 90 135 180

BEGINNING WORKOUT 1. Bench Press 2. Wide Grip Chin-Up 3. Military Press 4. Barbell Curl 5.French Press 6. Squats 7. Leg Curl 8. Calf Raises 9. Sit-Ups 10. Wrist Curl INTERMEDIATE Monday/Thursday - Legs, Chest, Abs Legs, Thighs, Calves 1. Squat 2. Leg Extension 3. Leg Curl 4. Calf Raises Chest 1. Bench Press 2. Flyes Abs 1. Sit-Ups 2. Leg Raises 3. Wrist Curl

Tuesday/Friday - Shoulders, Back, Arms, Abs Shoulders 1. Military Press Back 1. Chin-Ups Arms/Biceps 1. Barbell Curl Arms/Triceps 1. French Press

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2. Lateral Raises

2. Rowing

2. Dumbbell Curl 3. Incline Dumbbell

2. Triceps Extension

ACCELERATED Monday/Thursday - Legs, Calves, Waist Legs 1. Squat 2. Leg Extension 3. Leg Curl 4. Lunges Calves 1. Calf Raises 2. Sitting Calf Raises Waist 1. Sit-Ups 2.Leg Raises 3. Twists Wrist 1. Wrist Curl

Tuesday/Friday - Back Chest Shoulders Wrist Back 1. Chin-Ups 2. Rowing Chest 1. Bench Press 2. Inclined Bench Press 3. Flyes 4. Pull Overs Shoulders 1. Military Press 2. Lateral Raises 3. Bent Over Lateral Wrist 1. Wrist Curls

Wednesday/Saturday - Arms, Triceps/Biceps Triceps 1. Pull Downs 2. Triceps Extension 3. Triceps extension With Dumbbells WEIGHT WORKOUTS EXERCISE Warm-up Stretch 1. Bench Press 2. Inclined Bench Press 3. Barbell Row 4. Pull Downs 5. Triceps Extension 6. Curls 7. Military Press 8. Upright Rows 9. Squats 10. Dead Lifts 11. Crunches Cooldown Stretch Biceps 1. Dumbbell Curl 2. Preacher Curl 3. Concentration Curl

10 min 1 min 2x8/12 2x8/12 2x8/12 1x15/30 -

20 min 2 min 2 min 1x8/12 1x8/12 1x10/15 1x10/15 1x8/12 1x8/12 1x15/30 2 min -

30 min 3 min 2 min 2x8/12 2x8/12 2x10/15 2x10/15 2x8/12 2x8/12 2x15/30 2 min 1 min

45 min 4 min 3 min 3x8/12 3x8/12 2x10/15 2x10/15 3x8/12 3x8/12 2x10/15 3x15/30 3 min 2 min

60 min 5 min 3 min 3x8/12 2x8/12 3x8/12 2x8/12 3x10/15 3x10/15 3x8/12 2x8/12 3x8/12 2x10/15 3x15/30 4 min 3 min

90 min 6 min 4 min 5x8/12 4x8/12 5x8/12 4x8/12 4x10/15 4x10/15 5x8/12 3x8/12 5x8/12 4x10/15 5x15/30 6 min 4 min

WEIGHTLESS WORKOUTS EXERCISE 10 min

20 min

30 min 49

45 min

60 min

90 min

Warm-up Stretch 1. Push-Ups 2. Decline Push-Ups 3. Incline Push-Ups 4. Rows 5. Dips 6. Curls 7. Upright Rows 8. Squats 9. Lunges 10. Heel Raises 11. Crunches Cooldown Stretch AB WORKOUT EXERCISE 1. Crunches 2. Leg Extensions 3. Oblique Crunches 4. Reverse Crunches 5. Seated Side Bends 6. V-Ups 7. Oblique Twists 8. Leg Lifts 9. Arm And Leg Reaches 10. Twisting Reaches

1 min 2x10/15 2x8/12 2x10/15 1x15/30 -

2 min 2 min 1x10/15 1x8/12 1x10/15 1x8/12 1x8/12 1x10/15 1x15/30 2 min -

3 min 2 min 3x10/15 3x8/12 2x10/15 2x8/12 2x8/12 2x10/15 2x15/30 2 min 1 min

4 min 3 min 3x10/15 2x10/15 3x8/12 3x10/15 2x8/12 3x8/12 3x10/15 3x10/15 3x15/30 3 min 2 min

5 min 3 min 3x10/15 2x10/15 2x10/15 3x8/12 4x10/15 3x8/12 3x8/12 3x10/15 3x10/15 3x10/15 3x15/30 4 min 3 min

6 min 4 min 5x10/15 4x10/15 2x10/15 5x8/12 5x10/15 5x8/12 5x8/12 3x10/15 5x10/15 3x10/15 5x15/30 6 min 4 min

YOGA - Hold each position for five breaths, do the push-up between positions Push-Up Leg Thrust - Sit on the floor with your palms on either side. Lift your legs and push down with your palms so that only your hands touch the floor. In one motion, bend your legs into your torso and swing them underneath and then behind you, landing in a straight-legged, bent arm, push-up position. Now Lift your hips into an upside-down V position, the downward dog. Bend your legs and hop them forward, between your arms, landing in a seating position with legs straight again. 1. Triangle - Spread your feet about a yard apart. Bend to the left so that your outstretched arms windmill until your right hand points toward the ceiling and your left to the floor. Keep your legs and hips in line as you twist and your torso and gaze upward. Repeat to the opposite side. 2. Shoulder Stand - Lie on your back. Keeping your legs together, lift your hips and bring your palms to the small of your back. Now extend your legs skyward with your toes pointed. Make sure your neck isnt strained. 3. Bent-Leg Twist - Sit with your left leg straight and with your right leg bent. Rotate clockwise from the waist and wedge your bent left arm against the outside of your right thigh; your right arm should extend behind you, palm on the floor. Repeat the pose to the opposite side. 4. Forward Bend - Standing with your legs straight and your feet hip-width apart, bend at the waist and try to hook the index and middle fingers of each hand around each big toe while letting your head dangle. Take the sting out of your hamstrings by drawing your quadriceps toward your pelvis and relax your shoulder blade so that the stretch is focused in your legs and midsection. 5. Modified Fish Pose - Lie flat with your legs straight, your arms at your sides and your palms facing down; now arch your back, rolling your head so that your crown is resting on the floor. Increase the arch in your middle back by using your hands to press into the floor. 50

HAND-TO-HAND Jab-Left/Right Cross-Left/Right Hook-Left/Right Upper-Cut-Left/Right Front Snap Kick-Left/Right Front Thrust Kick-Left/Right Front Jump Kick-Left/Right SideKick-Left/Right Round Kick-Left/Right Elbow Strike-Horizontal/Jab/Vertical/Smash Hammer Strike-Outside/Inside Knee Strike Punching-Jab/Reverse-Snap Kicks-Front Snap/Rear Thrust/Donkey Rear & Forward Defense-Outside/Inside/Leg D1-Horizontal Elbow Strike/Jab/Hammer Strike D2-Punching Techniques D3-Snap Kick/Thrust Kick D4-Donkey Kick/Rear Thrust Kick/ Front Snap Kick CALISTHENICS/PHYSICAL TRAINING EXERCISE BEGINNING 1. Jumping Jacks 40 2. Half Jumping Jacks 3. 8 Count Body Builders 20 4. Wind Mills 20 5. Mountain Climbers 30 6. Trunk Side Stretchers 7. Push-Ups 30 8. Press Press Fling 9. Helen Kellers 10. Sitting Knee Benders 11. Back Flutter Kicks 120 12. Stomach Flutter Kicks 50 13. Sitting Flutter Kicks 50 14. Push-Ups 30 15. Hello Dollies 25 16. Leg Thrusts 25 17. Leg Levers 18. Push-Ups 30 19. Leg Flex 20. Back Flex 21. Side Flex (each side) -

INTERMEDIATE 60 25 20 50 30 200 100 100 30 50 50 30 -

ADVANCED 100 25 20 50 20 35 200 100 100 35 50 50 20 35 10 10 10

CHALLENGE 40 20 60 15 20 20 30 30 20

51

22. Scissors 23. Push-Ups 24. Up-Back-Over 25. Sit-Ups 26. Push-Ups 27. Crunches 28. Trunk Twists 29. Standing Squats 30. Inverted Push-Ups 31. Neck Rotations 32. Fore and Aft 33. Pulay 34. Groin Stretch 35. Dive Bombers 36. Pull-Ups 37. Dips 38. Lunges 39. Boot Beaters AMPHIBIAN ATHLETICS: Strength Total Body Warm-up Trunk Rotations Trunk Side Stretch Wind Mills Trunk Bending/Fore&Aft Jumping Jacks Standard Lunges Calf Raises Alternating Lunges Total Body Calf Raises (Inboard) Standing Quad Stretch Power Lunges Calf Rases (Outboard) Cherry Pickers/Quad Stretch Rope Climbs Cross Reach Inboard, Outboard Cobra Stretch Dive Bombers Hi Jack, Hi Jill Triceps Push-Ups Up, Back & Over Push-Ups

30 120-25-25 30 30-30-30 10-10-10 10-10-10 50 25

25 30 120-25-25 30 30-30-30 15-15-15 15-15-15 50 50

25 35 20 120-50-50 35 35-35-35 20-20-20 15-15-15 50 75

20 15 20 20 35 20 20 20 15-15 10-10 -

(1) Chest & Shoulders (2) Back & Bi's (3) Abdominal (4) Lower Body Ct Bgn Inter. Adv. 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 52 5 10 10 10 10 8 10 8 10 2 4 10 3 10 10 5 3 6 10 10 10 15 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 8 10 3 12 12 8 3 8 10 10 10 15 5 10 10 10 10 12 10 12 10 2 12 10 3 15 15 10 3 10 10 15 10 20

Press, Press, Fling One Leg Leaning Rest Lumbar Stretch Alternating Arm & Leg Raises Cat & Camel Stomach Flutter Kick Cycler Stretch Dirty Dogs "Drop Set" Rear Kicks "Drop Set" Leaning Rest Squats Standard Thrust "Pyramid Set" Squat Thrust "Pyramid Set" Standard Thrust "Pyramid Set" One Leg L-Sit Crunch Alternate Leg Lift ISO Workout Chest & Shoulders Push-Ups "Pyramid Set" Up, back & over Triceps Push-Ups "Pyramid Set" Hi Jack, Hi Jill Dive Bombers "Pyramid Set" Neck Rotation Push-Ups Press, Press, Fling Push-Ups "Drop Set" Up, Back & Over Push-Ups "Drop Set" Neck Rotations Triceps Push-Ups Hi Jack, Hi Jill Triceps Push-Ups "Drop Set" Press, Press, Fling Triceps Push-Ups "Drop Set" Swimmer Stretch Dive bombers "Super Set" Triceps Push-Ups "Super Set" Push-Ups "Super Set" ISO Workout Abs Reverse Crunch In Board Out Board Flutter Kicks Reach Stretch Alternating Leg Lift Oblique Sit-Up Oblique Crunch 53

4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2

10 3 (10Ct) 3 3 (5Ct) 3 1 (10Ct) 3 10 8 10 8 3 4 10 8 5 10 5 10 5 10 20 10 15 10 10 10 15 10 10 10 10 30 Ct 5 5 8 15 5 10 3 5 10 10

10 3 (10Ct) 3 3 (10Ct) 3 1 (15Ct) 3 12 10 12 10 8 8 12 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 20 10 15 10 10 10 15 10 10 10 10 30 Ct 5 7 12 20 10 20 3 10 12 12

10 3 (15Ct) 3 3 (15Ct) 3 1 (20Ct) 3 15 12 15 12 10 10 15 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 30 10 20 10 15 10 20 10 15 10 15 30 Ct 10 15 20 20 10 30 3 15 15 15

Cobra Stretch Cross reach Rope Climb Ab Blast Reach Stretch Rear Kicks One Leg Leaning Rest Stomach Flutter Kicks Lumbar Stretch Leaning Rest Squats Jumping Jacks Squat Thrusts Jumping Jacks Squat Thrusts ISO Workout Lower Body Jumping Jacks Standard Squats Jumping Jacks Standard Squats Standing Quad Stretch Standard Lunges Calf Raises "Straight" Alternating Lunges Calf Raises "Outboard" Power Lunges Calf Raises "Inboard" Kneeling Quad Stretch Rear Kicks One Leg Leaning Rest Stomach Flutter Kicks Lumbar Stretch Leaning Rest Squats Jumping Jacks Squat Thrusts Jumping Jacks Squat Thrusts ISO Workout Back and Biceps Pull-Ups Trunk Side Stretch Cross Grip Pull-Ups Windmills Chin-Ups Trunk Rotations Pull-Ups Rear Deltoid Stretch 54

2 4 4 6 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2

3 10 10 5 3 10 3 20 3 10 10 10 10 8 10 10 10 10 2 10 15 10 15 10 15 3 10 3 20 3 10 10 10 10 8 10 10 10 10 10 5 8 3

3 12 12 10 3 12 5 30 3 12 10 10 10 8 10 12 10 12 2 12 15 12 15 10 15 3 12 5 30 3 12 10 10 10 8 10 10 10 10 10 5 8 3

3 15 15 15 3 15 5 30 3 15 10 12 10 10 10 15 10 15 2 15 15 15 15 15 15 3 15 5 30 3 15 10 12 10 10 15 10 15 10 15 5 12 3

Cross Grip Pull-Ups Stretch/Shake Out Chin-Ups Stretch Pull-Ups Stretch Cross Grip Pull-Ups Stretch Chin-Ups Stamina Workout Trunk Side Stretch Trunk Bending For & Aft Press, Press, Fling Jumping Jacks Alternating Lunges Straight Punch/Jab Standard Squats Upper Cuts Squat Thrusts Right Hook, Left Hook Power Lunges Jump Rope/Speed Bag Push-Ups Cross Knee Strike Tricep Push-Ups Kneeling Kip-Ups Dive Bombers Cross Knee Strike Push-Ups "Super Set" Tricep Push-Ups "Super Set" Dive Bombers "Super Set" Jump Rope/Speed Bag Leg Lifts to L-Sit Chase the Rabbits Cross Reach Chase the Rabbits Alternating L-Sit Crunch Chase the Rabbits Leg Lifts to L-Sit "Super Set" Cross Reach "Super Set" Alternating L-Sit Crunch "Super Set" Jump Rope/Speed Bag Pull-Ups Front Kicks Close Grips 55

2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2

8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 8 10 8 10 10 10 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 10 8 10 8

8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 10 10 5 5 5 10 12 10 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 8 10 8

12 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 10 15 15 15 15 10 10 12 10 10 10 10

Side Kicks Chin-Ups Rear Kicks Pull-Ups "Super Set" Close Grip Pull-Ups "Super Set" Chin-Ups "Super Set" Jump Rope/Speed Bag Left/Right Punch Combination Left/Right Punch, Knee Strike Combination Left/Right Punch, Kick Combination Knee Strike, Side Kick, Cross Punch Jump Rope/Speed Bag Warm Down High Jack, High Jill Lat. Lumbar Stretch Cobra Stretch Quad Stretch Cycler Stretch Hurdler Stretch OPTIONAL WORKOUTS: Back & Bi's Wide Grip Pull-Ups-1x12 Standard Pull-Ups-1x12 Cross Grip Pull-Ups-1x12 Standard Pull-Ups-3x15 Wide Grip Pull-Ups-1x12 Standard Pull-Ups-1x12 Cross Grip Pull-Ups-1x12 Chin-Ups-3x20 Close Grip Pull-Ups-3x20 Lower Body Squats-2x30 Lunges-2x15 Alternating Lunges-2x15 Rear Kicks-2x20 Squats2x30 Program Design 1 Weekly Goal: 3 Strength Total Body Workouts & 3-4 Cardio Routines Mon: Total Body Workout/Cardio 30 min. Tue: Cardio 30 min. Wed: Total Body Workout Thu: Cardio 30 min. Fri: Total Body Workout Sat: Make-Up Day or off Sun: Cardio 30 min.

4 2 4 2 2 2 4 -

10 8 10 6 6 6 10 -

10 8 10 6 6 6 10 -

10 10 10 8 8 8 10 -

Chest & Shoulders Standard Push-Ups-3x50 Dips-3x30 Tricep Push-Ups-3x30 Tricep Push-Ups-1x15 Dips-1x20 Standard Push-Ups-1x25

Abdominal Alternating L-Sit Crunch-1x15 Alternating Knee-to-Chest-1x15 Leg Lifts-1x30 Abdominal Curl-Ups-Max Program Design 3 Weekly Goal: 2 Complete ISO Workout Series Mon: ISO Chest & Shoulders/ISO Abs/Cardio 30 min. Tue: ISO Back & Bi/ISO Lower Back/Cardio 30 min. Wed: ISO Abs/Cardio 30 min. Thu: ISO Chest & Shoulders/ISO Abs Fri: ISO Back & Bi/ISO Lower Back/Cardio 30 min. Sat: Optional Cardio/Off/Make-Up Day Sun: Off/Make-Up Day

56

Program Design 2 Weekly Goal: 1 Complete ISO Workout Series, 12 Strength Total Body Workout, 1 Stamina Total Body Workout, 1 Stamina Aerobic Workout, 2-3 Cardio Routines Mon: ISO Chest & Shoulders/ISO Abs/Cardio 30 min Tue: ISO Back & Bi's/ISO Lower Back Wed: ISO Abs/Cardio 30min. Thu: Off/Make-Up Day Fri: Stamina Aerobic Workout (30 min.) Sat: Strength Total Body Workout Sun: Cardio 30 min.

MILITARY WORKOUT EXERCISE 1. 8 Count Body Builders 2. Push-Ups 3. Dive Bombers 4. Pull-Ups 5. Sit-Ups 6. Leg Levers 7. Arm Haulers 8. Squat Jumps MARSOC Short Card EXERCISE 1. Push-Ups 2. Air Squats 3. Crunches 4. Burpees 5. Windmills 6. Push-Ups 7. Mountain Climbers 8. Flutter Kicks 9. Burpees 10. Cherry Pickers 11. Push-Ups 12. Star Jumps 13. Back Extensions 14. Burpees 15. Chain Breakers 16. Push-Ups 17. Lunges 18. Hello Dollies 19. Burpees 20. Trunk Twists

BEGINNING 18-18 33-33 18-18 4x max 36-32 26-22 32-32 18-18

INTERMEDIATE 20-20 36-36 20-20 4x max 40-36 28-24 24-24 20-20

ADVANCED 22-22 40-40 22-22 4x max 44-40 30-26 36-36 22-22

BASIC 30 30 30 10 10 30 30 30 10 10 30 30 30 10 10 30 30 30 10 10

TOTAL BODY

RE-ENTRY

RECOVERY

57

21. Pull-Ups

3xMax

Note 1: Repeat 2-3 times. Note 2: Include strength training at least twice per week. BUDS PT EXERCISE PULL-UPS 1. Regular 2. Reverse 3. Wide BAR DIPS PUSH-UPS 1. Regular 2. Triceps 3. Wide-Angle 4. 8 Count Body Builders ABDOMINAL 1. Sit-Ups 2. Sit-Ups 3. Flutter Kicks 4. Scissors 5. Leg Levers 6. Four-Way Crunches 7. Sitting Knee Benders LOWER BODY 1. Squats 2. Lunges 3. Star Jumps MORE WORKOUTS EXERCISE 1. Jumping Jack 2. Jumping Jack 3. Up-Back-Over 4. Crunches 5. Push-Ups(Regular) 6. Flutter Kicks 7. Dirty Dogs 8. Butterfly Stretch 9. ITB Stretch 10. 3-Way Hurdler's Stretch 11. Swimmer's Stretch 12. Push-Ups(Diamonds) 13. Sit-Ups 14. Push-Ups(wide)

BEGINNING 10 10 10 20-20-20 20 20 20 20 50-50-50 25-25-25 200 50 50 25 25 15-15-15 15-15-15 10-10

INTERMEDIATE

ADVANCED

BASIC 50 50 10 80 30 25 2 2 2 2 30 30 30

TOTAL BODY 50 50 10 80 30 25 20 2 2 2 2 30 30 30 58

RE-ENTRY 25 25 5 60 20 15 2 2 2 2 20 20 20

RECOVERY 25 25 5 40 20 2 2 2 2 20 20 15

15. One-Legged Squat 10 16. Supine Back Stretch 1 1 17. Torso Prone Stretch 2 2 18. Prone Superman 10 10 19. Vee-Ups 30 30 20. Donkey Kicks 30 30 21. Hand-to-Knee Squat 10 10 22. Upper-Back Stretch 2 23. Triceps Stretch 2 2 24. Iliopsoas Stretch 2 2 25. Standing Quad Stretch 2 2 26. Standing Toe Pointer 2 2 27. Gastroc/Soleus Stretch 2 2 28. Pull-Ups Max Max 29. Dips Max Max Note 1: Repeat 2-3 times starting at Crunches (#4). Note 2: Include strength training at least twice per week.

1 2 10 30 20 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 Max Max

1 2 10 30 20 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 Max Max

BOXING TRAINING Warm-Up - 5 min Stretching - 10 min Upper Body Prep - 5 min -jab, jab, cross -jab, jab, cross, hook -jab, jab, cross, hook, uppercut Lower Body Prep - 5 min -30 sec strong side shuffle -30 sec weak side shuffle -30 sec jumping jacks Heavy Bag Drill - 20 min 4 min each combination with 1 min jumping jacks -Combination 1 - left jab, left jab, left front kick, right cross -Combination 2 - left jab, left round kick, right cross, left hook -Combination 3 - left jab, left jab, left jab, left side kick, right cross, left hook, right uppercut -Combination 4 - right cross, left jab, left front kick, left round kick, right uppercut Leg Drills - 5 min -front kicks - 5 left, 5 right -side kicks - 5 left, 5 right Abdominal - 5 min Stretching - 5 min USMC WORKOUT SUMMARY Warm-up Card - 2 minutes Stretch Card - 2 minutes Exercise Card - 5 reps for warm-up

WARM-UP CARD Double Time in Place Punch to the Front Punch to the Sky Arm Circles Double Time in Place 59

STRETCHING CARD 1 Triceps Stretch Posterior Shoulder Stretch Shoulder and Neck Stretch

STRETCHING CARD 2 Triceps Stretch Upper Back Stretch Chest Stretch Iliotibial Band Stretch Calf Stretch

Main Fitness Event - 20 minutes minimum Exercise Card - 10-20 reps for each exercise Stretch Card - 5 minutes EXERCISE CARD 1 Pushups Dirty Dogs Crunches Wide Pushups Back Extensions Elbow to Knee Crunches Lunges Side Straddle Hops

Neck Rotations Trunk Rotations Knee and Ankle Rotations

Calf Stretch Hip and Back Stretch Iliotibial Band Stretch Quadriceps Stretch Hamstring Stretch EXERCISE CARD 3 Eight Count Body Builders Side leg Raises Elbow to Knee Crunches Dive Bombers Hip Abduction Side Crunches Prone Flutter Kicks Steam Engines

Hip and Back Stretch Modified Hurdler Stretch Groin Stretch

EXERCISE CARD 2 Pushups Dirty Dogs Crunches Dive Bombers Donkey Kicks Side Crunches Lunges Steam Engines

TRAINING

Exercise I. General Warm-Up II. Flexibility Exercises 1. Calf Stretch 2. Seated Groin Stretch 3. Straddle Groin Stretch 4. Thigh Stretch 5. Side Lunge Stretch 6. Side Quad Flex 7. Single-Arm Side Bend 8. Supermans (Alternating Arms) 9. Back Flexation 10. Back Extension 11. Neck Side to Side 12. Arm Cross 13. Arm Flexation III. Torso-Stabilization Exercises 1. Low Back Press 2. Single-Leg Low Back Raise 3. Balanced Back Extension 4. Supermans (Both Arms) 5. Abdominal Crunches 6. Abdominal Side Crunches

M / W /F f

T/T /S

M / W /F

T/T /S

M/ W/ F

T/ T/ S

M / W /F

T/T /S

M / W /F

T/T /S

M / W /F

T/T /S T/T /S

60

IV. Joint-Stabilization Exercises 1. Butt-Ups 2. Flex-T Push-Ups 3. One-Arm Side-Ups 4. One-Arm Push-Ups 5. Dumbbell Crosses 6. Flex-T Rotators 7. Upright Flys 8. Butterflies 9. Bent-Over Pulls 10. Bent-Over Flys V. Core Exercises VI. Plyometrics 1. Plyometric Knee Push-Up 2. Seated Rotation 3. Squat Jump 4. Split Squat Jumps 5. Medicine Ball Push-Up 6. Medicine Ball Side Throw 7. Double-Leg Tuck Jump 8. Medicine Ball Overhead Throw 9. In-Depth Push-Up 10. Kneeling Medicine Ball Throw 11. 90 Second Box Drill 12. Lateral Cone Hop VII. Martial Arts Training VIII. Aerobic Training IX. Anaerobic Training CALISTHENICS PROGRAM Exercise 1. Full Jumping Jack 2. Side Twister Stretcher 3. Trunk Rotation 4. Trunk Bending Fore and Aft 5. Trunk Twister 6. Windmill, Four-Count 7. Trunk Side Stretcher 8. Rocking Chair 9. Regulation Sit-Up 10. Hand-and -Toe-Sit-Up 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 WEEK 7 8 9 10 11 12

Warm-Up

Abs

Sides & Obliques

Legs & Groin

Arm Chest & Shoulder

11. Cherry Picker 12. Back Flutter Kick 13. Stomach Flutter Kick 14. Sitting Flutter Kick 15. Back Roller 16. Stomach Stretcher 17. Sitting Knee Bend 18. Leg Lever 19. Leg Thrust 20. Legs Flexing, Shoulders Secured 21. Legs Flexing, Shoulders Secured 22. Back Flexing, Legs Secured 23. Side Flexing, Legs Secured 24. Sitting Back Bends 25. Side Snapper 26. Deep Knee Bender, Four-Count 27. Squat Jump 28. Leg Stretcher 29. Thigh Stretcher 30. Groin Stretcher, Four-Count 31. Calf Stretcher 32. One-Legged-Sit-Up 33. Bend and Reach 34. Squat Stretch 35. Good Morning Darling 36. Spread Eagle 37. Deep Breather 38. Regulation Push-Up 39. Eight-Count Body Builder 40. Narrow Push-Ups 41. Dive Bombers 42. One-Legged Push-Up 43. Neck Rotation 44. Press Press Fling 45. Up Back and Over 46. Pull-Up 47. Regulation Pull-Ups 48. Reverse Pull-Ups 49. Wide Pull-Ups 50. Narrow Pull-Ups

the D ow nw ard Do g

RUNNING GUIDE MARATHON PHASE I WEEK 1 2 3 4 62 PHASE II 5 6 7 PHASE III 8 9 10 11 12

DAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY TOTAL MILES 4 3 I 4 2 R 7 20 4 4 I 5 3 R 7 27 5 3 I 4 3 R 10 30 5 5 I 6 3 R 10 30 6 4 I 6 8 R 12 41 6 5 I 6 10 R 12 44 5 5 I 6 11 R 14 48 5 6 I 6 7 R 16 47 9 7 I 7 10 R 18 56 10 7 I 8 12 R 20 52 10 6 I 6 10 R 12 44 7 6 R 4 2 R Rac e 19

INTERVAL TRAINING SCHEDULE FOR MARATHON (WEDNESDAY) WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 4x440 4x440 6x440 440 jog between 440 jog between 440 jog between full recovery full recovery full recovery 65% effort 65% effort 65% effort WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 3x880 3x880 5x880 440 jog between 440 jog between 440 jog between full recovery full recovery decrease jog time 65% effort 65% effort 65% effort WEEK 9 WEEK 10 WEEK 11 3x1320 6x440 Fast tempo Fartlek 25-30 minutes 440 jog between 440 jog between full recovery decrease jog time 65% effort 65% effort RUNNING GUIDE HALF-MARATHON PHASE I WEEK DAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY TOTAL MILES 3 4 I 3 2 R 3 19 3 4 I 3 2 R 5 21 3 4 I 3 3 R 6 24 3 4 I 3 4 R 7 27 3 5 I 3 4 R 9 28 4 5 I 4 4 R 10 32 4 5 I 4 5 R 10 35 1 2 3

WEEK 4 6x440 440 jog between decrease jog time 65% effort WEEK 8 5x880 440 jog between decrease jog time 65% effort Begin and end with easy 1 mile jog

PHASE II 4 5 6 7

PHASE III 8 4 5 I 4 5 R 12 37 9 5 5 I 4 4 R 5 29 10 5 5 R 4 4 R Race 18

INTERVAL TRAINING SCHEDULE FOR HALF-MARATHON (WEDNESDAY) WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 4x440 4x440 6x440 440 jog between 440 jog between 440 jog between full recovery decrease jog time decrease jog time 63

WEEK 4 6x440 440 jog between decrease jog time

65% effort WEEK 5 3x880 440 jog between decrease jog time 65% effort WEEK 9 Fast tempo Fartlek 25-30 minutes RUNNING GUIDE 5K WEEK DAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY TOTAL MILES 2 2 I 2 2 R 2

65% effort WEEK 6 3x880 440 jog between decrease jog time 75% effort Begin and end with easy 1 mile jog

65% effort WEEK 7 5x880 440 jog between decrease jog time 75% effort

65% effort WEEK 8 5x880 440 jog between decrease jog time 75% effort

2 2 2 I 2 2 R 2 12

3 2 2 I 2 2 R 3 13

4 2 2 I 2 2 R 3 13

5 2 3 I 3 2 R 3 15

6 2 3 I 3 3 R 4 17

7 3 3 I 3 3 R 4 18

8 3 2 R 2 2 R Race 9

12

INTERVAL TRAINING SCHEDULE FOR 5K (WEDNESDAY) WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 5x220 5x220 10x110 220 jog between 220 jog between jog back to start full recovery full recovery full recovery 65% effort 65% effort 65% effort WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 6x220 4x440 6x220 jog across infield 440 jog between jog across infield decrease jog time decrease jog time decrease jog time 75% effort 75% effort 75% effort FBI FIREARMS/FITNESS SA PFT (Male) The four events are: 1) 1min sit-ups, 2) 300 meter sprint, 3) push-ups, and 4) a 1.5 mile run. Passing: 12 points with at least one point in each event. Score Sit-Ups 300m Sprint Push-Ups 1.5M Run Pullups -2 31 55.1 19 13:30 0 0 32-37 55.0-52.5 20-29 13:29-12:25 1 1 38 52.4-51.1 30-32 12:24-12:15 2-3 2 39-42 51.0-49.5 33-39 12:14-11:35 4-5 3 43-44 49.4-48.0 40-43 11:34-11:10 6-7 4 45-47 47.9-46.1 44-49 11:09-10:35 8-9 64

WEEK 4 10x110 jog back to start full recovery 65% effort Begin and end with easy mile jog

SA PFT (Female) The four events are: 1) 1min sit-ups, 2) 300 meter sprint, 3) push-ups, and 4) a 1.5 mile run. Passing: 12 points with at least one point in each event. Score Sit-Ups 300m Sprint Push-Ups 1.5M Run Pullups -2 29 67.5 5 15:00 0 -1 30-34 67.4-65.0 5-13 14:59-14:00 0 1 35-36 64.9-62.5 14-18 13:59-13:35 1 2 37-40 62.4-60.0 19-21 13:34-13:00 2 3 41-42 59.9-57.5 22-26 12:59-12:30 3 4 43-46 57.4-56.0 27-29 12:29-11:57 4 5 47-48 55.9-54.0 30-32 11:56-11:35 5 6 49-50 53.9-53.0 33-35 11:34-11:15 6 7 51-52 52.9-52.0 36-38 11:14-11:06 7 8 53-54 51.9-51.0 39-41 11:05-10:45 8 9 55-56 50.9-50.0 42-44 10:44-10:35 9

5 48-49 10-11 6 50-51 12-13 7 52-53 14-15 8 54-55 16-17 9 56-57 18-19 10 58 20

46.0-45.0 44.9-44.0 43.9-43.0 42.9-42.0 41.9-41.0 40.9

50-53 54-56 57-60 61-64 65-70 71

10:34-10:15 10:14-9:55 9:54-9:35 9:34-9:20 9:19-9:00 8:59

10 10

57

49.9

45

10:34

HQC-50 rds (Qual =48/80%) (Wear a concealing garment.) STAGE 1 -3 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rds in 3 sec, strong hand only (2 strings). -3 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rounds strong hand only and 3 rounds support hand only in 8 sec. STAGE II -5 yrds-(12 rds): Draw and fire 3 rds in 3 sec on each target facing (4 strings). STAGE III -7 yrds-(8 rds): Draw and fire: 4 rds in 4 sec on each target facing (2 strings). -7 yrds-(8 rds): Draw and fire 4rds, reload and fire 4 rds. STAGE IV -15 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rds in 6 sec (2 strings). -15 yrds-(4 rds): Draw and fire: 4 rds in 8 sec (1 string) STAGE V -25 yrds-(10 rds): Start to the right side of the barricade. Draw while moving to cover and fire: 3 rds standing and 2 rds kneeling barricade in 15 sec. (2 strings) MP5 - 50 rds (Qual = 80%) 2 mags - 25 rds each -50 yrds (15 rds): Starting from pos. 2 with bolt locked back and safety on, load, drop to prone & remove safety, 5 rds prone, 5 rds kneeling, & 5rds standing in 60 secs. -25 yrds (15 rds): 5 rds kneeling (barr), 5 rds standing (barr), mag change, 5 rds weak side/shoulder (barr), in 50 sec. -15 yrds (10 rds): Pos 3, safety on 5 rds standing, & 5 rds kneeling in 15 sec. -7 yrds (10 rds): Pos 3, safety on, 2 rds in 3 sec, 4 strings of 2 rds in 2 sec. 25 Yrd Bull's Eye - 30 rds (Qual = 210/FI's = 260) 3 mags w/ 10 rds each -25 yrds (10 rds): 10 rds in 4 min. (24 secs per rd) -15 yrds (10 rds): From position 3, fire 5 rds in 15 sec. (repeat) -15 yrds -(10 rds): From position 3, fire 5 rds in 10 sec. (repeat)

HQC-50 rds (Qual = 80%) (Wear a concealing garment.) 3 mags filled with 12 rds each, 1 mag filled with 14 rds. -3 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rds in 3 sec, strong hand only (2 strings). -3 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rounds strong hand only and 3 rounds support hand only in 8 sec. -5 yrds-(12 rds): Draw and fire 3 rds in 3 sec on each target facing (4 strings). -7 yrds-(8 rds): Draw and fire: 4 rds in 4 sec on each target facing (2 strings). -7 yrds-(8 rds): Draw and fire 4rds, reload and fire 4 rds. -15 yrds-(6 rds): Draw and fire: 3 rds in 6 sec (2 strings). -25 yrds-(4 rds): Start to the right side of the barricade. Draw while moving to cover and fire: 2 rds standing and 2 rds kneeling barricade in 15 sec.

M-4/16 Qual (Same as the MP-5 w/below changes) If 30 rd mags, load 25 in each If 30 & 20 rd mag, load, load each full and use 20 first If 20 rd mags, load 2 w/ 20 rds, & 1 mag w/ ten 20 rd mags used at 50, 25, & 15 yrds 10 rd mag used at the 7 yrd (reload will occur at the 25 yrd line after the 5 rds strong side kneeling w/ the 20 rd mag

Shotgun 10A - 11 slug, 5 "00 Buck" (Qual = 80%) -50 yrds (2 slug in weakside(w/s) pocket): assembly area load 2 rds, come to pos 1 (high ready), chamber 1 rd, 1 rd standing, 1 rd kneeling in 20 sec. -25 yrds (5 slug in w/s pocket): pos 2 (combat ready), combat load 5 rds, 2 standing, 3 kneeling in 45 sec. -15 yrds -(4 slug in w/s pocket): pos 2, combat load 4 rds, fire 1 rd in 20 sec. Come to pos 3 (low ready), fire 3 strings of 1 rd each in 3 sec. -7 yrds (5 "00" Buck in w/s pocket): pos 2, combat 65

load 3 rds, fire 3 rds, combat load 2 rds, fire 2 rds in 35 secs. Score slugs ( 5 pts, total 55) buck (1 pts, total 45) PQC - 50 rds (Qual = 80%) -25 yrds (18 rds): draw, fire 6 prone, 3 kneeling (barr), 6 standing (barr), and 3 weakside kneeling (barr) in 1 min 15 sec. Conduct tactical mag change when finished -15 yrds -(10 rds): Run to 15 yrd line, draw & fire 2 rds in 6 sec, com to position 3, from position 3 fire 4 strings of 2 rds each in 3 sec. -7 yrds -(12 rds): Run to 7 yrd line, draw & fire 12 rds in 15 sec to include a mag change -5 yrds -(10 rds): take 2 steps forward to 5 yrd line, draw & fire 5 rds, strong hand only, mag change, 5 rds weak hand only in XX sec. SWAT PST Pursuit / Rescue Climb: Vest w/plates ( 25 lbs); 2 pull-ups. Assault Dash: Vest w/plate (18 lbs), helmet & shotgun; start from the prone position run 40 yrds in less than 7.70 secs. Tactical Obstacle Course: 880-yrd course in less than 4:45 min. Course: 40-yard running weave between 9 cones: 10-yrd rescue drag of a supine victim or "dummy"; and a second 40-yrd running weave including dropping to the prone position behind each of the 9 alternately placed cones. SWAT PQC - 50 Rds (Qual = 90%) -25 yrds (18 rds): Draw, fire 6 prone, 6 standing, and 6 weakside kneeling in 45 secs. -15 yrds (8 rds): Draw & fire 2 rds in 3 sec, repeat 3 times. -15 yrds (7 rds): Draw & fire 7 rds in 6 sec. -7 yrds (7 rds): Draw & fire 7 rds in 5 sec. -7 yrds (10 rds): Draw & fire 5 rds, strong hand, mag change, 5 rds weak hand.

HRT Minimum Physical Standards: (1) 12 pull-ups (2) 60 sit-ups in 2 minutes (3) 50 push-ups (4) Run 2 miles within 14 minutes 59 seconds. (5) Run eight (8) flights of stairs, with 55 lbs vest and 35 lbs ram, in less than one minute. (6) 200-yard continuous swim in under seven minutes Pistol Qualification Course (PQC) -90% passing score.

NUTRITION 1. Calculate Basil Metabolic Rate(BMR): Men 30-60 - 5.27xbody weight (lbs) + 879=BMR 2. Activity Level Very Light - 1.2; Light - 1.4; Moderate - 1.6; Strenuous - 1.9; Exceptional - 2.3 3. Calculate Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): BMR x Activity Factor = Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) kcal/day 4. Calculate Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI = Body Weight x 705 (Height/inches)2 Ratio Classification +20-underweight; 20-25-normal; 25-30-overweight; 30-obese 5. Calculate Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) WHR = waist circumference (inches) hip circumference (inches) 6. Calculate CHO Requirements EER x 0.55 = kcal from CHO per day kcal from CHO per day 4 kcal per gram = grams CHO per Day 7. Determine Maximum Fat Limit EER x 0.30 = kcal of fat per day kcal of fat per day 9 kcal per gram = grams of fat per day 8. Calculate Daily Water Requirement = body weight (lbs) x 0.5 9. Calculate Water Loss Limit = body weight (lbs) x 0.98 10. Determine Target Heart Rate Age-Predicted Max HR = 220 - your age = Max HR BBM 60% Max HR = Max HR x 0.60 = Max HR BBM 90% Max HR = Max HR x 0.90 = Max HR BBM Target HR Zone = 60% Max HR to 90% Max HR 11. Calculate CHO needs for endurance training 66

EER x 0.60 = kcal from CHO per day EER x 0.65 = kcal from CHO per day Target 60% to 65% kcals from CHO daily 12. Calculate Protein needs for endurance training 0.60 x body weight (lbs) = grams protein per day 0.80 x body weight (lbs) = grams protein per day Target 0.6 - 0.8 grams of protein per pound of body weight Male Caloric Intake: 2,500 - 3,500 per day Female Caloric intake: 1,800 - 2,800 per day CALORIE 1800 2500 2800 3500 CARB. (40-45%) Grams 180-200 250-280 280-315 350-390 PROTEIN (30-35%) Grams 135-155 185-220 210-245 260-300 FAT (20-30%) Grams 50-60 75-80 75-90 95-115

RECOMMENDED CALORIC INTAKE MEAL CALORIES (800) Breakfast 150 Snack 100 Lunch 150 Snack 100 Dinner 200 Snack 100

CALORIES (1600) 250 150 400 150 500 150

CALORIES (2400) 400 250 550 250 700 250

CALORIES

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