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Hints, Tips & Techniques for Water Colour (Windsor & Newton)

Fuente: Water colour is the most popular painting method today. Its popularity can largely be attributed to the exquisite effects of depth, texture and light which can be achieved from its delicate washes. It is also attractive for its portability - all you need is a paint box, brush and paper.

Almost all artists have a water colour box, whether it is their specialisation or a sketching tool to support their oil or acrylic work. Albrecht Durer was perhaps the first to use water colour as a medium in its own right, for his animal and landscape studies in the early 16th century. In the early 19th century Turner can quite justifiably be regarded as the first exponent of modern water colour. In this hints and tips section you will find in-depth information about how to use water colour along with all you need to know about working with this medium; from colour palettes to how to frame your work along with creating special effects with erasers, you will find something new to try. Browse through the headings below to find in-depth and illustrated pages of hints and tips. Surfaces - the difference between water colour papers Colours - recommendations of palettes for different subject matter Mediums - how to create special effects with mediums Framing - the methods and materials to frame your work Brushes - choosing the right brush for your painting style

When using water based media, good results rely almost as much on the paper surface as on the quality of the colour used. The paper is an intrinsic part of the work. This is also true for oil based paintings. It is essential therefore that you have a range of papers available which are of equal quality to the colour you are using. Here is some useful criteria and terminology to help you choose the right type of paper when painting with water colour. Criteria to consider when choosing your paper A paper must provide a suitable surface for painting or printmaking in terms of absorbency, colour and long-term stability. The correct degree of absorbency (sizing) allows the colour to sit on the surface and reflect the maximum amount of light. White papers produce the brightest images, whilst coloured papers are used for opaque or juxtaposition techniques. Long term stability comes essentially from the papers being acid-free [pH neutral]. Types of Water Colour Paper Generally there are two qualities of paper available, both are mould made for greater stability. The first is made from cotton and the second from chemically processed wood fibre. Rag / Cotton Water Colour Paper 100% rag indicates the paper is made from 100% cotton. The reference to rag dates to the time that old rags were used in hand-made paper mills. The cotton used in papermaking today is direct from the plant and is called cotton linters. Wood based water colour paper A more economical mould made paper can be made by using chemically processed wood fibre or woodpulp. These papers are generally supplied in one surface only, Not/ Cold Pressed.

Paper Terminology Mould-Made and Hand-Made Mould-made refers to the cylinder mould on which the paper is formed. The fibres are arranged at random, mimicking a hand-made sheet. This arrangement gives dimensional stability and a unique texture to mould-made papers. Dimensional stability reduces cockling of the sheet when water is applied. Hand made paper has these advantages but is relatively expensive. The deckle is the frame which forms the outer edge of the paper sheet. Four deckle edges is an accepted term to indicate the sheet is handmade. Surfaces Water colour papers are available in three different surfaces, Rough, Not and Hot Pressed. Rough This paper has a rough surface as the name suggests. The Rough sheet has been pressed between the 'felts' on the paper machine and the roughness of the felt (blanket) is embossed into the wet sheet.

Rough sheets give the greatest texture to water colour washes as the pigment settles into the hollows of the paper. Rough paper is popular for expressionist techniques and bold styles.

Not/Cold Pressed The surface of a Not (Cold Pressed) paper has a moderate texture. A Not sheet gets its name from 'not hot pressed'! It is made by taking a rough sheet and pressing it again without the felts. Not papers are generally considered the easiest to use. Hot Pressed The surface of Hot Pressed paper is made very smooth by passing the sheet through hot metal rollers. It is popular with those painters who like detail, do not utilise granulation particularly and with illustrators and designers who require flat artwork for reproduction. Weight The weight is measured in two ways, either Imperial or Metric. The Imperial weight is that of 500 sheets of Imperial sized [30 x 22] paper. A lightweight water colour paper would be 90lb. The Metric weight is grammes per square metre [gsm]. A 90lb paper is equivalent to 190gsm. Papers are generally referred to as heavy or light in weight. A heavier paper is more resilient to tearing/general storage, being stronger simply because there is more interwoven fibre in a heavy sheet. Heavier papers are preferred by many water colourists as they are able to take heavier washes without cockling. Lightweight papers should be stretched if substantial amounts of water are to be used. Cockling is the wrinkling of the sheet when substantial amounts of water are used. Heavier sheets used in printmaking should be soaked long enough to ensure suppleness, a 300lb sheet should be submerged for at least 20 minutes. Sizing Sizing is the reduction of absorbency in the sheet. Without it colour could not be drawn across the sheet as it would blot immediately. Most water colour papers are both internally and externally sized. Internal sizing reduces the absorbency of the fibre itself by chemically bonding to it. External sizing is a layer of gelatine on the surface of the paper, resulting in the water colour film laying on the surface, looking brighter and allowing it to be sponged off if desired by the painter. Gelatine gives a harder surface which also allows scraping and rubbing without damaging the paper itself. External sizing is also known as gelatine surface sizing. Printmaking papers are soft sized. A low level of size makes the paper more malleable, particularly for intaglio work and also more absorbent, pushing the ink into the fibre and assisting drying. Acid free Acid free means pH neutral. This is essential for the long term stability of the paper. Acid free paper is produced by using cotton linter or woodfree fibre. Acidic papers, for example newsprint or sugar papers discolour and embrittle in a very short time, leaving a weak paper prone to disintegration. Buffering Artists papers are buffered with an alkaline filler, eg. calcium carbonate. A small amount is incorporated into the sheet at the pulp stage. This buffering allows the sheet to counteract any atmospheric acidity over the long term. The Right Side The right side of the paper is the side from which you can read the watermark. However, either side can be used, it is entirely a matter of choice. Painting on the back of a finished painting will save using a new sheet but this practice cannot be widely recommended. A painting which is felt to be unsuccessful today may appear entirely different in the future, you could end up with two good paintings on only one sheet of paper. Paintings may also appear less bright if there is a dark painting on the back of the sheet and may not stay flat. Colour of Paper Water colour papers are traditionally white, this allows the maximum amount of light to be reflected back through the

wash, giving that characteristic water colour 'sparkle'. Tinted papers are sometimes preferred and give a mellow tone to a painting.

On cream

on green

Deckle Edge The deckle is the frame which forms the outer edge of the paper sheet. 'Four deckle edges' is an accepted term to indicate the sheet is mould made. Water Colour Blocks Water Colour blocks are pads where the sheets are glued around all four edges to keep the paper flat whilst painting. A small section is left unglued to enable a palette knife to slip round and remove the finished work. Blocks are excellent for outdoor painting.

Cotman water colour block Stretching Paper Stretching paper maintains a flat sheet when using large quantities of water. All weights of paper will benefit from stretching, as once stretched, you are free to use as much water as you wish. Stretching works by soaking the paper to expand the fibres and taping it flat to dry taut. More water will not then be able to cockle the paper. The important tips are:

Soak the paper completely - 90lb for 3 mins, 140lb for 8 mins, 300lb for 20 mins Drain the paper of excess water If using a manmade fibre board, seal it with dilute French polish first. Use brown gum strip (not masking tape) to tape edges along their complete length Keep the board flat to dry

Click on the headings to discover details about using the different colours within our water colour ranges. Colour ranges and their combinations Basic palettes Colour mixing Additional colours for particular techniques (Landscape painting, Portrait painting, Secondary colours, Transparent colours, Opaque colours, High key colour, Low key colour, Granulating colours, Lifting/ Staining colours)

Colour Ranges and Their Combinations In the past, water colours have been the medium most susceptible to fading from light due to the thinness of the wash. As the 20th century rolled on, the permanence of pigments and the colours available have continued to improve. The result is todays painters have palettes and permanence that past masters could only have dreamt about. Basic Palettes Your initial palette should provide a wide colour spectrum and should have a good balance between transparent and opaque colours and between strong tinting and weaker tinting colours. Permanent colours are always desirable and the main palette should ideally be low in price. The common practice is to maintain a broad palette of about twelve colours and add to it for specific requirements. Here are the recommended palettes:

Artists' Water Colour Winsor Lemon, Winsor Yellow, Scarlet Lake, Permanent Rose, Permanent Alizarin Crimson, French Ultramarine, Winsor Blue (Green Shade), Winsor Green (Blue Shade), Raw Umber, Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Chinese White. Cotman Water Colour Lemon Yellow Hue, Cadmium Yellow Pale Hue, Cadmium Red Hue, Permanent Rose, Alizarin Crimson Hue, Ultramarine, Intense Blue, Viridian Hue, Raw Umber, Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Chinese White. Colour Mixing - The Six Colour System Restricted palettes are used by both beginners and serious painters to develop their understanding and use of colour. The six colour system uses two reds, two yellows and two blues as a primary palette. This provides both a blue shade red and a yellow shade red for example, which will ensure clean violets and clean oranges from your palette. The additional colours recommended in the basic palette introduce a wider range of tones and greater variation in opacity and tinting strength.

Artists' Water Colour Wheel

Cotman Water Colour Wheel

Additional Colours For Particular Techniques When choosing new colours, an excellent investment is a hand painted colour chart of the range. For a small price, youll be able to see all the colours in graded washes, helping you to make the right choice before buying new tubes. The colours named are from Artists Water Colour, although many are also available from the Cotman range. Landscape Painting New or different colours can really broaden your painting vocabulary. For landscapes, yellows, blues, greens and earth colours are always useful. Landscape Colours Nickel Titanium Yellow, Transparent Yellow, Cadmium Yellow Pale, Indanthrene Blue, Cobalt Blues, Winsor Blue (Red Shade), Prussian Blue, Cerulean Blue, Manganese Blue Hue, Cobalt Turquoises, Cobalt Greens, Viridian, Winsor Green (Yellow Shade), Terre Verte, Oxide of Chromium, Hookers Green, Permanent Sap Green, Olive Green, Green Gold, Naples Yellow Deep, Raw Sienna, Light Red, Caput Mortuum Violet, Burnt Umber, Paynes Gray, Davys Gray, Ivory Black, Titanium White.

Portrait Painting Portraiture needs that spark of life and character; clean, crisp colour mixtures and tones will achieve these. Pinks, violets and earth colours will make some of the subtle tones required for portraits. Portrait Colours Lemon Yellow (Nickel Titanate), Nickel Titanium Yellow, Cadmium Yellow Pale, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Scarlet, Cadmium Red Deep, Rose Dore, Quinacridone Red, Permanent Carmine, Rose Madder Genuine, Purple Madder, Permanent Magenta, Cobalt Violet, Permanent Mauve, Cobalt Blue, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Turquoise, Naples Yellow, Naples Yellow Deep, Raw Sienna, Light Red, Venetian Red, Indian Red, Caput Mortuum Violet, Burnt Umber, Davys Gray, Ivory Black, Titanium White.

Secondary Colours In addition to the bright secondary colours you will achieve from your basic palette, single pigment secondaries are important, eg. Winsor Green (Blue Shade) can make brighter mixes than if you use a green mixed from a blue & yellow. Secondary Colours Winsor Orange, Quinacridone Magenta, Permanent Magenta, Thioindigo Violet, Cobalt Violet, Permanent Mauve, Ultramarine Violet, Winsor Violet (Dioxazine), Cobalt Turquoises & Greens, Viridian, Winsor Greens, Oxide of Chromium, Green Gold.

The Most Transparent Colours Using the most transparent colours allows each wash laid down to have the maximum influence on the next one. Infinite optical colour mixtures are possible. Addition of Gum Arabic will also increase transparency. Transparent Colours Aureolin, Gamboge Genuine, Indian Yellow, Rose Dor, Quinacridone Red, Permanent Alizarin Crimson, Permanent Carmine, Rose Madder Genuine, Quinacridone Magenta, Purple Madder, Permanent Magenta, Thioindigo Violet, Winsor Violet (Dioxazine), Ultramarine (Green Shade), Winsor Blue (Red Shade), Antwerp Blue, Prussian Blue, Viridian, Winsor Green (Yellow Shade), Hookers Green, Permanent Sap Green, Olive Green, Green Gold, Raw Sienna, Quinacridone Gold, Perylene Maroon, Burnt Umber, Gum Arabic.

The Most Opaque Colours Using the most opaque colours gives flatter washes and greater covering over previous washes. Opaque colours are also useful for toning down colour mixtures. For even greater opacity, try combining some Designers Gouache colours into your technique. Opaque Colours Lemon Yellow (Nickel Titanate), Cadmium Yellows, Orange and Reds, Vermilion Hue, Winsor Emerald, Oxide of Chromium, Cobalt Green (Yellow Shade), Naples Yellow, Naples Yellow Deep, Light Red, Venetian Red, Indian Red, Caput Mortuum Violet, Sepia, Indigo, Neutral Tint, Blue Black, Ivory Black, Lamp Black, Titanium White. All tints made with white. High Key (Bright) Colours These are generally the colours with high tinting strength. High key palettes are popular with flower painters and for more abstract effects in water colour. High Key Colours Bismuth Yellow, Cadmium Yellows, Orange and Reds, Quinacridone Reds and Violets, Winsor Violet (Dioxazine), Indanthrene Blue, Winsor colours, Titanium White.

Low Key (Subdued) Colours These are generally low tinting strength colours. Low key palettes are also achieved with tints (colour plus white) and shades (colour plus black). Low Key Colours Antwerp Blue, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Turquoise, Cobalt Green, Viridian, Terre Verte, Oxide of Chromium, Naples Yellow, Naples Yellow Deep, Raw Sienna, Light Red, Indian Red, Caput Mortuum Violet, Burnt Umber, Vandyke Brown, Sepia, Indigo, Paynes Gray, Blacks, Davys Gray, Titanium White for tints.

Emma Pearce Granulating Colours The granulation of some colours is prized by watercolourists to achieve texture on the paper. The more colours are mixed together and the larger the quantity of water, the more granulation results. If you wish to minimise granulation, distilled water may help, to maximise this effect try using our Granulation Medium Granulating Colours Cadmium Red, Cadmium Red Deep, Rose Madder Genuine, Cobalt Violet, Permanent Mauve, Ultramarine Violet, Cobalt Blue Deep, French Ultramarine, Cobalt Blue, Cerulean Blue, Manganese Blue Hue, Cobalt Green, Viridian, Oxide of Chromium, Raw Sienna, Raw Umber, Ivory Black.

Lifting/ Staining Colours Lifting washes can mean anything from a complete wash down under a tap, to get a smokey background, to the sponging out of a small area to lighten or rescue it. The following staining colours will stay in the paper and lift less easily than the other colours in your palette. The use of Gum Arabic will reduce the degree of staining. Generally Winsor & Newton water colour papers are more conducive to lifting than others.

Lifting/ Staining Colours Bismuth Yellow, Cadmium Yellows, Winsor Lemon, Transparent Yellow, Aureolin, Gamboge Genuine, Bright Red, Cadmium Scarlet, Scarlet Lake, Vermilion Hue, Cadmium Red, Winsor Red, Rose Dor, Permanent Alizarin Crimson, Alizarin Crimson, Permanent Carmine, Permanent Rose, Purple Madder, Permanent Magenta, Winsor Violet (Dioxazine), Winsor Blues, Prussian Blue, Winsor Greens, Winsor Emerald, Oxide of Chromium, Hookers Green, Permanent Sap Green, Olive Green, Gold Ochre, Quinacridone Gold, Venetian Red, Brown Madder, Perylene Maroon, Caput Mortuum Violet, Vandyke Brown, Indigo, Paynes Gray, Neutral Tint, Gum Arabic.

Mediums are used to create an even wider variety of techniques and effects for your work. The links below will explain how each one works and how you can create special effects with other materials. Granulation Medium Blending Medium Lifting Preparation Permanent Masking Medium Texture Medium Iridescent Medium Gum Arabic Ox Gall Aquapasto Art Masking Fluid Colourless Art Masking Fluid Special Effects

Granulation Medium Techniques for use This medium is useful in all water colour techniques including landscape, seascape or figurative work. Granulation is popular where ever you want to add interest or dimension to otherwise flat areas. How is it used? For maximum effect, dilute water colours with medium alone. By diluting the colour further with water, a variety of results can be achieved. Granulation Medium is re-soluble simply by re-wetting. Granulation is also greatly affected by different water colour papers. For maximum granulations use Rough and for less granulation use a Cold Pressed/ Not Surface.

Blending Medium How is it used? Blending medium can be used in a number of different ways. For maximum blending time, mix the medium directly with the water colour. Alternatively you can apply the medium directly to the paper in preparation for the water colour. Dilution with water will provide a variety of blending/ drying times. Drying rates will vary and depend on the temperature and air flow. Any initial beading of colours will disperse as blending continues. Once dry, further washes can be applied over any washes which include blending medium.

Lifting Preparation How is it used? Lifting Preparation must be applied to the paper first and allowed to dry. Apply to the whole surface and allow to fully dry. Once dry, continue painting washes as normal over the lifting preparation and allow these to dry. Areas or details can then be removed by taking a soft brush dipped in tap water, gently moistening the area to be removed and blotting off the dissolved colour. For larger areas a sponge can be used in place of the brush.

This process can then be repeated until the required degree of removal is achieved. The removed areas can then be left white or overpainted with further washes. Washes will be most successfully lifted within five or six hours after the initial application, but will remain more removable than if paper alone had been used. Lifting Preparation does not make the water colour more soluble so there is no worry about multiple washes becoming muddy. Permanent Masking Medium How is it used? Permanent Masking Medium can be applied directly to white paper, to dried washes on the paper or mixed with water colours first. All water colour washes mixed with Permanent Masking Medium remain open and workable whilst the wash is still wet. Once dry, the area becomes isolated and cannot be fully penetrated by further washes. A hair dryer can be used to speed the drying. Brushes should be washed in warm water and soap before using other colours. The example below shows areas of paper treated with Permanent Masking Medium and allowed to dry. When the water colour wash is then painted over these areas they remain isolated.

How does Permanent Masking Medium differ from Art Masking Fluid?

Permanent Masking Medium is not removable Permanent Masking Medium can be added to colour Brushes are easier to clean Art Masking Fluid is recommended for crisp whites, larger areas of masking and is faster drying whilst Permanent Masking Medium is recommended for fine detail and expressive effects within the painting.

Texture Medium How is it used? Texture Medium can be applied directly onto the paper or mixed with water colours first. More layers of colour can be applied over the top. Texture Medium is re-soluble but like all water colour washes, some colour will remain on the paper.

Iridescent Medium How is it used? Iridescent Medium can be mixed directly with water colours or applied over a dried wash. The medium is intermixable with all Winsor & Newton water colours and is particularly effective when mixed with the most transparent colours and over dark backgrounds.

Gum Arabic Adding Gum Arabic to a water colour wash will have the following effects:

it will slow the drying time of your paint, giving you slightly longer to work on creating your image or working wet into wet it increases transparency and gloss to give greater brilliance of colour, giving you luminous colours it reduces the staining of pigments, making washes easier to lift

How is it used? Gum Arabic is usually mixed into the water colour wash but can be added to the jar of water if you prefer to use it throughout the painting. Gum Arabic should not be used directly from the botle because thick films will be brittle.

Ox Gall How is it used? A few drops of Ox Gall are added to a jar of water and this is used to dilute the water colour. Ox Gall is also used on very hard sized papers to reduce surface tension. If a paper is resisting a water colour wash, leave it to dry before covering the paper with the diluted Ox Gall. Once this is dry the painting can be continued as normal. Aquapasto How is it used? Aquapasto is mixed with water colours to thicken the wash. It is a gel medium that is squeezed onto the palette and just enough can be added to the water colour wash until the wash thickens.

Tube colours are easier to use for stronger washes or when large amounts are required. Aquapasto washes will not flow into each other so they are excellent for clouds or multi-coloured areas. Art Masking Fluid How is it used? Masking Fluid protects areas of your work when colour is applied in broad washes. Unlike Permanent Masking Medium which is inter-mixable with water colours, Art Masking Fluid works by direct application to the paper. It can be applied to white paper or previously coloured areas. Follow these helpful tips to get the best results when masking.

Shake bottle before use. Do not use on wet or damp paper. Use gelatine surface sized paper, this helps to prevent the fluid from adhering too strongly to the paper. Use old brushes or dip pens to avoid damaging valuable brushes. Wash brushes in soapy water immediately after use. Ensure fluid is dry before applying colour. Do not leave fluid on paper for long periods of time. Use Colourless Art Masking Fluid if there is any risk of staining from the pigmented Art Masking Fluid. If spilt by accident, wash item immediately in soapy water. Once dry, the latex can only be removed by picking at it or rubbing with an eraser. There are unfortunately no solvents available.

Colourless Art Masking Fluid This is simply a colourless version of Art Masking Fluid. What is the difference between Colourless Art Masking Fluid and Art Masking Fluid? Art Masking Fluid has a slight yellow tinge making it easier to see where it has been used. However, if a softer sized paper is used or there is any risk of yellow staining the paper, Colourless Art Masking Fluid should be used. Special Effects Water colour is well suited to numerous special effects. Impressive results can be achieved very quickly with these simple tricks of the trade. Salt for added texture

If salt is sprinkled onto a water colour wash, it will absorb the wet colour. Once dry, it is brushed away, leaving a pitted texture. Try fine and coarse salt for different effects.

Splatters and Splashes

Extra tone, texture and solidity is provided by splattering colours over an underpainting. Make a stencil to protect the areas you want unsplattered. Mix a darker wash and use a hog brush to flick the colour on in different concentrations. You can also splatter with masking fluid at the beginning of the work if you want white splatters instead. Remember not to leave the fluid on for longer than you have to. Sandpaper

Sanding a finished wash can be a useful rescue technique. If you finish a painting and find it lacking highlights, sanding is an option. Using a coarse sandpaper, lightly remove some of the paper, leaving a mottled wash with highlights. Be careful or you'll rub too much off and make the picture worse! Washes will not go on evenly over sanded paper. Cling film (protective food film)

Intricate washes of various tones are quickly made by the use of cling film! Apply a wash to your chosen area, crumple up some cling film and press it onto the wash, making sure not to smudge or move the wet colour. Leave this to dry whilst you have a break. When you peel the film away the texture is ready made. Try this with blended washes of more than one colour for even more varied texture.

For protection, a water colour painting should be displayed behind glass, using a mount to ensure the work is not directly against the glass. When choosing mounts, small pictures generally suit larger mounts whilst larger pictures will look good in smaller mounts. Remember to use acid free mounts and backings; without them your painting will discolour in the frame. NB. Varnishing water colours is generally not recommended because it alters the tones of the painting. A varnish will also sink into the paper, discolouring and embrittling it.

There are many different brushes that can be used for water colour. Here we explain the use for each and highlight the Winsor and Newton ranges which are compatible with this medium. For lots more information on all of our different water colour brush ranges, see the Brushes section. Sable Brushes Sable is the best type of hair for water colour brushes due to its excellent colour carrying capacity, ability to point and to spring back to shape. Series 7 sables are the world's finest, first made for Queen Victoria, they are the only tapered dressed' sables. This means the selection of a number of different length hairs for each brush head. Series 7 brushes have larger bellies (width of the brush head) and finer points, giving maximum colour carrying capacity and the ultimate in control.

Painting with a Series 7 is speedy and controlled; the colour goes exactly where you want it, in the quantity you need. For those who want to use sable at a more affordable price, Series 16 and Cirrus Series 110 offer good value. In addition to these traditional round heads for water colour; designers and illustrators often prefer Series 3A or Cirrus Series 220 which have elongated round heads, particularly suited to linear work. Sable / Synthetic and Synthetic Brushes Sceptre Gold II Series 101 are round brushes made from a mixture of sable and synthetic to approach the performance of sable at a more economic price. Cotman Series 111 are pure synthetic round brushes. They are economical water colour brushes which point well and have moderate colour carrying capacity. Cleaning Brushes Brushes will last many years if well cared for. Brushes should be rinsed throughout every painting session and should not be stood on their heads in your water pot. It is important to wash all your brushes thoroughly at the end of each day. Rinsing in water alone is not sufficient to rinse the pigment from the ferrule end. A long term build up of pigment will eventually prevent the brush from pointing.

Rinse brush in water. Wash with warm water and household soap, repeating until there is no trace of colour. Shape brush, dry handle and stand upright in a jar to dry.

Brush Glossary
The large number of artists brushes available reflects two issues 1. Historically, many different brushes have been required to perform many different jobs and 2. Variations of the same shape of brush have existed to address different price points. The result is a complicated array of products which many artists do not understand in full. Following is a glossary of brush terms for reference. BRUSH GLOSSARY Acrylic brush - synthetic brushes, the mix of hair is specially made for use with acrylic colour. Balance - the correct weight and shape of a handle in relationship to the weight of the brush head. Belly - the mid-section and thickest part of the brush head, or the individual hair filament itself. Sable filaments have excellent bellies, which result in well shaped round brushes. Blunt - a hair which is missing its natural tip. Finest quality brushes, do not contain blunts or trimmed hairs. Bright - often Short flat, a chisel ended, square headed bristle brush. Bright was a painter. Bristle - hog hair. Coarse, strong hair, suited to thick brushwork in oil, alkyd and acrylic painting. Different qualities of hog brushes are available, the most expensive ones carry the most colour and retain their shape best when wet. Camel - is a pseudonym for a mixture of miscellaneous hairs of low quality. Crimp - the compressed section of the ferrule which holds the handle to the brush head. Designers - an elongated round sable, most common for illustration work. Egbert - an extra long filbert. Fan - a flat fan, used for blending, available in both bristle and soft hair.

Ferrule - the metal tube which supports the hair and joins it to the handle. Filbert - flat brushes with oval shaped heads, available in both bristle and soft hair. Flag - the natural, split tip of each bristle. Flags carry more colour and are evident on the highest quality hog brushes. Flat - usually Long flat; flat hog brushes with a chisel end. Goat - makes good mop wash brushes. Gummed - newly made brushes are pointed with gum in order to protect them in transit. Interlocked - bristle brushes whose hairs curve inward towards the centre of the brush. Kolinsky - the highest quality sable hair. Length out - the length of hair, exposed from the ferrule to the tip. Lettering - very thin, long, chisel ending sables, traditionally used for lines and letters in signwriting. Liners - see Lettering. Long flat - see Flat. Mop - large, round, domed brushes, often goat or squirrel, used primarily to cover whole areas in water colour. One Stroke - a flat soft hair brush which allows an area to be covered in one stroke, traditionally used in signwriting for block letters. Ox - ear hair is used for flat wash brushes. Pencil - see Spotter. Polyester - Synthetic hair is made of polyester; different diameter filaments, varying tapers, different colours and different coatings result in as many possible variations in synthetic brushes as in those made from natural hair. Pony - is a low cost cylindrical hair, ie. lacking a point, often used for childrens brushes. Quill - bird quills were originally used for ferrules prior to the development of seamless metal ferrules. Still used in some squirrel brushes. Rigger - very thin, long round sable, traditionally used for painting rigging in marine pictures. Round - available in both bristle and soft hair, the latter having different types of rounds. Sable - produces the best soft hair brushes, particularly for water colour. The conical shape and scaled surface of each hair provide a brush with an unrivalled point, responsiveness and colour carrying capacity. There are different qualities, the finest being taper-dressed Kolinsky [Winsor & Newton Series 7]. Short flat - see Bright. Snap - see Spring. Solid-dressed - sable which is sorted in bundles of equal length prior to brushmaking. Resultant brushes are not as responsive as taper-dressed sables. Spotter - extra short and small sable rounds, used for retouching photographs and other high detail work. Spring - the degree of resilience of the hair and its ability to return to a point. Sable displays excellent spring. Squirrel - hair makes good mop brushes but does not hold its belly or point well. Stripers - see Lettering. Taper-dressed - Kolinsky sable which is sorted into different lengths prior to brushmaking. Resultant brushes have wider bellies and finer points. Wash - large flat soft hair brushes, used primarily for flat washes in water colour.

BRUSH TYPES Artists brushes can generally be categorized into two types, according to the type of hair used, [i] bristle and [ii] soft. Each type can then be further categorized by the shapes available in each hair type. 1. Bristle - The bristle category includes the original hog but also the synthetic stiff brushes like Artisan for water mixable oils. Shapes available: Round, Short Flat/Bright, Long Flat, Filbert (short and long) and Fan. 2. Soft - sable, ox, goat, squirrel, synthetic, pony, camel. Sable produces the best soft hair brushes, particularly for water colour. Its conical shape and scaled surface provide unrivalled points, responsiveness and colour carrying capacity. Largely as a result of the cost of sable, other hairs are used for soft brushes, either on their own, or mixed.

Shapes available: Rounds; Spotters/Pencils, Designers, Riggers, Lettering/ Stripers/Liners, One Stroke, Mops, Wash, Filberts and Fans. Two Additional Points To Note On Brushes 1.The sizing of brushes is most commonly done by a number system. Each number does not necessarily correlate to the same size brush in different ranges and this is particularly noticeable between English, French and Japanese sizes. It is important therefore that actual brushes are compared rather than relying on the sizes of the brushes you currently own. 2. Long handled brushes are available for oil, alkyd and acrylic painters who are more likely to be at a distance from their work than water colourists, whose brush handles are shorter.

What makes a quality artists brush?

Sometimes it is all too easy to forget about brushes, they are just the tool of application. Colour is the main player and naturally as artists we concentrate upon it. But the more you paint, the more you want tools that do what you want them to when you want them to. In this article we are going to look at the three areas of brush, Natural, Hog and Synthetic; What they are, What they do, Where best used and Value. A note about quality As a student and for many artists afterwards in studios, money is tight. You may have little choice but to start with economically priced brushes. This is ok but bear two things in mind. Firstly, they will only just work, hogs will splay and soften, making messy marks and prevent you from controlling the colour. Synthetic brushes for inks, acrylics and watercolour will hold little colour and if very cheap will not even maintain their point. Secondly, they will deteriorate quickly and you are likely to find the cost of two or three cheap brushes is more than the artists' quality brushes that would work to start with and last longer. Natural hair There are three main natural hairs used for artists' brushes; sable, squirrel and goat. They all make relatively soft brushes and are therefore used for fluid colour whatever the medium. Sable is the perfect hair for brush making. Each hair is conical itself, springy and covered in microscopic scales (see diagram on left). The conical shape and spring make a perfect point and the scales increase the surface area so the brush sucks up a lot of colour. The combination of all three also allows for the controlled release of colour. There's only one problem with sable, it's costly. Over the years this leads to fragmentation and many many sables at varying prices. So, how do you know what to buy? Well at the bottom end a very cheap sable is probably worse (and more expensive!) than buying a good synthetic for point, or a good goat or squirrel for colour carrying, or a sable synthetic mixture. At the top end, both in quality and pricewise, is Series 7. Each Series 7 is made from a selection of different length hair, giving a longer and more tapered point. A worn down Series 7 will have the same profile as an ordinary sable brush. Series 7 are the only taper dressed' sable brushes in the world.

Series 7 will hold more colour and form a stronger point and body because only the very best hair is used, only 5% of the available sable hair is used in Series 7 brushes. So in fact the higher price of these brushes is deceiving. When I moved from an ordinary sable to a Series 7, my painting time was reduced by 60%; I could complete washes in one go and I no longer had to keep swapping back to smaller brushes to get a point for the finer lines. I could spend more time on my ideas than on struggling with my materials. Couple that with the fact that they last longer, I would go for a Series 7 every time. Put some on your Christmas list! From Queen Victoria to artists on the Titanic, they've been the brush of choice for a very long time. One last thing to remember too, the sizing of sables differs in different makes. Make sure you are comparing like for like before you invest. (See diagram below where both brushes are a Size 10 but differ in actual size.)

Now for the middle ground. When you have less available cash, invest in a good quality sable like Artists' Water Colour Sable. These are still much superior compared to synthetic brushes and will make glazing in oils and washes in watercolour far more accurate and controllable. Squirrel hair makes good mop brushes because it has good colour carrying capacity. Comparing head sizes, a Winsor & Newton Pure Squirrel Pointed Wash is less than half the price of a good sable and if you mostly use washes then these are a good idea. The individual hairs are cylindrical and soft, so you will lose the good point and spring of a sable. Goat also makes good mop brushes and they are very economical to purchase. Great at dropping large washes, the hair however is wavy and no point is possible. Goat is the cheapest mop but squirrel is the better compromise before paying for the ideal sable. Hog hair Hog hair is a stiff natural hair, stout enough to pick up oil or acrylic colour straight from the tube. Each hair naturally ends in a flagged' tip or split end, and this increases the colour carrying of the brush as it scoops up the colour from the palette. Like all things, hog brushes come in different qualities and therefore prices. At the top end, the brush is made from the stiffest strongest hair, giving plenty of flag. Hog hair has a natural curve and each Artists' Hog is made carefully so that every hair curves inwards. This gives control when pressing on the canvas, the brush tip widens only to the size of the ferrule in general use. The strong, curved hairs stay in the brush head, no strays trailing colour where you don't want it. The best quality hogs also wear down gradually, maintaining their shape but getting smaller. These often become beloved brushes, you can't make them like that without years of painting! So here again we find that the higher priced brush has more value, at less than twice the price of a mid range hog it will outperform it and last much much longer.

The mid range hog is excellent value when your budget is restricted. It will be a little softer and will not wear as nicely but it is perfectly serviceable. The most economical Winsor & Newton hog is the Azanta Black. This is a good entry level hog. It will get you started but it will not maintain its shape and will be softer than the more expensive ranges. Azanta Black is the right choice when you're strapped for cash, don't be tempted to go any lower, the cheapest hogs are so soft and weak and splay so much they are unusable. Synthetic hair Synthetic hair is made from polyester and can be made soft or stiff for both fluid media and thicker colour. It is a cheaper raw material than natural soft and hog hair, allowing more economical brushes to be made. But it's not only about the money, there are some aspects of synthetic brushes which are superior, so read on. The softer brushes are made for the more fluid media. A good quality watercolour synthetic like Cotman gives an excellent point, especially in the small to medium sizes. Where you don't need the colour carrying of sable, Cotman are a really good choice. However, within their own category, Cotman brushes are particularly superior as they are made with different thickness filaments. This gives them greater colour carrying capacity than an ordinary synthetic brush. If you need a little more carrying capacity combined with the economy of synthetic look no further than Sceptre Gold II, which is a blend of sable and synthetic but at a price much closer to Cotman than sable alone. Also have a look at Cotman mops which are around the price of goat but have a much more controlled release of the colour. The stiffer synthetic brushes are made for oil and acrylic painting. Their benefit in comparison to hog is that they do not become floppy in prolonged contact with water. This is particularly important in Artisan, as oil colour takes so long to dry, the brushes are in use so much more during the painting day. The polyester is boiled to encourage it to turn inwards and the cheaper price of an Artisan versus an Artists' Hog should not be taken to indicate an inferior brush. There are lower priced synthetics around but these have not been designed specifically for each type of painting, price being the priority. They will therefore not be as easy to paint with and they will not last as long. Synthetic brushes also ensure vegetarians have the painting products they need. Tips on brush care All brushes will last longer if they are looked after but if you've invested in artists' brushes - make them work for you!

Don't stand your brushes head down in the brush pot whilst working. Keep acrylic brushes rinsed whilst working so they don't dry hard. Don't use sable brushes to mix large quantities, use a cheaper brush for any hard work. After wiping and rinsing colour from brushes, wash them in warm water and soap, you will be amazed how much colour rinses away. This will help to maintain their shape for much longer. Shape washed brushes, dry handles and stand them uppermost to dry in a brush pot. When not using regularly, store sables and other natural hair brushes away with a moth repellent. Restore any bent synthetic brushes by dipping in slightly cooled boiled water for a minute or so. Restore any splayed or bent brushes by washing thoroughly and then shaping up with Gum Arabic. Leave to dry for a few days at least before rinsing and using.

And finally........ When I was starting this article, my 10 year old asked what I was writing about. I answered, Mmm, I have to write about brushes, what's a good one and how to make sure you have the one you need'. Oh', she said, that will be easy, just buy Winsor & Newton'!. For more information please see the individual ranges within Brushes by Artist Emma Pearce

Water Colour Pigments

Water colour pigments are of particular interest because the behaviour of pigments in water colour is so much more noticeable than with other colours. Artists are forced to acknowledge and choose colours according to their behaviour, in a similar way to having to be more technically aware in printmaking or photography. Aside from hue, the choice and use of different water colours depends largely on three further areas; Transparency; Granulation and Staining. The permanence of water colours is also worth a special mention. Transparency All pigments are relatively transparent or opaque. The colour charts distinguish colours as Transparent or Semitransparent or Opaque or Semi opaque. Its important to remember that transparency is relative and the tables are a guide only. As water colour films are so thin, all colours appear more or less transparent when painted onto paper. Opaque colours, like Cadmiums, will however, cover a little more than transparent colours. Titanium White [Opaque White] can be added to all colours to increase opacity but will of course reduce those colours to tints. Granulation In water colour, some colours show a tendency to granulate and are shown on the colour charts by the letter G. Granulation adds visual texture by the pigment particles settling in the hollows of the paper, producing a mottled effect. As a general statement the traditional pigments granulate, eg. cobalts, earths, ultramarine. The modern organic pigments do not, eg. quinacridones, arylamides, benzimidazolones. These colours are often under common names like Winsor . or Permanent.. . If you wish to avoid granulation in your painting, the use of distilled water can reduce it in very hard water areas. Staining The modern organic colours are made from very fine particles which cause them to stain the paper. These colours cannot be lifted completely with a damp sponge and are shown on the colour charts by S. Staining colours give high value images but do not easily allow for reworking. Staining in water colour should not be confused with bleeding of any dye based colours in Designers Gouache. Permanence With the introduction of new pigments, the permanence of water colours has been greatly improved in comparison to the past. The belief that water colours are less permanent than oils is no longer the case. There are now 88 AA or A rated colours in Artists Water Colour. Price The price of the colour depends on the original cost of the pigment. It does not reflect greater permanence nor any other characteristic.

The use of water colour in relation to different kinds of paper

The success of water colour depends not only on the use of good quality water colours but also the various characteristics of different papers. It is the infinite combinations of colour and paper which make water colours so delightful. Here we are going to look at the characteristics of both the water colour and the paper which produce these effects.

Water Colour Hue, or colour will be altered by different papers. For example, on some papers French Ultramarine will work best whilst on others Ultramarine Green Shade will be preferred. The thickness of the paint film in water colour has an enormous affect. Tube and pan colour generally give different effects, although if left to soak, pan colour can be used strongly. Tinting strength, some pigments are naturally strong, eg. Winsor Blues, whilst others are naturally weak, eg. Davys Gray. Those with lower tinting strength may be difficult to use on tinted papers. Some pigments are classified as Staining on the colour chart. These are often the modern organic colours supplied under the names of Winsor or Permanent. The staining properties of the colour will be increased by the texture and softness of the paper. Other colours are listed as Granulating on the colour chart. Granulation is increased, the rougher the paper. NB. As mixtures of colours occur during painting, individual characteristics can be minimised or heightened. A Medium is an additive which alters or enhances the characteristics of colour. The range of water colour mediums from Winsor & Newton allow you to blend, change drying rates, add texture or gloss, pearlescence or make staining colours granulate. The use of mediums will multiply yet again the affects you can achieve. Paper Each make of paper varies in Colour. The whiter the paper the brighter the painting. The newer tinted papers have a dramatic effect on the whole tone of a water colour. Using different grounds can make painting quicker and offer new challenges. Each surface of water colour paper will make the same wash of colour appear differently. Hot pressed [HP] gives the dullest washes and shows up differing thicknesses of colour most. Not [Cold Pressed] gives the brightest paintings because the greater surface area holds more pigment whilst Rough can make colours slightly duller if too much pigment builds up in the crevices and sometimes a very rough texture can over dominate a picture. The right side of the paper is the side from which the watermark can be read. However both sides will be different and there is no rule if you prefer the reverse. The amount and type of Sizing affects the flow of a colour, its brightness and its staining ability. Ideally water colour papers should be gelatine surface sized as this gives brightness and removability as the pigment sits up above the paper fibre. It also prevents Art Masking Fluid from sticking too well to paper. The method of manufacture affects the strength and surface of a paper. Mould made paper is best because this slower method of paper making best mimics the hand making processes, allowing the fibres to be more randomly associated. Fourdrinier made papers look more mechanical and are weaker in the direction in which they were made. Each Brand of paper provides a different colour and different surfaces to choose from. One manufacturers Rough may be closer to anothers Not. Its an excellent idea to change paper if you are feeling in a bit of a rut. As the Weight of a paper changes it is not possible for it to have exactly the same surface. Changing your paper weight may affect your painting as much as changing your choice of surface.

Reds & Crimsons

Add depth to your water colour palette with this comprehensive guide to the history and variety of different pigments. Available within our Artists' Water Colour range - you will also see below that some of these shades were favourites of well-known artists. Reds Cadmium Reds are the most popular of the reds. A highly opaque pigment, cadmium is popular with tube painters looking for bright colour applied in dense, rich layers. Cadmiums are also ideally suited for diluted, soft effects as well as subdued mixtures. Experience shows that properly milled cadmiums offer clarity and density that is unparalleled, while, interestingly, poorly milled cadmiums often show evidence of bruising, yielding colour that is dull and flat. Since first introducing them in the1930s, Winsor & Newton has offered cadmium reds at pale, middle and deep positions within the spectrum: Cadmium Scarlet, Cadmium Red and Cadmium Red Deep. Having a range of hues over the same pigment characteristics gives familiarity and control when painting. Quinacridone Red is a bright, highly transparent colour, established by us for watercolourists in the 1990s. We were keen to see this colour enter the palette, not only for the higher key mixtures it provides (as compared to the cadmium reds) but also because it is a pure, central red for colour mixing, neither too blue nor too yellow. Winsor Red and Winsor Red Deep belong to the pyrrole family of pigments. The pyrroles are among the first of a new generation of pigments to offer the combination of clarity and opacity approaching that of the Cadmiums. Winsor & Newton pyrroles are clean and dense in heavy layers while being well-suited for subdued, diluted mixtures. The pyrroles are at least the third generation of modern pigments that we have used for Winsor Reds. Our first Winsor Reds in the 1920s were the earliest coal tar red pigments. These colours changed the artists palette forever; semitransparent reds sitting between the opacity of the cadmiums and the transparency of the fugitive 19th c. lakes. Although unique in hue, these original pigments offered only moderately durable permanence, so naturally enough, as Winsor & Newton, we were as keen as ever to improve them and have done so at every opportunity in the last 80 years. As the complexity of modern chemistry increased, it made possible successive improvements in the lightfastness of the organic red pigments and we are delighted to have arrived with our two Winsor reds being at least as permanent as cadmiums. In water colour, we know lightfastness is of the utmost importance because of the thinness of the water colour film.

Crimsons Historically, crimson pigments were rare and have posed unique difficulties in milling. The pigments available to us in the 19th century were, at best, only moderately durable with many being highly fugitive. Contemporary crimsons, however, are an entirely different story. The whole development of crimsons since Egyptian times is a great example of how lightfastness has been increased with each new colour and how, finally, in the 21st century, we have achieved lightfastness while remaining true to the optical and mixing properties of the original pigments. Lets travel that journey Madder is a lake pigment, a plant dye which has been fixed onto an inert, transparent base. The lake method was first invented by the Egyptians. The permanence of madder lakes, however, is variable, depending on the recipe and it was not until 1806 that George Field, the pre-eminent colour chemist of that time, formulated Rose Madder Genuine with permanence that was exceptional for that period. The Field recipes were and still are used exclusively by Winsor & Newton. These formulations simply have not been bettered, even by our own chemists! In 1862, having visited the Winsor & Newton stand at the Crystal Palace exhibition in London, organised by Prince Albert, Dickens exclaimed, Has anyone ever seen anything like Winsor & Newtons cups of Carnations and Crimsons loud and fierce as a war-cry, and

Pinks tender and loving as a young girl? The crystal cups used to display our colours then, display them still in our Artists Colourmans Museum at our factory in London for viewing by many hundreds of visiting artists every year. Carmine was introduced in the early Renaissance, a deeper, stronger crimson than Madder but fugitive in nature. It was used as a food colouring for the best part of the 20th century, being known as Cochineal, the name of the beetles from which it is made. Alizarin Crimson was the first natural dye to be synthesized in the laboratory in 1868. In fact, the main dye in Madder is natural Alizarin (1,2 dihydroxyanthraquinone). Alizarin Crimson is not quite as lightfast as Madder, but it is stronger and deeper like carmine. It quickly became the main crimson in the water colour spectrum and remains so. Its hard to think of painting without picturing this deep, blue-shade crimson on your palette! Permanent Rose was the first quinacridone pigment introduced in the 1950s by Winsor & Newton. It was the first water colour in this part of the spectrum to have the unconditional permanence which so many of our new organic pigments of the late 20th century would later provide. Pinker in top tone, like madder, it has the bluer undertone of alizarin and was the suggested alternative for both colours for more than 40 years, until we were able to match the hues of the original alizarin and carmine. Many of the technical queries that we field come from artists from around the globe asking for support with colour mixing, and we strongly advocate the use of Permanent Rose as the ideal Primary Red (Magenta). Ordinarily, most of us as painters would think of Cadmium Red as the principal Primary Red but, in fact, its opacity interferes and it is too yellow. As Permanent Rose is more central (neither too yellow nor too blue), it gives much cleaner oranges and violets. If youre to use only one red in your palette, this must be it. So, finally, Permanent Alizarin Crimson and Permanent Carmine are both made with different shade quinacridones and have been available from Winsor & Newton since 1996. Both match the optical and mixing properties of original pigments while offering dramatically superior lightfastness. And, sometimes, newer means more economical. While Permanent Alizarin is more expensive than the original due to the pigment cost, Permanent Carmine is actually cheaper than the insect colour! Opera Rose, our new fluorescent pink/magenta is a step forward, too, in its way. Fluorescent pigments are unique, their astonishing brightness a result of actually absorbing energy from the UV (high, invisible) energy spectrum and then reflecting that energy within the visible range. No wonder, then, that the brightest fluorescent red pigments (often favoured by floral painters to match the flowers and buds of the many newer hybrid or tropical plants) have long been fugitive (C rating for Winsor & Newton). Opera Rose, however, as a new generation of fluorescents, can now be supplied as moderately durable (B rating), equal in permanence to Alizarin Crimson, which is great news for botanical artists!

And finally, what did Artists think ? William Blake (1757 1827) was a great fan of Rose Madder for its pure crimson hue which cannot be mixed from red and violet. William Russell Flint (1880 1969) maintained Alizarin Crimson in his limited palette for more than sixty years of water colour painting. Gerhard Richters (born 1932) multi-layered water colours in the 1990s show how even Cadmium Red appears transparent when used in thin enough dilutions.

Composition & Permanence Tables

Composition and Permanence tables provide all the essential information on the composition, characteristics and permanence of our colour ranges. This technical information is extremely important for any artist who is committed to producing paintings of the highest quality. For example,

Permanence ratings will tell you how long your painting will last over the years... The Chemical description will tell you exactly what pigments make up your colour and... Transparency and Opacity ratings are key indicators to how your colour will perform when layering colour

These examples only scratch the surface of the technical information that our tables provide. Below you will find links to composition and permanence tables for each of our colour ranges. You can browse through these to find out more. In addition, you will also find terms explained. This glossary will help you understand everything in the tables.

Composition and Permanence Tables by range Click on the links below to see individual composition and permanence tables. Artists' Oil Colour Winton Oil Colour Artisan Water Mixable Oil Colour Griffin Fast Drying Oil Colour Artists' Oilbar Artists' Acrylic Colour Galeria Acrylic Colour Artists' Water Colour Cotman Water Colour Designers' Gouache

Composition and Permanence Terms Explained Below each heading you will find descriptions which will explain the terms used in the Composition and Permanence Tables of each colour range. Code This colour code column indicates the code number that is given to each of the colours. This is primarily for ease of reference for retail and catalogue purposes and to assist you in purchasing your materials. Colour Name This is the colour name, eg. Permanent Alizarin Crimson. Chemical Description This column provides the chemical description of the pigments used in each colour. This is often useful for conservators. Colour Index The Colour Index International is the standard compiled and published by both: The Society of Dyers and Colourists, and

the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. The Colour Index classifies pigments by their chemical composition. This information will allow you to research a specific pigment's working characteristics in reference books if you wish. The individual pigments are identified in two ways.

Colour Index Generic Name - C.I. Name

Each pigment can be universally identified by its Colour Index Generic Name. As an example: Cobalt Blue is Pigment Blue 28, abbreviated to PB28. Although the working properties of Winsor & Newton colours are fully detailed in our literature, we publish the Colour Index Generic Names of the pigments to allow you to cross reference the working properties in other sources if you wish, e.g. lightfastness, opacity, toxicity, etc. The Colour Index Generic Name is particularly necessary to fully identify some of the modern pigments. The disclosure of a pigment as Naphthol Red is insufficient because there are over a dozen different types, differing widely in lightfastness and opacity.

Colour Index Number - C.I. No.

Pigments can also be identified by their Colour Index Number. It is considered an additional source of information to the Colour Index Generic Name. As an example: Cobalt Blue is 77346. Of the two methods of reference, The Colour Index Generic Name is most commonly used. Series The Series number of a colour indicates the relative price of the colour and is determined mainly by the cost of the pigment. Series 1 is the least expensive and Series 6 the most expensive. Where there is no series column, this indicates the price is uniform across the range. Permanence The permanence of an artists' colour is defined as its durability when laid with a brush on paper or canvas, graded appropriately and displayed under a glass frame in a dry room freely exposed to ordinary daylight and an ordinary town atmosphere'. This definition reflects the manner in which we expect to find paintings displayed. However, for testing purposes we are also able to utilise accelerated tests for lightfastness and binder stability, in addition to the information issued by our pigment suppliers. Winsor & Newton ratings are therefore a combination of the natural passage of time, accelerated tests and pigment manufacturers' testing and development and are the most stringent in the industry. AA A B C - Extremely Permanent - Permanent - Moderately Durable - Fugitive

For further information on some colours, the rating may include one or more of the following additions: (i) (ii) (iii) A' rated in full strength may fade in thin washes Cannot be relied upon to withstand damp Bleached by acids, acidic atmospheres

(iv) (v)

Fluctuating colour; fades in light, recovers in dark Should not be prepared in pale tints with Flake White, as these will fade (vi) A' rated with a coating of fixative

ASTM The ASTM abbreviation stands for the American Society for Testing & Materials. This organisation has set standards for the performance of art materials including a colour's lightfastness. To measure lightfastness using this system, colours are reduced to a level of 40% reflectance by the addition of Titanium White, (except for water colour which relies on the white paper). This means the amount of light reflected from the colour swatch. The swatches are then tested in both sunlight and artificially accelerated conditions. The results allow each colour to be rated on a scale from I - V depending on the medium. In this system I is the highest lightfastness available though both ratings I and II are considered permanent for artists' use. Where no ASTM rating is given for a Winsor & Newton colour, it is denoted as N/L meaning "Not Listed" this usually indicates that the pigment or the type of range has not yet been tested by the ASTM. It does not necessarily indicate a lack of lightfastness. In these cases it is recommended that the Winsor & Newton permanence rating, which is the rating system evaluating colour on many aspects including lightfastness, should be used to indicate a colour's ability to resist fading. T/O - Transparency/Opacity The transparent colours are marked T', semi-transparent ST'. The relatively opaque colours are marked O', semiopaque SO'. Transparency however is relative and the ratings are provided as a guide only. In addition, any thin film of colour will appear more transparent than a thicker one. G/St - Granulating/Staining In water colour, some colours show a tendency to granulate and are marked as G'. Many artists use granulation to add visual texture to their paintings. As a general statement the traditional pigments granulate, e.g. cobalts, earths, ultramarines. The modern organic pigments do not, e.g. Winsor colours. If you wish to avoid granulation in your painting, the use of distilled water can reduce it in very hard water areas. Those colours not marked G' will tend to give a more uniform wash. Again in water colour, the modern organic pigments, eg. the Winsor colours, are made of very fine particles which cause them to stain the paper. These colours cannot be lifted completely with a damp sponge and are marked St' in our literature. The traditional colours tend to lift from the paper more easily. Staining in water colour should not be confused with bleeding in Designers' Gouache. Bl - Bleeding In Designers' Gouache, some colours made from soluble dyes may bleed through superimposed colours. These colours are marked Bl' in the literature. Binder The type of binder used for the colour. The binder for pastels is not disclosed. Using the tables The information for each colour and even the colour name may vary from range to range. Refer to the range you use and look up the colour in that table.