Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

INTRODUCTION:

PTM or pulse time modulation is a modulation method in between the digital and analog, which can be used to process the digital and analog data transmission. Pulse width modulation and Pulse position modulation are the types of PTM. In PWM the amplitude of pulse width modulator is fixed, but the pulse width will be varied which is controlled by the input audio signal amplitude. If we control the time variation of electric level, then we can control the pulse width of the pulses. The width of the PWM signal is just proportional to the amplitude of input signal.

In the pulse position modulation, the amplitude and width of the pulse is

kept constant while the position of each pulse, in relation to the position of

a recruitment reference pulse id modulating wave as mentioned in connection with pulse width modulation.

Theory:

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation):

In many electronic systems, there is a need for pulse generators where the pulse width, frequency, and/or amplitude can be adjusted by varying (analog or digital) input signals, without changing any component values in the circuit. Laboratory pulse generator is an example of such application, where all output signal characteristics (frequency, pulse width, and amplitude) are user-adjustable.

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a digital modulation technique where the width of a pulse carrier is varied in accordance with the modulation voltage.

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. An example message signal, the PWM and the PAM signals for this message signal are given respectively in the following figure.

signal are given respectively in the following figure. PWM is a method for changing how long

PWM is a method for changing how long a rectangular pulse stays “on”. The “on-off” behavior changes the average power of the signal. If any PWM signal toggles between “on” and “off” quicker than any load which is driven by the PWM signal, then the load is not affected by the toggling. Duty cycle is the ratio of the duration of the event to the total period of a signal in terms of periodic signals.

PPM (Pulse Position Modulation): Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which

PPM (Pulse Position Modulation):

Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which some message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of possible time-shifts. This is repeated every few seconds. Pulse Position Modulation, sometimes known as pulse phase modulation is used for digital signal transition. It is used in fiber optics and IR (infrared) remote controls where there is a lack of interference, It is a technique that uses pulses of the same breath and height but is displaced in time from some base position according to the amplitude of the signal at the time of sampling.

Fig: Output Wave shape of PPM Apparatus Required: 1. LM555 Timer IC 2. DC voltage

Fig: Output Wave shape of PPM

Apparatus Required:

1. LM555 Timer IC

2. DC voltage supply (12 volts)

3. Audio signal generator

4. Capacitors

-100uF

, 3 pieces

-0.01uF

, 4 pieces

5. Resistors -300 ohm -10K ohm -1K ohm -2K ohm -5K ohm variable

6. Bread board

7.Oscilloscope for output observation.

Circuit Diagram:

Circuit Diagram: Fig: Circuit diagram of PTM (PWM and PPM)

Fig: Circuit diagram of PTM (PWM and PPM)

LM555 TIMER IC:

LM555 TIMER IC: Fig: Block Diagram of LM555 Timer IC Pin 1 (Ground): Connects to the

Fig: Block Diagram of LM555 Timer IC

Pin 1 (Ground):

Connects to the 0v power supply.

Pin 2 (Trigger):

Voltage below 1/3 Vcc to trigger the pulse

Pin 3 (Output):

Pulsating output

Pin 4 (Reset):

Active low; interrupts the timing interval at Output

Pin 5 (Control):

A voltage applied to this pin will vary the timing of the RC network (quite considerably).

Pin 6 (Threshold):

The pulse ends when the voltage is greater than Control

Pin 7 (Discharge):

Open collector output; to discharge the capacitor

Pin 8 (Supply):

Connects to the positive power supply (Vs). This can be any voltage between 4.5V and 15V DC, but is commonly 5V DC when working with digital ICs.

COST ANALYSIS:

Components

Price (tk)

LM555

100

Resistors

20

Capacitors

30

Total

150

OUTPUT WAVESHAPE:

I have got the output of the PTM circuit. The output wave shape of the pulse width modulation and the pulse position modulation of my circuit had some errors.

The output wave shape of the pulse width modulation and the pulse position modulation of my

Discussion:

In this project, i have designed an astable multivibrator. Here I could have

used a simple square wave from the function generator with frequency of 6.85 kHz as I use 1kHz sinusoidal data signal. Then I have used to monostable multivibrator for generating PWM and PPM signals. After completing my circuit I got the PWM wave shape in the oscilloscope output which was almost perfect as the required output. But I hadn't got the desired PPM output. I tried different things like changing the duty cycle of astable multivibrator, changing the frequency of input signal, changing some of the apparatuses but could not get the perfect PPM output. There were some errors in the circuit components or some circuit component may be damaged, as a result I couldn't get the output of PPM.

I tried hard to complete the project but I could only get the PWM output. But

I have learnt many things about the pulse time modulation and implementation of it.