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Quarterly Volume 5 Issue 1, 2, 3 & 4 April 11 - March 12 ISSN

Quarterly

Volume 5

Issue 1, 2, 3 & 4 April 11 - March 12 ISSN 0974 - 7354

5 Issue 1, 2, 3 & 4 April 11 - March 12 ISSN 0974 - 7354
5 Issue 1, 2, 3 & 4 April 11 - March 12 ISSN 0974 - 7354

Contents

1. ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants

2. Appraisal of Data Recording and Reporting System relating to Indian Medicinal Plants

3. Medicinal Plant Species of Conservation Concern:

Sikkim

4. Caring Touch Matters

5. Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas Network in India-State wise

6. Finding Alternates for Endangered Herbs using Ayurvedic Concepts

Credit line

Editor - Ms. Suma T.S. ENVIS team Mr. D.K. Ved Mr. Vijay Srinivas Ms. Sugandhi Rani

Ms. Suma T.S. Mr. Harish K.

Vijay Srinivas Ms. Sugandhi Rani Ms. Suma T.S. Mr. Harish K. Acknowledgements Mr. D.K. Ved Dr.

Acknowledgements Mr. D.K. Ved

Dr. Padma Venkatasubramanaian

Dr. G.S. Goraya Dr. Iyengar M.A.R. Dr. K. Ravikumar Dr. Shilpa Naveen Mr. Thinley Bhutia Ms. Nandini D.

Dr. Boyina Ravi Prasad Rao

Dr. K.V. Krishnamurthy Mr. B.S. Somashekhar Dr. Venugopal S.N. Dr. Subramanya Kumar K. Dr. Debabrata Saha Mr. Suresh H.M.

Photo courtesy FRLHT Image Library, Dr. Ravikumar K., Dr. G.S. Goraya, Mr. Ganesh Babu, Ms.Suma T.S., Dr. Narasimhan, D., Ms. Sheetal Purushotam Singh, Dr. Boyina Ravi Prasad Rao, Dr. M. Subramanya Kumar K. Mr. B.S. Somashekhar, Mr. Narayan Prakash Iyer, Dr. R. Murugan

Quarterly publication is supported by:

Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India

Design and printed at: Mr. Sathyan Parakadavil & Mr. B. Srikanth, Akshara Graphics, Bangalore

Next issue

Medicinal Plants Conservation Efforts across the country …continued.

Editorial

Dear Friends,ENVIS Team at FRLHT wishes you a splendid year ahead!

United Nations General Assembly at its 65th session, October 2010, declared the period 2011-2020 to be “the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, with a view to contributing to the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity for the period 2011-2020” (Resolution 65/161). This Decade will serve to support the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and promote its overall vision of living in

harmony with nature. Its goal is to mainstream biodiversity at different levels. Throughout the United

Nations Decade on Biodiversity, governments are encouraged to develop, implement and communicate the results of national strategies for implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. This decade

looks forward for participation of individuals, stakeholders and governments with action programs which not only protects life support systems but also ensures human well-being, but supports the rich variety of

life on this mother earth. For more information, visit: http://www.cbd.int/2011-2020/goals/.

Based on popular demand, we continued the earlier theme-Medicinal Plants Conservation Efforts across the country, in this current newsletter. We present to you, write-ups related to Appraisal of data recording

and reporting system relating to exports and imports of Indian Medicinal Plants, Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas Network in India, since 1993; finding alternates for endangered herbs using Ayurvedic concepts,Cycas beddomei, a jewel of Seshachalam hills, know and use Sankhapuspi, Conservation Concern species of a North East India and many more write-ups and updates.

We wish to reiterate that “conservation of biodiversity is positive embracing preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilisation, restoration and enhancement of natural environment”.(IUCN, 1980). We hope this issue gives your more insights into conservation of medicinally important plant species and kindles interest within to act towards protecting, preserving the rich medicinal plant resources and traditional knowledge.

We invite your feedback and write-ups for the forth coming issue. Theme for the next issue is same as the current one. Our aim is to bring together the experiences of individuals, stakeholders and governments towards medicinal plants conservation. Your write-up should be brief, with colourful photographs and in popular style of writing. Email: envis@frlht.org

Best Wishes Suma T.S, Editor - Medplant

ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants

Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore (Institute for Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine)

Our Vision: “To revitalize Indian medical heritage”, Through creative applications of traditional health sciences for enhancing the quality of health care in rural and urban India and globally.

Our Mission: To demonstrate the contemporary relevance of Indian Medical Heritage by designing and implementing innovative programs on a size and scale that will have societal impact. The five thrust areas:-

• Contribution to the self-reliance and health security of millions of rural and urban households and communities through green health.

• Original contributions to the world of medicine from its rich materia-medica, pharmacy, pharmacology, clinical practice and basic concepts of health and disease.

• Conservation of threatened natural resources in use by Indian Systems of Medicine

• Generate well trained human resources with knowledge and skills to disseminate the traditional health sciences both in India and globally.

• Creation of traditional knowledge inspired enterprises to provide goods and services to the community, that benefit in holistic ways

Centre for ISM Informatics (CII): CII vision is to revitalize Indian Systems of Medicine through Health Informatics and mission is to develop informatics tools for the purpose of understanding, Conserving and Propagating Indian Systems of Medicine with special focus on contemporary requirements in education, research and application of Indian Systems of Medicine. The Centre's main attraction is Encyclopedia on Indian Medicinal Plants. This database houses 180,000 records pertaining to vernacular names(in 32 languages) correlated to botanical names. This database is constantly evolving and contributes to multiple need based educational materials developments, from books to databases. This also serves as the baseline information on medicinal plants for developing new projects from laboratory research to field research, publications, conduct botanical surveys, GIS mapping for generation of geo-eco distribution maps to trade studies etc. Information from this comprehensive, well research database is partially shared in our ENVIS website:

www.envis.frlht.org/www.frlhtenvis.nic.in For more information, please visit: http://www.iaim.edu.in/ Centre_ISM%

20Informatics.html

Along with these range of activities, this Centre also focuses on sharing COE outputs through the Environmental Information Systems Centre on Medicinal Plants. This is mainly supported by MoEF, Go.I. Here, we aim to bring awareness about the issues, concerns and experiences related to Indian Medicinal Plants conservation through the website: http://envis.frlht.org, www.frlhtenvis.nic.in, quarterly newsletter: Medplant and outreach activities, interactions with the schools, colleges, households, media, health professionals. Write to us: envis@frlht.org , frlhtenvis@nic.in

2 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Research Findings

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

Appraisal of Data Recording and Reporting System relating to exports and imports of Indian Medicinal Plants

D.K.Ved & G.S. Goraya

The data relating to India's exports and imports is compiled and published periodically by the Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS) of Government of India. In these reports, the items are listed with their HS codes. The medicinal plant species, however, do not get enlisted fully under any specific major category of HS (Harmonized System) codes. While these codes help

in compilation and analysis of quantum of exports for well-

known commodities like Psyllium, Senna, Henna, etc. the

bulk of material gets reported only under miscellaneous categories. In absence of specific and precise linkage of such data with the appropriate plant entities it is not possible to assess the quantum of exported plant materials pertaining to specific wild medicinal plant species of high conservation concern. It is with this perspective that FRLHT team has taken up this appraisal under the Centre of Excellence programme supported by the Ministry of Environment & Forests of Government of India. This appraisal report has been organized into the following four headings:

1. HS codes and ITC (HS) codes

2. Analysis of data published by DGCIS.

3. Sources of data for DGCIS publications.

4. Inferences

1. HS codes and ITC (HS) codes Millions of trade transactions, across different countries, occurring each year are classified under approximately 8000 item codes. Each such item code known as HS-code (Harmonized System) consists of progressively more specific identifiers and consists of 6 to 10 digits. As per this system most of the medicinal plants related materials fall under the major code 12 which is linked to the description “oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw & fodder”. A subset of this code is the more specifically defined 4 digit code 1211 pertaining to the description “Plants and plant parts for pharmacy, perfumery, insecticides, fungicidal; fresh, dried, cut or not, crushed, powdered herbs, licorice, mint, ginseng”. This four digit code gets further refined to 6 or more digits for referring to more sharply defined entities/items.

This system for classification of internationally traded goods has been developed, and is maintained, by the World Customs Organization (WCO) since 1 January, 1988 and it has been adopted by most trading nations, including India.

st

The international HS codes are subject to an on-going periodic review by WCO. More detailed classification at the country level, to identify goods for tariff or statistical purposes, uses additional digits added to these codes(upto

a total of 10 digits). The ITC (HS) codes, referring to the Indian Trade classification (HS) codes, are derived from

international HS codes and can have up to 10 digits. ITC(HS)

is primarily used as a tool for (a) levying of excise, (b) import

tariffs and (c) generation of EXIM data. A few examples of these ITC (HS) codes, recorded in reports produced by DGCIS, are reproduced below:

recorded in reports produced by DGCIS, are reproduced below: Conservation Concern Medicinal Plant: Shyonaaka Oroxylum

Conservation Concern Medicinal Plant: Shyonaaka

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz

Family: Bignoniaceae

Threat Status:

Assessed as Endangered in Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan & Orissa

Assessed as Vulnerable in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya & Sikkim

Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya & Sikkim Vernacular names: Hindi: Arlu, Urru, Sauna Kannada:

Vernacular names:

Hindi: Arlu, Urru, Sauna

Kannada: Alangi,

Bunepaale, Pathangani

Malayalam: Palakappayyani, Vella Pathiri

Marathi: Titu, Ulu

Sanskrit: Shyonaaka

Tamil: Achi, Pana, Pei maram, Vanga maram, Peru vaagai

Telugu: Dundilamu, pampini, Nemalli chettu

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Research Findings

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

3

Descriptions of all these 8 digit ITC (HS) codes fall within the broad category under the 4 digit HS code 1211 described earlier.

2. Analysis of data published by DGCIS:

In these compilations the items are listed with their ITC (HS) codes along with the quantities (in Kilograms) as well as value in Rupees compiled for specified periods. The data taken up for analysis, for this study, pertains to the year 2004–05.

The medicinal plant species do not get enlisted fully under any specific major category of HS (Harmonized System) codes followed internationally. In compilations relating to the year 2004-05, published by DGCIS, these materials fall mainly under the HS code 1211 and its subsets (39 items). These commodities constitute the major category linkable to medicinal plants but there are several other commodities under a number of different HS code categories e.g. 1301 (with 3 subsets – 3 items) 1302 (extracts – 7 items), 14041 (5 items) and 14049 (2 items) which need to be included to cover the range of botanicals falling under the medicinal plant category.

Summary of Medicinal Plants Export data (2004-05) is tabulated below:

Analysis of this data pertaining to 2004 – 05, shows that the total quantity of exports of medicinal plants (including plant extracts) amounted to 57,880 MT corresponding to the rupee value of 515.8 crores. Major proportion of these exports relates to psyllium (seeds + husk), senna and henna. These three entities, which are obtained from cultivations, constitute 21,400 MT (37 %) quantity. Out of the remaining 36, 480 MT, a quantum of 13,550 MT relates to 'Others' (miscella- neous) which includes other seeds, other roots, other leaves, other fruits, other parts of plants, other extracts, other myrobalans and other soap nuts. 'Others' category covers all plant materials which do not have a description linking it to a specific plant entity. This quantum 13,550 MT of “others” (relating to medicinal plants) has a rupee value of 118 Crores. Further break-up of this data linking it to specific plant entities is not feasible on account of the existing data recording system. Having specific codes linkable to individual plant entities can help in generating data for specific plant species. Without such a linkage it is not possible to assess the quantum of exports of the plant parts/ products of specific plant species.

Table: 3. Others (Miscellaneous) extracted from exports data relating to 2004-05:

Nearly 23% of this exported quantity (linked to nearly 24% of monetary value) is represented by “others” (Miscellaneous) codes as tabulated below:

by “others” (Miscellaneous) codes as tabulated below: Please note: As per the wordings written in DGCIS
by “others” (Miscellaneous) codes as tabulated below: Please note: As per the wordings written in DGCIS

Please note: As per the wordings written in DGCIS report.

4 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Research Findings

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

3. Sources of data for DGCIS reports

While DGCIS is the agency collecting, compiling and publishing periodic reports on exports and imports, the generation of this data takes place in the Indian customs department. Our (FRLHT) team, therefore, fixed up a meeting with the Joint Commissioner Customs (Shri

Garbyal), at Mumbai. He explained about the Indian customs EDI system (ICES) which is a joint effort of Indian customs and National Informatics Centre (NIC). This database is being maintained in Oracle and one of the objectives of ICES is to provide authentic data on imports

In respect of exports the data is

directly

entered

and exports to DGCIS.

into

ICES/E,

from

the

shipping

bills

(Imports data in ICES/I is recorded from the bills of entry).

This database is accessible to the officials of Customs department (password protected). Each Shipping bill entry (Bill of entry, in case of Imports) records the HS code as well as the description/label of the consignment and the database can be searched for a specific HS code and also for a specific range of selected time period etc. However, the integrity of linkage between the HS code/s and “description of the commodity”, entered in the database is not adequate for the purpose of analyzing the exports data for a specific plant entity. This lack of accuracy, in establishing such linkages, is largely on account of the fact that these plant materials do not involve different levels of customs duty and, therefore, adequate attention is not being paid in recording the appropriate HS code reflecting the identification described in the shipping bill. During our visit we could see some Shipping bills recording HS code meant for “raw drugs” though the description of the material revealed to be a “plant extract”.

Our meeting and discussions with Ms. Meeta Banerjee, Regional Deputy Director (Wildlife), Air Cargo of International Airport, Mumbai also revealed another peculiarity relating to recording of source of plant materials, in the shipping bills.It showed that If the invoice (issued by any seller) records the source of material as “forest” no further certification is required from the producing agency concerned. Whereas in respect of materials recorded to have been obtained from cultivation, the certifications relating to the sources of origin of the materials are required (as explained in chapter 12 of the relevant notification). To avoid hassles of the required certification etc. even the species originating entirely from cultivations, e.g. Senna, are many a times being declared as being obtained from the “forests”, in the invoices being submitted by the exporter.

4. Inferences

The errors and inaccuracies in data entry of the shipping bills, into the ICES database of customs department, lead to

inadequate compilations of specific medicinal plants

related export data compiled and published by DGCIS periodically. As discussed above, this lack of precision in listing of medicinal plant materials, primarily on account of non-differentiated customs tariffs, renders such compilation of data much less useful from the perspective of establishing backward linkages to the specific plant resources for appropriate management interventions.

For more information: Shri D.K.Ved, Advisor, FRLHT (I-AIM),

Bangalore Email:

Dr. G.S. Goraya, IFS,

Addl. PCCF, Himachal Pradesh, Go.I.

dk.ved@frlht.org.

Please note: This is an excerpts taken from Ved D.K & G. S Goraya (2008), Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India, Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun & FRLHT, Bangalore, India

Conservation Concern Medicinal Plant: Shyonaaka

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz

Plant: Shyonaaka Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz Special characters: This tree can easily be recognized in
Plant: Shyonaaka Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz Special characters: This tree can easily be recognized in
Plant: Shyonaaka Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz Special characters: This tree can easily be recognized in

Special characters: This tree can easily be recognized in the filed by its 2 to 3 branched large leaves, strikingly large purplish flowers and huge sword-like flat woody fruit.

Trade information:

Root bark constitutes the drug Shyonaaka that is sold under the trade

name Shyonaaka mool chaal or Sonapaathaa mool chaal. The material is sometimes adulterated with stem bark of the same species. A commonly used substitute, in Rajasthan and Gujarat, is the root bark of Ailanthes excelsa, known as Aruka or Arlu. For more information:

1. Click on the link: http://envis.frlht.org/medicinal-plants conservation - concern-species.php

2. Ravikumar K. and Ved D.K. (2000), 100 Red Listed Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern in Southern India, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore.

Traded locally and regionally as Shyonaaka.

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Concern

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

5

 

Medicinal Plant Species of Conservation Concern identified for Sikkim

Conservation Assessment & Management Prioritisation (CAMP) workshop was held at Guwahati during March 2003 to assess the threat status of prioritized Medicinal plants of Sikkim.During this process 24 medicinal plant species were assigned the Red Listed (RL) status of Near Threatened (NT) and above category.

S.No

Botanical

Species

Author

Habit

Status

Red Listed

Recorded

Trade 100

status

in

MT/yr

(Global)

Trade

(dry wt.)

1

Abies

densa

W.Griff. ex Parker

Tree

NT

-

   

2

Aconitum

ferox

Wall. ex Seringe

Herb

EN

-

Trade

Yes

3

Aconitum

heterophyllum

Wall. ex Royle

Herb

EN

CR(G)

Trade

Yes

4

Bergenia

ciliata

(Haw.) Sternb.

Herb

VU

-

Trade

Yes

5

Dendrobium

nobile

Lindl.

Herb

VU

-

Trade

 

6

Flickingeria

fugax

(Rchb.f.) Seodemf.

Herb

EN

-

Trade

 

7

Fritillaria

cirrhosa

D.Don

Herb

EN

-

   

8

Gymnadenia

orchides

Lindl.

Herb

VU

-

   

9

Malaxis

muscifera

(Lindl.) Kuntze

Herb

EN

-

   
 

10 Mahonia

napaulensis

DC.

Shrub

VU

-

   
 

11 Nardostachys

grandiflora

DC.

Herb

EN

-

Trade

Yes

 

12 Oroxylum

indicum

(L.) Benth.ex Kurz

Tree

VU

-

Trade

Yes

 

13 Picrorhiza

kurrooa

Royle ex Benth.

Herb

VU

-

Trade

Yes

 

14 Piper

boehmeriaefolium

Wall. ex C.DC.

Climber

NT

     
 

15 Piper

pedicellatum

C.DC.

Shrub

VU

VU(G)

   
 

16 Piper

peepuloides

Roxb.

Climber

VU

VU(G)

Trade

 
 

17 Pleione

maculata

(Lindl.) Lindl. & Paxton

Climber

VU

-

   
 

18 Podophyllum

hexandrum

Royle

Herb

CR

-

Trade

 
 

19 Rheum

nobile

Hook.f. & Thoms.

Herb

VU

-

   
 

20 Rhododendron

anthopogon

D.Don

Shrub

EN

-

Trade

Yes

 

21 Swertia

chirayita

(Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst.

Herb

VU

-

Trade

Yes

 

22 Taxus

wallichiana

Zucc.

Tree

EN

-

Trade

Yes

 

23 Valeriana

hardwickii

Wall.

Herb

VU

-

Trade

Yes

 

24 Valeriana

jatamansi

Jones

Herb

VU

-

Trade

Yes

No of RL species recorded in trade = 15

 

No of RL species in high trade = 11

Of these 24 species, 3 species have a global RL status as these are endemic (or nearly so) the state/region for which the assessment was undertaken. Only 1 species has been assigned Critically Endangered (CR) status, 6 species are Endangered (EN), 13 species are Vulnerable (VU) and 2 species are Near Threatened (NT). 11 of these Red Listed medicinal plant species have been recorded in high volume trade, as per the national level trade study (D.K.Ved & G.S. Goraya, 2008).

Book Release: Garcinia Brothers Emba Gaarudigaru, by Shri B.S. Somashekar

 

A

book in Kannada on four Garcinia species of the Western Ghats (as a socio-conservation profile),

 

which rendered in a popular style and published by Snehakunja, Honnavara in Dec 2011, has been

which rendered in a popular style and published by Snehakunja, Honnavara in Dec 2011, has been

chosen by Karnataka Science & Technology Academy, Govt of Karnataka, for this year's award. You

may like to click the link below:

http://kstacademy.org

 

A

glimpse of the book was made available on ENVIS website, after the book was released.

 

http://envis.frlht.org/documents/garcinia_bros_kannada.pdf

 

As you might be aware, the species of Garcinia are endemic and endangered medicinal plants of Karnataka, which also register high volume trade. Conservation initiatives, though at regional level by certain individuals and institutions to save the species, can be found in Uttara Kannada of Karnataka and Ratnagiri of Maharashtra.

For more information : Mr. B.S. Somashekhar, Asst. Director, FRLHT (I-AIM) bssomashekhar@hotmail.com, bs.somashekhar@frlht.org

 

6 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

Caring Touch Matters: Meet Paala, Our Friend!

Suma TS and Thinley Bhutia

Two years back, we met Paala at his Kyongnosla Herbal Nursery, Sikkim. We were touched by his caring touch, concern, commitment towards the medicinal plants he raised in his nursery. These plants are not common. They are high altitude medicinally important and conservation concern species. This gardener (mali in Hindi) has been in this nursery since 2002. He carefully showed us every bed. When requested for a plant, he sternly said, “I cannot give any plant to you because they are from this region, they grow here and I will protect them. I do not want any money”. That is his commitment and conviction! Again next year, we visited him. He recognised us. As usual, with his excitement, he took us to the garden with same zeal and explained about the plants. When we asked him, “what makes him continue in this profession”. Palaa said with a gentle smile, “I love my plants!”

Palaa said with a gentle smile, “I love my plants!” Paala is the nick name of

Paala is the nick name of Shri. Gyanzen Bhutia, S/o. Lt. Thendu Bhutia resident of 15 Mile JN Road,

Karponangunder Gnathang GPU, East District is working as

a

District since 2002-03. He is very sincere and dedicated to his work. Shri.Gyanzen Bhutiais practically well experienced

in

Mali of Herbal Garden Nurseriesat Kyongnosla, East

Conservation and Propagation of High Altitude Medicinal

Herbs. Though he has attended age of 78 years and he is still

very active on his duty and performing his duty very satisfactorily.

Shri Gyanzen Bhutia was working under Forests, Department as a nursery labour under River Valley Project(RVP) Scheme from 1980-1981. After saturation of

the RVP scheme in 1992 -93 he was again absorbed under Minor Forest Produce (MFP) Scheme till 1997 - 1998. From 1998-1999 he was again brought under Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) scheme for maintenance of Nurseries as nursery Mali.

Shri. Gyanzen Bhutia is very honest and simple old man and we wish him very
Shri. Gyanzen Bhutia is very
honest and simple old man and
we wish him very healthy and
long life. People like him with
commitment, passion are
inspirations for us.
t h

For more information:

Ms. Suma TS, Sr. Program Officer, ENVIS Co-ordinator, FRLHT (I-AIM), Bangalore Email: suma.tagadur@frlht.org Shri Thinley Bhutia, S.F.S. Joint Director, Sikkim State Medicinal Plants Board, Gangtok, Sikkim

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

7

Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas Network in India - State-Wise

 

In India a unique and pioneering program for conservation of wild medicinal plants has been initiated since 1993. It has involved establishment of a network of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCAs) focused on conservation of prioritized wild medicinal plants occurring in different regions of the country. The Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) which has been supported as a Centre of Excellence on Medicinal Plants and Traditional Knowledge by Ministry of Environment & Forests, since 2002, has been coordinating the establishment of this network of conservation areas in collaboration with the concerned state forest departments.

Entrance of MPCA

Entrance of MPCA

So far a total of 108 such MPCAs have been established across 12 states. State wise list of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas is tabulated.

State

No.

Name of MPCA

District

State

No.

Name of MPCA

District

Andhra Pradesh

1.

Mallur

Warangal

 

35.

Kollur

Udupi

 

2.

Sukkumamidi

Khammam

Kerala

36.

Agasthiar malai

Thrivendram

 

3.

Talakona

Tirupati

 

37.

Triveni

Pathanamthitta

 

4.

Maredumilli

East Godavari

 

38.

Eravikulam

Idukki

 

5.

Lankapakalu

Visakhapatnam

 

39.

Peechi

Trissur

 

6.

Coringa

East Godavari

 

40.

Athirappally

Trissur

 

7.

Peddacheruvu

Kurnool

 

41.

Silent Valley

Palakkadu

 

8.

K.Kuntalapalli

Anantapur

 

42.

Wayanad

Wayanad

Arunachal Pradesh

9.

Lumla - Lumla

Tawang

 

43.

Kulamavu

Idukki

 

10.

Selari - Bomdila

West kameng

 

44.

Anapadi

Palakkadu

 

11.

Mayodia

Dibang valley

Madhya Pradesh

45.

Bhundakona

Anuppur

 

12.

Parasuramkhund

Lohit

 

46.

Latri Bithli

North Balaghat

 

13.

Wang (Longiding)

Tirap

 

47.

Parcha

Sehore

 

14.

Hake–Tari (Hapoli)

Lower Subansiri

 

48.

Kapoornala

Chhindwara

 

15.

Dakpe (Daporijo)

Upper Subansiri

 

49.

Hinota

Panna

Chattisgarh

16.

Amadob

Marwahi

 

50.

Kupi Jatashankar

Chattarpur

 

17.

Jabarra

Dhamtari

 

51.

Bhagpura

Khandwa

 

18.

Tiriya

Bastar

 

52.

Chapparisotia

Mandla

 

19.

Bhatwa

South Kondagaon

 

53.

Nawali & Sawad

Mandsaur

 

20.

Ghatpendari

North Surguja

 

54.

Narsimhpur

Narsimhpur

 

21.

Patiya

Jashpur

 

55.

Narayanpur

Sagar

 

22.

Bandhatola

Rajnandgaon

 

56.

Shyamagiri

Panna

Karnataka

23.

BRT Hills

Chamrajnagar

 

57.

Panarpani

Hoshangabad

 

24.

Talacauvery

Kodagu

Maharashtra

58.

Amba

Raigad

 

25.

Savandurga

Ramanagara

 

59.

Amboli

Sindhudurg

 

26.

Subramanya

DakshinaKannada

 

60.

Gadmauli

Gadchiroli

 

27.

Charamadi

DakshinaKannada

 

61.

Gullarghat

Amravati

 

28.

Devarayandurga

Tumkur

 

62.

Honya Koli

Pune

 

29.

Kuderemukha

Chikmagalur

 

63.

Legapani

Nandurbar

 

30.

Kemmangundi

Chikmagalur

 

64.

Nagzira

Gondia

 

31.

Agumbe

Shimoga

 

65.

Navaja

Satara

 

32.

Devimane

Uttara Kannada

 

66.

Patanadevi

Jalgaon

 

33.

Sandur

Bellary

 

67.

Sawarna

Nasik

 

34.

Karpakapalli

Bidar

 

68.

SGNP, Borivali

Thane

8 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

 

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

State

No.

Name of MPCA

District

State

No.

Name of MPCA

District

 

69.

Ukalapani

Nandurbar

 

90.

Topslip

Coimbatore

 

70.

Yedshi Ramling

Osmanabad

 

91.

Kollihills

Namakkal

Orissa

71.

Kapilash

Dhenkanal

 

92.

Kurumbaram

Kanchipuram

 

72.

Tamna

Khurda

 

93.

Thenmalai

Thiruvannamalai

 

73.

Gurudongar

Nuapada

 

94.

Nambikovil

Tirunelveli

 

74.

Satkosia

Mayurbhanj

Uttarakhand

95.

Kandara

Uttarkashi

 

75.

Pradhanpat

Deogarh

 

96.

Khaliya

Pithoragarh

Rajashtan

76.

Ramkunda

Udaipur

 

97.

Jhuni

Bageshwar

 

77.

Bada bhakar

Jodhpur

 

98.

Gangi

Tehri-Garhwal

 

78.

Bhanwarkot

Banswara

 

99.

Bastiya

Champawat

 

79.

Gajroop Sagar

Jaisalmer

 

100.

Mohan

Almora

 

80.

Badkochara

Ajmer

 

101.

Mandal

Chamoli

 

81.

Sitamata

Chittaurgarh

West Bengal

102.

Garhpanchkot

Purulia

 

82.

Kumbalgarh

Rajsamand

 

103.

Dhotrey

Darjeeling

Tamil Nadu

83.

Petchiparai

Nagarkovil

 

104.

Tonglu

Darjeeling

 

84.

Mundanthurai

Tirunelveli

 

105.

Sursuti

Jalpaiguri

 

85.

Kutrallum

Tirunelveli

 

106.

North Sevoke

Jalpaiguri

 

86.

Thaniparai

Tirunelveli

 

107.

NRVK

Jalpaiguri

 

87.

Alagarkovil

Madurai

 

108.

Bony Camp

South 24Parganas

 

88.

Kodaikanal

Madurai

For more information: info@frlht.org,

 
 

89.

Kodikkarai

Nagapattanam

Kindly mention subject line: MPCAs

New Flora

 

XI Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity

R. Vijayasankar, K. Ravikumar and P. Ravichandran, 2011. Plant Resources of Tiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India. Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India.

Hosted by India at Hyderabad from 1 to 19 October 2012.

ISBN:978-81-211-0736-5

 

The CoP logo has been developed by National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad for Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Inspired by logo of CoP-10, this logo symbolises the cycle of life with a tiger, a dolphin, a bird and a women with grains depicting linkage of biodiversity with livelihoods. On top is the slogan in Sanskrit

 
We can see enumeration of 1365 taxa of Angiosperms including infra-specific and cultivated ones with

We can see enumeration of 1365 taxa of Angiosperms including infra-specific and cultivated ones with more than 300 color photographs. A separate diagnostic key has been given for easier identification. These apart, the authors have identified endemic, rare and other interesting species in this work. This rigorous work also gives information on ethno-botany for most of the species. It also gives suggestive in-situ measures for threatened plants. This book is useful for students, teachers, ecologists, agriculturists, phyto-geographers, foresters and those concerned with conservation.

for students, teachers, ecologists, agriculturists, phyto-geographers, foresters and those concerned with conservation.

with English translation 'Nature Protects if She is Protected’

For more information:

 

http://moef.nic.in/modules/others/?f=cbdlogo

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Research Findings

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

9

Finding Alternates for Endangered Herbs using Ayurvedic Concepts

Padma Venkatasubramanian and Subrahmanya Kumar K

Plants are the source for most of the drugs in both traditional and conventional systems of medicine. According to an estimation, the world market for plant derived drugs may account for more than Rs.2,00,000 Crores . Due to their increasing popularity, demand for herbs and herbal origin drugs is constantly increasing.

1

Supply of medicinal plants is presently not adequate to meet the demand for many herbal products. Limited natural distribution and yet a high demand for several medicinal plants have put them in the endangered species list. Such a situation demands immediate conservation strategies for protection . Cultivation of several plant species have been propagated at different levels by the Governments and private agencies to some extent. However, it has not been proved to be successful because of several practical reasons like economical viability and poor implementation. This situation has led to unscientific and arbitrary substitution and also extensive adulteration of several popular herbal drugs in the raw drug market.

2

Ayurveda approaches this problem in a different perspective. It recommends use of alternative herbs in place of the one which is scarce and not available. Bhava Mishra, the 15-16 century writer on Ayurvedic herbs introduces an idea of using entirely different herbs instead of those which are not easily available. He writes

th

||Raajnaamapyashtavargastu tato apyamatidurlabha. Tasmaadasya pratinidhim grhneeyaat tadgunam bhishak||

(Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, Hareetakyaadi Varga, 143)

“Certain drugs like 'Ashtavarga' group of herbs are not available even to the kings. Therefore the Vaidya can use other drugs having similar Guna (properties)”. He then suggests some commonly available herbs as substitutes for difficult to get, but very useful eight herbs (Ashtavarga group). Thus for example, in place of Meda and Mahameda

group). Thus for example, in place of Meda and Mahameda Abhava Dravya: Ativisha ( Aconitum heterophyllum

Abhava Dravya:

Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Ex Royle.)

(botanical identity is highly controversial) use of Shatawari (Asparagus racemosus) and Vidari (Pueraria tuberosa) as a substitute for Kakoli and Kshirakakoli have been recommended .

3

Later, the 18 century works like Bhaishajya Ratnavali and Yogaratnakara give quite an elaborate list of substitutes for unavailable drugs. Unavailable drugs have been called as 'Abhava Dravya', and the substitutes as 'Abhava- Pratinidhi Dravya'. Regional texts written during same time like Vaidyachintamani (in Telugu) also contributed to this

5

th

4

6

concept by indicating substitutes for several herbs .

Though such thoughts were initiated by Charaka at around 1000 BC, by indicating that the Vaidya could opt for other herbs having similar properties and action as that of mentioned by him, it was not elaborated and structured till 15-16 century AD.

th

Swalakshaanyanumaanayukti kushalaanaam anuktaartha jnaanayeti

(Charaka Samhitha, Sutrasthana, 4/20-21)

7

Thus is a need for research before using this concept as an answer for contemporary problems because the logic of substitution is not clearly spelt out in Ayurvedic literature. Also, the Abhava-Pratinidhi Dravya list in Ayurvedic literature is limited.

Unlike modern sciences, Ayurveda's method of finding substitution lies in recognizing a similar Dravyaguna profile. Ie., Rasa (taste), Guna (properties), Veerya (potency), Vipaka (post digestive effect) and Karma (pharmacological actions).

Despite being taxonomically unrelated, difficult to get (Abhava) plant, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Ex Royle.), and its substitute (Pratinidhi) Musta (Cyperus

Ex Royle. ), and its substitute (Pratinidhi) Musta (Cyperus Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya: Musta ( Cyperus rotundus

Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya:

Musta (Cyperus rotundus L.)

10 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

 

Research Findings

 

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

rotundus L.), are similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile. Our sustained research effort at Centre for Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology of I-AIM have proved their similarity in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties . Similarity at the level of Ayurvedic propertries and sensorial attributes of several such Abhava- Pratinidhi Dravya pairs like Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.)- Haridra (Cucuma longa L.) have been studied and found considerable amount of similarity.

8

Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya:

Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya:

If properly understood and used appropriately, this alternate drug concept of Ayurveda could lead to a solution to the problem of over-exploitation of endangered herbal species while providing . It will also be an answer to raw drug non availability in Ayurvedic drug industry.

 

Haridra (Cucuma longa L.)

 

Medicinal Plants in India, (Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun), 2008, p.127

References:

3. Chunekar KC (Ed.), Bhavaprakasa Nighantu, Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 2004, 63, 127, 244

1. Mouli

K.C

et

al.,

Phytoresources

as

potential

therapeutic

agents

for

cancer

treatment

and

prevention

Journal

of

Global

Pharma

Technology.

4. Sastry RD (ed.), Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, Varanasi, 2002, p. 39, 149

2009; 1(1): 4-18

2. Ved

DK

and

Goraya

GS,

Demand

and

Supply

of

5. Sastri L (Ed.), Yogaratnakara, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, 2002, p. 171

Chowkhambha

6. Sarma

RN

(ed),

Vaidyachintamani,

Chowkhambha 6. Sarma RN (ed), Vaidyachintamani, Sanskrit Pratishtana, Delhi, 1996, 661   7. Sastry K

Sanskrit Pratishtana, Delhi, 1996, 661

 

7. Sastry K (ed.), Caraka Samhita, Part I, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi, 1997, p 70

8. Venkatasubramanian P et al., Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: studies on Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (Drug substitutions), JAIM; 1 (1): 36-39

For more information: Dr. Padma Venkatasubramanaian, Director, FRLHT (I-AIM), Bangalore.

Email:

padma.venkat@frlht.org

 
 

Abhava Dravya:

 

Dr.Subrahmanya Kumar K., Research Officer, Bangalore. Email: s.kumar@frlht.org

FRLHT (I-AIM),

Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.)

GEF Project and “Globally Significant Medicinal Plants” in India

2010: FRLHT (I-AIM) - Recognized as National R&D Facility (Rasayana) by Department of Science and Technology, Go.I.

An approach to conserve “Globally Significant Medicinal Plants (GSMPs)” is an initiative supported by Global Environment Facility (GEF) for Medicinal Plants Conservation in three States of India. This project is currently being implemented in Arunachal Pradesh, Chattisgharh and Uttarakh and States. In this project context, medicinal plants that qualify any one of the important criteria such as near endemic, narrow distribution, sporadic nature, reducing population size, and prioritized species through Conservation Assessment Management Prioritization workshop process, high volume traded species etc., will be considered for conservation management plan and action projects under GEF project. These Globally Significant Medicinal Plants will further be identified in specific locations, so that their gene pool will be conserved in Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas (MPCAs), already established. These MPCA’s will be study centers to understand sustainable harvest protocols and implement resource augmentation measures for identified species.

centers to understand sustainable harvest protocols and implement resource augmentation measures for identified species.

For more information:

Dr. Debabrata Saha, Ph.D., Scientist, FRLHT (I-AIM),

Bangalore, Email:

dr.dsaha@frlht.org

 

For more information: http://www.frlht.org/rasayana/

 

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

11

Cycas beddomei : A Jewel of Seshachalam Hills

Boyina Ravi Prasad Rao

Cycas beddomei Dyer is a global endemic of Seshachalam hills (formerly called as Tirupati-Kadapa hills) belongs to family Cycadaceae, is the only Cycad species of India listed critically endangered by IUCN (IUCN, 2007) and the only Indian Cycad part of Appendix-I of CITES (Inskipp & Gillett, 2005). The species is of immense significance in the context of its medicinal importance and usuage and consequent resource exploitation led to decline in numbers. Scientific reports pertaining to the distribution of the species are based in many cases on non-detriment findings and s e c o n d a r y d a t a p u b l i s h e d elsewhere. Our research team made keen efforts to study its distribution pattern and conservation in situ. The study was carried out in Seshachalam hill ranges, located in the Southern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh lying between Latitude 13 37 to 15 58 N and Longitude 79 15 to 79 30 E. These ranges have typical gorges and gaps due to faulting and stream erosion resulting into discontinuous ranges. The study area encompasses Sri Venkateswara Wildlife sanctuary and National Park. The altitude of the study area varies from 200 to 1150m above MSL and most of the hill peaks are above 900m above MSL. Cycas beddomei, locally called as Peritha or Madanakamakshi appear like a small phoenix tree with distinct trunk reaching up to 1.5m.

The plants are dioecious; the male and female plants can be distinguished, the former in clumps and the latter with isolated growth. Leaves pale green grown up to 1m long; leaflets narrow, linear, 12-18cm long, 2-3.5mm wide, with revolute margins. Male cones oblong-ovoid, to 35 x 16cm, with a short peduncle. Megasporophylls grow to 4 x 2cm.

Ovules usually 2-4, occasionally 6 to 8 inserted above the middle of the stalk, to 4 cm across. All the individuals of the species were enumerated along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 400 to 1100m. Seven transects of 1000 m x 5m were laid at an interval of 100m altitude each. Interestingly the species has not been found at an altitude interval of 400-500m. The species was found distributed between 500m to 1100m above MSL with a slope range between 15 and 78 across. We inventoried a total of 900 individuals in 6 transects and found the species with a mean density of

150 84.27. Distributional ranges of

C.beddomei were segregated along the widened altitudinal ranges. Plant density was recorded maximum at mid-altitudes and such, the peak density was at 900-1000m MSL; however below and above this altitudinal range the individual numbers show declining trend. In all grids, female trees component is higher (60-80%) than the male trees. Of the total recorded 900 individuals, majority of them i.e., 543 (60.53%) comprises 0-25 cm height class, followed by 174 individuals (19.37%) under 26-50 cm height, 149 individuals (16.49%) with 50-100cm height and the rest (3.37%) higher than 100cm height category.

The habitat of Cycas beddomei was found mostly of quartzite rock and sandy black soils. Plants grow in silt soils at lower elevation and clayey-loam in higher elevation (above 600m MSL). The pH of the soil was slightly acidic to near neutral (6.67) but at higher elevation (>800m MSL) it is acidic (6.08-6.1). The species usually grow in well-drained soils, but also found in nutrient poor soils. It is observed that specialized coralloid roots of plant containing symbiotic blue green algae, Nostoc and Anabaena which are able to fix

green algae, Nostoc and Anabaena which are able to fix Habit 0 1 0 0 0

Habit

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

Box -1

Threat Status Justification: Cycas beddomei was

originally listed as Vulnerable in the Indian Red Data Book (Nayar and Sastry 1987) and later re-evaluated as Endangered by Rao et al. (2003). Jadhav et al. (2001) classified the species as Critically Endangered based on secondary data and this assessment was the basis for the 2003 assessment (Hill 2003). However recent population studies (Suresh and Rao 2009; Rao et al. 2009) have provided detailed information on the distribution and population size of C. beddomei. These data show that the extent of occurrence (388 km²) and area of occupancy (20 km²) are small, but they are greater than originally thought and would mean that C. beddomei qualifies as Endangered (not Critically Endangered) under criterion B. Population size was originally estimated as <1,000 mature individuals, which means that it may also have qualified as Endangered under criterion C.

However, the latest data provides an estimate of between

20,000 and 30,000 individuals, so the risk associated with small population size is minimal.

The population is declining, partly due to local use and partly due to the frequency of fires. It was not possible to estimate the extent of decline as the historical data appears to have underestimated the actual extent and size of the population.

This species is threatened by frequent grassfires that effectively block reproduction. The male cones are used in Ayurvedic medicine, although the impact on populations is not known. The stems are also harvested for the extraction of the pith, which is used as treatment in the case of debility. The stem is used as a substitute for an Ayurvedic drug Vidari, which is originally Ipomoea mauritiana. Land clearing may also have a negative effect on populations. For more information: www.iucnredlist.org

12 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

atmospheric nitrogen allows the cycads to survive in nutrient poor environments. The species occur in

Megasporophylls
Megasporophylls

classified as Endangered (EN B1 a, b (i–v) + B2 a, b (i–v)) and that it still meets the biological criteria for inclusion in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Appendix I under criterion B (Bi, iii, iv). The justification for including the Cycas bedommei as Endangered in IUCN listing is provided in the box 1 of page 11.

a

range of habitats from closed

canopy to open forests and scrub.

Although the species in reference is present in considerable numbers locally, it is noticed that this species

is

experiencing severe threats. The

seeds have no dormant period and

are relatively short-lived and subject

 

More reading:

to

damage by desiccation. Although

rapid recovery of the individuals is noticed even after fire, frequent grass fires are preventing the cone-setting as well

seed maturity. It is also found that, the past unsustainable collection of the plant material for illegal marketing owing to its medicinal importance led to fall of alarming proportions of individuals. However it is to be appreciated the efficient management of the local forestry sector leading to strong positive recovery of the populations.

1. Rao, R.P.B., M.V.S. Babu, B. Sadasivaih, S.K. Basha, & K.N. Ganeshaiah (2009). Current threat status of Cycas

beddomei Dyer, an endemic species of the Tirupati-Kadapa Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. Encephalartos 97: 21–25.

2. Rao, R.P.B., M.V.S. Babu & J. Donaldson (2010). A Reassessment of the conservation status of Cycas beddomei Dyer (Cycadaceae), an endemic of the Tirupati-Kadapa Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India, and comments on its CITES Status. Encephalartos 102: 19–24.

Our team along with John Donaldson, authority on the world cycads, re-assessed in terms of the International

3. Rao, B.R.P. 2010. Cycas beddomei. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 March 2012.

For more information:

Professor of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya

Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. New data available from field surveys indicates that C. beddomei to be

University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh.

 
 

Thought to ponder!

 

Eco-Restoration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Species

 
 

K.V Krishnamurthy

Biological diversity at all three levels (generic, species and ecosystem) is getting lost at a very rapid rate due to several stochastic and deterministic causes. Hence, many countries have started to shift their focus of attention from studying nature ecosystems to damaged ecosystems. They have also started to take several in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures to save their biodiversity. One such measure is eco-restoration, a process under the Science of Restoration Ecology. The Society of Ecological Restoration (RER) formed in 1987 has defined eco-restoration as “a process of intentionally altering a site to establish or defined, indigenous, historical ecosystem” with goal of emulating the structure, function, diversity and dynamics of the concerned ecosystem. Many ecologists have also felt that conserving a threatened plant species as part of its ecosystem is better than its ex-situ conservation. The restoration of an endangered plant species to its original ecosystem is not very easy and hence poses several problems.

involve the re-introduction of its associated pollinators/dispensers, soil microbes, plants and animals in order to rebuild the correct food chain/web. It also requires knowledge on the Autecology- Study of ecology of individual organisms of the concerned plant species, its genetic and demographic traits and an understanding of the causes on or circumstances leading to the species endangerment from the original ecosystem. However , it should be borne in mind that reintroduction of a species involves high risk, high cost and high expertise in different disciplines, and should be based on considerations of economic, social, political and other demands of humanity. Although more than 600 projects have been taken so far the world over, only few plant species have been successfully rehabilitated in their original habitats. But the taste of eco restoration is going to be very difficult in future particularly in tropics since ecosystem/species loss is happening at a very alarming rate.

 

For

more

information:

Adjunct

Professor,

Institute of

Five important sampling decisions for relocating the endangered species have to be followed stringently in order

Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Bangalore & Professor

to

capture a significant percentage of the species total

and Head Department of Plant Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024.

diversity. The successful re-establishment of the concerned

Phone No. +91-0431- 2407061

 

species depends on its Minimum Viable Population (MVP)

Fax No: +91-0431- 2407045/ 2407020

Email :

kvkbdu@yahoo.co.in ;

size, which varies from taxon to taxon and has to be estimated through Population Vulnerability Analysis (PVA). Reintroduction of the endangered species should also

kvkbdu@rediffmail.com

 

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Know & Use

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

13

Sankhapuspi

Shilpa Naveen & Venugopal S.N

Sankhapuspi is one of the very important plants of Ayurveda, which is cited in 55 references ranging from 1500 BC to 1900 AD. In ayurvedic texts, Sankapushpi has numerous synonyms describing its attributes, viz. medhya – intellect promoting, mangalya kusuma – auspicious flower, ksira white flowered, sulaghna – alleviates abdominal pain, smrtihita – augments memory etc. The great sage Caraka has graded it as medhya rasayana – a rejuvenative to nervous tissue.

Sankhapuspi is tikta in rasa (bitter in taste), hima in veerya (cold in potency), medhya (promotes intellect), svarya (promotes voice).

medhya (promotes intellect), svarya (promotes voice). References pertain about single uses of this plant and also

References pertain about single uses of this plant and also as an ingredient in various compound formulations. As a single drug Sankhapuspi is recommended as a nervine tonic [medhya Rasayana- meaning it promotes dhi (intelligence), dhriti (retention), smriti (memory)]

The Sanskrit word Sankhapuspi literally means that the flowers of which are in the shape of a conch or sankha which is considered to be auspicious.

There are several species recorded to be in use as Sankapushpi. This is regional manifestation. Most of the species recorded does not comply with ethymological analysis of the name-Sankapushi (counch shaped flowers). The following list provides popular candidates being used in Ayurvedic industries.

1. Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Plant name is not given in Sanskrit except in Gujarati. It is reported to contain an alkaloid called Sankhapushpine)

2. Evolvulus alsinoides L. (like the previous plant this also has regular trumpet shaped flowers which has little likeness to a conch. The name Sankhapuspi is not given as a synonym for the plant)

3. Canscora decussata Schultes and Schultes.f. (In this plant the flower is bilaterally symmetric and a distinct resemblance to a conch may be found. The plant is acclaimed as a good brain tonic)

4. Clitoria ternatea L. (the Sanskrit name Sankhapuspi is found among synonyms of this plant. As far as the shape of the flower is concerned the name 'gokarna' is more appropriate than Sankhapuspi)

5. Canscora diffusa (Vahl.) R.Br. (this is used as a substitute for Canscora decussata)

6. Lavandula bipinnata Kuntze (no Sanskrit name is found for this plant. It is reported that this plant is medicinally used in Gujarat)

Several scholars have tried to understand which is the real sankapuspi as per Ayurveda. As per scholarly

is the real sankapuspi as per Ayurveda. As per scholarly PREPARATION • The whole plant juice

PREPARATION

• The whole plant juice (crush the whole plant to extract juice) is used in various mental disorders. It is useful to promote intelligence, enhance memory and retention. Should be taken at bed time.

• Ghee should be cooked with 3 times juice of sankapushpi along with milk. By its regular usage even the dull becomes sharp and intellectual. (Ah.U.39.47)

Parts used: Whole plant

Dose: 10-20 gm, 10-20 ml

interpretations, Prof. P.V. Sharma writes commentary in Dravyaguna book that Sankhapuspi is Convolvulus pluricaulis, a tender vine spreading on ground. Acharya K.C.Chunekar gives importance to regional choice of species. He says Clitoria ternatea is widely used as Sankhapuspi in South and Canscora decussata by Bengali practitioners. While Vaidya Bapalal does not conclude on any species but correlates it with five botanical candidates such as 1) Convolvulus pluricaulis 2) Evolvulus alsinoides 3)Canscora diffusa 4) Clitoria ternatea 5) Lavendula bipinnata. He mentions that the choice of species is practitioner's preference.

Going by most of the scholarly interpretations, Clitorea ternatea is best correlated to Sankapushi as its flowers are also counch shaped.

Sankhapuspi preparations are mostly recommended for mental disorders in order to boost the functions of brain, in case of insanity, epilepsy etc. Three important formulations based on this plant are in the high market; demand and their consumption exceed 100 tons per year. The genuine identity of the plant is therefore a matter of concern.

More information, write to:

Director & Dr. Shilpa Naveen, Research Officer, FRLHT

(I-AIM) Email: shilpa.naveen@frlht.org

Dr. Venugopal S.N, Asst.

New Website on Indian Medicinal Plants:

An initiative of FRLHT (I-AIM) & NMPB, Go.I.

of Search in Medicinal Plants Indian Systems Medicine
of Search
in Medicinal
Plants
Indian
Systems
Medicine

http://nmpb.nic.in/index1.php?level=0&linkid=95&lid=745

http://www.medicinalplants.in/v/index.php

14 ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

Centre for herbal gardens and landscaping services brings to you EMG mannual EMG manual: The
Centre for herbal gardens and landscaping services brings to you EMG mannual
EMG manual: The EMG team
brought out a user friendly manual
on the principles and guidelines for
establishing a medicinal plant
garden. The manual titled 'Secrets of
Ethno Medicinal Gardens' illustrates
step-by-step procedure for
establishing a medicinal plant garden
on similar lines of EMG. Besides, it
also offers information on the
nursery and propagation methods
f o r s e l e c t medicinal plants and includes images of selected
species of around 200 herbs, 130 shrubs, 100 climbers, 200 trees,
100 orchids and 50 species of ferns.
Centre has already
established about two
l a k h h o m e h e r b a l
gardens and dozens of
c o m m u n i t y a n d
institutional gardens. It
has established a nursery
of medicinal plants with
several rare medicinal
orchids, bamboos and
ferns. The Centre is
engaged in research, training and outreach activities related to
gardening, propagation and landscaping.
For more information: Garden in-charge, Email: garden@frlht.org, Tel: 91 80 28568006, 28568000, 28565760
Fax: 91 80 28567926
Whats in news?
Neighbourhood Medicinal Plants of Bangalore
CDROM for High School Students
th
9 March 2012: St. Joseph's Post Graduate Centre, Bangalore, 19
students, II year M.Sc. and two professors came for a one-day orientation
program
th
17
February 2012: Mrs. Poorva Joshi, visiting faculty from Pune visited us
to know about ENVIS activities.
th
10
February 2012: 10 students from St. Joseph's Undergraduate Course
students visited for one day orientation program on medicinal plants
3 February 2012: TN Khoshoo Ecology and Environment Award for
Schools 2011: The Khoshoo Endowment Fund and Ashoka Trust for
Research in Ecology and the Environment, along with The Teacher
Foundation, Wipro, IAIM-FRLHT and Pravah launched the TN Khoshoo
Ecology and Environment Award for Schools in 2010. The aim of these
awards was to encourage schools to promote environmental thought and
action—with emphasis on action, and therefore better environmental
stewardship.Awards were given to the winners in a function.
25 November 2011: Ms. Sathya Sangeetha, Research Officer, FRLHT
rd
Now, Bangalore city students can use
the new CDROM, to explore your
fa s c i n a t i n g p l a n t w o r l d .
Experience the richness of plant
diversity in your traditions, life
style and environ. Share with
us your interesting and
enriching learnings in a
creative way(such as poems,
essays, paintings etc. Best
expressions will be published in
our website :
www.envis.frlht.org.
Email:
envis@frlht.org
or send your
entries by post.
th
(I-AIM) presented ENVIS activities, at the Workshop on Biodiversity
Informatics, organized byATREE, Bangalore.
14 November 2011: A one day workshop, “Neighbourhood Medicinal
Plants of Bangalore City” for 50 students from the Canadian International
School, Bangalore was organized at our campus. These children launched -
Children page in www.envis.frlht.org. on the occasion of Children Day.
th
10th June 2011: ENVIS team served as resource person on the occasion of
World Environment Day celebration at ATREE, Bangalore to create
awareness
among
students
about
medicinal
plants
and
traditional
knowledge. Nature trail was also organized.
9th-11 March 2011: Mr. D.K.Ved, Advisor, FRLHT, presented a talk on Wild
Medicinal Plants in Trade in the National Seminar on Forest Resources:
th
Diversity, Utilization and Conservation - Organized by University of
Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.
Centre
for
Conservation
of
Natural
Resources
Activities,
FRLHT,
Bangalore:
16th - 18th February 2012: National level workshop on Strengthening
Livelihoods of Forest communities – organized by Karnataka State Forest
Department and Japan International Cooperation Agency. Poster on
Community to Community Training (CTCT), sustainable collection models
and other publications from the IAIM-FRLHT was shared to participants.
22nd - 23rd December 2011: National Consultation cum Workshop on
People's Biodiversity Registers (PBR) was held at Royal Orchid Central,
Bengaluru. This was jointly organized by National Biodiversity Authority,
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) Government of India, UNDP
and GEF and FRLHT, Bangalore.
1st-3rd December, 2011:Training cum field exposure on Sustainable
harvesting practices at Amarkantak, Madhya Pradesh for Uttarakahand Task
team members and front line staff of Bodmalla Van Panchayath, Mohan
Range, Almora forest division and Dharkot Van Panchayath, Thanu Range,
Dehradun forest division and representatives of SMPB.
Herbarium Technique Training Programme
The goal of FRLH is to make
significant contribution towards
creating awareness about the
diversity of medicinal plants and
their conservation status. Thus act
as a vehicle to promote medicinal
plant conservation and go a long
way to help revive our health care
traditions. Several training
programs and workshop have been
conducted for high school
students, teachers, lecturers,
students of pre-university,
graduation and post graduation,
ISM practitioners on need basis.
Usually a 15 member team is given training and interested
institutions or groups may write to:
Assistant Director
FRLH (Bio-Cultural Herbarium & Repository of Raw Drugs)
Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions
No. 74/2, Jarakbande Kaval, Post Attur, Via Yelahanka
Bangalore. 560 106, Karnataka, INDIA. Phone: + 91 80 2856
8005/8000/8001Fax: + 91 802856 5873
Email: herbarium@frlht.org, k.ravikumar@frlht.org
http://www.iaim.edu.in

ENVIS Newsletter on Medicinal Plants

Conservation Efforts

Volume 5, Issue 1,2,3 &4

April 11 - March -12

15

Just double click: www.envis.frlht.org / www.frlhtenvis.nic.in Explore a well referenced, unique one-stop-information
Just double click: www.envis.frlht.org / www.frlhtenvis.nic.in
Explore a well
referenced, unique
one-stop-information
house on medicinal
plants of India. This
exclusively website
gives information on
c o n s e r v a t i o n
concern species,
traded species, latest
reports/ publications/
directories. User friendly search, enables us to access
range of information related to botanical and local names
correlations, view digital atlas and digital herbarium! Down
load free Medplant e-version newsletter. Browse for
more
Registered Queries from Varied Users (2011-12)
Querries from varied users 2011-12
Advocate
Architect
1%
1%
Advocate
Architect
Consultant
Social activist
Consultant
13%
11%
Doctor
Economist
Doctor
Scientists
Engineer
12%
12%
Environment activist
Economist
Environmentalist
Professor
2%
Politicians
5%
Forest officer
0%
Engineer
Government official
Photographer
12%
Judge
1%
Lecturer
Lecturer
Media
12%
Media
2%
Judge
Environment activist
Photographer
0%
4%
Government
official
Forest officer
Environmentalist
Politicians
5%
2%
7%
Coming soon : http://frlhtenvis.nic.in
Usage Statistics for envis.frlht.org
ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants: Since
2004
FRLHT, Bangalore. Financially supported by MoEF,
Go.I.
This centre aims to share information on Indian
Medicinal Plants, Conservation Concern Species,
trade related aspects to people in a popular, semi-
technical fashion through websites and varied
activities. The contents on the website is mainly
derived from Centre of Excellence on Medicinal
Plants program and other related projects across
FRLHT and its partnering institutions. We invite
academicians, policy makers, researchers, resource
managers and people interested in medicinal plants
conservation to contribute in development of this
centre and propagate the message: Revitalising
Indian Medical Heritage!
Centre of Excellence
on Medicinal Plants
Shri M.F. Farooqui, Additional Secretary, MoEF visited FRLHT,
Bangalore in February 2012.
Annual Report 2010-11
e-mail: info@frlht.org

akshara51@gmail.com

Awards and Recognitions

Awards and Recognitions 2011: The Rajagopal Rama Varier Memorial AVP 2011: Excellence award to the Founder,

2011:

The Rajagopal Rama Varier Memorial AVP

2011:

Excellence award to the Founder, Shri Darshan Shankar Padma Shri awarded to the Founder,

2011:

Shri. Darshan Shankar Designated as Bio-Resource Information Centre

2010:

on Indian Medicinal Plants Database, D.B.T., Go.I Recognized as National R&D facility

2010:

(Rasayana) by : Department of Science and Technology, GOI Indian Innovation Award, Indian Express

2009:

(EMPI Group of Institutions) Recognized as a Center of Excellence in Indian

2009:

Systems of Medicine by Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Award for Proficiency in Clinical Application of

2008:

Ayurveda Shastra from Vaidyaraj Datar Panchaboutik Chikitsa and Samshodhan Kendra, Sangli, Maharashtra Global Propagation of Ayurveda Award from the

2007:

AVR Foundation, Coimbatore “The Green Institution Award”, Better Interiors,

2007:

Mumbai “Citizen Extra Ordinaire”, Rotary Club,

2004:

Bangalore Designated as Environmental Systems Centre

2003:

on Medicinal Plants, Mo.E.F., Go.I. Recognized as an organization engaged in

2003:

Scientific and Industrial Research by the Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research International Award for Leadership in

2002:

Complementary & Alternative Medicine, Columbia University, New York Recognized as National Centre of Excellence,

2002:

Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GOI Equator Initiative Prize of United Nations for

1998:

Linking Conservation to Livelihood Needs of Rural Communities Norman Borlaug Award

DECADE ON BIODIVERSITY

The United Nations agreed to a Decade on Biodiversity from 2011–2020 at the global biodiversity meeting, called the Nagoya COP10, held in Japan in October

2010.

The decade will highlight the value of biodiversity to all our lives and build on the success of the International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) during 2010.

The aim of the IYB was to celebrate life on Earth, to highlight the value of biodiversity to our lives and to call for a renewed effort to safeguard the variety of life. It was celebrated around the globe by 146 countries using 29 languages. As the year drew to an end, world governments agreed a 10-year plan to protect our natural resources for the future. Read a summary of what the UK partnership for IYB achieved during 2010. More info: http://www.decadeonbiodiversity.net/

Read a summary of what the UK partnership for IYB achieved during 2010. More info: http://www.decadeonbiodiversity.net/
How to reach IAIM-Health Care Centre, Yelahanka, Bangalore Contact us: Land line phone number:+91-80-28567000 I-AIM
How to reach IAIM-Health Care Centre, Yelahanka, Bangalore
Contact us: Land line phone number:+91-80-28567000
I-AIM
Healthcare Centre
FRLHT
Amrutha Vana
ENVIS CENTRE
I-AIM Healthcare Centre FRLHT Amrutha Vana ENVIS CENTRE An Expression of FRLHT Institute for Ayurveda &

An Expression of FRLHT Institute for Ayurveda & Integrative Medicine

www.iaim.edu.in

We invite readers to send their responses/views/features of

interest etc. through e-mail: envis@frlht.org (Please note:

Articles for subsequent issues should not exceed more than 1500 words. It can be accompanied with images in .jpg

format) For more information contact:

The Co-ordinator, ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants

Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions # 74/2, Jarakabande Kaval Post Attur, Via Yelahanka, Bangalore-560 106, Karnataka, INDIA Ph: +91-80 - 28565 847, 28568000 Fax: +91-80-28567926 Email: envis@frlht.org / suma.tagadur@frlht.org www.envis.frlht.org / www.frlhtenvis.nic.in www.frlht.org/