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D57568

Edition 1.0

D53942GC10

September 2010

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Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications


Volume I Student Guide

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Authors
Bijoy Choudhury Gary Williams

Copyright 2009, 2010 Oracle. All rights reserved. Disclaimer This document contains proprietary information and is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws. You may copy and print this document solely for your own use in an Oracle training course. The document may not be modified or altered in any way. Except where your use constitutes "fair use" under copyright law, you may not use, share, download, upload, copy, print, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, post, transmit, or distribute this document in whole or in part without the express authorization of Oracle. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the document, please report them in writing to: Oracle University, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, California 94065 USA. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Restricted Rights Notice If this documentation is delivered to the United States Government or anyone using the documentation on behalf of the United States Government, the following notice is applicable: U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS The U.S. Governments rights to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose these training materials are restricted by the terms of the applicable Oracle license agreement and/or the applicable U.S. Government contract. Trademark Notice Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Technical Contributors and Reviewers


Ken Cooper Joe Greenwald Taj-ul Islam Pete Laseau Adam Leftik Mike Lehmann Jacobo Marcos Glenn Maslen Duncan Mills Lynn Munsinger Nagavalli Pataballa Holger Rasmussen Anand Sidgiddi Glenn Stokol Vasily Strelnikov Bonnie Vaughan

Editors
Aju Kumar Amitha Narayan

Graphic Designer
Priya Saxena

Publishers
Sujatha Nagendra Joseph Fernandez

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Contents

2 Fundamentals of Java EE Technology Objectives 2-2 Java Platform, Enterprise Edition 2-3 Java EE Platform 2-4 Distributed Multitiered Applications 2-5 Benefits of the Java EE Platform 2-6 Java EE Platform and APIs 2-8 Quiz 2-11 Java EE Components 2-12 Business-Tier Components 2-13 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 2-14 Enterprise JavaBeans Application Architecture 2-16 Types of Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 2-17 Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 Component Architecture 2-18 Java Persistence API (JPA) 2-19 Quiz 2-21 Web Services 2-22 Java EE Web Services Architecture 2-23
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1 Introduction Objectives 1-2 Course Objectives 1-3 Course Agenda 1-4 Fundamentals of Java EE Technology 1-9 Designing Java EE Applications 1-10 Developing a Web Application Using Servlets 1-11 Developing a Web Application Using JavaServer Pages 1-12 Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection 1-13 Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans 1-14 Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities 1-15 Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API 1-16 Developing the Business Logic with Web Services 1-17 Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces 1-18 Planning Navigation and Page Flow 1-19 Handling Application Events 1-20 Asynchronous Communication with Message-Driven Beans 1-21 Managing Transactions with Session and Message-Driven Beans 1-22 Securing Java EE Applications with JAAS 1-23 Packaging and Deploying Java EE Applications 1-24 Troubleshooting Java EE Applications 1-25 Summary 1-26

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3 Designing Java EE Applications Objectives 3-2 Realizing the Benefits of Java EE 3-3 Java EE Issues 3-4 Design Patterns 3-5 Java EE Design Patterns 3-6 Implementing a Session Facade Pattern 3-7 Defining the MVC Architecture 3-8 The Model 3-9 The View 3-10 The Controller 3-11 Designing a Java EE Application 3-12 Quiz 3-13 Struts: Overview 3-14 Struts Components 3-15 Struts Architecture 3-16 Struts Page Flow Design 3-17 JSF and Struts 3-19 Implementing the User Interface with JSF and Core Java EE Patterns 3-20 Selecting a Persistence Strategy 3-21
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Client-Tier Components 2-25 Java EE Web-Tier Components 2-26 Java EE Web Application Architecture 2-28 What Is a Servlet? 2-29 What Is a JavaServer Page? 2-30 What Is JavaServer Faces? 2-31 Web-Tier Components: Summary 2-32 Java EE Applications 2-33 Packaging Java EE Applications 2-34 Packaging Java EE Application Components 2-35 Security in Java EE Applications 2-36 Using Deployment Descriptors for Declarative Security 2-37 Quiz 2-38 Java EE Server 2-39 Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3 2-41 WebLogic Server Domain 2-42 WebLogic Server Servers 2-44 Administration Server 2-45 Managed Server 2-46 WebLogic Server Machines 2-47 JDeveloper and Java EE 2-48 Oracle JDeveloper 11g Environment 2-49 Oracle JDeveloper 11g Visual Design Tools 2-50 Summary 2-51 Practice: Overview 2-52

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Quiz 3-22 What Is a Data Source? 3-23 What Is a Connection Pool? 3-24 Benefits of Data Sources Plus Connection Pools 3-25 JDBC Data Source Architecture 3-26 Data Source Architecture: Connecting 3-27 Creating a Data Source in WebLogic Server 3-28 Summary 3-30 Practice: Overview 3-31 4 Developing a Web Application Using Servlets Objectives 4-2 Servlets: Overview 4-3 About Java Servlets 4-4 Principal Features of Servlets 4-5 Life Cycle of Servlets 4-6 HTTP Servlets 4-7 Inside an HTTP Servlet 4-8 doGet() Method 4-9 doPost() Method 4-10 HttpServletRequest Object 4-11 HttpServletResponse Object 4-12 HttpSession 4-13 Session Objects 4-14 Methods for Invoking Servlets 4-15 Quiz 4-16 Handling Input: The Form 4-17 Handling Input: The Servlet 4-18 Initialization and Destruction 4-19 Error Handling 4-20 Debugging a Servlet 4-21 JDeveloper Environment 4-22 Servlet Mapping 4-23 Servlet Mapping in JDeveloper 4-24 Invoking a Servlet 4-25 Specifying Java EE Web Module Settings 4-26 Summary 4-27 Practice: Overview 4-28

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5 Developing a Web Application Using JavaServer Pages Objectives 5-2 JavaServer Pages 5-3 Comparing Servlets and JSPs 5-4 Invoking JSPs 5-5 Date.jsp 5-6 Date Servlet 5-7 Automated JSP Features 5-8 JSP Life Cycle 5-9 Basic JSP Elements 5-10 Declarations 5-11 Expressions 5-13 Scriptlets 5-14 Implicit Objects 5-15 Example 5-17 Quiz 5-19 Directives 5-20 include: Example 5-21 page Directive 5-22 JSP and JavaBeans 5-24 Using JavaBeans with JSP 5-25 scope Attribute of <jsp:useBean> Tag 5-27 Accessing and Setting Bean Properties 5-28 JSP XML Document 5-30 Traditional Syntax Versus XML Syntax 5-31 JSP Segments 5-33 Quiz 5-34 What Is a Tag Library? 5-35 Tag Interfaces 5-36 Tag Handlers 5-37 Tag Library Descriptor 5-38 Implementing Simple Tags 5-39 JSP Expression Language 5-40 Expression Language Implicit Objects 5-41 JDeveloper and JSPs 5-42 Summary 5-43 Practice: Overview 5-44 6 Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection Objectives 6-2 Java Naming and Directory Interface 6-3 JNDI Structure 6-4 Naming Service 6-5 JNDI Tree 6-6 Contexts and Subcontexts 6-8 Referencing Java EE Resources with JNDI 6-9
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7 Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans Objectives 7-2 What Is a Session Bean? 7-3 Stateless Versus Stateful Session Beans 7-4 Dependency Injection in EJB 7-5 Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean 7-6 Elements of a Stateless Session Bean 7-7 Defining the Stateless Session Bean 7-8 Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces 7-9 Creating a Test Client for the SLSB 7-11 Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean 7-12 Passivation and Activation Concepts 7-14 Creating a Stateful Session Bean 7-15 Defining the Stateful Session Bean 7-16 Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces 7-17 Creating a Test Client for the SFSB 7-18 Calling a Stateless Bean from a Stateful Bean by Implementing DI Interceptor Methods and Classes 7-20 Interceptor Method 7-21 Interceptor Classes 7-22 Summary 7-23 Practice: Overview 7-24 8 Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities Objectives 8-2 What Are JPA Entities? 8-3 Domain Modeling with Entities 8-5 Managing Persistence of Entities 8-6 Declaring an Entity 8-7 Mapping Entities 8-8 Quiz 8-9
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Providing JNDI Properties 6-10 Referencing a Local Session EJB with JNDI 6-11 Referencing a Remote Session EJB with JNDI 6-12 JNDI State Replication 6-13 Quiz 6-14 What Are Annotations? 6-15 Dependency Injection 6-16 Types of Dependency Injection 6-18 Defining the @Resource Annotation 6-19 Using Java EE Resources with Dependency Injection 6-20 Working with Dependency Injection 6-21 Referencing EJBs with Dependency Injection 6-22 Summary 6-23 Practice: Overview 6-24

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9 Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API Objectives 9-2 What Is EntityManager? 9-3 Managing an Entity Life Cycle with EntityManager 9-5 Accessing an EntityManager Instance in an Application 9-7 Creating a Container-Managed EntityManager Instance 9-8 Creating an Application-Managed EntityManager Instance 9-9 Specifying Database Operations with the EntityManager API 9-10 Commonly Used Methods in the EntityManager Interface 9-11 Quiz 9-13 Inserting New Data 9-14 Deleting Data 9-15 Updating and Synchronizing the Entity with the Database 9-16 Updating Data 9-17 Finding an Entity by Primary Key 9-18 Quiz 9-19 What Is JPA Query API? 9-20 Retrieving Entities by Using the Query API 9-21 Writing a Basic JPQL Statement 9-22 Creating Named Queries 9-23 Writing Dynamic Queries 9-24 Summary 9-25 Practice: Overview 9-26 10 Developing the Business Logic with Web Services Objectives 10-2 Web Service 10-3 Web Service Standards 10-4 SOAP: XML Messaging for Web Services 10-5 Web Services Description Language (WSDL) 10-6 UDDI Registry 10-7
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Mapping Inheritance 8-10 Single-Table Strategy 8-12 Joined-Tables Strategy 8-14 Specifying Entity Identity 8-16 Generating Primary Key Values 8-17 Mapping Relationships Between Entities 8-19 Implementing One-to-One Relationships 8-21 Implementing Many-to-One Relationships 8-23 Implementing One-to-Many Relationships 8-25 Implementing Many-to-Many Relationships 8-26 Quiz 8-27 Managing Entities 8-28 Summary 8-29 Practice: Overview 8-30

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11 Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces Objectives 11-2 JSF: Overview 11-3 JSF: Benefits 11-4 Key Terms 11-5 JSF Architecture 11-6 JSF Components 11-8 JSF UI Components 11-9 JSF Component Architecture 11-10 Quiz 11-11 Tag Handlers and Component Trees 11-12 Tag Libraries 11-13 Configuration Files 11-14 JSF Renderers 11-15 Managed Beans 11-16 Expression Language 11-17 Life Cycle of a JSF Page 11-18 JSF Life Cycle: Initial Request 11-19 JSF Life Cycle: Postback 11-20 Quiz 11-22 Using JSF Tag Libraries 11-23 JSF Applications 11-24 JSF and JDeveloper 11g 11-25 JSF Navigation Diagram 11-26 Adding to JSF with ADF Faces 11-27 Using ADF Faces Layout Components 11-28
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Web Service Architecture 10-9 Quiz 10-11 Web Service Metadata for Java Platform (JSR-181) 10-12 Examining the JSR-181 Processor Model 10-13 Describing JSR-181 Annotations 10-14 Sample Annotated Java Web Service File 10-15 What Is JAX-WS? 10-16 Quiz 10-17 Web Service Development Approach 10-18 Bottom-Up Approach 10-19 Top-Down Approach 10-20 Developing a Web Service by Using the Top-Down Approach 10-21 Defining an XSD Schema 10-22 Creating the WSDL Document 10-23 Modifying the WSDL Document 10-25 Creating the Web Service by Using Oracle JDeveloper 11g 10-26 Implementing the Web Service Logic 10-27 Summary 10-28 Practice: Overview 10-29

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Creating Resizable Panes 11-29 Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Splitter Component 11-30 Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Accordion 11-31 Panel Accordion Overflow 11-32 Setting Panel Accordion Properties 11-33 Creating Titled Sections and Subsections 11-35 Grouping Related Components 11-36 Arranging Items Around a Central Area 11-37 Summary 11-39 Practice: Overview 11-40 12 Planning Navigation and Page Flow Objectives 12-2 Traditional Navigation 12-3 What Is JSF Navigation? 12-5 JSF Navigation: Example 12-6 JSF Navigation Rules 12-7 faces-config Console 12-8 JSF Navigation Modeler 12-9 JSF Navigation Diagram 12-10 Navigation Elements 12-11 Global Rules 12-13 Pattern-Based Rules 12-14 JSF: Example 12-15 JSF Navigation: Example 12-17 Using the JSF Configuration Editor 12-20 Managed Beans 12-21 Creating Managed Beans 12-23 Managed Bean: Example 12-24 Setting Managed Bean Scope 12-25 Relationships Between Managed Beans 12-26 Managed Properties 12-27 Managed Properties: Examples 12-28 Using the Managed Bean on the JSF Page 12-30 Summary 12-31 Practice: Overview 12-32 13 Handling Application Events Objectives 13-2 JSF Event Model 13-3 Types of Events 13-4 Action Events 13-5 Creating Action Events 13-6 Value Change Events 13-7 Creating Value Change Events 13-8 Event Listener Classes 13-9
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14 Asynchronous Communication with Message-Driven Beans Objectives 14-2 Messaging Systems 14-3 Message-Oriented Middleware 14-4 Java Message Service 14-5 JMS Application Architecture 14-6 Point-to-Point Queue 14-7 Publish-Subscribe Topics 14-8 Quiz 14-9 WebLogic Server JMS Features 14-10 JMS Architecture: Connecting 14-11 JMS Architecture: Sending Messages 14-12 Transacted Messaging 14-13 WebLogic Server JMS Server 14-14 Creating a JMS Server 14-15 Connection Factory 14-16 JMS Destination 14-17 Creating a Queue Destination 14-18 Message-Driven Beans 14-20 Life Cycle of a Message-Driven Bean 14-21 Creating a Message-Driven Bean 14-22 Creating a JMS/MDB Client 14-24 Summary 14-26 Practice: Overview 14-27 15 Managing Transactions with Session and Message-Driven Beans Objectives 15-2 What Is a Transaction? 15-3 Example of a Transaction 15-4 Types of Transactions 15-5 Transaction Management 15-7 Two-Phase Commit Protocol 15-8
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Handling Action Events 13-10 Handling Value Change Events 13-11 Event and Listener Execution Order 13-12 Validation in the JSF Life Cycle 13-13 Creating Custom Exception Handlers 13-15 Registering an Exception Handler 13-16 Changing Life Cycle Exception Reporting 13-17 JavaServer Faces Validators 13-18 Creating Backing Bean Validation in JDeveloper 13-19 Backing Bean Validator: Code Example 13-20 Input Validation 13-21 Summary 13-22 Practice: Overview 13-23

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16 Securing Java EE Applications with JAAS Objectives 16-2 Goals of Java EE Security Architecture 16-3 Overview of Java EE Security Architecture 16-4 Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) 16-5 Authorization of a Client 16-8 Quiz 16-9 Security Process Architecture 16-10 Security Services 16-11 Security Realms 16-12 Users and Groups 16-13 Configuring New Users in WebLogic Server 16-14 Adding Users to Groups 16-16 Logical Roles 16-17 Quiz 16-19 Configuring Security 16-20 Determining Protected Resources 16-21 Defining the Logical Roles 16-22 Defining and Using Logical Roles in Web Applications (web.xml) 16-23 Defining and Using Logical Roles in EJBs (ejb-jar.xml) 16-24
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Successful Two-Phase Commit 15-9 Unsuccessful Two-Phase Commit 15-10 Quiz 15-11 Java Transaction API (JTA) 15-12 EJB Transaction Model 15-13 Managing Transactions with EJBs 15-14 Types of Transaction Management 15-16 Container-Managed Transactions 15-17 Transaction Attribute: REQUIRED 15-18 Transaction Attribute: SUPPORTS 15-19 Transaction Attribute: MANDATORY 15-20 Transaction Attribute: NEVER 15-21 Transaction Attribute: REQUIRES_NEW 15-22 Transaction Attribute: NOT_SUPPORTED 15-23 Quiz 15-24 CMT: setRollbackOnly() 15-25 Container-Managed Transaction: Example 15-26 Java Transaction API (JTA) 15-27 JTA: UserTransaction Interface 15-29 Bean-Managed Transactions 15-30 Bean-Managed Transaction: Example 15-31 BMT Demarcation: Restrictions 15-32 Enlisting Database Resources 15-33 Summary 15-34 Practice: Overview 15-35

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Mapping Logical Roles to Users and Groups 16-25 Setup Authentication 16-26 Authentication Examples 16-27 Setting Access Control with JDeveloper 16-28 Creating Web Application Security Roles 16-29 Web Application Login Authentication 16-30 Web Application Authorization 16-31 EJB Security Roles 16-32 Security Annotation: Example 16-33 Summary 16-34 Practice: Overview 16-35 17 Packaging and Deploying Java EE Applications Objectives 17-2 Deploying Java EE Applications 17-3 Packaging Business-Tier Components 17-5 Packaging Web Applications 17-6 Web Application Structure 17-7 Configuring Web Applications 17-9 What Is web.xml? 17-10 What Is weblogic.xml? 17-11 Web Application Archive 17-12 Creating Web Application Archives 17-13 Quiz 17-14 EJB Application Directory Structure 17-15 Java EE Enterprise Application (EAR) 17-17 Creating EJB Archives 17-18 Creating Enterprise Archives 17-19 Deploying Entities 17-20 Persistence.xml File 17-21 Configuring Oracle WebLogic ServerSpecific Features 17-22 Deploying with the Oracle WebLogic Server Console 17-23 Deploying with Oracle JDeveloper 17-24 What Is Ant? 17-25 Ant Build Files 17-26 A Sample build.xml File 17-27 Creating a JAR File by Using Ant Task 17-28 Creating a WAR File by Using Ant Task 17-29 Creating an EAR File by Using Ant Task 17-30 Deploying an Application by Using Ant Task 17-31 Packaging Best Practices for Production Environments 17-32 Summary 17-33

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Appendix A: Practices and Solutions B Working with ADF Faces Components Objectives B-2 Using ADF Faces Layout Components B-3 Adding Spaces and Lines B-4 Stretching Components B-5 Enabling Automatic Component Stretching B-6 Stretching a Table Column B-7 Creating Resizable Panes B-8 Printing Layout Panel Content B-9 Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Splitter Component B-10 Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Accordion B-11 Panel Accordion Overflow B-13 Setting Panel Accordion Properties B-14 Arranging Items in Columns or Grids B-15 Creating Stacked Tabs B-17 Hiding and Displaying Groups of Content B-18 Arranging Items Horizontally or Vertically, with Scrollbars B-20 Displaying Table Menus, Toolbars, and Status Bars B-22 Creating Titled Sections and Subsections B-24 Grouping Semantically Related Components B-25 Displaying a Bulleted List B-26 Displaying Items in a Content Container Offset by Color B-27 Arranging Items Around a Central Area B-28 Using ADF Faces Skins B-30 Using Dynamic Page Layout B-31
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18 Troubleshooting Objectives 18-2 Troubleshooting Basics 18-3 Diagnosing the Problem 18-4 Requesting Help 18-5 Creating Test Cases 18-6 Java Logging 18-7 Configuring Java Logging 18-8 Sending Logger Output to a File 18-9 Turning on Diagnostics in JDeveloper 18-10 Sample Java Clients 18-11 Sample Client for Web Service 18-12 Tools and Utilities 18-13 Identifying Search Paths with FileMon 18-14 Testing Java Code with JUnit 18-15 Analyzing HTTP Requests 18-16 Debugging with JDeveloper 18-17 Summary 18-18

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Using Expression Language to Conditionally Display Components B-32 Characteristics of Partial Page Rendering (PPR) B-33 Enabling PPR Declaratively B-34 Native PPR Example B-36 Declarative PPR Example B-37 Enabling PPR Programmatically B-39 Conforming to PPR Guidelines B-40 Summary B-41 Index

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Introduction

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify the course objectives Discuss the course agenda Discuss the contents covered in the course
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Course Objectives
After completing this course, you should be able to: Describe the Java EE 5 standards and their APIs Design Java EE applications by using the Model-ViewController (MVC) architecture and Session Facade pattern Build the business tier by using the Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 (EJB) components, Java Persistence API (JPA) entities, and Web services Build the Web tier by using the JavaServer Faces (JSF) framework Implement asynchronous messaging by using MessageDriven Beans (MDB) Secure the Java EE application with Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS)
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Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 1 - 3

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Course Agenda
Topics for the first day Lesson 1: Introduction Lesson 2: Fundamentals of Java EE Technology Lesson 3: Designing Java EE Applications Lesson 4: Developing a Web Application Using Servlets

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Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 1 - 4

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Course Agenda
Topics for the second day Lesson 5: Developing a Web Application Using JavaServer Pages (JSP) Lesson 6: Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection Lesson 7: Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans

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Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 1 - 5

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Course Agenda
Topics for the third day Lesson 8: Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities Lesson 9: Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API Lesson 10: Developing the Business Logic with Web Services Lesson 11: Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces
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Course Agenda
Topics for the fourth day Lesson 12: Planning Navigation and Page Flow Lesson 13: Handling Application Events Lesson 14: Asynchronous Communication with MessageDriven Beans

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Course Agenda
Topics for the fifth day Lesson 15: Managing Transactions with Session and Message-Driven Beans Lesson 16: Securing Java EE Applications with JAAS Lesson 17: Packaging and Deploying Java EE Applications Lesson 18: Troubleshooting Java EE Applications

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Fundamentals of Java EE Technology


Describe the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) platform. Define the components of a Java EE application. Identify the deployment options for a Java EE application. List the security options available in Java EE applications.

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Fundamentals of Java EE Technology Java EE is the standard development platform for Web-based Java applications and it provides the foundation for the course. In this lesson, you learn what Java EE is and how it helps to build portable, robust, and scalable Java EE applications. After they are built, Java EE applications are deployed to a Java EE server, such as Oracle WebLogic Server.

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Designing Java EE Applications


Identify the Java EE design patterns and their purpose. Describe the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. Define the purpose and role of Struts. Define the purpose and role of JSF. Describe some important concepts and terminology used in Oracle WebLogic Server.

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Designing Java EE Applications This lesson deals with the design of Java EE applications. After working for several years with the object-oriented (OO) programming concepts, developers found that the best applications follow similar patterns. The Java EE architectural design pattern for the interactive enterprise application is known as Model-View-Controller (MVC). The MVC pattern is ideally suited for the kind of application that combines distributed application logic with a complex user interface. This lesson introduces the MVC design pattern, and describes how it can help you design Java EE applications that are easier to reuse and maintain. You will also learn about the fundamental concepts and terminology used in Oracle WebLogic Server, which is being used as the Java EE applications deployment and execution platform in this course.

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Developing a Web Application Using Servlets


Define the role of servlets in a Java EE application. Describe the servlet life cycle. Describe the request and response architecture. Implement the HTTP servlet methods. List the Java EE servlet mapping techniques. Handle errors in a servlet. Create and run a servlet in JDeveloper.

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Developing a Web-Application Using Servlets Servlets are the foundation of all the other Web technologies. They provide the core API used to run JSP. A servlet is a platform-independent, server-side Java component used to extend the capabilities of a Web server. Using servlets, you dynamically customize content, function, and the look-and-feel of your Web pages. This lesson examines the servlet technology architecture, and shows you how to create a servlet in JDeveloper. You also see how to deploy a servlet in the WebLogic Java EE server.

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Developing a Web Application Using JavaServer Pages


Describe the relationship between JSP and servlets. List the implicit objects on JSP pages. Describe the semantics of JSP tags. Create a JSP segment. Explain the use of JSP tag files. Describe custom tags and expression language. Run and debug a JSP-based application.

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Developing a Web-Application Using JavaServer Pages The JSP specification is closely related to the servlet specification. It enables you to create Web applications in a more productive manner. This lesson provides a detailed treatment of JSPs and their roles in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. JDeveloper provides a complete environment for the creation, editing, and debugging of JSP pages. You learn how to use these features in JDeveloper to simplify the development of JSP pages.

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Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection


Describe the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) Locate or look up resources and EJBs by using:
JNDI APIs Dependency injection
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Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a Java API for directory service that allows Java clients to discover and look up data and objects by using a name. This lesson describes the JNDI and its implementation in Oracle WebLogic Server. You learn how to reference resources (such as a data source or an EJB) in Java EE applications by using JNDI. This lesson also provides an introduction to injecting resources by using dependency injection (DI). DI enables one component to call another component or resources through interfaces. The components are glued together by using configuration, instead of code.

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Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans


Describe session beans. Create stateless and stateful session beans by using annotations. Describe the passivation and activation of stateful session beans. Use interceptor methods and classes.

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Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans A session bean implements one or more business processes. For example, it can retrieve and update inventory data in a database. This lesson explains the types of session beans and their life cycles. You use Oracle JDeveloper 11g to develop a session bean as a facade for the persistence layer of an application.

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Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities


Create a JPA entity. Select a primary key field. Perform O-R mapping by using annotations. Map inheritance between entities. Map relationships between entities.

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Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities The new Java Persistence API (JPA), which simplifies the entity persistence model and adds capabilities that were not available in EJB 2.1 technology, is a major enhancement in EJB technology. The Java Persistence API in EJB 3.0 offers developers an entity programming model that is both easier to use, and yet richer. In this lesson, you examine the role of the JPA entity in providing the persistence layer for the model. An entity is a regular JavaBeans component (also known as a POJO, or Plain Old Java Object) with properties that map to columns in the database table. In this lesson, you learn how to use the JPA entity (or simply entity) to map to database tables. You use JDeveloper to build and test an entity.

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Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API


Declare an EntityManager reference. Look up an EntityManager reference by using dependency injection. Use the EntityManager API to:
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Find an entity by its primary key Insert a new entity Modify an existing entity Delete an entity

Execute dynamic queries with the Query API. Write simple JPQL queries.

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Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API This lesson deals with a set of APIs and interfaces that you use to insert, update, delete, and modify entities. EntityManager is an API that manages the life cycle of the entity instances. You also learn about the JPA Query API that enables you to use either Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) or SQL to create and execute queries on the entity instances.

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Developing the Business Logic with Web Services


Describe Web service technologies. Identify the role of SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI in Web services. Decide on the Web service development approach. Develop Web services by using the top-down approach with JDeveloper.

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Developing the Business Logic with Web Services A Web service is a technology (based on a set of standards) that provides a solution for application-to-application communication and enterprise application integration. This lesson provides an overview of Web services, and covers some of the de facto standards such as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web Services Description Language (WSDL), and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI). You also learn about the different approaches of the Web services development, and use Oracle JDeveloper 11g as the development tool.

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Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces


Describe the purpose of JSF. Use JSF components. Explain the use of managed beans. Describe the life cycle of a JSF application. Explain the role of the JSF tag libraries. Describe how JDeveloper supports JSF. Create a JSF-based JSP in JDeveloper.

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Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces In this lesson, you learn about JSF, which is JSP that contains special user interface (UI) components. Like JSPs, JSF supports the MVC framework and is, therefore, a valuable technology for building the view component of Java EE applications. You learn that JDeveloper provides a feature-rich development environment for building JSF pages quickly and easily.

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Planning Navigation and Page Flow


Use a JSF Navigation diagram to plan the pages of an application and the navigation between them. Describe JSF Navigation. Describe the types of JSF Navigation cases. Create a backing bean for a JSF page.

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Planning Navigation and Page Flow In this lesson, you learn how to use JSF to control navigational and data flow within an application. The JSF Navigation diagram provides a way to visually design navigation and flow, handle interactions with business services, and determine which page to display. Additionally, JSF components are mapped to managed beans, which control user actions on the components themselves.

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Handling Application Events


Define the types of JSF events. Create event listeners for a JSF application. Describe how the JSF life cycle handles validation. List the types of validation provided by JSF.
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Handling Application Events In any application, it is important to initiate actions based on specific events. JSF allows events to be specified for user interface (UI) components. A JSF application can listen for events such as user input, and then use built-in validator and data converter classes to manipulate data. In this lesson, you learn how to use built-in validator and converter classes, as well as how to create custom classes for handling UI events.

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Asynchronous Communication with Message-Driven Beans


Identify the features of a messaging system. Describe the Java Message Service (JMS) architecture. Configure a Java Message Service. Create a Message-Driven Bean (MDB). Create a JMS/MDB client.

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Asynchronous Communication with Message-Driven Beans All applications contain components that need to communicate between each other. Application messaging can either be direct (synchronous) or indirect (asynchronous). Message-Driven Beans process indirect messages between processes. Other uses of messaging include system integration and distributed system communication. In this lesson, you learn about the Java Message Service and message beans, and how they facilitate communication between the components in an application.

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Managing Transactions with Session and Message-Driven Beans


Choose the appropriate type of transaction management. Set the transaction attribute for container-managed transactions. Create transaction demarcations.
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Managing Transactions with Session and Message-Driven Beans This lesson covers the application transaction management by using Enterprise JavaBeans. You will learn the fundamental concepts of implementing a transaction, different types of transactions, transaction management by using transaction manager and resource manager, the EJB transaction model, and the implementation of Container-Managed Transaction and BeanManaged Transaction.

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Securing Java EE Applications with JAAS


Explain the Java EE application security design. Describe the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS). Implement JAAS security for Web applications and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB).
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Securing Java EE Applications with JAAS Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) is a framework that provides a Java API package to enable applications to authenticate and enforce security. This lesson deals with securing Java EE application by implementing JAAS.

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Packaging and Deploying Java EE Applications


Deploy Java EE applications to the WebLogic server environment. Deploy applications by using:
Console Command-line JDeveloper

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Packaging and Deploying Java EE Applications Java EE enables enterprises to separate the role of an application developer and an application deployer. However, in many cases, developers are responsible for deploying the applications they create to a Java EE server. This lesson provides detailed steps for deploying applications to Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3. You learn about the different Java EE deployment descriptors (such as web.xml and ejb-jar.xml), and also WebLogic specific deployment descriptors (such as weblogic-web.xml).

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Troubleshooting Java EE Applications


Use JDeveloper and tools for logging and diagnostics. Test a business service in isolation from views or controllers. Make use of FileMon, JUnit, and HTTP Analyzer.
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Troubleshooting Java EE Applications As much as you like to think of your first-cut application as flawless, there are times when you need to fix problems. In this lesson, you learn how to identify problems in Java EE applications and to create simple test harnesses to reproduce the error. You learn about the various tools that are available to help you troubleshoot.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned to: Identify the course objectives Discuss the course agenda Discuss the contents covered in the course
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Fundamentals of Java EE Technology

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) platform Define the components of a Java EE application Identify the deployment options for a Java EE application List the security options available in Java EE applications

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Objectives Java EE is the standard development platform for Web-based Java applications and it provides the underlying structure for the course. In this lesson, you learn what Java EE is and how it helps in building portable, robust, scalable Java EE applications. After they are built, Java EE applications are deployed to a Java EE server, such as Oracle WebLogic Server.

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Java Platform, Enterprise Edition


Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a standard for developing and implementing enterprisewide applications: It provides support for multitier applications. It is designed to help improve the process of developing, deploying, and implementing enterprisewide applications.
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Java Platform, Enterprise Edition Java Platform, Enterprise Edition is the industry standard for developing portable, robust, scalable, and secure Java applications. It was first proposed by Sun Microsystems and has been included in the Java Community Process to make it a part of the open systems movement. Building on the solid foundation of Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE), Java EE provides Web services, component model, management, and communications APIs that make it the industry standard for implementing enterprise class Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web 2.0 applications.

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Java EE Platform
Multitiered, distributed application model Supports component-based Java EE applications Distributes the application logic to the appropriate tier on the multitiered architecture
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Java EE Platform Java EE defines a platform for developing, deploying, and executing applications in a multitiered, distributed application model. That is, the application logic of a Java EE application can be divided into components based on their functions and distributed to the appropriate tier on the multitiered architecture. Client-tier components, such as a Web browser, run on the client machine. Presentation logic is built with Web-tier components, such as JavaServer Faces (JSF) and Java servlets that run on the Java EE server. Server-side business logic is distributed as business-tier components that run on the Java EE server. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) and Application Development Framework Business Components (ADF BC) are examples of business-tier components. Data is stored in the Enterprise Information System (EIS) tier that runs on the database server, such as Oracle Database 11g. The Java EE application components are developed in the Java programming language. When the Java EE platform is used, the Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, verified according to the Java EE specification, and deployed to the Java EE server. The deployed applications are run and managed by the Java EE server.

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Distributed Multitiered Applications

Client tier Application Clients Web Clients

Enterprise Beans

Web Services

Business tier

Entities

Persistence tier

EIS tier

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Distributed Multitiered Applications Although a Java EE application can consist of three or four tiers, Java EE applications are generally considered to be three-tiered applications because they are distributed over three locations: client machines, the Java EE server machine, and the database or legacy machines at the back end. Three-tiered applications that run in this way extend the standard two-tiered client and server model, by placing a multithreaded application server between the client application and back-end storage.

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Servlets

JSP/JSF

Pages

Web tier

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Benefits of the Java EE Platform


Write once, run anywhere provides simplified component development. Multiple server products and vendors support the Java EE standard, thus giving more deployment choices. Integration with legacy systems through standard APIs is possible. It provides multiple development and design scenarios. It allows multiple clients to share server business logic.

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Benefits of the Java EE Platform Java EE takes advantage of many features of Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE), such as the write once, run anywhere portability. This portability is ensured because there are multiple vendors who support the Java EE specification, making it easy to integrate distributed applications. Java EE allows for clean separation of business and presentation logic, making applications easier to maintain. There are several design choices for Java EE development, including varied client access. This is discussed later in the course. The vendors who provide the Java EE platform are called Java EE Product Providers. A vendor or person who creates Web components, enterprise beans, or application clients for use in Java EE applications is called an Application Component Provider. A Tool Provider is a vendor who creates development, assembly, and packaging tools that are used by the component providers. These names are assigned along with various other Java EE roles that are discussed in the following slide.

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Benefits of the Java EE Platform


Java EE separates development tasks into specific skill areas: Web component developers create JSF components. Enterprise bean developers and business experts create business logic and rules. Application assembler and application deployer teams handle assembly and deployment.

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Benefits of the Java EE Platform (continued) The Java EE platform allows for developer specialization by component type and functionality. For example, an EJB developer can create business logic, focusing on the business rules of the enterprise. These EJBs are used by Web component developers, who focus on the presentation of data and the user interface. These components are assembled by an Application Assembler, who is responsible for the deployment and administration of the application. An Application Deployer is the company or person who configures and deploys the Java EE application. An Application Administrator is a person who administers the computing and networking infrastructure where the Java EE applications run.

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Java EE Platform and APIs


RMI/IIOP

Web client Browser Applet container Applet Application client container Application client Java SE
HTTP/ HTTPS

Web container JSP Servlet JAXR JMX

EJB container EJB JTA JMS

JAX-RPC SAAJ

Web Services

JAX-WS Java SE

JPA

JAXB

JDBC driver

JDBC driver

Database

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Java EE Platform and APIs The Java EE server provides services to handle transaction and state management, multithreading, resource pooling, and other complex low-level details. The services are provided through implementation of packages defined by Java EE. They are called Java optional packages (previously known as standard extensions relative to Java Platform, Standard Edition [Java SE]). The Java EE 5 required API packages are the following: Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 3.0: Provides support for Enterprise JavaBeans Servlet 2.4: Defines the packaging and deployment of Web applications, whether stand-alone or as part of a Java EE application JavaServer Pages (JSP) 2.1: Depends and builds on the Servlet 2.4 specification to support declarative, tag-based Web development Java Message Service (JMS) 1.1: Provides support for both JMS point-to-point and publish/subscribe messaging services Java Transaction API (JTA) 1.0: Defines the interfaces used by applications and Enterprise JavaBeans to start, and commit or abort transactions. It provides interaction with a Transaction Manager for local and distributed transactions. JavaMail 1.4: Allows access to email messages in message stores and the creation and sending of email messages using message transport. JavaMail uses JAF to identify MIME types.
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JACC

JCA

JAF

Java Mail

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Java EE Platform and APIs (continued) JavaBeans Activation Framework (JAF) 1.1: Provides support for MIME data types into the Java platform. For example, if a browser obtains a JPEG image, this framework enables the browser to identify that stream of data as a JPEG image. Java API for XML Processing (JAXP) 1.2: Provides industry-standard SAX 2 and DOM 2 APIs, and a pluggable API enabling the use of different SAX and DOM parsers and XSLT transform engines in the framework Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) 1.5: Provides a Java technology solution to the problem of connectivity between the many application servers and todays enterprise information systems (EIS). JCA is particularly important for integrating legacy and non-Java EE systems and data repositories with Java EE applications. Web Services for Java EE: Defines the capabilities that a Java EE application server must support for deployment of Web service endpoints Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC) 1.1: Defines client APIs for accessing Web services and techniques for implementing Web service endpoints SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ) 1.3: Allows manipulation of SOAP messages. SAAJ is used by JAX-RPC to represent XML fragments and to access a SOAP message in a JAX-RPC message handler. Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) 1.0: Defines an API for client access to XML-based registries, such as ebXML and UDDI registries Java EE Management 1.0: Provides an API for management tools to query a Java EE compatible server about its status, the applications deployed, and other Java EE server features Java Management Extensions (JMX) 1.2: Provides tools for building distributed, Web-based, dynamic solutions for managing and monitoring devices, applications, and service-driven networks Java EE Deployment API 1.1: Enables deployment of Java EE components and applications, and the development of platform-independent deployment tools Java Authorization Service Provide Contract for Containers (JACC) 1.0: Defines a contract between a Java EE server and an authorization policy provider Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) 2.0: Provides a convenient way to process XML content using Java objects by binding its XML schema to Java representation Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) 2.0: Provides support for Web services that use the JAXB API for binding XML data to Java objects Java Persistence API (JPA): Is a Java standardsbased solution for persistence. Persistence uses an object-relational mapping approach to bridge the gap between an object-oriented model and a relational database. Java EE containers also provide applications with the Java Platform, Standard Edition 1.5 APIs, which include the following Java-compatible APIs (optional packages) as required for the Java EE 5 specification: Java Interface Definition Language (IDL): Allows applications to access any CORBA object, written in any language, using the Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) standard Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 3.0: Enables you to access any tabular data source such as database, spreadsheets, or flat files

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Java EE Platform and APIs (continued) Remote Method Invocation- Internet InterORB Protocol (RMI-IIOP): Enables creation of distributed Javabased applications, allowing methods of remote Java objects to be invoked from other JVMs optionally on different hosts Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI): Provides naming and directory functionality to Java applications Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS): Enables services to authenticate and enforce access controls upon users. It implements a Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework and supports user-based authorization. Additional requirements include support for logging, networking, and preferences APIs.

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Quiz
The Java EE platform provides a single development and design scenario to develop applications. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 2

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Java EE Components
Java EE applications are made up of components. A component:
Is an application-level software unit Can be easily updated as business needs change Is reusable

There are several types of components:


Client-side components Web components Business-tier components

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Java EE Components A Java EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a Java EE application with its related classes and files and that communicates with other components. There are several types of Java EE components. The Java EE specification defines the following Java EE components: Application clients and applets are components that run on the client. Java Servlet, JSF, and JSP technology components are Web components that run on the server. Enterprise JavaBeans components (enterprise beans) are business components that run on the server. Java EE components are written in the Java programming language and are compiled in the same way as any program in the language. The difference between Java EE components and standard Java classes is that Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, verified to be well formed and in compliance with the Java EE specification, and are deployed to production, where they are run and managed by the Java EE server. This course focuses on the most widely used components, those of the Web and the business tier. These components are reusablethat is, they are available to other components and applications. For example, the business rules that are included in a software component called Process Order can be used by multiple applications that allow customers to order the products or services of a company.
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Business-Tier Components
Business-tier components: Are implemented by remote components, such as Web services and EJBs Handle business logic Receive data from client programs Encapsulate business data and rules Process the data and communicate with the database and the client program Can be invoked by the Web-tier components

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Business-Tier Components EJBs and Web services are the components that run in the business tier. These distributed components contain business logic that meets the needs of a particular business domain, such as banking, order entry, or human resources management. The business-tier components can receive data from client programs, process the data, and send the processed data to the database server for storage. The business-tier components can also retrieve data from the database, process it, and send it back to the client program. The Web-tier components may invoke the business-tier components where the business logic is handled. For example, a servlet may invoke an enterprise bean to insert new customer details and return any processed data back to the client.

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Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)


Enterprise JavaBeans: Is the server-side component written in Java Contains the business logic of an enterprise application Is hosted in EJB containers Is platform independent Provides remote services for clients Uses JDBC/JPA to connect to a database

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Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is an architecture for developing transactional applications as distributed components in Java. EJB is a powerful development methodology for distributed application development. When applications are developed with enterprise beans, neither the bean developer nor the client application programmer need to be concerned with details such as transaction support, security, remote object access, and many other complicated and error-prone issues. These are provided transparently for the developer by the EJB container. EJBs offer portability. A bean that is developed on one EJB container runs on other EJB containers that meet the EJB specification. Oracle WebLogic Server implements the EJB specification by providing a server and a container that hosts Enterprise JavaBeans. EJB specifies Remote Method Invocation (RMI) as the transport protocol. RMI is used as a communication protocol between EJBs executing in different JVMs. They make calls to their respective remote interfaces. In case of EJBs executing in a single Java Virtual Machine (JVM), they make calls by using their local interfaces. EJBs access the EIS-tier database through JDBC. EJBs are accessed using Javas RMI framework, which can be implemented with different network protocols. Additionally, a stateless session EJB can be exposed as a Web service. Web services are the standard for building interoperable distributed applications that are platform and programminglanguage independent.
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Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) (continued) The Java EE 5 platform delivers EJB 3.0, which is an enhanced version of EJB technology. The new features of EJB 3.0 include Plain Old Java Object (POJO) programming, annotations instead of verbose XML, heavy use of sensible defaults, and the Java Persistence API (JPA).

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Enterprise JavaBeans Application Architecture

Based on RMI EJB client Based on HTTP/SOAP

Java EE server
Web container EJB container JDBC Driver

WSDL

Enterprise JavaBean

Database

Web client Exposed as Web service

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Enterprise JavaBeans Application Architecture EJB is an architecture for developing transactional applications as distributed components in Java. EJBs are server-side reusable Java components that: Are hosted in EJB containers Can be exposed as Web services (WSDL) Can use JDBC to connect to a database Are accessed using Javas Remote Method Invocation (RMI) framework, which can be implemented with different network protocols such as RMI/Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) protocol

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Types of Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0


Entity
Used to model the persistence part of an application

Session Bean
Invoked by a client to perform a specific business operation Triggered by messages sent to a messaging server, which enables sending asynchronous messages between system components
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Message-driven bean

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Types of Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 Each bean type serves a specific purpose and can use a subset of EJB services. The real purpose of bean types is to safeguard against overloading them with services that cross wires. Bean classification also helps you understand and organize an application in a sensible way. For example, bean types help you develop applications based on a layered architecture. Entities: They are used to model the persistence part of an application. They are managed by a persistence provider. A persistence provider is pluggable within the container and is abstracted behind the Java Persistence API. Session beans: They are invoked by a client to perform a specific business operation, such as checking the credit history of a customer. As the name session implies, the bean instance is available for the duration of a Unit of Work, and does not survive a server crash or shutdown. A Session Bean can model any application logic functionality. Message-driven beans: They also process business logic. However, message-driven beans are different in an important way. Clients do not invoke message-driven bean methods directly. Instead message-driven beans are triggered by messages sent to a messaging server, which enables sending asynchronous messages between system components. Some typical examples of messaging servers include IBM WebSphere MQ, SonicMQ, Oracle Advanced Queuing, Tibco, and so on. Message-driven beans are typically used for robust system integration or asynchronous processing.
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Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 Component Architecture


Managed by the EJB container

EJB container

Managed by the EntityManager or persistence provider

Session bean
JPA Persistence Provider

Client

Entity Database JMS queue/topic Message-driven bean


Managed by the EJB container

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Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 Component Architecture The diagram shows the following three generic types of Enterprise JavaBeans: Session beans: Execute business logic in the server and can be one of two types: - A stateless bean that does not maintain state information across method calls - A stateful bean that maintains state information across method calls Entities: Provide business rules for data retrieved from and persisted to a data store, such as a database. The entities are managed by a persistence provider through the EntityManager API. The persistence provider is pluggable within the EJB 3.0 container and is abstracted behind the JPA. Note: The Java Persistence API is completely separable from the EJB container. It means that JPA can be implemented both inside a Java EE 5 application server, and outside an EJB container in a Java Platform, Standard Edition 5 application. Message-driven beans: Process messages obtained from a JMS resource called a destination. A JMS destination can be: - A queue, when using a point-to-point communication model - A topic, when using a publish/subscribe communication model Note: The diagram shows the topic/queue resource inside the Java EE container. However, the message-transport layer could involve external sources, such as Oracle Advanced Queuing (AQ) in an Oracle database or other message services.
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Java Persistence API (JPA)


The Java Persistence API (JPA) deals with: The way relational data is mapped to Java objects (persistent entities) The way these objects are stored in a relational database so that they can be accessed at a later time The continued existence of an entitys state even after the application that uses it, expires

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Java Persistence API (JPA) The new Java Persistence API, which simplifies the entity persistence model and adds capabilities that were not in EJB 2.1 technology, is a major enhancement in EJB technology. JPA offers developers an entity programming model that is both easier to use, and yet richer. For students who are familiar with EJB 2.x, here is a list of the simplifications and additions provided by JPA: Requires fewer classes and interfaces Virtually eliminates lengthy deployment descriptors through annotations Addresses most typical specifications through annotation defaults Provides cleaner, easier, standardized object-relational mapping Eliminates the need for lookup code Adds support for inheritance, polymorphism, and polymorphic queries Adds support for named (static) and dynamic queries Provides a Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL)an enhanced EJB QL Makes it easier to test entities outside the EJB container Can be used outside the container Can be used with pluggable, third-party persistence providers

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Java Persistence API (JPA)


JPA defines a standard for: The ORM configuration metadata The EntityManager API The JPQL
Application makes a database call to save the data stored in Java objects to a database table. JPA persists the Java objects to the database by implementing ORM.

Java EE application

JPA

Database

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Java Persistence API (JPA) (continued) The Java Persistence API greatly simplifies Java persistence and provides an object-relational mapping (ORM) approach that enables you to declaratively define how to map Java objects to relational database tables in a standard, portable way. The JPA also defines: Standards for creating the ORM configuration metadata for mapping entities to relational tables The EntityManager API for performing create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) and persistence operations for entities Note: Entities are persistence objects that model persistent data stored in a relational database. The JPQL for searching and retrieving persisted application data Note: JPA can be implemented both inside and outside the Java EE environment.

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Quiz
Enterprise Java Beans can be categorized into: 1. Stateless Session Bean 2. Entity 3. Stateful Java Bean 4. Message-Driven Bean

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Answers: 1, 2, 3

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Web Services
Web services use open XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. The Java EE platform provides the XML APIs and tools needed to design, develop, test, and deploy Web services and clients that fully interoperate with other Web services and clients running on Java-based or non-Java-based platforms.

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Web Services To write Web services and clients with the Java EE XML APIs, you pass parameter data to the method calls and process the data returned; or for document-oriented Web services, you send documents containing the service data back and forth. No low-level programming is needed because the XML API implementations do the work of translating the application data to and from an XML-based data stream that is sent over the standardized XML-based transport protocols. The translation of data to a standardized XML-based data stream is what makes Web services and clients written with the Java EE XML APIs fully interoperable. This does not necessarily mean that the data being transported includes XML tags because the transported data can itself be plain text, XML data, or any kind of binary data such as audio, video, maps, program files, computer-aided design (CAD) documents, and so on.

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Java EE Web Services Architecture


Client application (Online shopping) XML interface (WSDL)

2
Find a credit card validation service. Web services directory (UDDI)

Invoke the validate operation of the credit card.

XML interface (WSDL) Web service (Validate credit card)

1
Publish

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Java EE Web Services Architecture The Web services architecture allows for loose integration of applications through the exchange of SOAP messages. Information about Web services is published using the Web Service Description Language (WSDL) in Web-service directories via Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI). The illustration in the slide shows the following: 1. A Validate credit card Web service is generated and published to the UDDI registry. 2. An Online shopping application (a Web service client) browses the UDDI registry to locate the Validate credit card Web service. Here, the Online shopping application obtains the WSDL definition that describes the Web service. 3. The Online shopping application can invoke any operation exposed by the Validate credit card Web service. Operations in a Web service refer to methods that are exposed as Web services. Java classes, stateless session EJBs, Java Message Service (JMS) queue/topics, and PL/SQL procedures can be exposed as Web services. The WSDL contains information about the Web service, such as the name of the Web service operation, how many parameters it takes and their types, and the Web service location. The Web services are registered with the UDDI registry for lookup by client applications. The client can invoke the Web service with an instance of a proxy class similar to invoking a method on the local machine.
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Java EE Web Services Architecture (continued) Note: The Web Services Directory (UDDI) is an optional component in the Web services architecture. A client application can directly access a Web service without browsing the Web services directory if the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) of the Web service is known to the client application.

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Client-Tier Components
A Web browser:
Is used for a Web-based Java EE application Presents static or dynamic Web pages from Web-tier components

An application client:
Is used for a non-browser-based Java EE application Executes on the client machine Can contain a graphical or command-line interface Accesses middle-tier services Requires installation on the client machine
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Client-Tier Components Web Browser Client For a Web-based Java EE application, the users Web browser is the client component. The Web browser downloads static or dynamic Web pages from the Web tier to a client machine. Dynamic Web pages are generated by servlets, JSP, or JSF technologies from the Web tier. JSPs or JSFs do not require Java plug-ins or security policy files to be downloaded to the client machine. A downloaded Web page can contain an embedded applet that executes in the JVM in the Web browser. An applet may require a Java plug-in and a security file to successfully execute in the users Web browser. Web-based clients do not perform operations such as executing complex business rules, connecting to the database, and querying the database. These operations are generally performed by business-tier components. Application Client An application client executes on a client machine for a non-browser-based Java EE application. It can contain a graphical user interface (GUI) created from Swing or Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) APIs, or a command-line interface. Application clients can directly access business-tier components. They can also access a servlet that is running in the Web tier through an HTTP connection.
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Java EE Web-Tier Components


A Web tier may consist of:
Java servlets JSPs JSFs

Servlets and JSPs:


Work on a request-response model Generate HTML dynamically Access the business-tier components Handle user-centric events, such as an HREF link or form submission Usually generate visual interfaces, such as a Web page
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Java EE Web-Tier Components Java EE Web-tier components can be either servlets or JSPs that can statically and dynamically generate HTML, Wireless Markup Language (WML), or Extensible Markup Language (XML) pages. Java servlets provide a simple, yet powerful API for generating Web pages by dynamically processing the client requests and constructing responses. JSPs simplify the process of dynamically generating the content by allowing Java as the scripting language inside HTML pages. JSPs are translated and compiled into Java servlets, which are then run in a Web server like any other servlet. Web components can access the business-tier components that access the database by using JDBC. Web components can handle requests from the client, such as form submission. Following are some advantages of using Web components: The HTML interface that is generated by a Web component is lightweight when compared to applets that require heavyweight downloads to the clients at run time. The HTML interface does not require prior installation on the client machines, whereas the conventional clients require redeployment of the applications on the client machines. The HTTP protocol, over which the clients request for Web pages is served, can pass through most firewalls.

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Java EE Web-Tier Components (continued) A combination of Web components and EJBs, thus provides: Presentation logic for generating Web pages through Web components Transactional business logic through EJBs

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Java EE Web Application Architecture

HTTP

Client tier Browser applet application

Web tier JSF JSP Servlet

Business tier
EJBs / Web services / POJOs

Java EE application server

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Java EE Web Application Architecture There are three primary Java EE Web-tier technologies: Servlets: A servlet is a server-side Java component that runs in an application servers Web container. It responds to HTTP requests and is used to handle presentation logic such as form validation or data formatting. JSP: JSPs are an extension to servlets that allow Java code to be embedded in an HTML page. JSPs are then compiled into servlets for run-time execution. JSPs can be extended through the use of custom JSP tags to create reusable JSP tag libraries. JSF: JSF is a Web application framework for simplified development of user interfaces through the use of standard GUI components and are currently implemented as sets of JSP custom tag libraries. JSF defines APIs, which can be easily extended to include more robust, rich-client style components. Oracle ADF Faces is one such extension to JSF that provides many enhanced user interface components for JSF application development, including multiple renderers per client type, advanced tables, and color and date pickers, along with a host of general components such as menus, command buttons, shuttle choosers, and progress meters.

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What Is a Servlet?

Browser

Servlet

Client info (host name, form data)

Request

Process results (access database). Format results and produce HTML. Send the page back to client.

Success or failure

Response
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What Is a Servlet? A servlet is a Java program that runs on a Java EE server and produces dynamic pages typically in response to client requests. The pages are then sent back to the clients Web browser. The output format for servlets usually is HTML, but any other output format, including XML, can be used. Before returning HTML pages, a servlet can perform any operation that a Java application can perform. For example, in a business environment, servlets access the business objects, so that you can send custom HTML pages and forms with embedded data to your end users. Because servlets contain Java code, they are best suited for programs that perform more processing than presentation. Presentation is best left to JSPs, which are discussed in the following slide.

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What Is a JavaServer Page?


A JSP: Is a text-based document that includes:
HTML JSP tags Java code (including calls to JavaBeans and servlets)

Cleanly separates content creation from presentation logic Focuses on rapid development and easy modification of the user interface Focuses on presentation

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What Is a JavaServer Page? JSPs are servlets that are written differently. The JSP technology separates the user interface from dynamic content generation, so that designers can easily change the overall page layout without altering the dynamic content. The JSP technology supports a reusable component-based design, making it easy and fast to build Web-based applications. A key feature of the JSP technology is simplified page generation, HTML-like tags, and scriptlets written in the Java programming language that encapsulate the logic that generates the content for the page. By separating the presentation design from the application logic that generates the data, the JSP-enabled pages make it easier for organizations to reuse and share application logic through custom tags and JavaBeans-based components. This also separates the job responsibilities of the Web designer and the Java programmer. For example, custom tags and beans can be developed by the Java programmer and implemented by the Web designer.

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What Is JavaServer Faces?


A JSF: Is a server-side component framework for Web applications Implements the Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework Provides separation of navigational and data flow Is built for rapid application development (RAD) style development

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What Is JavaServer Faces? JSF is a component-based framework for developing Web-based applications. JSF provides a framework for using robust UI components in a consistent manner. JSF provides a RAD environment for building Web applications. JSF is developer toolcentric so that developers can use visual editors to create applications. JSF also combines the functionality of a JSP with a built-in Controller. These parts make JSF a true MVC framework.

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Web-Tier Components: Summary


Web-tier components generate dynamic content. Servlets:
Extend Web server functionality Are best used for controlling the applications flow Combine HTML (or other markup) and Java Are best used for presentation logic
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JSPs:

JSFs:
Are component based Implement MVC

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Java EE Applications
Java EE applications consist of Java EE components and are deployed in the form of modules: Web modules contain the user interface: HTML, JSP, and servlets. EJB modules contain reusable EJB components. Client modules provide access to remote application code. Packaging information identifies dependencies between modules.

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Java EE Applications Java EE applications are server-side applications that contain standard components, such as servlets, JSPs, JSFs, and EJBs. Applications are deployed in the form of modules that package all necessary code for deployment to a Java EE server. Modules are archive files in a standard format, specified by the Java EE architecture.

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Packaging Java EE Applications


Assembly Root

META-INF

web.xml Application Client module

ejb-jar.xml Resource Adapter module

application.xml

EAR file structure

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Packaging Java EE Applications A Java EE application is delivered in an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file, a standard Java Archive (JAR) file with an .ear extension. Using EAR files and modules makes it possible to assemble different Java EE applications using some of the same components. No extra coding is needed; it is only a matter of assembling (or packaging) various Java EE modules into Java EE EAR files. An EAR file contains Java EE modules and deployment descriptors (such as web.xml and ejb-jar.xml). A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application, a module, or a component. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative, it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. At run time, the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application, module, or component, accordingly. There are two types of deployment descriptors: Java EE and run time. A Java EE deployment descriptor is defined by a Java EE specification and can be used to configure deployment settings on any Java EE-compliant implementation. A run-time deployment descriptor is used to configure Java EE implementation-specific parameters.

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Web module

EJB module

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Packaging Java EE Application Components


1. webtier.war Java servlets, JSP files, HTML, GIF files, and a Web application deployment descriptor 2. JavaEEappClient.jar Java EE application client (Java class), and an application client deployment descriptor Java EE application.ear 3. Resource adapter (.rar) Java interfaces, classes, native libraries, and other documentation and the resource adapter deployment descriptor 4. ejb.jar Class files for enterprise beans and an EJB deployment descriptor

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Packaging Java EE Application Components The diagram in the slide shows the components of a Java EE application. A Web Archive (WAR) file that contains the archive of Web componentsJava servlets, JSP files, HTML, GIF files, and a deployment descriptor that contains references of the EJBs being accessed, in ejb-ref tags A JAR file that contains the archive of a Java EE application client in the form of a Java class, and a deployment descriptor that contains references to the EJBs from which the business methods are being accessed. The Java EE application client is a Java application that runs in an environment that allows it to access Java EE services. An optional resource adapter archive (RAR), which is a driver that either an application server or an application client uses to connect to a specific EIS. Examples of resource adapters are JDBC drivers to connect to a relational database, or an ERP resource adapter to connect to an ERP system. A Java Archive (JAR) file that contains the archive of EJB componentsEJB class files, EJB deployment descriptor that contains information about transaction attributes, security roles, and so on

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Security in Java EE Applications


Security for Java EE application components is provided by their containers. A container provides two types of security:
Declarative security through deployment descriptors Programmatic security embedded in the application

Annotations are used to specify information about security within a class file.

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Security in Java EE Applications Java EE and Web services applications are made up of components that can be deployed into different containers. Security for the components is provided by their containers. A container provides two types of security: declarative and programmatic. Declarative security expresses an application components security requirements using deployment descriptors. Deployment descriptors are external to an application and include information that specifies how security roles and access requirements are mapped into environment-specific security roles, users, and policies. Programmatic security is embedded in an application and is used to make security decisions. Programmatic security is useful when declarative security alone is not sufficient to express the security model of an application. Annotations (also called metadata) enable a declarative style of programming and, therefore, encompass both the declarative and programmatic security concepts. Users can specify information about security within a class file. When the application is deployed, this information can either be used by, or be overridden by the application deployment descriptor.

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Using Deployment Descriptors for Declarative Security


A deployment descriptor: Is an XML document with an .xml extension Is used by application developers to communicate how security is to be set up for the deployed application Enables an applications security structure, including roles, access control and authentication requirements to be expressed in a form external to the application Is read at run time by the Java EE server which then acts upon the application, module, or component, accordingly

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Using Deployment Descriptors for Declarative Security Declarative security expresses an application components security requirements by using deployment descriptors. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes the deployment settings of an application, a module, or a component. Because the deployment descriptor information is declarative, it can be changed without the need to modify the source code. At run time, the Java EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the application, module, or component, accordingly. Different types of components use different formats, or schema, for their deployment descriptors.

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Quiz
Identify the components of Java EE Web Tier. 1. Stateless Session Bean 2. Servlet 3. MDB 4. JSP 5. JPA

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Answers: 2, 4

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Java EE Server
The Java EE server provides: Containers for each component type of a Java EE application System-level services to components:
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Naming and directory services (JNDI) Security services for Web components and EJBs (JAAS) Transaction architecture (JTA) Remote client connectivity:

Enterprise beans (RMI/IIOP) Servlet/JSP (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP)

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Java EE Server The Java EE server is the run-time portion of a Java EE product. A Java EE server provides EJB and Web containers. The Web-tier and business-tier components can themselves be clients for the other Java EE application components. An advantage of the Java EE platform is that all the container providers must abide by the same Java EE standards. This is much easier for developers because the application assembly is the same in any Java EE-compliant environment. The Java EE server provides system-level services to the Java EE application components: Java EE naming services provide the Java EE application components with access to the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) lookup service. Using the JNDI lookup service, the components can locate user-defined objects, environment entries, enterprise beans, JDBC DataSource objects, and messaging connections. The security services enable you to configure Web-tier and business-tier components so that only authenticated and authorized users can access the system resources. The transaction architecture enables you to specify relationships among methods that make up a single transaction so that all methods in one transaction are treated as a single unit.

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Java EE Server (continued) The remote connectivity service manages the low-level communications between clients and Java EE components. This provides location transparency to the clients. The client accesses the components as though both of them (the client and the Web-tier or business-tier components) were on the same JVM.

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Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3


Is a Java EE server implementation Key features:
Implements Java EE 1.5 Specification Runs on standard JVM Provides high performance and scalability Is productive for developers to use Is simple to manage and deploy Provides clustering for high availability and failover

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Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3 Oracle WebLogic Server (WLS) provides a complete Java EE server implementation. It is written in Java and executes on the standard JVM. WLS 10.3 is compatible with Sun SDK 1.6 and BEA JRockit 1.6 JDK versions.

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WebLogic Server Domain


A domain: Is an administrative unit or boundary. Allows for a single point of administration for a collection of servers
MyDomain

Server 2 Server 1 Server 3

Machine 1

Machine 2

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WebLogic Server Domain A domain is simply an administrative unit. Essentially, the scope of a domain is the scope from which an administration server can see all of its managed servers. Servers do not have to be assigned to a machine. If a server is not assigned to a machine, it is assumed to be on a different machine than the other servers.

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WebLogic Server Domain


WebLogic Server Domains can be used to separate: Development, test, and production applications Administration and operational responsibilities Organizational or business divisions
Domain1 (Development) Domain2 (Production)

Application 1

Application 2

Application 1

Application 2

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WebLogic Server Domain (continued) A BEA WebLogic Server domain is an administrative feature. There are no WLS programming interfaces that refer to domains. All domain-related information is in the configuration files; only an administrator is aware of domains. Benefits of Multiple Domains An enterprise can have different kinds of applications, be geographically dispersed, and be organized into different areas of responsibility. There might be many separate domains. Each domain is a separately administered unit. Perhaps it is organized for geographical considerations (all the machines in a given location) or organized on departmental lines within an enterprise (accounting, manufacturing, shipping, and so on). Eventually, an enterprise may want the different applications in those domains to be able to interoperate. It is often impossible to expand a single domain to encompass the enterprise. However, the size of an expanded domain in terms of the number of machines and services could be impractical. Because a single domain must be administered as a whole, the configuration would rapidly become huge and require more effort in administering than in developing and implementing applications. Therefore, to keep a domain relatively compact for administration, there must be a way to separate applications into multiple domains and still allow applications in one domain to access services in other domains. This capability for interdomain communication is made possible by the WLS Domain feature.
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WebLogic Server Servers


A server is a WebLogic Server instance executing within a JVM. A server:
Can be associated with at most one WLS machine Has a dedicated amount of RAM Is multithreaded
Server 1

Server 2

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WebLogic Server Servers A WebLogic Server server is simply a JVM that is executing the weblogic.Server class. The weblogic.Server class is the class that contains the main() method of the WebLogic Server system. It is the primary controller for the system. Because a server executes within a single virtual machine, it has a dedicated amount of RAM that is predetermined at system boot time. A server can be associated with only a single machine, but a machine can be associated with multiple servers.

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Administration Server
An Administration Server is: The central point of control for a domain The keeper of the XML configuration repository The central source for logging information
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Runs the Admin Console LOGS Configuration repository (config.xml)

Critical Domain Notifications (Logs)

Administration Server

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Administration Server A WebLogic Server running the administration service is called an Administration Server. The Administration Server provides the central point of control for configuring and monitoring an entire domain. The Administration Server must be running in order to perform any management operation on that domain. In a configuration with multiple WebLogic Servers, only one server is the Administration Server; the other servers are called Managed Servers. Each Managed Server obtains its configuration at startup from the Administration Server.

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Managed Server
A Managed Server: Is an instance of WebLogic Server Loads its configuration remotely from an Administration Server
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MyDomain
Managed Server

Managed Server

Administration Server
Managed Server

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Managed Server A Managed Server is a single server that boots on a remote, or perhaps the same, physical machine and loads its configuration from a specified Administration Server. Managed servers get all of their configuration information from the remote Administration Server and need only know the domain and server they represent in a domain.

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WebLogic Server Machines


A machine:
Represents the physical piece of hardware that a server resides on Can be a UNIX (Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Linux) or non-UNIX type (NT, OS-390, Mainframe)
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One or more server instances can reside on a single machine.

Server 2 Server 1 Server 3

Machine 1

Machine 2

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WebLogic Server Machines A machine is a piece of hardware that can have multiple CPUs and IP addresses. Typically, a machine is managed by a single operating system that supports all the networking communications with the hardware. WebLogic Server makes a distinction between UNIX machines and non-UNIX machines.

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JDeveloper and Java EE


JDeveloper provides: Integrated development, deployment, and testing support for Web-tier and business-tier components A Java EE framework for rapid development
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Application Development Framework (ADF) business components Data tags

Integration with Struts UML modeling Visual editors for Web clients Easy deployment to WebLogic Server

JDeveloper

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JDeveloper and Java EE JDeveloper is an integrated development environment (IDE) that is used to build, test, and debug Java EE applications. In Oracle JDeveloper 11g, workspaces and projects are used to organize the files that you need for your application. To effectively work with the files in JDeveloper, you can use projects to work with individual files, and workspaces to manage one or more projects. You must have a workspace before you can create projects. It is a common practice to create workspaces around functions of applications, such as human resources management, and to separate technologies into projects, such as having separate projects for the model, view, and controller. By using UML Modeler, you can model business processes, build, test, and debug Java EE components, and easily deploy the business processes to any Java EE servers.

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Oracle JDeveloper 11g Environment


Customizable Code Editor Wizards for JSPs, servlets, and EJBs Error checking for HTML and JSPs EAR, WAR deployment to Java EE server

Code Insight
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Oracle JDeveloper 11g Environment JDeveloper provides you with several helpful development features. Wizards for creating servlets, JSPs, and EJBs make it easy to start building a Web application. The Code Editor is customizable and Code Insight makes it easy to develop code without having to remember each package and class name. Debugging is provided in both local and remote modes, and errors in HTML and JSPs are identified within the IDE. Additionally, JDeveloper automates the packaging of Java EE applications into WAR or EAR files for deployment to a Java EE server. Oracle WebLogic Server is provided within the tool to test and debug Java EE applications.

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Oracle JDeveloper 11g Visual Design Tools

Design in visual or code views, see revisions.

Modify the values in Property Inspector.

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Oracle JDeveloper 11g Visual Design Tools Oracle JDeveloper 11g enables you to choose between editing in code or visual views for JSF and HTML documents, or to view the revisions that have been made. You can drag JSF and HTML elements from the Component Palette to the visual or code views, and elements can be modified directly in the Code Editor, Visual Editor, or in the Property Inspector. The Code Editor, Visual Editor, Property Inspector, and another visual tool, the Structure window, are all synchronized so that a change in one propagates immediately to all other representations of the data.

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Drag JSP and HTML Elements.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned that: Java EE is a set of Java technologies that supports end-to-end application development Components are the foundation of the Java EE architecture Business components (EJBs) are server-side components that contain business logic Web components (servlets, JSPs, and JSFs) generate dynamic content

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Summary Java EE is a complete application architecture for enterprise-class applications that provides multitier application support. Java EE emphasizes a portable, component-based approach to the creation, deployment, and management of complex applications. Java EE distributes application logic into: Business-tier components, such as EJB and Web services that define server-side business logic Client-tier components, such as a Web browser or an application client Web-tier components, such as JSFs, JSPs, and Java servlets, that are used to build the presentation logic Enterprise Information System tier running on the database server to store the data Java EE components are assembled into a Java EE application, verified according to the Java EE specification, and deployed to the Java EE server. The deployed applications are run and managed by the Java EE server. The Java EE server, the run-time portion of Java EE, provides containers for each type of Java EE application. These containers provide system-level services to components. You deploy applications to a Java EE server, such as Oracle WebLogic Server.

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Practice: Overview
These practices cover the following topics: Creating JDeveloper connections for the FOD database schema Examining some of the seeded data in the FOD schema tables
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Designing Java EE Applications

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Identify Java EE design patterns and their purpose Describe the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture Define the purpose and role of Struts Define the purpose and role of JavaServer Faces (JSF) Describe data source and connection pools in WebLogic Server

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Objectives This lesson deals with the design of Java EE applications. After working for several years with the object-oriented (OO) programming concepts, developers found that the best applications follow similar patterns. The Java EE architectural design pattern for the interactive enterprise application is known as MVC. The MVC pattern is ideally suited for the kind of application that combines distributed application logic with a complex user interface. The lesson introduces the MVC design pattern, and describes how it can help you design Java EE applications that are easier to reuse and maintain.

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Realizing the Benefits of Java EE


To leverage the full benefits of Java EE, you must design applications that are: Portable: You should be able to redeploy the Java EE applications to different servers, databases, and so on. Scalable: Web applications should be able to handle large numbers of users. Maintainable: A minimum amount of coding should be necessary for a new business rule. Reusable: For example, a class that processes credit cards should be reused by multiple applications. Simple: The business need should be solved with the least amount of complexity.

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Realizing the Benefits of Java EE Java EE helps achieve portability, which is particularly important for applications that must be clustered. Additionally, well-designed Java EE applications are scalable when the number of users and their actions are difficult to predict, as in Internet applications. Java EE applications must be able to accommodate new business needs in an organization because the application could be used within an organization for many years. Applications that enable code reuse for minimizing duplication benefit from object-oriented design. Finally, applications that avoid unnecessary complexity are engineered to meet the needs of the business, without becoming overcomplicated by using the latest buzzword technology.

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Java EE Issues
It is important to follow certain guidelines for the design and development of any new technology: Implement generally accepted design patterns and architectures. Focus on real business needs rather than simply adopting new technology. Employ the simplest technology to solve a business problem.

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Java EE Issues Developers are often directed toward Java EE as a complete, effective solution, where scalability and portability are handled automatically, without the need for good design patterns. Thus, many Java EE applications are built to use the latest functionality, without solving the needs of the enterprise.

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Design Patterns
Design patterns: Are a repeatable process of design addressing a specific issue or problem in the development of a system Are predictable in their function and are consistent in their pros and cons Are concepts that allows for a common method to quickly and effectively communicate complex ideology to others Allow for the accelerated education of the concept for those new to it

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Design Patterns Design patterns are recurring solutions to software design problems, which you find again and again in real-world application development. Patterns are about design and interaction of objects, as well as providing a communication platform concerning elegant, reusable solutions to commonly encountered programming challenges. Design patterns are helpful because they: Solve real-world problems Capture domain expertise Document design decisions and rationale Reuse wisdom and experience of master practitioners Convey expert insight to novices Form a shared vocabulary for problem-solving discussion Describe more than just the solution

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Java EE Design Patterns


The generally accepted design patterns include (but are not limited to) the following: Presentation-tier patterns:
Intercepting filter Controller servlet (as used in MVC)

Business-tier patterns:
Service Locator Data Transfer Object Session Facade

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Java EE Design Patterns Design patterns describe solutions for common design issues. This slide introduces some of the more popular design patterns. Presentation-tier patterns - Intercepting filter: Facilitates preprocessing and postprocessing of a request, by applying additional services that are needed to process a request. A servlet filter is an example of an implementation of this pattern. - Controller servlet: Provides a centralized controller for handling a request. This is more comprehensive than the intercepting filter approach because all requests are maintained in the same controller. Business-tier patterns - Service Locator: Facilitates to transparently locate business components and services in a uniform manner. It centralizes and reuses the implementation of lookup mechanisms for Java EE application clients. It also encapsulates vendor dependencies for registry implementations, and hide the dependency and complexity from the clients. - Data Transfer Object (DTO): Facilitates data exchange between tiers by reducing the network load - Session Facade: Encapsulates business-tier components and exposes a coarsegrained service to the clients
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Implementing a Session Facade Pattern

Facade Entity Client Session bean Entity

A Session Facade pattern: Provides clients with a single application interface Contains centralized, complex interactions between lowerlevel business components Decouples components to yield a flexible design

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Implementing a Session Facade Pattern A Session Facade pattern is useful for applications with complex business process and interactions. As depicted in the diagram, a Session Facade pattern is implemented as a session Enterprise JavaBean. The benefits of implementing a facade are the following: Provision of a single application interface for clients, whether Web or application clients Definition of a higher-level business component that contains centralized business logic. The business logic in a Session Facade pattern can encapsulate more complex interactions between lower-level components. For example, a single method (business operation) in a Session Facade pattern can manage retrieval of an order and all its items from two or more entities involved in a relationship. Decoupling of lower-level components from each other. This enables the design to be more flexible, making it easier to maintain the application over its lifetime as it changes and grows in complexity. The facade hides the location of components and the implementation details from the clients. Improved network performance through the elimination of multiple fine-grained method calls between a client and individual components managed by the facade Spanning transactions across more than one call to the entities

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Defining the MVC Architecture


Generic MVC architectural design pattern
User requests Select next view.

Notify change. Get state. Set (change) state.

Model

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Defining the MVC Architecture The graphic depicts the generic MVC design pattern recommended for interactive applications. The benefit of an MVC architecture is separation of presentation, control, data persistence, and behavior. Parts of an MVC design pattern are: A model, which encapsulates application state or data exposing functionality and notifies the view when the state changes A view, which presents the user interface rendering the data and accepting user input. The view directs requests to the controller. A controller, which defines application behavior and flow between one view and the next. The controller maps user requests to model functionality and data operations.

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View

Controller

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The Model
The model represents the enterprise data and business rules that handle access and updates. You can simplify the model by using two mechanisms called facade class and command pattern.
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A facade encapsulates, hides the complexity of, and coordinates the operations between cooperating classes. A command pattern encapsulates each application function in a separate class.

The model is often implemented using Java beans and EJBs.

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The Model The model of an application contains the business data and the operations that govern access and modification of the data. Thus, it is often implemented using Java beans and EJBs. The model notifies a view when it changes and provides the ability for the view to query the model about its state. The controller accesses the application functionality that is encapsulated in the model. A session bean is often used to create the facade. For example, a Session Facade bean provides the required interfaces (while hiding the complexities of the interfacing classes from the client), and manages the relationships between the objects. A command pattern bean provides the business logic of the interfaces that a Session Facade bean implements.

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The View
The view focuses on presentation and is responsible for maintaining consistency between data presentation and model changes. It enables:
Presentation to be changed without altering programming logic Development by Web page authors having only visual design skills

The view is commonly implemented using JSPs.

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The View The view of an application renders the contents of a model and specifies how data should be displayed. The view forwards the user input to a controller. For example, a view component might display rows from a database. The actual querying of the data should be left to the model, but formatting the data for the client is left to the view. For this reason, view components are usually JSPs. An application may be designed to accept query parameters from user input. In this example, the parameters would be passed to the model from the controller (discussed in the following slide), and the resultant data would be displayed in the view.

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The Controller
The controller provides interaction with the client, serving as a glue between the model and the view. The controller:
Interprets user requests and controls business objects to fulfill these requests Removes navigation coding from the view Can be implemented in the client, Web, or EJB tier, or in a combination of these tiers

The controller is usually implemented as a servlet. Struts and JSF are two widely used implementations.

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The Controller A controller defines application behavior. It dispatches user requests and selects views for presentation. The controller determines what happens when the user interacts with the component. For example, what occurs when the user clicks a button. The controller accepts the users query parameters and passes them to the model. A servlet is best suited for this MVC component because it contains coding logic for accepting user input and passing it to a model, with little or no presentation coding, such as HTML. In this way, the controller makes the application more maintainable as a whole. The database column names or the preferred formatting style can change, without affecting the navigation and functionality of the application. A developer simply changes either the model or the view, respectively.

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Designing a Java EE Application


Web-tier design: Use an MVC design pattern.

Client

JavaBean (Model)

Business Logic tier design: Use a Session Facade pattern.

Web tier Session Facade bean Entities

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Designing a Java EE Application A Java EE application is a server-side implementation that contains standard components such as servlets, JSPs, and EJBs. Web-tier design: Web-tier designs typically use an MVC design pattern, such as JavaServer Faces and Oracle ADF Faces. Using an MVC design pattern enables you to separate the presentation logic from the business or data logic. The controller facilitates application flow control from one page to the next. The basic components used in an MVC design model are: A JSP or servlet for the view A servlet for the controller JavaBeans for the model. The JavaBeans may execute the business logic or may use EJB components to perform the business logic operations. Business Logic tier design: Depending on the complexity of the business logic, entities may or may not be exposed to the Web-tier or clients. Complex applications commonly use a session bean as a facade, for the following reasons: For control of security at the business-method level To mediate access to entity beans and persistence layers To better manage transaction boundaries

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JSP (View)

Servlet (Controller)

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Quiz
If you implement the MVC design pattern, the controller: 1. Adds navigation and implements the view 2. Can be implemented in the client, Web, or EJB tier, or in a combination of these tiers 3. Handles the input event from the user interface 4. Processes and responds to events, typically user actions, and may invoke changes on the model

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Answers: 2, 3, 4

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Struts: Overview
Struts is a framework for implementing the MVC design pattern in Java EE applications. Struts:
Is an open-source project from the Apache Software Foundation Is implemented by an XML-driven controller servlet Uses standard Java EE Web technologiesservlets, JSPs, and tag libraries

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Struts: Overview Struts is an open-source project from the Apache Software Foundation. It is used for developing Java EE Web applications using the MVC design pattern. Struts uses and extends the Java Servlet API to adopt an MVC architecture. Struts provides its own controller component that integrates with other data access technologies (such as Java beans and EJBs) to provide the model. It also integrates with JavaServer Pages, JavaServer Faces and other presentation systems to provide the view.

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Struts Components
Action Servlet: Receives user inputs and state changes and issues view selections Action: Interacts with the model to execute a state change or query Form Beans: Passes data (from forms) into JavaBeans for reuse and validation Action Forward: Stores the path to a page where the user is sent Action Mapping: Tells the servlet how each request URI is mapped to an Action Struts-config.xml: Contains the definitions of the Struts components used in an application

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Struts Components Action Servlet: This component is focused on receiving requests from the client (typically, a user running a Web browser), deciding what business logic function is to be performed, and then delegating responsibility for producing the next phase of the user interface to an appropriate view component. Action: This serves as an interface between client-side user action and the business logic. Almost everything that happens in a Struts-based application happens in an Action. Form Beans (Action Forms): Form Beans are used to pass data to and receive data from the model and the view. Action Forward: This component defines where the requesting page should be forwarded to, if required. Action Mapping: Tells the servlet how each request Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is mapped to an Action. It includes the class of the Action, the name of the Form Beans that the Action uses, and the path to pass control to when this mapping is invoked. Struts-config.xml: This file contains the definitions of the Struts components used in an application.

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Struts Architecture
Web container

Controller
HTTP 1 Request HTTP Response

Action Servlet
2

struts-config.xml
3

Java Beans/ EJBs web.xml

Web Client

Action
4

Model

JSP

JSP Tags

Java Script Database

View

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Struts Architecture The graphic depicts a high-level view of the Struts architecture. 1. A Web client sends an HTTP request to the server. 2. The Struts Action Servlet receives the HTTP request. It inspects the URL and based on the Struts configuration file (struts-config.xml), delegates the handling of the request to an Action class. 3. The Action class communicates with the model layer and invokes the business logic. 4. Based on the information from the model layer, the Action class advises the Action Servlet to show the next JSP page to the client.

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Struts Page Flow Design


Use the Struts Page Flow diagram to create the top-level page flow design of a Struts application:

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Struts Page Flow Design JDeveloper includes a Visual Editor for the struts-config.xml file. Using the Visual Editor, you can create pages, add page forwards, add actions, and so on. In this diagram, there are three pages and one action. The login.jsp page has a link to the login action. The login action is a class that validates the login information and returns either success or badlogin. The controller then forwards the request to either the login page or the welcome page. The welcome page has a link to the emps page.

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Struts Page Flow Design (continued) The following is the struts-config.xml file for this application: <struts-config> <form-beans> <form-bean name="DataForm" type="oracle.adf.controller.v2.struts. forms.BindingContainerActionForm"/> </form-beans> <action-mappings> <action path="/emps" className="oracle.adf.controller.v2.struts. actions.DataActionMapping" type="oracle.adf.controller.v2.struts. actions.DataForwardAction" name="DataForm" parameter="/emps.jsp"/> <action path="/login" type="sr.view.login"> <forward name="badlogin" path="/login.jsp"/> <forward name="success" path="/welcome.jsp"/> </action> </action-mappings> <message-resources parameter="sr.view.ApplicationResources"/> </struts-config>

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JSF and Struts


JSF provides the same benefits as the Struts architecture, including: Controller servlet (MVC implementation) Declarative and visual design in JDeveloper XML configuration file (faces-config.xml)

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JSF and Struts JSF uses the same basic framework for controlling applications (MVC). However, JSF pages and the controller are designed to work together. With Struts, there is generally one action per page, whereas JSF can have multiple events within a single page. JSF uses built-in managed beans that facilitate single-point coding for any component on the page. These managed beans provide a way to store page-specific or session-specific information.

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Implementing the User Interface with JSF and Core Java EE Patterns
1
Request Response

Business Delegate
Uses

2
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Model: Managed (Backing) Bean EJB

View: JSF Page

Controller

FacesServlet faces-config.xml

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Implementing the User Interface with JSF and Core Java EE Patterns The graphic represents a typical Java enterprise application architecture implemented with a JSF user interface. The application components shown include: 1. The view (JSF pages) making up the presentation layer that interacts with its model. UI component values are stored in the backing bean or determined by its functionality. 2. The model (JSF backing beans, also called managed beans) that decouples the user interface from the business logic. The model interacts with a Session Facade Enterprise JavaBean that implements the business logic layer. 3. The controller (faces-config.xml and FacesServlet) manages the application flow logic between JSF pages application flow and their life cycle based on user interaction and application action events. Note: The first three are parts of the MVC Java EE design pattern framework consisting of the view (JSF Page), model (backing JavaBean), and controller (faces-config.xml and FacesServlet).

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Selecting a Persistence Strategy


Persistence techniques for Java EE applications:
1 2 Session bean 3 JDBC ORM JPA Entity

4 Entity

JPA

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Selecting a Persistence Strategy There are many persistence strategies that a developer may use to manage database data and transactional logic. The diagram depicts the EJB types with possible persistence choices: 1. A session bean directly executes JDBC logic to perform the database operations. JDBC is used wherever required, without dependency on bean life-cycle methods. 2. A session bean can use Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), a Plain Old Java Object (POJO) with an object-relational mapping (ORM) mechanism, or a direct mapping to the database using the ORM technology. 3. A session bean executes a Java Persistence API (JPA) entity to map Java objects to relational database tables. 4. An entity (or JPA entity) is a Java object that is persisted into the database by implementing JPA. You can use Oracle TopLink or Hibernate (among others) as ORM tools. Using JPA, you can designate any POJO class as a JPA entitya Java object whose nontransient fields should be persisted to a relational database using the services of an entity manager obtained from a JPA persistence provider (either within a Java EE EJB container or outside of an EJB container in a Java SE application). Note: A servlet or JSP page may also perform persistence logic by using either JDBC directly or POJOs and O-R mapping techniques such as Oracle TopLink or Hibernate. A servlet can also directly invoke JPA entities.
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Quiz
Struts is a framework for implementing the Session Facade design pattern in Java EE applications: 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 2

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What Is a Data Source?


A data source: Is a Java EE concept that allows for abstracting a JDBC connection Provides connections from connection pools Hides the physical location of the data

Order Entry data Application jdbc/OracleDS Product database


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What Is a Data Source? A data source is a Java EE concept that allows for abstracting a JDBC connection. With a data source, a developer or an administrator can specify an object that represents a database. In the Java EE environment, a data source name is associated with a set of properties that specify the details of how to communicate with a physical resource managing the data. In the graphic, the logical name jdbc/OracleDS is initially associated with an Oracle Database 11g database. If the physical data is relocated to another database (for example, the product database), the data source properties can be altered to identify the new location. In this way, the application does not need to be altered; it still references the data by using the same logical data source name. In all cases, the data source properties identify the resources needed to facilitate communication with the target data source, such as JDBC drivers (drivers that are needed to enable access to the data).

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What Is a Connection Pool?


A connection pool is a group of ready-to-use database connections associated with a data source. Connection pools: Define database connections Provide pools of readily available connections Can be dynamically resized to accommodate increasing load

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What Is a Connection Pool? WebLogic Server opens JDBC connections to the database during the WebLogic startup process and adds the connections to the pool. This is faster than creating a new connection on demand. The size of the pool is dynamic and can be fine-tuned. Connection pools could be started with the server if it is declared on the server system level or at the time of the application startup if it is described within an application archive.

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Benefits of Data Sources Plus Connection Pools


Following are some advantages of this approach: Time and overhead are saved by using an existing database connection. Connection information is managed in one location in the administration console. The number of connections to a database can be controlled. The DBMS can be changed without the application developer having to modify underlying code. A connection pool allows an application to borrow a DBMS connection.

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Benefits of Data Sources Plus Connection Pools Making a DBMS connection is very slow. When WebLogic Server starts, connections from the connection pools are opened and are available to all clients. When a client closes a connection from a connection pool, the connection is returned to the pool and becomes available for other clients; the connection itself is not closed. There is little cost to opening and closing pool connections. The alternative is for application code to make its own JDBC connections as needed. A DBMS runs faster with dedicated connections than if it has to handle incoming connection attempts at run time. Connection information, such as the JDBC driver class name, the database location (URL), and the username and password, can be managed in one location by using the WebLogic Console. Application developers can obtain a connection without having to worry about these details. Limiting the number of DBMS connections is important if you have a licensing limitation for DBMS connections or a resource concern. Clients use a connection pool by borrowing a connection, using it, and then return it to the pool by closing it. The connection pool can grow or shrink dynamically to accommodate demand. The administration console is used to set a connection pools initial capacity, maximum capacity, and its capacity increment.

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JDBC Data Source Architecture


WebLogic Server
Internal Clients (Servlets, JSP)

External Clients

DataSource

: Connection JDBC Conn. Pool

DataSource

: Connection : Connection : Connection

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JDBC Data Source Architecture You create the connection pools and deploy them to servers and clusters. Then you create the data sources, which are bound to the JNDI tree, and deploy the data sources to the same servers and clusters. When you create a data source object, you specify a connection pool as one of the data source attributes. This associates that data source with one specific connection pool.

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JNDI Tree

JDBC Conn. Pool

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Data Source Architecture: Connecting


A client retrieves a data source through a JNDI lookup and uses it to obtain a database connection.
Client
Lookup Data Source Return Data Source

WebLogic Server

1 2
JNDI Tree

Data Source

getConnection() Return Connection

3 4

Connection Pool Connection


Database Access JDBC Driver

5
Database

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Data Source Architecture: Connecting The slide shows an example of how a data source is used by the client. The sequence of events are as follows: A client retrieves a data source object by performing a lookup in the WebLogic Server JNDI tree. A data source object contains a reference to a connection pool. After a data source object is obtained, the client can then obtain a database connection. The connection then interacts with the database.

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Creating a Data Source in WebLogic Server


3 1 2 4

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Creating a Data Source in WebLogic Server To create a data source in WebLogic Server by using the WebLogic Server console, perform the following steps: 1. In the Domain Structure tree, expand Services > JDBC, and then select Data Sources. 2. On the Summary of Data Sources page, click New. 3. On the JDBC Data Source Properties page, enter or select the following information: i) Name: Enter a name for this JDBC data source. This name is used in the configuration file and throughout the administration console whenever referring to this data source. ii) JNDI Name: Enter the JNDI path to where this JDBC data source is bound. Applications look up the data source on the JNDI tree by this name when reserving a connection. iii) Database Type: Select the DBMS that you want to connect to. If your DBMS is not listed, select Other. iv) Database Driver: Select the JDBC driver you want to use to connect to the database. The list includes common JDBC drivers for the selected DBMS. Click Next to continue.

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Creating a Data Source in WebLogic Server (continued) 4. On the Connection Properties page, enter values for the following properties: i) Database Name: Enter the name of the database that you want to connect to. Exact database name requirements vary by JDBC driver and by DBMS. ii) Host Name: Enter the domain name server (DNS) name or IP address of the server that hosts the database. iii) Port: Enter the port on which the database server listens for connections requests. iv) Database User Name: Enter the database user account name that you want to use for each connection. v) Password/Confirm Password: Enter the password for the database user account. Click Next to continue. 5. On the Test Database Connection page, review the connection parameters and click Test Configuration. WebLogic attempts to create a connection from the Administration Server to the database. Results from the connection test are displayed at the top of the page. If the test is unsuccessful, you should correct any configuration errors and retry the test. If the JDBC driver you selected is not installed in the Administration Server, click Next to skip this step. Click Next to continue. 6. On the Select Targets page, select the servers or clusters on which you want to deploy the data source. 7. Click Finish to save the JDBC data source configuration and deploy the data source to the targets that you selected.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Identify Java EE design patterns and their purpose Describe the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture Define the purpose and role of Struts Define the purpose and role of JavaServer Faces (JSF) Describe data source and connection pools in WebLogic Server

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Practice: Overview
This practice covers analyzing the MVC design pattern of Java EE application development:
Exploring the business objects in the model Exploring the view components of the application
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Developing a Web Application Using Servlets

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Define the role of servlets in a Java EE application Describe the servlet life cycle Describe the request and response architecture Implement HTTP servlet methods List Java EE servlet mapping techniques Handle errors in a servlet Create and run a servlet in JDeveloper

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Objectives Servlets are the foundation of all other Web technologies. They provide the core API used to run JavaServer Pages (JSP). A servlet is a platform-independent, server-side Java component used to extend the capabilities of a Web server. Using servlets, you can dynamically customize content, function, and the look-and-feel of your Web pages. This lesson examines the servlet technology architecture, and shows you how to create a servlet in JDeveloper. You also see how to deploy a servlet in an application server.

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Servlets: Overview

Requests

Connects to

Client Web browser

Generates

Responds

Dynamic HTML
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Servlets: Overview The basic concepts of servlets are straightforward. A Web browser invokes a URL, which calls the servlet. The servlet then generates dynamic HTML, Extensible Markup Language (XML), or other content. The dynamic text may have been generated by connecting to the database. The following questions arise: How can multiple clients be satisfied efficiently? How can the programmers task be simplified, with the program remaining powerful enough to handle all situations? This lesson discusses the answers to these questions.

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Servlet

Business object (EJB/Web service)

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About Java Servlets


A servlet is a Java class that implements the servlet interface. A servlet runs in the context of a special process called a servlet container. Servlets can be invoked simultaneously by multiple clients.
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Java application, Servlet, JSP, or HTML Client

Request

Servlet container
Response

Server
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About Java Servlets A servlet is a Java class that implements the servlet interface. These classes are found in the javax.servlet package. When you use the Servlet API, it takes care of some of the common tasks that are involved in responding to a request from a client. For instance, the API supports preinstantiating objects in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), if multiple clients must simultaneously access a particular functionality that you provide as a Java class. This feature is referred to as the servlet life cycle. Just as applets run in the context of a Web browser, a servlet runs in the context of a servlet container. The Web browser and the servlet container contain a JVM that is usually functional all the time. Unlike an applet, a servlet does not use any user interface features of the Java language, such as the classes in the java.swing package. As shown in the slide, a multitude of clients can invoke a servlet and can use different protocols. For example, it is possible to write a servlet that implements the FTP server protocol.

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Principal Features of Servlets


Concurrent requests are possible and common. Servlet methods are run in threads. Servlet instances are shared by multiple client requests.

Request 1

Request 2

Request 3

Clients
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Server

Principal Features of Servlets Multiple requests for the same servlet are run in multiple threads. This means that you should develop the servlet to be thread safe. Similarly, when there are no more requests for a servlet, the instance is not extinguished. Instead, in anticipation of future requests, the memory and other resources are reused when necessary.

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Life Cycle of Servlets


All actions are carried out inside the server. After the initial setup, the response time is less.

1 Load

2 Initialize init()

3 Execute service()

4 Destroy destroy()

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Life Cycle of Servlets The life cycle of a servlet has the following characteristics: Many servlet engines execute within a single JVM. Additionally, with WebLogic Server, you can use multiple JVMs. Servlets persist between requests as object instances. If an object instance makes a connection to a database, there is no need to make another connection for the second request. Threads also persist as in any Java program, unless they die in the natural thread life cycle. You can override the init()method, which is invoked by the servlet engine before the servicing of client requests, and the destroy()method, which is invoked after the engine removes the servlet. A servlet can also be explicitly written in a single-threaded model. In this case, if two requests are received at the same time, the servlet engine uses another instance.

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HTTP Servlets
HTTP servlets extend the HttpServlet class, which implements the Servlet interface. A client makes an HTTP request, which includes a method type that: Can be either a GET or POST method type
Determines what type of action the servlet performs

The servlet processes the request and sends back a status code and a response.

Request Response

Client

HTTP protocol

Servlet

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HTTP Servlets HTTP servlets extend the javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet class, which extends the GenericServlet class. The GenericServlet class implements the Servlet interface. These servlets provide more features than just providing fast responses to clients. For instance, the GET parameters that are passed through a Web browser to a Web server are available to the user of the servlet API. Similarly, data submitted by means of a form is sent to the servlet by using the doPost()method.

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Inside an HTTP Servlet


The servlet overrides the doGet() or the doPost() method of the HttpServlet class. The servlet engine calls the service() method, which in turn calls one of the appropriate doXxx() methods.
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These methods take two arguments as input: HttpServletRequest HttpServletResponse


HttpServlet class doGet()
Request

Browser
Response

service()

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Inside an HTTP Servlet When an HTTP servlet is invoked, the servlet engine calls the service()method in your servlet. This is possible because you have implemented the Servlet interface. If the Web browser has invoked the GET method in the HTTP protocol, the service()method invokes the doGet()method in your object. Therefore, it makes sense to override this method, which has two parameters as input. Similarly, if the browser invokes the POST method in the HTTP protocol (for example, when the user submits an HTML form), the service()method invokes the doPost()method. Sometimes, the functionality that you want is the same; you often see servlets in which doPost()calls doGet(). Many examples mention only doGet(), even though the concept is equally applicable for the doPost()method. The servlet engine provides the Web browser input to your doGet()method and, therefore, you do not have to worry about the difference between the two HTTP methods. This is another advantage of using the servlet API. Note that other methods are available in servlets, such as doPut()and doDelete(), for FTP operations.

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doGet() Method
The most common HTTP request method type made to a Web server is GET. The service() method in your servlet invokes the doGet() method. The service() method is invoked on your behalf by the Web server and the servlet engine. The doGet()method receives two parameters as input: HttpServletRequest HttpServletResponse Pass parameters by appending them to the URL: http://www.oracle.com/servlet?param1=value1

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doGet() Method The doGet() method, which receives two parameters as input, is usually the first method that you must modify from the JDeveloper-generated stubs. The request parameters are passed to the doGet() method by appending them to the URL, for instance http://www.oracle.com/servlet?param1=value1. Multiple parameters can be accessed by using the following: http://www.oracle.com/servlet?param1=value1&param2=value2 Additionally, a helper class, java.net.URLEncoder, exists for encoding the parameters that are passed in the URL. The encode(String s, String enc) method of this class converts a string (s) using the encoding character (enc), and returns the converted string. This is helpful for passing parameters that include special characters. GET requests are generated by a browser in the following instances: When a user enters a URL in the address line When a user follows an href link from another page When a user submits an HTML form that does not specify a method When the method is specified as GET: <FORM METHOD="GET">

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doPost() Method
The doPost() method can be invoked on a servlet from an HTML form by using: <form method="post" action=> The service() method in your servlet invokes the doPost() method. The service() method is invoked by the Web server and the servlet engine. The doPost() method receives two parameters as input: HttpServletRequest HttpServletResponse Pass parameters using the form field names: <input type="text" name="param1">

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doPost() Method The doPost() method is used in conjunction with an HTML form. When the user clicks Submit, specified parameters are passed to the servlet that is specified in the action tag. Like the doGet() method, doPost() receives two parameters as input: HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse. Parameter namevalue pairs are passed to the Web server in an additional HTTP request header, and not by appending them to the URL. Therefore, the advantages of using POST include the following: Parameters (like passwords) are not visible in the browsers URL field. You cannot bookmark a URL containing the parameter values. Web servers usually limit the amount of characters that can be passed in the URL (24 kilobytes), but there is no theoretical limit to the size of POST parameters.

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HttpServletRequest Object
The HttpServletRequest object encapsulates the following information about the client:
Servlet parameter names and values The remote host name that made the request The server name that received the request Input stream data

You invoke one of several methods to access the information: getParameter(String name) getRemoteHost() getServerName()

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HttpServletRequest Object The doGet() and doPost() methods take the HttpServletRequest object as a parameter. The following table describes several methods in the HttpServletRequest object and their purposes, based on the example URL: http://bighost:7101/finance/servlet/Ledger/June?region=east Request methods getServerName() getServerPort() getPathInfo() getServletPath() getContextPath() getRequestURI() Return values bighost 7101 /finance/servlet/Ledger/June.class /servlet/Ledger.June /finance /finance/servlet/Ledger.June

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HttpServletResponse Object
The HttpServletResponse object encapsulates information that the servlet has generated:
The content length of the reply The Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) type of the reply The output stream

You invoke one of several methods to produce the information: setContentLength(int length) setContentType(String type) sendRedirect()

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HttpServletResponse Object The second parameter for the doGet() and doPost() methods is the HttpServletResponse object. The first bullet in the slide describes that an HTTP response consists of a status line (whether or not the call to the servlet was successful), one or more headers (the content type and optional content length), and the actual output, in that order. The following table describes several methods that are available in the HttpServletResponse object and their purposes: setContentType() Sets the Content-Type header for the document. This must be used for servlets that return the document content. Common settings include text/html, application/pdf, and image/gif. An optional method that sets the Content-Length header; useful for persistent HTTP connections Sets the Location header and sets the status code to 302

setContentLength()

sendRedirect()

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HttpSession
The unique identity for the client is an HttpSession object. The object is created by using the getSession() method of the HttpRequest object.
HttpSession session = req.getSession(true);

Any servlet that responds to a client request can create this object. An object can be potentially shared across several servlets. (Every servlet within an application can identify with this client.)

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HttpSession HttpSession is an interface. The object is obtained by using the getSession() method in the HttpServletRequest object. This is done by extracting a user ID from a cookie or attached URL data, and then by using that ID as a key into a table of previously created session objects. However, all this is done automatically for you, and all you need to do is create a new session (if there is no existing session) by using the code that is listed in the slide. If you pass false to the getSession() method, it returns null, if there is no existing session. The servlet specification states that HttpSession objects can be shared by different servlets in a servlet engine. Therefore, HttpSession objects must be synchronized by the implementation. For example: HttpSession session = request.getSession(true); ShoppingCart cart = (ShoppingCart)session.getAttribute("shoppingCart"); if (cart == null) { cart = new ShoppingCart(); session.setAttribute("shoppingCart", cart); } ...

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Session Objects
With session objects, you can:
Put items into the object (values persist across multiple invocations from the same client) Access items from the object Obtain the session identity Find out when the session was last accessed

Items put in a session object can:


Implement the Serializable interface Be relocated to a different server Persist across servlet crashes

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Session Objects The table below describes the methods in the HttpSession class and their meanings: getLastAccessedTime() getId() setAttribute(String name, Object value) A long object denoting when the session was last accessed by the client A string denoting the unique identity of a client Places an object with the name alias in the HttpSession object (You must make sure that the name is unique across all possible servlets in the engine.) Retrieves the previously stored value from the session object A Boolean method that returns false, if the session existed previously for the client, and true, otherwise

getAttribute(String name) isNew()

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Methods for Invoking Servlets


Invoke servlets from a client by:
Entering the servlet URL in a browser Embedding the servlet URL in an HTML, or a JSP page, or another servlet (an href link)
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Submitting a form to the servlet (using the action tag) Using URL classes in client Java applications

Invoke servlets inside the Java EE container by defining a chain of servlets or JSPs.

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Methods for Invoking Servlets You can use the following methods to invoke a servlet: You can directly enter the URL in a browser. Any HTML page can contain a servlet URL by using either the <a href=> or the <FORM action=> tag. JSPs provide yet another way of invoking a servlet. The JSP can have Java code directly embedded in it. A servlet can be invoked by another servlet through chaining. A servlet chain is a sequence of servlets in which the output of a servlet is sent to the next servlet in the chain. The last servlet produces the actual output that is seen by the Web browser. A servlet chain has the same advantages that the pipe command has in an operating system. Any number of servlets can be chained together. Additionally, servlet filters can intercept the request and pass the output to the next filter or servlet in the filter chain.

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Quiz
HttpSession is an interface that provides a way to identify a user across more than one page request. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 1

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Handling Input: The Form


You can use an HTML form and the doPost() method to modify the HelloWorld servlet.
<html><body> <form method="post" action="newhelloworld"> Please enter your name. Thank you. <input type="text" name="firstName"> <P> <input type="submit" value="Submit"> </form> </body> </html>

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Handling Input: The Form In this slide, an HTML form is used, which passes the input to the Web server. Your task is to process this input. The HTML output is shown below.

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Handling Input: The Servlet

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Handling Input: The Servlet The preceding slide shows an HTML form that passes some input. This slide shows how you can process the input. Note that the content type, res.setContentType("text/html"), is set before submitting the document. In the example in the slide, getParameter() is used to retrieve the case-sensitive firstName parameter as a string from the HTML form. If no value is found, an empty string is returned, and null is returned, if there is no parameter by that name. getParameter() is used in the same way for GET and POST requests. Additionally, getParameterValues() can be used to return an array of strings, if the parameter can have more than one value.

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public class NewHelloWorld extends HttpServlet { public void doPost( HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) throws ServletException, IOException{ res.setContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter out = res.getWriter(); out.println ("<html><body>"); String name = req.getParameter("firstName"); if ((name != null) && (name.length() > 0)) out.println ("Hello: " + name + " How are you?"); else out.println ("Hello Anonymous!"); out.println ("</body></html>"); }}

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Initialization and Destruction


Servlets also define the init() and destroy() methods in addition to the service() method. init():
Can be used to retrieve initialization parameters Takes a ServletConfig object as a parameter Is invoked when the servlet instance is created Is useful for obtaining database connections from a connection pool
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destroy():
Takes no arguments Is invoked when the servlet is about to be unloaded Is useful for releasing resources

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Initialization and Destruction The ServletConfig object of init() can be used to find the initialization parameters that are associated with the servlet. It uses the getInitParameter() method to retrieve the name of the initialization parameter. Note that you must call super.init() in the init() method if you use the ServletConfig object, because the ServletConfig object can be used elsewhere in the servlet. For instance:
public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException { super.init(config); ... // your initialization here }

In a Java EE Web application, an initialization parameter is defined in the web.xml file as follows:
<init-param> <param-name>message</param-name> <param-value>Hello From Init Parameter</param-value> </init-param>

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Error Handling
ServletException:
Is generated to indicate a generic servlet problem Is subclassed by UnavailableException to indicate that a servlet is unavailable, either temporarily or permanently Is handled by the servlet engine in implementation-dependent ways

IOException is generated if there is an input or output error when processing the request.

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Error Handling The doXxx() method throws both ServletException and IOException. The init() method throws ServletException. These exceptions contain the same constructors as the Exception class. Generally, an IOException is returned only when there is some kind of stream operation on the servlet (in the case of working with applets, for example). ServletException is returned if the servlet cannot be reached. For additional exceptions, an error page can be set for error codes in the <web-app> element of web.xml as follows:
<error-page> <exception-type> java.lang.NumberFormatException </exceptiontype> <location>MyExceptionServlet</location> </error-page>

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Debugging a Servlet
Servlets can be debugged in the following ways: By setting breakpoints and using the debugger in JDeveloper By viewing the source of the generated HTML
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Debugging a Servlet Servlets can be debugged in JDeveloper by setting breakpoints in the code (by clicking the line number where you want to set the breakpoint), and then by right-clicking the servlet name in the navigator and selecting Debug in the menu. Additionally, selecting View > Source in the browser displays the generated HTML of the servlet. Note that you can also debug servlets or other Java EE components that are running in a different JVM. The detailed steps to do this can be found in the online Help of JDeveloper, under the topic Remote Debugging. There is a wizard to create a project that is configured for remote debugging. Typically, you perform these tasks: 1. Specify the source directory and any necessary libraries. 2. Copy the jdev-rt run-time libraries to the remote server. 3. Bind the Web sites in the J2EE server configuration files. 4. Run the servlet (with breakpoints set) in the remote server. 5. Start the debugging process in JDeveloper as in the slide above. 6. Begin debugging the servlet.

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JDeveloper Environment
The Servlet Wizard in JDeveloper makes it easy for you to write servlets. The wizard: Provides the doGet() and doPost() method skeletons Provides an environment for running the servlet within the integrated development environment (IDE) Dynamically creates the web.xml file for running the servlet from the IDE

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JDeveloper Environment The Servlet Wizard in JDeveloper gives you an easy way to start your servlet development. It also creates an environment for running and debugging your servlet.

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Servlet Mapping
Mapping a servlet refers to how a client can access a servlet. You can map a servlet by using the mapped URL: http://host:port/<context-root>/<mappedservletname> <context-root> is the mapping for the Web module.

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Servlet Mapping Servlet mapping refers to the process by which a servlet is invoked. This is application serverdependent. In general, you can map a servlet by using the mapped URL: http://host:port/<context-root>/<mappedservletname> where host is the host name or IP address of the server machine, and port is the port number of the server. (For example, Apaches default port is 80 and WebLogic Servers default port is 7001.) This is not enabled by default. <context-root> is the mapping for the Java EE Web module.

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Servlet Mapping in JDeveloper


JDeveloper provides the standard Java EE model for mapping servlets by using the web.xml file:
<?xml version = '1.0' encoding = 'UTF-8'?> <!DOCTYPE web-app PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Web Application 2.2//EN" "http://java.sun.com/j2ee/dtds/web-app_2_2.dtd"> <web-app> <servlet> <servlet-name>LoginServlet</servlet-name> <servlet-class>oracle.servlets.LoginServlet</servlet-class> </servlet> <servlet-mapping> <servlet-name>LoginServlet</servlet-name> <url-pattern>/loginservlet</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping> </web-app>

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Servlet Mapping in JDeveloper The web.xml file is primarily used to map a servlet to a virtual directory and name it. This standard Java EE file is created automatically when a servlet is created in JDeveloper, and the appropriate XML tags are included in the file. To modify the file, right-click the web.xml file and select Properties from the context menu. In the above example, the servlet named LoginServlet is mapped to a virtual directory of /loginservlet. Therefore, this servlet can be accessed with the following URL: http://localhost:<port>/<context-root>/loginservlet The virtual directory of /loginservlet comes from the Java EE Web server configuration. It is included automatically when running a servlet that is mapped in the web.xml file.

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Invoking a Servlet

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Invoking a Servlet This slide shows an example of how a servlet can be invoked in JDeveloper. When the servlet is run, the Java EE server installed with JDeveloper is started, the mapping is retrieved from the web.xml file, and the resulting servlet is displayed from the default browser. Note: The context root of this application is servlets-context-root.

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Specifying Java EE Web Module Settings

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Specifying Java EE Web Module Settings The slide shows the Java EE Web module settings for a project in JDeveloper. This is accessed by right-clicking the project and selecting Project Properties. The slide shows the default settings for the lesson04Demo project, which can be changed as necessary.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Describe the servlet life cycle Develop and run a servlet in JDeveloper Map a servlet in a Java EE server Collect information from a client Respond to the client Handle errors in a servlet

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Summary In this lesson, you have examined the role of servlets in the client tier of an application. You have also seen how a servlet manages the request and response from a client, each request running independent threads. You have explored the servlet life cycle and how a servlet is initialized, executed, and destroyed. An HTTP servlet provides doPost() and doGet() methods supporting HTML POST and GET methods. You can invoke servlet methods directly in the URL, within any HTML page or a Java Server Page, or from another servlet. Finally, you have seen how a servlet maps to a client to access the servlet methods.

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Practice: Overview
These practices cover the following topics: Developing a simple servlet application in JDeveloper 11g Testing the servlet in a Web browser Modifying an HTML form to access the servlet Modifying the servlet application to extract the user credentials, connect to a database table, and validate the user

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Practice: Overview The aim of the practices for this lesson is to develop a servlet application. You learn to develop a simple servlet application by using the Oracle JDeveloper 11g integrated development environment, and execute it from a Web browser. Later, you modify a login HTML form that accepts a username and password, and makes a call to the servlet application. The servlet application extracts the user credentials from the HTML form and validates it against a database table.

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Developing a Web Application Using JavaServer Pages

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe the relationship between JavaServer Pages (JSP) and servlets List implicit objects on JSP pages Describe the semantics of JSP tags Create a JSP segment Explain the use of JSP tag files Run and debug a JSP-based application

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Objectives The JavaServer Pages (JSP) specification is closely related to the servlet specification. It enables you to create Web applications in a more productive manner. This lesson covers in detail JSPs and their role in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. JDeveloper provides a complete environment for the creation, editing, and debugging of JSP pages. You learn how to use these features in JDeveloper to simplify the development of JSP pages.

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JavaServer Pages
Request Connects to

JSP Client Generates

Database

Dynamic content

Response

EJB

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JavaServer Pages The idea behind servlets and JSP technology is to separate the presentation logic and business logic and, therefore, to have thin clients. JSPs are based on Java servlet technology and are an extension of servlets. JSPs can generate dynamic content just as servlets can. However, a JSP has its own advantages. The advantage of the JSP model is that Web designers need not be familiar with the Java programming language to create JSPs. Programmers can provide JavaBeans and custom tags to Web designers who are familiar with HTML. In this model, there are well-defined job roles for Web page designers and application programmers. Given that JSPs are built on servlet technology, the focus is on improving the programmers productivity. JSP leverage the benefits of component technologies and, therefore, simplify the task of the programmer. The graphic in the slide shows that a client invokes a JSP with a URL. Note that, like servlets, JSPs function by using the request-response model. Depending on the request from the client, the JSP connects to a database or calls an Enterprise JavaBean (EJB), which in turn can connect to a database. The JSP then creates dynamic content by using the output from the database or an EJB, and returns the content to the client.

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Comparing Servlets and JSPs


Servlets: Are Java programs with embedded HTML code Generate dynamic content Do not separate static and dynamic content JSPs: Are HTML pages with embedded Java code or pure XML Generate dynamic content Separate static and dynamic content

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Comparing Servlets and JSPs A JSP is an HTML page with embedded Java code. JSPs can also be pure Extensible Markup Language (XML). A JSP takes an HTML page, adds a few tags, and automatically generates dynamic content. A servlet also generates dynamic content, but it is not an HTML page. A servlet is a Java program with embedded HTML code. Because a servlet is a Java program, the programmer must take care of the syntax and semantics while developing a servlet. The servlet must be compiled before it is executed. Though you must know Java programming language and the API well before you can develop a servlet, you need not be an expert in Java to develop a JSP. A Web page designer can develop a JSP because JSPs mainly contain HTML/XML tags and additional JSP tags containing the Java code. In servlets, most of the Java code is written in the service method. However, in JSPs, the Java code is embedded in JSP tags. This enables separation of the static and dynamic content in JSP. All the static content is in the HTML tags, and the dynamic content (Java code) is in the JSP tags. Because a servlet is a Java program, the .class file must be created before it can be invoked. A JSP is automatically compiled into a servlet when it is invoked for the first time. You need not explicitly compile the source. However, if you use integrated development environment (IDE) to develop JSPs, the JSPs are automatically compiled when you run them.
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Invoking JSPs

Invoke JSP

Servlet

JSP
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Invoking JSPs You can invoke a JSP in different ways, depending on the needs of your application: Invoking a JSP with a URL: You can invoke a JSP directly with the URL http://host:port/context-root/main.jsp, where: - host is the name or IP address of the machine where JSP is running - port is the port number on which the server is running - context-root is the name with which the document is mapped to a client - main.jsp is the name of the JSP file Invoking a JSP from an HTML page, a servlet, or a JSP: In a practical scenario, the first page is designed as a controller servlet, which invokes a JSP depending on user inputs. You can also invoke a JSP from another JSP.

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HTML

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Date.jsp
<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=WINDOWS-1252"%> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=WINDOWS-1252"> <title> Show Date </title> </head> <body> <h2> The current time is: </h2> <p> <%= new java.util.Date() %> </p> </body> </html>

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Date.jsp The slide shows the JSP code for displaying the current time and date, and the result of invoking the JSP. Note that the code mainly contains HTML tags. The Java code that is highlighted in the slide displays the date and time dynamically. The content in the HTML tags form the static part of this page. JSPs are primarily component centric and not page centric. The page-centric model is easy to learn and enables rapid development. However, users eventually realized that this is not the way to build large, scalable Web applications. The logic that is written for scripted environments is locked inside pages. Presentation logic is mixed with business and data logic, making application maintenance difficult because programmers attempted to modify the look-and-feel of an application without breaking the tightly coupled business logic. As Web application complexity increased, the limitations of the page-centric model became obvious. At the same time that users were looking for better ways to build Web applications, components were being actively developed in the client and server world. Java and Windows application developers were using JavaBeans and ActiveX, respectively. JSPs are primarily a component-centric platform. Components can be shared across JSPs, and both non-Java developers and Java developers can use them.

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Date Servlet
... public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException { response.setContentType(CONTENT_TYPE); PrintWriter out = response.getWriter(); out.println("<html>"); out.println("<head><title>Show Date </title></head><body><h2>The current time is:</h2><p>"); out.println(new java.util.Date()); out.println("</body></html>"); out.close(); } ...

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Date Servlet The previous slide talked about Date.jsp. Consider writing a servlet instead of JSP to display the date. The code in the slide shows the doGet() method of the date servlet. Note that all the HTML tags (highlighted in the slide) and their data are passed to the println() method as a java.lang.String. This is a simple servlet that displays the date, but still includes many println statements. It is too cumbersome to design a complex page, which includes both static and dynamic content. Note that a single println statement can replace all the println statements in the servlet:
out.println("<html><head><title>Show Date</title></head><body><h2>The current time is:</h2><p>"+ new java.util.Date()+ "</body></html>");

However, if you split the HTML tags with different println statements, it is much easier to revisit or debug the servlet.

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Automated JSP Features


A JSP is automatically converted into a servlet the first time it is invoked:
Java source files are generated. Java class files are generated. The Java Just-In-Time compiler can be used.

A JSP can contain extensible components:


Tags: Libraries such as custom-developed tags JavaBeans (Beans are reused and their properties are automatically introspected.)

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Automated JSP Features Unlike servlets, you need not compile JSPs. When you invoke a JSP for the first time, the JSP is automatically converted into a servlet. The dynamic content (Java code) in the JSP is inserted in the _jspService() method of the servlet and the static content remains untouched. Therefore, the first time a JSP is invoked, your response time is likely to be slow. With subsequent requests, however, you obtain the full benefits of the servlet technology.

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JSP Life Cycle


Java EE container WebLogic Server
http://host/date.jsp

First time No

Yes 1 Create servlet date.java. 2

3 Servlet life cycle

Compile servlet date.class.

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JSP Life Cycle When the Web server receives a request, the server deciphers the request to determine whether the request is for a JSP. The JSP engine verifies whether the corresponding servlet class exists. If the servlet does not exist, this is the first time the JSP has been requested. Thus, the JSP life cycle is traversed as follows: 1. The JSP is translated into a servlet. During the translation phase, each tag in the JSP is handled differently because some of the tags provide instructions for the container and some are used to create dynamic content. 2. After the translation is done, the servlet source file is compiled and a servlet class file is generated. 3. The server then executes the servlet by following the life cycle of the servlet. If the servlet already exists, the servlet is executed as mentioned in step 3.

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Basic JSP Elements


A JSP contains three main elements: Text elements Directives Scripting elements:
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Declarations Expressions Scriptlets

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Basic JSP Elements Text elements: Text elements represent the static portion of the page and are formatted through standard HTML or XML. Directives: These elements provide instructions to the JSP at run time. The JSP container processes the instructions that are provided in the directives while compiling the JSP. Scripting elements: These elements represent the dynamic portion of the page. They contain Java code. They are used to perform computation and to generate dynamic content. They include tags called scriptlets, expressions, and declarations. The code in these scripting elements is put in the _jspService method, which in turn is called by the service method of the servlet when the JSP is translated to a servlet.

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Declarations
Are used to define methods or variables Begin with the sequence <%! End with the sequence %> Are inserted into the body of the servlet class, not within a method, during translation Are used in conjunction with expressions or scriptlets
<%! private int i=3; %> <%! private String a="Hello", b=" World"; %>

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Declarations JSP declarations <%!...%> are used to declare the methods or variables that are inserted outside the _jspService() method, whereas the scriptlet tag <%...%> generates code inside the _jspService() method. Here is an example of a JSP followed by the generated servlet code. The servlet code is not the complete class, but shows the relevant parts. <%! private int useCount = 0; private static int countryCode = 25; public int getSquare(int k){ return k*k; } %> <TABLE BORDER="1"> <% int n =8; for (int j=1; j <=n;j++){ %> <TR><TD><%=j%></TD><TD><%=getSquare(j)%></TR> <%}%> </TABLE>

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private static final char _text[][]=new char[6][]; static { _text[0] ="\n<html>\n <head>\n ...".toCharArray() ; _text[1] ="\n<TABLE BORDER=\"1\">\n".toCharArray(); _text[2] ="\n<TR><TD>".toCharArray(); // finishing code not shown }

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Declarations (continued) private int useCount = 0; private static int countryCode = 25; public int getSquare(int k){ return k*k; } public void _jspService(...){ // generated page context code not shown out.write(_text[1]); int n =8; for (int j=1; j <=n;j++){ out.write(_text[2]); out.print(j); out.write(_text[3]); out.print(getSquare(j)); out.write(_text[4]); } out.write(_text[5]); }//end _jspService( )

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Expressions
Begin with the sequence <%= Contain Java expressions that are evaluated and inserted into the servlets output End with the sequence %>
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Do not end with a semicolon


<%= i+1 %> 1 <%= a + b %> <%= new java.util.Date() %>

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Expressions Expressions are used to insert values directly into the output. The expression is evaluated first and the result is converted to a string. For every expression in the JSP, a print statement is inserted in the _jspService() method. Therefore, the resultant string is then written to the output. The expressions are evaluated at run time. 1. The variable I is declared and initialized to 3 (in the previous slide). Therefore, this expression prints the value 4. Similarly, a is initialized to Hello and b is initialized to World. The expression a + b prints Hello World. This is the same as:
<%= "Hello" + " World" %>

2. This expression prints the current time and date. The slide shows three expressions. The corresponding translated code that is put in the _jspService() method is as follows:
out.print(i+1); out.print("Hello" + " World"); out.print(new java.util.Date());

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Scriptlets
Begin with the sequence <% Contain a block of Java code that is executed every time a request is made End with the sequence %>
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<% if (i<3) out.print("i<3"); if (i==3) out.print("i==3"); else out.print("i>3"); %>

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Scriptlets Scriptlets enable you to write blocks of Java code inside the JSP. This code is executed every time the JSP is invoked. The code inside the scriptlet is inserted exactly as it is written into the _jspService() method. A scriptlet can contain any valid Java code. Any errors in the scripting elements are thrown during translation time or compilation time. The slide shows an example of a scriptlet. You can alternatively write the code as shown below:
<%if (i<3) %> i<3 <%if (i==3) %> i==3 <%else %> i>3

In this code, whatever is not enclosed within the scriptlet is treated as HTML code and gets converted to print statements during translation. Therefore, you need not enter the print statements repeatedly. In the example shown in the slide, the out variable, which has not been declared so far, is used. The following slide discusses this variable.

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Implicit Objects
There are eight implicit objects, also known as predefined variables, in JSP: application request config response pageContext session page out Note: These objects are created in the generated servlet.

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Implicit Objects In JSP, implicit objects are provided. You can use these predefined variables without explicitly declaring them. Implicit objects are created by the container, and contain information related to a particular request, page, or session. request: This variable is the HttpServletRequest object that is associated with the request. You can access the request parameters, such as request type, HTTP headers, and so on with this variable. response: This variable is the HttpServletResponse object that is associated with the response to the client. session: This variable is the HttpSession object that is associated with the request. Sessions are created automatically. You can also disable the sessions if you do not want to associate a session with each client. out: This variable is the PrintWriter object that is used to send the output to the client.

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Implicit Objects (continued) application: Servlets and JSPs store persistent data in the ServletContext object. The application variable is the ServletContext object. config: This variable is used to store the ServletConfig object for the page. pageContext: The pageContext object is used to give a single point of access to page attributes. page: The page object is a synonym for this. It is useful if the JSP is not scripted in Java.

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Example

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Example You have learned about declarations, expressions, and scriptlets. This slide shows the result of putting them together. The code for the example is as follows:
<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=windows-1252"%> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252"> <title> Declaration Expression and Scriptlet </title> </head> <body bgcolor="pink"> <h3> Declarations </h3> <b> Declare i </b> &lt%! private int i=3; %&gt <%! private int i=3; %><br> <b> Declare Strings a and b </b>&lt%! private String a="Hello", b=" World"; %&gt <%! private String a="Hello", b=" World"; %>

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Example (continued)
<h3> Expressions </h3> &lt%= i+1 %&gt <b> output </b> <%= i+1 %> <br> &lt%= a + b %&gt<b> output </b><%= a + b %> <h3> Scriptlet </h3> &lt% if (i<3) <br> out.print("i<3"); <br> if (i==3) <br> out.print("i==3"); <br> else <br> out.print("i>3"); %&gt <b> output </b> <% if (i<3)out.print("i<3"); if (i==3) out.print("i==3"); else out.print("i>3"); %> </body> </html>

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Quiz
Which of the following pieces can a JSP be broken down into? 1. Static data such as HTML 2. JSP directives 3. JSP scripting elements and variables 4. A servlet class

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Answers: 1, 2, 3

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Directives
Are used to set global values such as class declarations and method implementations Begin with the sequence <%@ End with the sequence %>
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Are of the following types:

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Directives JSP directives contain messages to the JSP container. They are used to set global values. All directives have the scope of the JSP that contains the directives. The page directive: The page directive is used to define the important attributes for a JSP. You can include a page directive any number of times in a JSP. You learn about the various attributes of the page directive later in this lesson. The include directive: This directive is used to include files in the current JSP. The file output occurs at the location of the directive in the JSP file. Whatever file you include is interpreted when the JSP is translated into a servlet. Typically, you use the include directive to include files that rarely change (such as a navigation bar). For example:
<%@ include file="/navigation.jsp" %>

You cannot include another dynamic page with the include directive. The URL that is specified for the file is interpreted relative to the path of the JSP page. The taglib directive: This directive is used to specify custom markup tags.

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include: Example

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include: Example The slide shows the result of including an HTML page in a JSP. The include directive is used to include the file, and the file attribute is used to hold the path of the file. The HTML file that is included is as follows:
<HTML><HEAD> <META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=windows-1252"/> <TITLE>untitled</TITLE> </HEAD><BODY > <b><font color="red" size="3" >CONTENT FROM INCLUDED FILE </font> </b> </BODY> </HTML>

The JSP code that is used to include the file is as follows:


... <body> <b>Including the content from a file here, using the &lt%@ include file=" " %> tag </b> <br><%@ include file="includefile.html" %> </body> ... Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 5 - 21

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page Directive
You can define the following attributes by using the page directive: import extends contentType info isThreadSafe errorPage session isErrorPage buffer language autoFlush

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page Directive The page directive can specify several attributes for the JSP: import: This attribute takes a list of packages or classes, separated by commas that must be imported by the servlet class created for a JSP. contentType: This attribute sets the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) type for the response of the JSP. The default is text/html. isThreadSafe: If this attribute is set to false, the client requests are queued for processing because the generated servlet implements SingleThreadModel. The default value is true. session: If this attribute value is false, a clients request is not associated with a session. The default value for a session attribute is true. buffer: The buffer attribute can take a size in KB or the value none for the amount of data that is to be buffered before the page is sent to the client. The default is 8 KB. autoFlush: If the autoFlush attribute is set to false, a run-time exception is raised to indicate buffer overflow. The default value is true, in which case the buffer to the client is flushed automatically when it is full.

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page Directive (continued) extends: The extends attribute is used to specify the class name that the generated servlet class must extend. info: This attribute is used to define a string that can be retrieved from the generated servlet by using the getServletInfo() method. iserrorPage: This attribute is used to specify whether or not the JSP is an error page. If it is an error page, the implicit variable exception is available. This page can be invoked by another JSP when an unchecked run-time exception is thrown. errorPage: This attribute defines the URL to another JSP, which is an error page that is invoked when an unchecked run-time exception is thrown. language: This attribute defines the scripting language that is to be used in JSP.

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taglib Directive A taglib directive defines a tag library and prefix for the custom tags used on the JSP page. The taglib directive declares that the JSP page uses custom tags, names the tag library that defines them, and specifies their tag prefix. You must use a taglib directive before you use the custom tag on a JSP page. You can use more than one taglib directive on a JSP page, but the prefix defined in each must be unique.

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JSP and JavaBeans

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JSP and JavaBeans As mentioned already, JSP is component centric. You can use reusable components, such as JavaBeans, in a JSP. A JSP provides tags to use JavaBeans. In simple applications, a JSP includes the presentation logic as well as the business logic. The Date JSP is an example of such a page. When there is more code involved, it is important to separate business logic and presentation logic. You can use JavaBeans to implement the business logic and return data to the JSP, which, in turn, formats the data and displays it in the browser. The following are the benefits of using JavaBeans on JSP pages: JavaBeans are reusable components. Therefore, different applications can use these components. Using JavaBeans results in the separation of business logic and presentation logic. The slide shows an example of JavaBeans. According to the JavaBean specification, a JavaBean should: Have a zero-argument constructor Have no public instance variables Have accessor methods to set or get a value for each property The example shown in the slide has a zero-argument constructor. LuckyNumberBean has a luckyNum property. getLuckyNum() and setLuckyNum(int) are the accessor and mutator methods, respectively, for the luckyNum property.
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package lesson05; import java.lang.*; import java.util.*; public class LuckyNumberBean { private int luckyNum; public LuckyNumberBean() { luckyNum = (int) (1000 * Math.random()); } public int getLuckyNum() { return luckyNum; } public void setLuckyNum(int luckyNum) { this.luckyNum = luckyNum; } }

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Using JavaBeans with JSP


Accessing JavaBeans with the <jsp:useBean> tag:
<jsp:useBean id="myBean" scope="session" class="lesson05.LuckyNumberBean" />
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Using JavaBeans with JSP Actions are specific tags that affect the run-time behavior of the JSP and affect the response. Note that these tags are in the XML format. The action tags in JSP are: <jsp:useBean> <jsp:setProperty> <jsp:getProperty> <jsp:include> <jsp:forward> <jsp:plugin> <jsp:param> The <jsp:useBean>, <jsp:setProperty>, and <jsp:getProperty> tags are the action tags that are used with JavaBeans. The code given in the slide is used to instantiate an object of the LuckyNumberBean class, and to bind it to the myBean variable. The <jsp:useBean> tag hides the Java syntax and makes it easier to associate request parameters with Java objects. You can also share the objects among multiple requests.

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Using JavaBeans with JSP (continued) The attributes of the <jsp:useBean> tag are: id: This attribute is used to specify a name for the object of the class. scope: This attribute defines the scope of the object. You learn more about this attribute in the following slide. <jsp:include>: This tag includes a file (usually, .html or .jsp) in a JSP at request time.
<jsp:include page="{relativeURL | <%= expression %>}" />

<jsp:forward>: This tag is used to send a request to a file. A JSP file can use this tag to forward the client request to an HTML file, a JSP file, or a servlet for processing. For example: <jsp:plugin>: This tag downloads a Java plug-in to the client Web browser to execute an applet or a bean:
<jsp:plugin type=" bean| applet " code=" classFileName " codebase="classFileDirectoryName" [ name=" instanceName " ][ archive="URIToArchive, ..." ] [ align=" bottom | top | middle | left | right" ] [ height=" displayPixels " ] [ width="displayPixels " ] [ hspace=" leftRightPixels " ] [ vspace=" topBottomPixels "] [ jreversion=" JREVersionNumber | 1.1 " ] [ nspluginurl="URLToPlugin " ] [ iepluginurl=" URLToPlugin "] > [ <jsp: params> [ <jsp: param name=" parameterName " value=" parameterValue " /> ] + </ jsp: params> ] [ <jsp: fallback> text message for user </ jsp: fallback> ] </ jsp: plugin>

<jsp:param>: This tag is used with <jsp:plugin> to specify values for the applet parameters.

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<jsp:forward page="{ relativeURL | <%= expression %> } />

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scope Attribute of <jsp:useBean> Tag


Client Request Response Request Response

Forward

Page 1
page scope

Page 2
page scope

Page 3
page scope request scope

request scope session scope

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scope Attribute of <jsp:useBean> Tag The scope attribute determines the life of the bean object depending on the context to which it is bound. The scope attribute can have the following values: page: This is the default value. The bean object is placed in the pageContext object and the servlet code can access it by calling the getAttributes() method on the predefined pageContext variable. request: The bean object is placed in the ServletRequest object. Use the request object to include the bean from any JSP that is processing the same request (until the JSP sends a response to the client, or forwards the request to another file). You can use the request object to access the bean. session: The bean object is stored in the HttpSession object that is associated with the client. It can be retrieved by using the getSession() method. application: The bean object is stored in the shared ServletContext. ServletContext is shared by all servlets in the same Web application. You can use the getAttribute() method to retrieve values from ServletContext.

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Accessing and Setting Bean Properties


Accessing bean property:
<jsp:getProperty name="myBean" property="luckyNum" />

Setting bean property:


<jsp:setProperty name="myBean" property="luckyNum" value="10" />
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Accessing and Setting Bean Properties Accessing Bean Property The <jsp:getProperty> action is used to access bean property as shown in the slide. The value of the name attribute should match the value of the ID that is given in the <jsp:useBean> tag. The property attribute identifies the property of the bean that is being accessed. You can also use the following code to retrieve the bean property:
<%= myBean.getLuckyNum() %>

You can use this when with loops, conditional statements, and so on. Setting Bean Property The <jsp:setProperty> action is used to set the bean property. The value of the name attribute should be the name of the bean instance that is defined by the <jsp:useBean> tag. The property attribute holds the name of the property that is being changed, and the value attribute holds the new value for the property.

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Accessing and Setting Bean Properties (continued) The property in a bean can be set from request parameters, expressions, and a specified string. Example:
<jsp:setProperty name="myBean" property="luckyNum" value='<%= Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("num")) %>' />

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JSP XML Document


Contains <jsp:root> as its root element Includes only the XML syntax and does not include the traditional JSP tags Can be processed directly by the JSP container Can be used with XML development tools

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JSP XML Document Traditional JSP tags cannot be used within an XML document. JSP 1.1 defines JSP syntax that is compatible with XML. For example, the XML syntax for a traditional declaration tag is: <%! %>, <jsp:declaration> </jsp:declaration>. In JSP 1.1, a JSP can contain both traditional syntax and XML syntax. However, beginning with JSP 1.2, you cannot intermix these tags on a page. A JSP that contains the XML syntax is called a JSP XML document or a JSP document. A JSP document is well-formed and contains only the XML syntax. <jsp:root> is the root element of this document. The following are the three important goals of the root element: Establishing the document as a JSP XML document, so that the JSP container can process it Identifying the namespaces for the XML syntax and custom tag libraries through the xmlns attribute Specifying a JSP version number

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Traditional Syntax Versus XML Syntax


Traditional: It has no root element. page directive <%@page %> Declaration tag <%! %> Expression tag <%= expression %> Scriptlet <% %>

XML:
<jsp:root> is the root

element.
<jsp:directive.page/> <jsp:declaration> ... </jsp:declaration> <jsp:expression> ... </jsp:expression> <jsp:scriptlet> ... </jsp:scriptlet>

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Traditional Syntax Versus XML Syntax The slide shows the XML syntax for some of the traditional tags described in this lesson. You have already learned that <jsp:root> is the root element of a JSP document. You now see how to use the XML syntax in a JSP document.
<jsp:root xmlns:jsp="http://.." xmlns:temp="http://" version="1.2" > body elements </jsp:root>

The page Directive and include Directive


<jsp:directive.page language=" " import=" " /> <jsp:directive.include file=" " />

Declaration Tag
<jsp:declaration> public void setCount(int i) { if(i &lt; 10) count=i;} </jsp:declaration>

Expression Tag
<jsp:expression> (user==null)? " ":user </jsp:expression>

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Traditional Syntax Versus XML Syntax (continued) Scriptlet


<jsp:scriptlet> if (request.getParameter("name").equals(" ")) {........} </jsp:scriptlet>

JSP XML View In JSP1.2, the JSP document can be directly processed by a JSP container. The container creates an XML version, called XML view, of the parsing result. This XML view is the mapping of a JSP (either a traditional page or a JSP XML document) into an XML document that describes it. The XML view can be used by validator classes to validate a page.

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The JSP action tags, such as <jsp:useBean>, <jsp:forward>, and so on, are XML compatible. Text Element When a JSP container encounters the text element, <jsp:text>, it passes the contents to the current JSP out object. The code <jsp:text> Hello World </jsp:text> displays Hello World when you run the JSP document.

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JSP Segments
Use a JSP segment for creating a partial JSP page. Include one or more segments in a JSP using <jsp:include>. JSP segment footer.jspf:
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JSP:
<%@ include file="/footer.jspf"%>

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JSP Segments Using JSP segments adds a degree of consistency to an overall application. An application may have hundreds of pages and each one should have the same branding or header information and appearance. If the developer had to create a header for each page, there is a good chance of creating inconsistencies across pages. Instead of coding each page, the developer can create a single header segment and include it on each of the pages. The JSP2.0 specification recommends that developers name these segments *.jspf and include them in a separate directory such as /web-inf/jspf.

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Quiz
A JSP XML document contains both XML syntax and the traditional JSP tags. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 2

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What Is a Tag Library?


JSPs define six standard actions: useBean, getProperty, setProperty, include, forward and plugin. JSPs allow developers to define custom actions that can be invoked by using custom tags. A tag library is a collection of custom tags. Custom tags can be used to process forms, send mails, access database, control flow, or perform business logic.

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What Is a Tag Library? JSP 1.1 introduced the ability to create and use custom tags in JSP pages. Custom tags enable you to abstract the complexity of business logic from the presentation of Web pages. This makes it easy for the Web author to use and empowers Web page designers, who are often not fluent in Java coding, to have access to powerful functions using an easy tag-based interface. You can use custom JSP tag extension in JSP pages to generate dynamic content, and you can use several Web development tools to create the presentation. WebLogic Server 10.3 fully supports the JSP 2.0 specification.

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Tag Interfaces
Implement tags using interfaces and classes in javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.*. Custom tags implement interfaces Tag, BodyTag, and SimpleTag, and are called as tag handlers.
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Tag Interfaces You write a custom JSP tag by writing a Java class called a tag handler. You write the tag handler class by implementing any one of the three interfaces. Tag, BodyTag, or SimpleTag defines methods that are invoked during the life cycle of the tag or by extending an abstract base class that implements one of these interfaces. Extending an abstract base class relieves the tag handler class from having to implement all methods in the interfaces and also provide other convenient functionality. The TagSupport, BodyTagSupport, and SimpleTagSupport classes implement these interfaces and are included in the API. One or more custom JSP tags can be included in a tag library. A tag library is defined by a tag library descriptor (TLD) file. TLD describes the syntax for each tag and binds it to the Java classes that execute its functionality.

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Tag Handlers
Are objects that a JSP invokes when it encounters a custom tag Provide several methods that are called at various stages of a tags life cycle. For example:
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import javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.* ... public class SayHelloTag extends SimpleTagSupport { private String var; ... public void doTag() throws JspException { //contains tag logic, iteration, body evaluations ... } ... public void setVar( String var ) { ... }
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Tag Handlers Simple tag handlers differ from classic tag handlers in supporting doStartTag() and doEndTag(). The SimpleTag interface provides a simple doTag() method, which is called only once for any given tag invocation. All tag logic, iteration, body evaluations, and so on are to be performed in this single method. A SimpleTag handler must have a public noargument constructor. Most simple tag handlers should extend the SimpleTagSupport class.

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Tag Library Descriptor


A tag library descriptor describes a custom tag library.
<?xml version = '1.0' ...?> <taglib ... > <tlib-version>1.0</tlib-version> <!-- Tag lib version --> <short-name>...</short-name> <!- Preferred name --> <uri>...</uri> <!- uniquely identifies the tag library--> <tag> <description>...</description> <!- Describes tag library --> <name>sayHello</name> <!- Defines tag name --> <tag-class>tag.SayHelloTag</tag-class> <!- Specify tag handler class--> <body-content>empty</body-content> <attribute> <!-- Declares an attribute --> <name>var</name> <required>true</required> </attribute> </tag> </taglib>

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Tag Library Descriptor A tag library descriptor is an XML document that contains information about a library as a whole and about each tag contained in the library. TLDs are used by a Web container to validate the tags and by JSP page development tools. The tag library descriptor file names must have the extension .tld and must be packaged in the /WEB-INF/ directory or subdirectory of the WAR file or in the /META-INF/ directory or subdirectory of a tag library packaged in a JAR file.

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Implementing Simple Tags

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Implementing Simple Tags The slide shows the invocation of a custom tag. The JSP locates the tag library by referring the Web.xml file.

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JSP Expression Language


Enables access to application data stored in JavaBeans component Is simple to implement as compared to custom tags and scriptlets Syntax (JSP and XML)
${expression}

Examples:
${1.2 + 2.3} ${4.0 >= 3} ${customer.firstName}

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JSP Expression Language The JSP expression language (EL) greatly simplifies JSP authoring by removing the need to use embedded Java scriptlets and expressions to access request parameters or application data stored in JavaBeans. The expression language has its own syntax, partially based on the JavaScript syntax. The expression language is invoked through the ${expression} syntax. The most basic semantic is that invocation of a named variable ${foo} yields the same result as the method call PageContext.findAttribute(foo). To access named properties within JavaBeans and within collections such as lists, maps, and arrays, the expression language supports the "." and "[]" operators. For example, employee.phones.cell is equivalent to employee.getPhones().getCell() in Java syntax.

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Expression Language Implicit Objects


The expression language provides the following implicit objects: pageScope param requestScope header sessionScope pageContext
First.jsp ... First Name: <input type='text' name='Name'/> Last Name: <input type='text' name='Address'/> <input type='submit' value='Submit'/> ... Second.jsp ... Name is : ${param.Name} Address is : ${param.Address} ...

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Expression Language Implicit Objects The expression language provides the following implicit objects: pageScope: Allows access to page-scope variables requestScope: Allows access to request-scope variables sessionScope: Allows access to session-scope variables pageContext: Allows access to all properties of the page context of a JSP page param: A Java Map object containing request parameters typically accessed using the request.getParameter() method. The expression ${param["foo"]} or the equivalent ${param.foo} both return the first string value associated with the request parameter foo. header: As with param, you can use this object to access the first string value associated with a request header The example in the slide shows a part of the code from two JSP files: First.jsp and Second.jsp. In First.jsp, you enter the name and address, click the Submit button, and the flow goes to Second.jsp. You can retrieve the values by using the ${param.xxxx}syntax.

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JDeveloper and JSPs


The JSP Wizard in JDeveloper is used to create JSPs containing skeleton code. Structure Pane helps to ensure that the JSP and HTML tags are properly formatted. Tag Insight automatically inserts end tags after starting a scriptlet. The JSP code is automatically created and recompiled. JDeveloper increases productivity while debugging JSPs:
Automatically includes source Java files such as your JavaBean source Enables you to set breakpoints and watch expressions in JSPs

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JDeveloper and JSPs JDeveloper gives you many tools for simplifying your JSP development. The JSP Wizard creates a JSP that contains skeleton code. The Structure Pane and Tag Insight features help you develop syntactically correct JSPs. When you launch your JSP, the code is re-created when needed, and recompiled. The integrated debugger enables you to systematically run the JSP that you have written, while viewing the generated servlet code and any JavaBeans.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Identify the differences and similarities between JSPs and servlets Use declarations, expressions, scriptlets, and implicit objects on JSP pages Use JavaBeans with JSPs Create a JSP segment Explain the use of JSP tag files Run and debug a JSP-based application

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Summary JSPs are based on Java servlet technology and are an extension of servlets. JSPs can generate dynamic content just as servlets can. However, Web designers can create JSPs with no Java knowledge, with JavaBeans and custom tags written by programmers. A JSP is automatically compiled into a servlet when it is invoked for the first time. There are eight implicit objects, or predefined variables, that are created by the JSP container: request, response, session, out, application, config, pageContext, and page. JSP syntax includes directives (<%@directive%>) and action tags (<jsp:action>). You can define JSP segments as .jspf files and include them on a page with the <%@include% file="<filename>"> directive. Beginning with JSP 2.0, you can use tag files to abstract a segment of JSP code and make it reusable using a custom action. JDeveloper provides tools to help you create, run, and debug JSPs.

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Practice: Overview
These practices covers the following topics: Building a basic JSP application Building a JSP application that uses a Java bean to implement the business logic Building a JSP application using custom tags and expression language

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Accessing Resources with JNDI and Dependency Injection

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Describe the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) Locate or look up resources and EJBs by using:
JNDI APIs Dependency injection (DI)

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Java Naming and Directory Interface


The JNDI is: A standard set of interfaces that provide:
Naming services Directory services
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A service provided by Java EE containers to locate Java EE resources or objects such as:
Data sources Environment references EJBs and JMS components
JNDI API JNDI SPI

RMI Registry COS Naming

Programmatic interfaces JNDI client

LDAP
JNDI provider implementations

Object

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Java Naming and Directory Interface Java EE applications use the following parts of the JNDI specifications to find other distributed objects: An application-level interface used by client programs to access a naming and directory service A service-provider interface used by the JNDI API to communicate with a provider of a naming and directory service, in a vendor-independent manner Client applications use JNDI properties and the API to: Connect with a JNDI service provider by establishing an initial context Locate an object by its registered name by calling a lookup operation from the initial context The server implements the JNDI Service Provider Interface (SPI) library that generalizes access to different types of JNDI provider implementations, such as Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Registry, Common Object Services Naming, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and others. This enables different types of directory-service and naming-service implementations to be transparently used by the Java EE container. The types of objects typically stored in a JNDI service provider include the bean interface for Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) components, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) data sources, and Java Message Service (JMS) resources.
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JNDI Structure

Application Code JNDI API Naming Manager WLS Driver LDAP Driver JNDI SPI File Sys Driver DNS Driver Other

Written by Developer JNDI API

Purchased

WLS Server

LDAP Server

File System

DNS System

Other

Service

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JNDI Structure As you can see, a variety of naming and directory services exist in production today. These include services such as: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Domain Name Service (DNS) Network Information Service (NIS) Remote Method Invocation (RMI) Using the JNDI SPI, service providers for these industry naming and directory services provide a mapping from JNDI to their particular service. Java applications can then use the JNDI API to access any individual service uniformly. Access to the service is provided using a Naming Manager. A complete list of existing service providers can be located at: http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/serviceproviders.html

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Naming Service
A naming service provides a method for mapping identifiers to entities or objects:
ID1 ID2 ID3

Naming Service vocabulary:


Term
Binding Namespace

Objects

Definition
Association of an atomic name and an object A set of unique names in a naming system

Example
www.oracle.com is bound to 209.10.217.38 www.oracle.com/products

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Naming Service WebLogic Server provides naming services to client applications. These are mainly used for looking up EJBs, DataSources, JMS queues, and so forth.

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JNDI Tree
R
A binding associates an object with a logical name and a context. Root Context

IC

Initial Context
Context B is bound to Initial Context.

Object 1
Object 1 is bound to Initial Context.

Object 2
Object 2 is bound to Context A.

Object 3
Object 3 is bound to both Context A and B.

Object 4

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JNDI Tree A JNDI tree is described in terms of the following components: Context: A node in the JNDI tree. It can only contain a list of Objects and Contexts. Object: A leaf in the JNDI tree. It is bound to a Context. It cannot contain other Objects or Contexts. Root Context: The topmost context in the whole tree Initial Context: A Context chosen as a starting point for all future operations. This is somewhat like a current directory that you choose. It does not always have to be the root context of your directory structure. For instance, if you use your file system as a directory structure for JNDI, the root context would be C:\. It does not, however, have to be the initial context. The initial context is merely the starting point that can traverse through the application. For example, in a JNDI program, to locate all the text files in the windows temporary directory, the initial context might appropriately be C:\windows\temp instead of C:\. Observe the Object3 object in this diagram. It is binding to two different contexts: A and B. Does the object bound in two different contexts exist once or twice in the naming service? Or, worded differently, was the object accessed by value or by reference? The truth is JNDI stores the objects by value, copying them into the tree. That means there are multiple copies in the tree. To create a by reference binding, you need to use the LinkRef class, which is not discussed here.
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JNDI Tree (continued) Modifying an object under a context does not change the same object under a different context. In the tree above, Object3 has really two different instances. The first instance lives under context A, the second under context B.

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Contexts and Subcontexts


Subcontexts are referenced through dot delimiters (.). Subcontexts must be created before objects are placed into them. Typically, when objects are bound to the JNDI tree, subcontexts are automatically created based on the JNDI name. For example, if the following context exists: com.bea.examples you cannot bind: com.bea.examples.ejb.SomeObject without first creating: com.bea.examples.ejb
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Contexts and Subcontexts Subcontexts are referenced through simple dot delimitationfor instance, the name com.bea.examples. You cannot insert an object into the naming service unless its subcontext already exists. Suppose SomeObject refers to an object in the examples context, which is a subcontext of com.bea. In this example, you cannot bind an object named com.bea.examples.ejb.SomeObject unless the ejb subcontext was first created. The JNDI will not automatically create the subcontext because the name of the bound object has a subcontext listed in it.

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Referencing Java EE Resources with JNDI


Initial context

Provide JNDI properties:



client

Lookup

java.naming.factory.initial java.naming.security.principal jdbc java.naming.security.credentials java.naming.provider.url


Data_Source

ejb

Establish an initial context:

bean

Hashtable env = new Hashtable(); env.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, "weblogic.jndi.WLInitialContextFactory"); env.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, t3://localhost:7001"); ... Context ctx = new InitialContext(env);

Perform the lookup operation:

import javax.sql.DataSource; ... DataSource ds = (DataSource)ctx.lookup("jdbc/Data_Source");


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Referencing Java EE Resources with JNDI To reference a Java EE resource, such as a data source or a session EJB, the client code must: Provide JNDI properties for establishing an initial context with a JNDI service Establish an initial context (starting point) for a directory search (lookup) operation Perform the lookup operation relative to the initial context Standard JNDI Properties JNDI properties are typically required when the client is executing remotely from the JNDI resources it uses. The following JNDI properties are used by the client and Java EE applications to reference JNDI resources from a JNDI service: java.naming.factory.initial specifies the initial context factory class used when creating a new initial context object that establishes a connection to the JNDI service. java.naming.security.principal specifies a username with access to the JNDI service. Some JNDI services do not require this property to be set. java.naming.security.credentials specifies a password for the principal specified in the principal property. java.naming.provider.url specifies a URL that the application client code uses to connect to the JNDI service provider.
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Providing JNDI Properties


JNDI properties may be provided as: A jndi.properties file in the CLASSPATH application
java.naming.factory.initial=weblogic.jndi.Environment. DEFAULT_INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY java.naming.provider.url=t3://localhost:7001 java.naming.security.principal=weblogic java.naming.security.credentials=weblogic

Entries added to a java.util.Hashtable object in the application code

import javax.naming.*; ... Hashtable env = new Hashtable(); env.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, "weblogic.jndi.WLInitialContextFactory"); env.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, "t3://localhost:7001"); ... Context ctx = new InitialContext(env);

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Providing JNDI Properties JNDI properties can be specified: In a jndi.properties file located in the CLASSPATH application In entries programmatically added to a java.util.Hashtable object in the application code The code example in the slide uses the second (programmatic) technique to set the JNDI properties. However, it is more flexible to use the first technique to provide JNDI properties because changes can be localized to the properties file without changing the source code. The principal and credential values must be configured in the JNDI namespace of the target container. Consider using the Hashtable technique to avoid placing unencrypted security credentials in the property file. Use a Hashtable if there is a need to access the EJB with different security credentials each time a lookup request is performed.

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Referencing a Local Session EJB with JNDI


Within the same Java EE container (local reference): Define dependency in the deployment descriptor:
In web.xml, from a servlet or JSP In ejb-jar.xml, from another session EJB
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<ejb-local-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/sessionBean</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Session</ejb-ref-type> <local>ejb.EJBLocal</local> </ejb-local-ref>

Look up EJB using the reference name:

Context ctx = new InitialContext(); EJBLocal ref = (EJBLocal) ctx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/sessionBean");

...

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Referencing a Local Session EJB with JNDI An EJB is packaged into an EJB-JAR file that is deployed as part of an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file. The EJB component and its JNDI name are typically defined in the EJB deployment descriptors stored in the EJB-JAR file. At deployment time, the JNDI name is bound to an EJB interface object located in the JNDI service. How you reference an EJB component depends on where the client code executes relative to the EJB component. The client is one of the following: A local client, which executes in the same Java EE container as the EJB component A remote client, which executes in a different Java Virtual Machine (JVM) or Java EE container from the EJB component For a local EJB client application to reference a session EJB in the same Java EE container, it must do the following: 1. Specify an <ejb-local-ref> element for the session EJB being referenced in the deployment descriptor. 2. Obtain an initial context by using the default no-argument constructor of InitialContext(). The JNDI properties are implicitly acquired from a jndi.properties file provided by the container. 3. Execute a lookup operation with the EJB reference name in the deployment descriptor. The client application lookup request is relative to the java:comp/env root, which may be excluded from the JNDI name in the argument to the lookup() method.
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Referencing a Remote Session EJB with JNDI


From a different JVM or Java EE container (remote reference): Define dependency in the deployment descriptor:
In web.xml, from a servlet or JSP In ejb-jar.xml, from another session EJB In application-client.xml, for applications outside a container
<ejb-ref> <ejb-ref-name>ejb/session</ejb-ref-name> <ejb-ref-type>Session</ejb-ref-type> <remote>ejb.EJBRemote</remote> </ejb-ref>

Look up EJB reference (provide jndi.properties):

Context ctx = new InitialContext(); EJBRemote ref = (EJBRemote) PortableRemoteObject.narrow( ctx.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/session"),SessionBean.class); ...

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Referencing a Remote Session EJB with JNDI For a remote EJB client code (in another Java EE container or running as a stand-alone Java application), the client application: Defines an <ejb-ref> element with the JNDI name, the remote session EJB, and its interface in the client deployment descriptor Obtains an initial context by using a client-supplied set of JNDI properties in a jndi.properties file in the CLASSPATH application Performs the lookup operation by using the EJB reference name specified in the client application deployment descriptor Note: By convention, the remote Java code uses the javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject.narrow() method to assist casting the remote object reference returned by the lookup operation to the appropriate Java interface class.

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JNDI State Replication


The JNDI state replication feature is being supported in a clustered WebLogic Servers environment.

2
Bind message sent to the cluster

JNDI cluster

WebLogic Server

WebLogic Server

1
Instance 1 binds the message

4
Instance 2 looksup the bind message

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JNDI State Replication The JNDI state replication causes changes made to the context on one WebLogic Server instance of a cluster to be replicated to the JNDI namespace of other WebLogic Servers in the cluster. By enabling JNDI state replication, you can bind a serializable value into an application context (using a remote client, EJB, or a servlet) on one server and read it on another server. When a client connects to a cluster, it is actually connecting to one of the WebLogic Servers in the cluster. Because the JNDI tree for this WebLogic Server contains the RMI stubs for all services offered by the other WebLogic Servers in the cluster, in addition to its own services, the cluster appears to the client as one WebLogic Server hosting all the clusterwide services. When a new WebLogic Server joins a cluster, each WebLogic Server already in the cluster is responsible for sharing information about its own services to the new WebLogic Server. With the information collected from all the other servers in the cluster, the new server will create its own copy of the clusterwide JNDI tree.

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Bind message propagated to all the members of the cluster

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Quiz
When objects are bound to the JNDI tree, subcontexts are automatically created based on the JNDI name. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 1

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What Are Annotations?


They are additional information (metadata) in the operating code that instructs a development tool to process a Java class in a specific way. They are used to mark methods, classes, fields, parameters, variables, and constructors.
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What Are Annotations? In Java, there are several classes, methods, and members that contain operating code. JSR-175 enables these sets of classes, methods, and members to be marked with additional information that is not part of the operating code. For example, a Fuji apple has the attribute that it is red. Assuming that there is a FujiApple class, you can specify its color by using an annotation of the @Color annotation type. By doing this, you have provided metadata about the apple. This information is used by development tools, deployment tools, or run-time libraries to process the color attribute of the FujiApple class in a specific way. Such annotations are called metadata. They can be used to describe the usage and meaning of entities such as methods and classes. For example, the Java beans architecture uses different naming conventions for different methods (such as getName and setName) to indicate what a particular method does (getName retrieves the name; setName provides the name). Similarly, the EJB architecture also uses a specific naming pattern to mark methods as remote method and home method.

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Dependency Injection
The concept of dependency injection implies that it is: A programming design pattern that enables you to inject resources at run time Based on the principle of Inversion of Control (IOC) An alternative to the JNDI implementation

JMS resources

EJB container/ Web container EJBs

Injection

EJB/ Servlet

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Dependency Injection Dependency injection (DI) is a programming design pattern that enables you to declare component dependencies. It is based on the principle of Inversion of Control (IOC) that is used to reduce dependencies between systems (loose coupling). DI enables one component to call another component or resources through interfaces. The components are glued together by using configuration, instead of code. The complexities of the service or resource instantiation, initialization, sequencing, and lookup are handled by the specific container (EJB container for the EJBs and Web container for the servlet). DI enables you to declare the component dependencies at design time. The EJB container reads the target EJB configuration, figures out what beans and resources the EJB requires, and injects them into the target EJB at run time. For example, you can use @EJB annotation in a session bean to inject EJBs. Similarly, the @Resources annotation can be used to inject non-EJB resources such as a database connection. The implementation of DI is totally opposite to that of the implementation of JNDI. In case of JNDI, it is the responsibility of the EJB to do a lookup and obtain a reference of the resources. As a result, the component and resource name are hard-coded in the EJB.

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Dependency Injection
Dependency injection is introduced in the Java EE 5.0 specification: Is based on declaring resources by using annotations (or deployment descriptors) Eliminates writing explicit JNDI API calls Is used by classes managed by a Java EE container Cannot be used by classes external to a Java EE container Is implemented by using the following key annotations:
@Resource (javax.annotation.Resource) @EJB (javax.ejb.EJB)

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Dependency Injection (continued) In Java EE 1.4, many enterprise Java applications reference external resources and services, such as DataSource, EJB, or Web services. As previously discussed, a client must: Explicitly declare dependency on a resource in a deployment descriptor element Obtain an initial context for a JNDI service Perform a JNDI lookup operation to obtain a reference to the resource Dependency injection: Eliminates the requirement to write JNDI calls to reference resources, the inverse of JNDI Is declared by using annotations or deployment descriptors. In Java EE 5, dependency injection is provided through the declaration of a resource annotated with: - @Resource for dependencies of resources, such as data sources, JMS resources, and so on - @EJB for a dependency on another EJB component Note: The Java API for XML Web Services 2.0 defines the @WebServiceRef annotation for injecting Web services references. Is managed by the Java EE container that is, the Java EE 5.0 container handles the complexities of service or resource instantiation and initialization by injecting an instance of the dependent resource when required

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Types of Dependency Injection


The Java EE 5.0 specification supports the following types of dependency injection: Field injection, which injects a resource to a field
@Resource (name = "jdbc/fodDS") private javax.sql.DataSource fodDS;

Setter (property) injection, which injects a resource by invoking a setter method

private DataSource fodDS; ... @Resource (name = "jdbc/fodDS") private void setfodDS(javax.sql.DataSource ds) { fodDS = ds; }

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Types of Dependency Injection To use field injection, simply define a field and annotate it to be a resource reference. If you do not define the resources name and type, the container derives this information from the fields name and type. For example, you can inject a data source to a field as follows:
@Resource private javax.sql.DataSource fodDS;

In the example, the data source within a JNDI name jdbc/fodDS must be available; otherwise, the container throws an exception. Field injection must be completed before methods of the managed class are invoked. To use setter (or property) injection, define a set method and annotate it as a resource reference. The application does not need to invoke the setter method; the Java EE container invokes the setter method before the business methods into which the resources are being injected. If the annotation name property or the data type of the setter injection is not defined, it is derived from the setter methods name and parameter type.

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Defining the @Resource Annotation


The @Resource annotation definition is:

The @Resource annotation parameters can be:


Derived Explicitly specified

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Defining the @Resource Annotation The parameters of the @Resource annotation (injecting only one resource) or @Resources annotation (injecting two or more resources) are as follows: name is a String type specifying the JNDI name of the resource. type is a Class type of the resource being used. authenticationType is an enum type value set to CONTAINER or APPLICATION specifying the type of authentication needed to use the resource. shareable is a boolean type indicating whether the resource is sharable. The default value is true. mappedName is a String type specifying the product-specific name that the resource should be mapped to. This is a vendor-dependent name that is not portable across containers. description is a String type providing a brief description of the resource. Note: Most annotation parameters (if not specified) are derived from the type of field or property being injected. Other parameters have a default value if not specified, such as the authenticationType, which has a default value of CONTAINER.

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public @interface Resource { public enum AuthenticationType {CONTAINER, APPLICATION} String name() default ""; Class type() default Object.class; AuthenticationType authenticationType() default AuthenticationType.CONTAINER; boolean shareable() default true; String mappedName() default ""; String description() default ""; }

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Using Java EE Resources with Dependency Injection


Using Java EE resources with dependency injection is performed with the @Resource annotation. Examples are: Data sources:
@Resource(name="jdbc/fodDS") private javax.sql.DataSource myDS; Connection conn = myDS.getConnection();

JMS resources (a queue or topic):

@Resource(name="jms/demoQueue") private Queue myQueue;

Environment entries:

@Resource int maxItemsPerCart = 20;

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Using Java EE Resources with Dependency Injection The first example shows how to reference a data source with dependency injection. The data source with the JNDI name jdbc/fodDS must be defined. The second example uses a resource annotation to inject a JMS destinationin this case, a queue. To use the JMS queue as a resource, it must be defined in the JMS server configuration file before you can define the dependency. The third example defines environment entries, which generally specify business parameters that may vary from one environment to another or from time to time. However, because this is a part of the code, to change it requires modifying the code. It is better to use an <env-entry> element in the deployment descriptor instead. Other resource examples can include: Mail resources. For example: - First, configure a mail resource in the application server. - Use the Resource annotation to inject an instance of a mail session:
@Resource(name="mail/OrderEntry") private javax.mail.Session ms;

EJB context. For example, to inject a SessionContext object, use:


@Resource javax.ejb.SessionContext ctx;

Timer service. For example, to inject TimerService to an EJB, use:


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Working with Dependency Injection


Dependency injection: Eliminates use of JNDI complexities Results in fewer lines of code Yields more concise code. However, annotations can:
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Hard-code resources Be overridden with XML elements in deployment descriptors

Cannot be used with helper classes, which must use JNDI services

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Working with Dependency Injection Dependency injection makes resources and services easier to use because you eliminate the need to manage the complexities of using JNDI. A number of lines of code or service locator patterns written are reduced or eliminated. Because Java EE supports dependency injection via either XML or annotation, use annotation when it makes sense. An annotation can make your code more readable and concise but can also cause maintenance problems, because they require that resource references be hard-coded into the application code, as in the environment entry example seen earlier. However, annotations can be overridden using XML elements in deployment descriptors. A limitation of dependency injection is that it supports managed classes. Therefore, dependency injection cannot be used from helper classes or from classes executing outside a Java EE container. These helper classes must still use JNDI to use Java EE resources or services.

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Referencing EJBs with Dependency Injection


In EJB 3.0, dependency is expressed by using: The @EJB annotation:
@Target({TYPE, METHOD, FIELD}) @Retention(RUNTIME) public @interface EJB { String name() default ""; String beanName() default ""; String mappedName() default ""; String description() default ""; Class beanInterface() default Object.class; }

The <ejb-ref> deployment descriptor element as an alternative method

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Referencing EJBs with Dependency Injection The parameters of the @EJB (referencing a single EJB 3.0 session bean) annotation or the @EJBs (referencing multiple EJB 3.0 session beans) annotation are: name: A String specifying the JNDI name of the EJB referenced beanName: A String specifying the name of the EJB, defined by using either the <ejb-name> element or the name parameter of the bean class beanInterface: A Class type identifying the interface implemented by the object mappedName: A String for a product-specific name to which the service is mapped description: A String specifying a brief description of the EJB Note: If a parameter is not specified, it is derived from the name of the field or property being injected; otherwise, the default value is applied. For example, to use an EJB named ShoppingCart from a servlet or another EJB, you can use dependency injection to get an instance of the ShoppingCart EJB and invoke a method:
@EJB(mappedName="ShoppingCart") private ShoppingCart myCart; myCart.addItem("Item 1");

In this example, the name is the JNDI name of the EJB being injected. beanName is used to remove ambiguity from a bean when more than one bean implements the same interface. beanInterface is used when the EJB is used on a class without knowing which interface is being used by the component.
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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Describe the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) Locate or look up resources and EJBs by using:
JNDI APIs Dependency injection

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Practice: Overview
These practices covers the following topics: Using the @Resource annotation in a servlet application to access a database table Using the @EJB annotation in a servlet application to inject an EJB
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Developing the Business Logic with Session Beans

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Describe session beans Create stateless and stateful session beans by using annotations Describe the passivation and activation of stateful session beans Use interceptor methods and classes

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What Is a Session Bean?


A session bean is a type of Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) that: Implements a business process Represents a client/server interaction Has a short lifespan Lives in memory rather than in persistent storage Is used to create a Session Facade

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What Is a Session Bean? Session beans represent actions in the business process, such as process order. A session bean implements one or more business processes. For example, it can retrieve and update inventory data in a database. Note: A session bean can retrieve or update the data, but it does not necessarily represent persistent data. That is, a session bean is not directly associated with a row of a database table. As the name suggests, session beans are often used to model a client/server session or conversation. The Session Facade pattern uses a session bean to provide a business service interface to clients, while hiding the business objects that implement that service and their interactions inside the application server. Session beans are short-lived. Their life cycles are dependent on the clients session. When there is a request for a session bean, the container instantiates the session bean and associates one instance of this bean to the client. The EJB container uses management methods for creating and destroying session beans. Session beans are transient because they do not survive a server crash or a network failure. If, after a crash, you instantiate a bean that had previously existed, the state of the previous instance is not restored.

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Stateless Versus Stateful Session Beans


There are two types of session beans: Stateless session bean (SLSB):
Conversation is contained in a single method call. Business process does not maintain client state. Conversation may invoke many methods. Business processes can span multiple method requests, which may require maintaining a client state.
EJB container Pool of SLSBs Client 1 Client 2 Client 1 Client 2 EJB container SFSBs

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Stateless Versus Stateful Session Beans Stateless session beans do not maintain client state between method calls. Thus, each invocation of a stateless business method is independent of its previous invocation (for example, calculating taxes or shipping charges). When the client requests a stateless bean instance, it can receive an instance from the pool of instances or a new instance created by the container. Stateful session beans maintain a conversational state across method invocations (for example, an online shopping cart of a customer). When the customer starts online shopping, the customers details are retrieved from the database. The same details are available for the other methods that are invoked when the customer adds or removes items from the cart, places the order, and so on. Stateful session beans are transient because the state does not survive session termination, system crash, or network failure. When a client requests a stateful session bean instance, the client is assigned one stateful instance, and the state of the bean is maintained for that client.

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Stateful session bean (SFSB):

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Dependency Injection in EJB


The concept of dependency injection implies that it is: A programming design pattern that enables you to inject resources into a session bean at run time Based on the principle of Inversion of Control (IOC) An alternative to the JNDI implementation

JMS resources

EJB container

Injection

EJB

EJBs
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Dependency Injection in EJB Dependency injection (DI) is a programming design pattern that enables you to declare component dependencies. It is based on the principle of Inversion of Control (IOC) that is used to reduce dependencies between systems (loose coupling). DI enables one component to call another component or resources through interfaces. The components are glued together by using configuration, instead of code. The complexities of the service or resource instantiation, initialization, sequencing, and lookup is handled by the EJB container. DI enables you to declare the component dependencies at design time. The EJB container reads the target EJB configuration, figures out what beans and resources the EJB requires, and injects them into the target EJB at run time. For example, you can use the @EJB annotation in a session bean to inject EJBs. Similarly, the @Resources annotation can be used to inject non-EJB resources, such as a database connection. The implementation of DI is totally opposite to that of implementing Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). In case of JNDI, it is the responsibility of the EJB to do a lookup and obtain a reference of the resources. As a result, the component and resource name are hard-coded in the EJB. Note: Dependency injection is not limited to EJBs. You can use it in the Web tier (such as in JSPs and servlets) and in the EJB tier with any EJB or JPA entity.
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Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean

Creation
@PostConstruct

Ready Destruction
@PreDestroy

Method

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Life Cycle of a Stateless Session Bean Creation: Creation of an SLSB is initiated by the EJB container. The container typically creates a pool of SLSBs that wait to service the requests of any clients. A stateless session bean is created in the following sequence (as needed): 1. newInstance() 2. Dependency injection 3. PostConstruct callback The @PostConstruct annotated method will be called by the container after the bean has been constructed and before any business methods of the bean are executed. It is not a mandatory feature. Similarly, a @PreDestroy annotated method will execute before the bean instance is removed by the container. After this method has executed, the bean can be garbage collected. This is also not mandatory. Method: When a client invokes a method, the container chooses an SLSB from the pool and invokes the requested method on it. Because SLSB conversations last for only one method call and do not retain state, the container can return the SLSB to the available pool after the method is complete. The bean will then wait in the pool until it is selected to fulfill another request. Destruction: While managing the pool of SLSBs, the container may choose to destroy a bean based on its age or to manage other resources (for example, memory limitations). At this point, a predestroy callback is invoked if one is defined, and the SLSB is then destroyed.
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Elements of a Stateless Session Bean


A stateless session bean contains: Business interfaces, which contain the business method definition A bean class, which implements the business method
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JVM
@Remote
String sayHello()

@Stateless
String sayHello() { return "Hello"; }

Remote client
Local client

@Local
String sayHello()

Interfaces

Bean class

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Elements of a Stateless Session Bean Stateless session beans comprise the following elements: Business interfaces: A stateless session business interface is a standard Java interface that has a list of business method definitions, accessible by the client application. Business interfaces can also use annotations: - The @Remote annotation can be used to denote the remote business interface. You use this interface to execute a session bean remotely. - The @Local annotation can be used to denote the local business interface. You can use this interface to execute a session bean locally. It is applicable if the client application and the EJB container (executing the session bean) are running on the same Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It is possible that the application architecture requires both the remote and local interfaces. For example, in an order processing application, the Web client (local client) can run in the same JVM as the session bean. The Web client application can be used to submit new orders. Simultaneously, the same session bean can be executed remotely by a rich client application (remote client, executing on an end-user desktop machine) for entering data. The business interfaces are generated at design time by tools such as Oracle JDeveloper, Netbeans, or Eclipse, or generated at deployment time by the EJB container. The bean class: A stateless session bean class is any standard Java class that has a classlevel annotation of @Stateless. The bean class implements the business methods that are defined in the business interfaces.
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Defining the Stateless Session Bean

// HelloWorldBean.java package helloworld.ejb; 1 import javax.ejb.Stateless;

2
@Stateless(name="HelloWorld", mappedName="HelloWorldSessionEJB") public class HelloWorldBean implements HelloWorld 3 { public String sayHello() 5 { return "Hello World!"; } }

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Defining the Stateless Session Bean Following are the code sections (numbered in the slide) for a HelloWorld SLSB: 1. Library: Stateless session beans import the javax.ejb.Stateless annotation class. In general, EJBs import the javax.ejb.* class that corresponds to the type of bean being created. 2. Annotations: The @Stateless annotation here identifies this as a stateless session bean. The name parameter specifies the bean name. It forms a part of the JNDI lookup name, and the mappedName parameter specifies the other part of the JNDI lookup name for the bean (which means, EJB is published to JNDI with the name HelloWorldSessionEJB#helloworld.ejb.HelloWorld). Annotations are extensively used by EJB 3.0 to assist in generating or documenting code or in providing services (for example, security) during run time. Annotations are discussed throughout this course as you encounter them. 3. Bean class name: This is the name of the stateless session bean class. 4. Interface class name(s): This code section contains the names of the interfaces that are defined for the bean class. 5. Bean methods: This section contains the code that defines the beans methods. Note: Because EJB 3.0 beans are Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs) instead of extensions of the generic javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean interface, the bean methods section is not filled with no-op methods. Only methods that actually implement behavior are defined here, making the code much more readable.
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Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces


// HelloWorld.java package helloworld.ejb; import javax.ejb.Remote;

// HelloWorldLocal.java package helloworld.ejb import javax.ejb.Local;

2 3 @Local public interface HelloWorldLocal { public String sayHello(); 4 }

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Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces The following code sections are highlighted in the slide: 1. Library: The remote interfaces import the javax.ejb.Remote interface. 2. Annotations: The @Remote annotation identifies this as a remote interface. Alternatively, the bean class could have included the @Remote annotation and it could have been left out here. 3. Interface class name: This code section contains the name of the interface for the bean class. The client looks up this name to retrieve the interface for the bean. 4. Bean method declarations: This section includes declarations for the public methods of the bean class. A session bean, by default, defines a couple of interfaces: local interface and remote interface. Each interface is meant for a different type of client. By default, the local interface is for a local client that runs in the same JVM as the EJB 3.0 containerfor instance, a JSP page making a call to an EJB, both executing in the same JVM for a Java EE server instance. When the client looks up a bean stub via the local interface, the container returns a Java reference of the session bean object. The method call invocations over Java references are very fast and efficient.

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3 @Remote public interface HelloWorld { public String sayHello(); 4 }

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Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces (continued) The remote interface is for remote clients. When a client looks up the session bean stub via the remote interface, the container returns a serialized stub object that implements the remote interface. The remote stub knows how to pass remote procedure calls (RPCs) to the server, even in a clustered environment. The remote interface may contain the same methods as the local interface. In terms of structure, local interfaces are identical to remote interfaces except that they import the javax.ejb.Local interface and use the @Local annotation. The local and remote interfaces may differ in terms of the methods that you want to expose to local or remote clients.

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Creating a Test Client for the SLSB


// HelloWorldClient.java import helloworld.ejb; 1 import javax.naming.Context; import javax.naming.InitialContext; import javax.naming.NamingException; public class HelloWorldClient { public static void main(String [] args) throws NamingException { 2 try { final Context context = new InitialContext(); HelloWorld helloWorld = (HelloWorld)context.lookup( "HelloWorldSessionEJB#helloworld.ejb.HelloWorld"); System.out.println(helloWorld.sayHello()); 3 } catch (Exception ex) { ex.printStackTrace(); } }; }
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Creating a Test Client for the SLSB The following code sections are highlighted in the slide: 1. Library: Import the package with the bean interface and the javax.naming.* libraries for handling the JNDI lookup. 2. Bean lookup: The test client looks up the bean interface via JNDI. 3. Bean method execution: The test client invokes a bean interface method to test the SLSB. Note: JDeveloper generates most of this code to simplify testing of your EJBs. After the session bean is deployed into the EJB 3.0 container, a stub object is created and it is registered in the servers JNDI registry. The client code obtains a stub of the bean from the JNDI using its default JNDI name. You can make method calls against the stub object and the call is transparently delegated to the bean instance in the EJB 3.0 container. Local clients should use a beans local interface. A beans local interface provides much better performance than its remote interface because the network is not needed for communication. In addition, some EJB container services are available only to local clients (for example, EJB TimerService).

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Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean


Ready (in TX) Commit/ roll back TX method

TX method Creation Does not exist Destruction Passivation Ready

Method

Activation

Timeout

Passive

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Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean Creation: Unlike stateless session beans, creation of a stateful session bean (SFSB) is triggered by a client. The execution will then proceed according to the following sequence of steps where applicable: 1. When a client first invokes a method of an SFSB, the EJB container invokes newInstance() to create the bean. 2. The container implements dependency injection. 3. The container execute the PostConstruct callback. 4. The container execute the Init() or ejbCreate() method. Transactions: Stateful session beans can live across multiple method invocations and, therefore, their life cycle includes a Ready (in Transaction) state and transaction-related callbacks as follows: 1. TX Method - afterBegin(): After a transaction is started, this callback can be triggered. 2. Commit - beforeCompletion() & afterCompletion(true): When completing a transaction, these two callbacks are available. 3. Rollback - afterCompletion(false): This callback is available if the transaction fails.

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Life Cycle of a Stateful Session Bean (continued) Passivation and activation: Passivation and activation processes result in two additional life cycle callback methods: Passivation: Pre-passivate callback Activation: Post-activate callback The concepts of passivation and activation are discussed in detail in the following slide. Destruction and timeout: Whenever a client invokes a method marked with the @Remove annotation, the container destroys the bean after the execution of the method completes. Stateful session beans are destroyed explicitly or by the container due to timeout (an extended period of client inactivity). A predestroy callback is available for use before the destruction of an SLSB.

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Passivation and Activation Concepts


Passivation and activation are stages in a session beans life cycle controlled by the EJB container. Passivation:
Serializes the bean state to secondary storage Removes the instance from memory

Activation:
Restores the serialized beans state from secondary storage Creates a new bean instance or uses a bean from the pool (initialized with the restored state)

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Passivation and Activation Concepts Stateful session bean instances are assigned to individual clients because their current state depends on earlier interactions with the client. If a clients bean instance is used by another client, that SFSB may no longer have the proper state for the first client. To improve the scalability of the system, the container can choose to passivate an SFSB instance, storing the beans state in secondary storage and making that bean instance available for recycled use by another client. In this way, the container can manage a larger number of clients with fewer active SFSB instances in memory. Passivation enables the container to preserve the conversational state of a bean instance by serializing the bean and its state into a secondary storage and removing it from memory. Activation occurs when a client invokes one of the methods of a passivated bean instance. The preserved conversational state data is activated by deserializing the bean from secondary storage and bringing it back into memory. The container can passivate a bean instance for reasons controlled by the environment into which the bean is deployed (for example, limited available memory, period of bean inactivity, and so on). However, the container will always activate a passivated bean when a client calls one of its methods. During the passivation process, the container serializes the bean state and saves it to temporary storage. However, some state variables may hold resources (such as a data source connection) or violate rules for successful passivation. These variables typically cannot be serialized and must be reinstated when the bean instance is activated again.
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Creating a Stateful Session Bean


To create a stateful session bean, perform the following steps: 1. Define the @Stateful class-level annotation in any standard Java class. 2. Implement the business methods defined in the business interfaces.
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Creating a Stateful Session Bean With EJB 3.0, you can develop a stateful session bean in nearly the same way that you would develop a stateless session bean. The differences are highlighted in the next few slides as you examine the sample code for a shopping-cart stateful session bean.

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Defining the Stateful Session Bean


// CartBean.java package cart.ejb; import javax.ejb.Stateful; 1 2 @Stateful(name="Cart", mappedName="CartSessionEJB") public class CartBean implements Cart { private ArrayList items;

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Defining the Stateful Session Bean The following code sections are highlighted in the slide: 1. Library: Stateful session beans import the javax.ejb.Stateful annotation class. As stated previously, EJBs import the javax.ejb.* package that corresponds to the type of bean being created. 2. Annotations: The @Stateful annotation here identifies this as a stateful session bean. 3. @PostConstruct callback is used in this code example. Both stateless and stateful session beans can have a PostConstruct callback to initialize complex attributes. The use of the @PostConstruct annotation here indicates that initialize() is the PostConstruct callback method. 4. @PreDestroy annotation is used as a callback notification to signal that the instance is in the process of being removed by the container. The method annotated with @PreDestroy is typically used to release resources that it has been holding. 5. @Remove annotation here indicates that the bean should be destroyed after the execution of the dumpCart() method.

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@PostConstruct 3 public void initialize() { items = new ArrayList(); } public void addItem(String item) { items.add(item); } public void removeItem(String item) { items.remove(item); } public Collection getItems() { return items; } @PreDestroy 4 public void cleanup() {System.out.println("CLEAR!");} @Remove 5 public void dumpCart() {System.out.println("BYE!");}

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Analyzing the Remote and Local Interfaces


// Cart.java package cart.ejb; 1 import javax.ejb.Remote; 2 @Remote public interface Cart { public void addItem(String item); public void removeItem(String item); public Collection getItems(); } // CartLocal.java package cart.ejb 1 import javax.ejb.Local; 2 @Local public interface CartLocal {

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Analyzing the Remote Interface and Local Interfaces The following code sections are highlighted in the slide: 1. Library: Remote interfaces import the javax.ejb.Remote library, and local interfaces import the javax.ejb.Local library. 2. Annotations: The @Remote and @Local annotations identify these as remote and local interfaces, respectively. 3. Methods: Only those public methods that need to be exposed to a client are included in the interfaces. Note: There is really no substantive difference between developing the remote and local interfaces of stateful and stateless session beans.

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Creating a Test Client for the SFSB


// CartClient.java import public class CartClient { public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { Context context = new InitialContext(); Cart cart = (Cart) context.lookup("CartSessionEJB#cart.ejb.Cart"); cart.addItem("Item1"); cart.addItem("Item2"); Collection items = cart.getItems(); for (Iterator i = items.iterator(); i.hasNext();) { String item = (String) i.next(); System.out.println(" " + item); } } }

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Creating a Test Client for the SFSB In the code in the slide, note that each execution of cart.addItem() modifies the state of the carts items attribute. The return of cart.getItems() depends on the current state of the bean as modified by the prior calls to cart.addItem().

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Calling a Stateless Bean from a Stateful Bean by Implementing DI


@Stateful(name="Cart"", mappedName="CartSessionEJB") public class CartBean implements Cart { @EJB private HelloWorld obj; // A demo method to call the sayHello() method defined // in HelloWorld stateless session bean public String callEJB() { return obj.sayHello(); } }

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Calling a Stateless Bean from a Stateful Bean by Implementing DI Dependency injection is the easiest way to access a session bean. You just have to use the @EJB annotation to obtain a reference to an EJB that you want to inject in your managed class (classes such as servlets, whose life cycle is managed by the container). You can then use the EJB object as any other Java object in your managed class. The @EJB annotation defines two optional attributes: name and beanInterface. The name attribute specifies the JNDI name of the referenced EJB, and the businessInterface attribute specifies the interface class (either remote or local bean interface). For example, the @EJB annotation shown in the slide can also be written as @EJB(name="Cart", beanInterface=Cart.class). Note: Only managed classes (such as servlets, JSF managed beans, and EJBs) can use dependency injection to access a session bean. Nonmanaged application components (such as JSPs and helper classes) have to use JNDI lookup to obtain a reference to a session bean. For example, in the preceding scenario, if you remove the dependency injection to call the HelloWorld EJB, the JNDI lookup code to refer to the HelloWorld EJB inside the Cart EJB should be:
... InitialContext context = new InitialContext(); HelloWorld helloWorld = (HelloWorld)context.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/HelloWorld"); ... Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 7 - 19

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Interceptor Methods and Classes


EJB 3.0 introduces the ability to create custom interceptor methods and classes that are called before invoking the methods they intercept. Interceptors: Are available only for session beans (stateless and stateful) and message-driven beans Provide more granular control of a beans method invocation flow Can be used to implement custom transaction or security processes instead of having those services provided by the EJB container

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Interceptor Methods and Classes An interceptor catches invocation of a beans methods and executes its own methods prior to executing the beans methods. The interceptors are typically used to implement common code. For example, any enterprise application can use interceptors to implement common logging code that is being used by all the EJBs. The interceptors can also be used to implement application security to block the execution of a beans methods by users whose identities have not been verified.

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Interceptor Method
import javax.ejb.Stateless; import javax.interceptor.AroundInvoke; import javax.interceptor.InvocationContext;

public void sayHello() { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } }

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Interceptor Method A bean class can define an internal interceptor method to be used when any of its methods are invoked. Only one interceptor method may be defined. Here are the relevant code sections: 1. Libraries: Include the javax.ejb.AroundInvoke and javax.ejb.InvocationContext libraries 2. @AroundInvoke annotation: Identifies the interceptor method of the bean class 3. InvocationContext: Provides the environmental context for the call to the bean 4. proceed(): Allows execution flow to continue

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@Stateless public class HelloWorldBean implements HelloWorld { @AroundInvoke 2 3 public Object myInterceptor(InvocationContext ctx) throws Exception { System.out.println("Entering method: " + ctx.getMethod().getName()); return ctx.proceed(); 4 }

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Interceptor Classes
External interceptor classes can be created to abstract the behavior of interceptors and to define multiple interceptors for a bean.
// Bean Class @Stateless(name = ... , mappedName = ... ) @Interceptors(CheckUserInterceptor.class) @Interceptors(LogActivity.class) public class HelloWorldBean implements HelloWorld { }
Attaching the interceptor class in the bean class

Defining the interceptor class and specifying the // Interceptor Class interceptor method public class CheckUserInterceptor { @AroundInvoke public Object checkId(InvocationContext ctx) {} }

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Interceptor Classes By using external interceptor classes, interceptor behavior can be abstracted and shared by multiple beans. Although there can be only one interceptor method for a bean, you can associate multiple interceptor classes for a bean. In that case, the interceptors execute according to the order in which they are declared. If there is a bean interceptor method as well, it executes last (just before the invocation of the bean method).

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Describe session beans Create stateless and stateful session beans by using annotations Describe the passivation and activation of stateful session beans Use interceptor methods and classes

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Practice: Overview
These practices covers the following topics: Creating a stateless session bean and implementing a business method Creating a test client to invoke the stateless session bean Creating a stateful session bean that calls the stateless session bean by implementing dependency injection Creating a test client to invoke the stateful session bean Creating an interceptor class that contains a method to calculate the time to execute a beans method

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Practice Overview: Creating Session Beans In this practice, you learn to work with session beans by using JDeveloper. You create both the stateless and stateful session beans and execute them by creating a sample test Java client. You perform the following set of tasks in this practice: Create a stateless session bean and implement a business method. Create a test client to invoke the stateless session bean. Create a stateful session bean that calls the stateless session bean by implementing dependency injection. Here you expose a set of methods to store the clients information. Create a test client to invoke the stateful session bean. Create an external interceptor class that defines a method, which can be used to determine the time that a method takes to execute. You can then use the interceptor class in any of the session beans to find out the exact time a beans method take to execute.

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Developing the Persistence Layer with JPA Entities

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Create a JPA entity Select a primary key field Perform object-relational mapping (ORM) by using annotations Map inheritance between entities Map relationships between entities

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What Are JPA Entities?


A Java Persistence API (JPA) entity is: A lightweight object that manages persistent data Defined as a Plain Old Java Object (POJO) marked with the @Entity annotation (no interfaces required)
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Not required to implement interfaces Mapped to a database by using annotations

@Entity @Table(name="ORDERS") @Id @Column(name="ORDID")

POJO

ORDERS

Database
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What Are JPA Entities? The JPA is a part of the Java EE 5/EJB 3.0 specification that simplifies Java persistence to a database. It provides an ORM approach that enables you to declaratively define how to map Java objects to relational database tables. The JPA works both inside a Java EE 5 application server, and outside an EJB container in a Java Standard Edition 5 (Java SE 5) application. A JPA entity, or simply, entity: Manages persistence data Has fields that are mapped to columns in a relational database table by using annotations Does not require that any interfaces be defined Using JPA, you can designate any POJO class as a JPA entity by marking the POJO with the @Entity annotation. An entity is not required to implement any interfaces. In an entity, all fields are considered persistent unless annotated with the @Transient annotation. Note: You need to implement the java.io.Serializable interface if the entity needs to be passed by value through a remote interface. The following annotations are used to map a POJO to a relational data construct: @Table maps the object to a table. @Column maps a field to a column (required if the field and column names are different). @Id identifies primary key fields. Note: Annotations for mapping relationships are discussed later in this lesson.
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What Are JPA Entities?

@Entity @Table(name="Orders") public class Orders { @Id @Column(name="ORDERID") int orderId; @Column(name="ORDER_DATE ") Date orderDate; }

Orders
ORDERID

Database table

JPA entity

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What Are JPA Entities? (continued) The slide displays a simple mapping between a JPA entity and a database table. Note: If you do not specify the @Table annotations by default, the name of the generated table is the name of the Java class. This also applies to the class variables. By default, the column name is the name of the class variable if you do not specify the @Column annotation.

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ORDER_DATE

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Domain Modeling with Entities


Entities support standard object-oriented domain modeling techniques:
Inheritance Encapsulation Polymorphic relationships
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Entities can be created with the new operator.

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Domain Modeling with Entities Domain modeling is the process of listing the entities in an enterprise application domain, and defining the relationship between them. It displays the relationships among all major entities within the system and usually identifies their important methods and attributes. Entities are a metadata-driven POJO technology that does not require the implementation of any predefined system interfaces or extension of a predefined system class. To create a domain model with entities, code the domain model as POJOs and use annotations or XML to give the persistence provider the following information: What are the domain objectsusing the @Entity and @Embedded annotations How to uniquely identify the domain objectsusing the @Id annotation What are the relationships between the domain objectsusing the @OneToOne, @OneToMany, and @ManyToMany annotations How the domain objects are mapped to the database tablesusing annotations such as @Table, @Column, or @JoinColumn Entities also provide support for rich domainmodeling capabilities, such as inheritance and polymorphism. It supports several inheritance mapping strategies: single table, joined subclass, and table per class.

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Managing Persistence of Entities


The life cycle of an entity is managed by using the EntityManager interface, which is part of the JPA. An entity can be created by using:
The new operator (creates detached instance) The EntityManager Query API (synchronized with the database)

An entity is inserted, updated, or deleted from a database through the EntityManager API.
persist() merge() remove() find() DML Query

new

Entity

EntityManager

Entities

Database

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Managing Persistence of Entities Because an entity is a memory representation of persistent data, the storage and retrieval of an entity and its life cycle are managed by using the JPA. This API provides the EntityManager interface whose methods are used to find, insert, update, and remove entity instances that are associated with a row in a database table. Entities can be created with: The new operator and a constructor of the entity. In this case, the entity remains in a detached state (not managed by the EntityManager). An entity can become attached to the EntityManagers context when you pass the entity to the persist(), merge(), or refresh() method. The EntityManager and its Query API, which are part of the JPA The EntityManager interface provides: The find() method to retrieve a database row and instantiate an entity copy Access to a Query API for creating and executing queries based on either of the following: - Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) - Native SQL statements Methods to perform persistent operations, as in the following examples: - persist() to mark a new instance for insertion into the database - merge() to integrate (either insert or update) an instance into the database - remove() to remove an instance from the database Note: The data manipulation language (DML) statements executed on the data store are performed by the EntityManager API.
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Declaring an Entity
Declare a new Java class with a no-arg constructor. Annotate it with @Entity. Add fields corresponding to each database column:
Add setter and getter methods. Use the @Id annotation on the primary key getter method.
@Entity // annotation public class Customer implements java.io.Serializable { private int customerID; private String name; public @Id public public public public } // no-arg constructor // annotation int getCustomerID() { ... } void setCustomerID(int id) { ... } String getName() { ... } void setName(String n) { ... } Customer() { ... }

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Declaring an Entity As discussed earlier, an entity is a POJO marked with the Entity annotation. The POJO generally follows JavaBeans naming conventions. To create an entity, perform the following steps: 1. Declare a standard Java class. The class must have a no-arg constructor, as required by the EJB 3.0 specifications. It may have additional constructors if desired. 2. Insert the @Entity annotation before the public modifier of the class definition. 3. Add the entity fields that represent the persistent state of the bean, where each field is associated with a column in the database table. 4. Define the public getter and setter methods for fields in the class. 5. Insert the @Id annotation before at least one getter method whose field is used as a way to uniquely identify the instance. This becomes the primary key field. Note: The EJB 3.0 specification requires that an entity have a primary key. Without @Table and @Column annotations being specified, the following default entity mappings are applied: The class name is mapped (as is) to the database table name. It is case-sensitive. The field names are mapped (as is) to the column names.

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Mapping Entities
Mapping of an entity to a database table is performed: By default Explicitly using annotations or in an XML deployment descriptor
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@Entity @Table(name="CUSTOMERS") public class Customer implements java.io.Serializable { @Id @Column(name="CUSTID") private int customerID; private String name; public int getCustomerID() { ... } public void setCustomerID(int id) { ... } public String getName() { ... } public void setName(String n) { ... } }

CUSTOMERS
CUSTID (PK) NAME

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Mapping Entities Mapping an entity to a database table is performed: By default: - The class name is mapped as the table name. - The field names are mapped as the column names. Explicitly (overriding default mapping) by using: - The @Table annotation to specify the corresponding database table name - The @Id annotation to specify the entitys primary key, or identifier - The @Column annotation to specify the corresponding column name The example shows the Customer class being mapped to the CUSTOMERS table by setting the name parameter in the @Table annotation. The customerID field is mapped to the CUSTID column through the use of the @Column annotation that appears before the getCustomerID() method declaration. The name parameter of the @Column annotation specifies the column name. The @Id annotation indicates that it is a primary key field. An entity can be mapped to more than one table sharing a relationship. The primary table is mapped using the @Table annotation and the secondary table is mapped using the @SecondaryTable annotation. The primary and the secondary tables must have the same primary key. Note: The Transient annotation can be used for a property or field of the entity bean class that is not persistent.
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Quiz
An entity is a lightweight persistence domain object that represents: 1. A relational database 2. A table in a relational database 3. Entity beans in EJB 2.x specification 4. Persistence data in a file

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Answer: 2

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Mapping Inheritance
Entities can implement inheritance relationships. You can use three inheritance mapping strategies to map entity inheritance to database tables:
Single-table strategy Joined-tables strategy Table-per-class strategy

Use the @Inheritance annotation.

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Mapping Inheritance You can map object-oriented inheritance into relational databases by implementing inheritance relationship between different entities. You can use the following inheritance mapping strategies supported by JPA. Single-table strategy: The single-table strategy specifies that there should be one and only one table per class hierarchy. This table should have a column for each unique field for every class in the hierarchy. The table must have an additional column (also called a discriminator column) that identifies the objects type. The @DiscriminatorColumn annotation maps to a specific database column whose values are used to differentiate classes in an inheritance hierarchy by type. The single-table strategy is the optimal strategy for performance as the persistence engine does not have to do any complex joins when loading such an object. Joined-tables strategy: In joined-tables strategy, each entity in the hierarchy maps to its own dedicated table (one-to-one relationship). The specific table maps the fields declared on the respective entity. The parent entity in the hierarchy is mapped to a base table. All the other child entities in the hierarchy are mapped to separate tables that join the base table. From a performance perspective, the joined-table strategy is worse than the single-table strategy because it requires the joining of multiple tables for polymorphic queries.

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Mapping Inheritance (continued) Table-per-class strategy: In table-per-class strategy, both the superclass and the subclasses are stored in their own tables and no relationship exists between any of the tables. The greatest disadvantage of using this mapping type is that it does not provide good support for polymorphic queries because each subclass is mapped to its own table.

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Single-Table Strategy
//Parent entity @Entity 1 @Table(name="USERS") @Inheritance(strategy=InheritanceType.SINGLE_TABLE) 2 @DiscriminatorColumn(name="USER_TYPE", ... ) public class user implements java.io.Serializable { ... }

//Child entity @Entity @DiscriminatorValue(value="C") 3 public class customer extends user ...

USERS table

//Child entity @Entity @DiscriminatorValue(value="S") 4 public class supplier extends user ...

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Single-Table Strategy The slide displays the single-table inheritance mappings strategy. The USERS table contains data common to all the users, including the customer-specific data and supplier-specific data. The first and second records in the USERS table contain the customer information, whereas the third record contains the supplier information. This segregation of the customer data and the supplier data is being indicated by the USER_TYPE column (of the USERS table) and, therefore, is the discriminator column. The "C" and "S" values in the USER_TYPE discriminator column indicate the customer-specific record and the supplier-specific record, respectively. The slide also displays the inheritance mapping for the user, customer, and supplier entities. The annotations are described as follows: 1. The @Inheritance annotation specifies the strategy to be InheritanceType.SINGLE_TABLE on the user entity. Note: The @Table annotation specifies the name of the single table used for inheritance mapping. 2. The @DiscriminatorColumn annotation specifies the details of the discriminator column. The name element specifies the name of the discriminator, which is USER_TYPE.

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Single-Table Strategy (continued) 3. The customer class (subclass of user) specifies the discriminator value to be "C", by using the @DiscriminatorValue annotation. That is, when the persistence provider saves a customer object into the USERS table, it sets the value of the USER_TYPE column to "C". 4. The supplier class (subclass of user) specifies the discriminator value to be "S", by using the @DiscriminatorValue annotation.

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Joined-Tables Strategy
//Parent entity @Entity @Table(name="USERS") @Inheritance(strategy=InheritanceType.JOINED) @DiscriminatorColumn(name="USER_TYPE", ... ) public class user ... //Child entity @Entity @Table(name="CUSTOMER") @DiscriminatorValue(value="C") 2 @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn(name="UID") public class customer extends user ... //Child entity @Entity @Table(name="SUPPLIER") @DiscriminatorValue(value="S") @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn(name="UID") 3 public class supplier extends user ...

1
USERS table

CUSTOMER table

SUPPLIER table

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Joined-Tables Strategy The slide displays the joined-tables inheritance mappings strategy. In this type of strategy, the parent of the hierarchy contains only columns common to its children. The USERS table contains columns (such as the UID column) that are common to all the user types. The child tables in the hierarchy contain columns specific to the entity types. For example, the C_RATING column is specific to the CUSTOMER table. The parent/child object-oriented hierarchy chain is implemented by using one-to-one relationships. For example, the USERS and CUSTOMERS tables are related through the UID foreign key in the CUSTOMER table pointing to the primary key of the USERS table. The discriminator column is still used in the parent table to differentiate the users type in the hierarchy. The inheritance mapping for the user, customer, and supplier entities are basically similar to that of the single-table strategy. Here, you need to add some additional annotations to identify the tables mapped to the child entities, and also their respective primary keys. The annotations are described as follows: 1. The @Inheritance annotation specifies the strategy to be InheritanceType.JOINED on the user entity.

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Joined-Tables Strategy (continued) 2. The @Table annotation specifies the table name, CUSTOMER, mapped to the customer entity. The @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation specifies the foreign key column, UID, on the CUSTOMER table that implements the one-to-one relationship between the USERS and CUSTOMER tables. 3. The @Table annotation specifies the table name, SUPPLIER, mapped to the supplier entity. The @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation specifies the foreign key column, UID, on the SUPPLIER table that implements the one-to-one relationship between the USERS and SUPPLIER tables.

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Specifying Entity Identity


The identity of an entity can be specified by using: The @Id annotation The @IdClass annotation The @EmbeddedId annotation
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Specifying Entity Identity Every entity in a domain model should be uniquely identifiable and, therefore, must have a primary key. The identity of an entity can be specified by using the following annotations: @Id annotation: The @Id annotation can be used to mark a field or property as identity for an entity. The only consideration in this case is that it works only for identities with just one field or property. If you have to use more than one property or field (also known as a composite key) to uniquely identify an entity, you can do it by implementing either the @IdClass or the @EmbeddedId annotation. @IdClass annotation: The @IdClass annotation enables you to specify a composite primary key class that is mapped to multiple fields or properties of the entity. The names of the fields or properties in the primary key class must correspond to the primary key fields or properties of the entity, and their types must also be the same. @EmbeddedID annotation: The @EmbeddedID annotation is applied to a persistent field or property of an entity class or mapped superclass to denote a composite primary key. The composite primary key is defined in an embeddable class in the entity class. The embeddable class must be annotated as @Embeddable.

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Generating Primary Key Values


Use the @GeneratedValue annotation.
@Entity @Table(name="CUSTOMERS") public class Customer implements java.io.Serializable { @Id @SequenceGenerator(name = "CUSTOMER_SEQ_GEN", 2 sequenceName = "CUSTOMER_SEQ", initialValue = 1, allocationSize = 1) @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.SEQUENCE, 3 generator = "CUSTOMER_SEQ_GEN") @Column(name = "CUSTID", nullable = false) 4 private Long customerId; ... public int getCustomerID() { ... } ... }

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Generating Primary Key Values A primary key for an entity (which is usually annotated with the @Id annotation) can be given a value manually, or you can use the underlying persistence framework to automatically generate the primary key values. The @GeneratedValue annotation tells the persistence framework to autopopulate the column with the specified sequence generator. Consider the code in the slide. Because customerID is going to be the primary key for the Customer entity, you have to mark the field with the @GeneratedValue annotation. The annotation delegates the burden of creating values from developers to the persistence engine. The types of primary key valuegeneration strategies that can be specified in the @GeneratedValue annotation are as follows: TABLE indicates that the container assigns values by using an underlying database table. SEQUENCE and IDENTITY specify the use of a database sequence or identity column, respectively. AUTO indicates that the JPA persistence provider should pick an appropriate strategy for the particular database.

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Generating Primary Key Values (continued) The code in the slide depicts the following: 1. The @ID annotation marks the customerId property as the primary key for the Customer entity. 2. The @SequenceGenerator annotation creates a sequence generator named CUSTOMER_SEQ_GEN that references a CUSTOMER_SEQ database sequence object. The initial value of the sequence is 1, and is being incremented by 1 each time that a value is generated. 3. The @GeneratedValue annotation specifies a primary key value generator based on a primary key identity column. 4. The customerId property of the Customer entity is mapped to the CUSTID column of the CUSTOMERS table, being specified as the primary key.

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Mapping Relationships Between Entities


Annotations for entity relationships: @OneToOne
Customer Address

@OneToMany
Customer

Order

@ManyToMany
Customer
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Supplier

Mapping Relationships Between Entities The following annotations are used to specify relationships between entities: The @OneToOne annotation defines a single-valued association to another entity. Example: A Customer object may be associated with one and only one Address object. The @ManyToOne annotation defines a single-valued association to another entity that has many-to-one multiplicity. Example: Many Order can be placed by one Customer. A @OneToMany annotation defines a many-valued association with one-to-many multiplicity. Example: One Customer can place many Order. A @ManyToMany annotation defines a many-valued association with many-to-many multiplicity. A many-to-many association has two sides: an owning side and a nonowning (or inverse) side. Example: Many Customer can buy products from many Supplier. Relationships can be unidirectional or bidirectional. Bidirectional relationships, which have an owning side and an inverse side, are persisted based on references held by the owning side of the relationship. Unidirectional relationships have only an owning side.

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@ManyToOne

Order

Customer

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Mapping Relationships Between Entities (continued) The developer must maintain consistent in-memory entity references on both sides of the relationship. Rules that apply to bidirectional relationship: The inverse side refers to its owning side by using the mappedBy element of the OneToOne, OneToMany, or ManyToMany annotation. The mappedBy element designates the relationships owning field. The mappedBy element cannot be specified on the ManyToOne annotation and must be on the inverse side of a OneToMany or OneToOne relationship. In OneToOne relationships, the owning side contains the foreign key. In ManyToMany relationships, either side can be the owning side.

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Implementing One-to-One Relationships


You can map one-to-one relationships by using the @OneToOne annotation. Depending on the foreign key location, the relationship can be implemented by using: The @JoinColumn annotation The @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation
Customer
Mapped to Mapped to

Address

CUSTOMER
CUSTID (PK) CUST_NAME ADDRESS_ID (FK)

ADDRESS
ADDRESS_ID (PK) HOUSE_NO STREET

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Implementing One-to-One Relationships The one-to-one relationships are mapped by using the primary key and foreign key association. Depending on where the foreign key resides (either in the parent table or child table), the relationship can be implemented by using the @JoinColumn annotation or the @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation. @JoinColumn annotation: You can use the @JoinColumn annotation to implement a one-to-one relationship between two tables if the underlying table for the referencing entity is the one containing the foreign key to the table to which the referenced child entity is mapped. For example, consider the CUSTOMER table to be the parent table and the ADDRESS table to be the child table. You can use the @JoinColumn annotation to map these two tables if the CUSTOMER table contains a foreign key column that is the primary key column in the ADDRESS table. @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation: You can use the @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation to implement a one-to-one relationship between two tables if the foreign key reference exists in the table to which the referenced entity is mapped. For example, consider that table A and table B share the same primary key, and the primary key of table B is also a foreign key referencing the primary key of table A. Such associations are mapped by using the @PrimaryKeyJoinColumn annotation.

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Implementing One-to-One Relationships


Example: Mapping a one-to one relationship between the Customer class and the Address class by using the @JoinColumn annotation
// In the Customer class: @Table(name="CUSTOMER") ... @OneToOne @JoinColumn(name="MAILING_ADDRESS_REF", referencedColumnName="ADDRESS_PK") protected Address address; ... // In the Address class: @Table(name="ADDRESS") ... @column(name="ADDRESS_PK") ...

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Implementing One-to-One Relationships (continued) The slide shows a code example of implementing a one-to-one relationship between the Customer and Address entities by using the @JoinColumn annotation. The CUSTOMER table contains a foreign key named MAILING_ADDRESS_REF that refers to the ADDRESS tables ADDRESS_PK primary key. The @JoinColumn annotations name element refers to the name of the foreign key in the CUSTOMER table. The referencedColumnName element specifies the name of the primary key in the ADDRESS table that the MAILING_ADDRESS_REF foreign key (located in the CUSTOMER table) refers to. The relationship is defined in the Customer.address field in the Customer entity. In case of a bidirectional one-to-one relationship, the entity in the inverse side of the relationship contains the mappedBy element in the @OneToOne annotation. For example, to make the relationship between the Customer entity and the Address entity bidirectional, add the following code to the Address entity:
... @OneToOne(mappedBy="address") protected Customer customer; ... Note: You do not have to redundantly specify the @JoinColumn annotation in the Address.customer field in the Address entity. Moreover, if you want to make the relationship unidirectional in the opposite direction, move the @JoinColumn annotation from Customer.address into the Address.customer field. Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 8 - 22

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Implementing Many-to-One Relationships


Mapping a many-to-one relationship:
Using the @ManyToOne annotation Defines a single-valued association

Example: Mapping an Orders class to a Customer


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// In the Order class @Entity @Table(name="ORDER") public class Order ... { ... @ManyToOne @JoinColumn(name="ORDERS_CUSTID_REF", referenceColumnName="CUSTID_PK", updatable=false) protected Customer customer; ... }

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Implementing Many-to-One Relationships


The @ManyToOne annotation defines a single-valued association to another entity that has many-to-one multiplicity. The Order entity shares a many-to-one relationship with the Customer entity. The name element of the @JoinColumn annotation refers to the foreign key in the ORDER table. The referencedColumnName element specifies the primary key in the CUSTOMER table (which is mapped to the Customer entity) that the foreign key in the ORDER table refers to. The relationship is defined in the Order.customer field in the Order entity. Note: The @OnetoOne, @ManyToOne, @OneToMany, and @ManyToMany annotations also provide the following optional attributes: targetName identifies the fully qualified class name of the associated entity. It is optional because the name of the associated target entity can usually be inferred from the type of the object being referenced. cascade defines a comma-separated set of operations propagated to the associated entity. The types of cascade operations are: - PERSIST: Causes associated entities to be inserted - MERGE: Causes associated entities to be merged (inserted or updated) - REMOVE: Causes associated entities to be deleted - REFRESH: Causes associated entities to be refreshed - ALL: Includes all the four operations

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Implementing Many-to-One Relationships (continued)


Note: When true, the nullable attribute of @Column or @JoinColumn indicates that the field allows database NULL values to be inserted; otherwise, a NULL is not allowed. When the updatable attribute is false for the @Column or @JoinColumn annotations, the persistence provider cannot modify the column value; otherwise, it can be changed.

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Implementing One-to-Many Relationships


Mapping a one-to-many relationship by using the @OneToMany annotation.
//In the Customer class: @Table(name="CUSTOMER") ... @OneToMany(mappedBy="customer") protected Set<Order> order; ... // In the Order class: @Table(name="ORDER") ... @ManyToOne @JoinColumn(name="ORDERS_CUSTID_REF", referenceColumnName="CUSTID_PK", updatable=false) protected Customer customer; ...

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Implementing One-to-Many Relationships A @OneToMany annotation defines a many-valued association with one-to-many multiplicity. The Set<Order> type defines a generic collection of Order objects. By using generic collection types, the JPA persistence provider determines the entity type at the other end of the relationship. As a result, all that is required to resolve the mapping for the @OneToMany side is the field or property specified on that entity, which in this case is customer.

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Implementing Many-to-Many Relationships


Mapping a many-to-many relationship by using the @ManyToMany annotation.
// In the Customer class: ... @ManyToMany(cascade=PERSIST) @JoinTable(name="CUST_SUP", joinColumns= @JoinColumn(name="CUST_ID",referencedColumnName="CID"), inverseJoinColumns= @JoinColumn(name="SUP_ID", referencedColumnName="SID")) protected Set<Supplier> suppliers; ... // In the Supplier class: ... @ManyToMany(cascade=PERSIST, mappedBy="suppliers") protected Set<Customer> customers; ...
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Implementing Many-to-Many Relationships A @ManyToMany annotation defines a many-valued association with many-to-many multiplicity. A customer can purchase goods from multiple suppliers, and a supplier can sell goods to multiple customers. This type of mapping requires an association or join tables that holds references back (foreign key) to the primary keys of the entities at either end of the relationship. For example, the CUST_SUP association table (specified by the name attribute of the @JoinTable annotation) has two columns: CUST_ID is a reference column pointing back to the CID primary key column in the CUSTOMER table, and SUP_ID is a reference column pointing to the SID primary key column in the SUPPLIER table. The use of the mappedBy element in the @ManyToMany annotation allows the mapping information contained in the @JoinTable annotation to be shared by both the relationship fields.

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Quiz
In a unidirectional relationship, both the entities have a relationship field or property that refers each other. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 2

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Managing Entities
Entities are managed by using the EntityManager API. EntityManager performs the following tasks for the entities:
Implements the object-relational mapping between Java objects and database Performs the CRUD operations for the entities Manages the life cycle of the entities Manages transactions

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Managing Entities The JPA EntityManager interface manages entities in terms of actually providing persistence services. The entities do not persist themselves. The EntityManager interface reads the ORM metadata for an entity and performs persistence operation. The EntityManager knows how to create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) entities from the database. In addition, you can use EntityManager to manage the life cycle, performance tuning, caching, and transactions for the entities. You learn more about the EntityManager interface in the lesson titled Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Create an JPA entity Select a primary key field Perform object relational mapping by using annotations Map inheritance between entities Map relationships between entities

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Practice: Overview
These practice covers the following topics: Creating a simple entity bean by coding the bean Using the JDeveloper wizards to create a set of entity beans Creating and managing a session bean that provides client access to the entity beans Creating a test client to invoke the session bean

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Manipulating JPA Entities with the EntityManager API

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Declare an EntityManager reference with the @PersistenceContext annotation Look up an EntityManager reference by using dependency injection Use the EntityManager API to:
Find an entity by its primary key Insert a new entity Modify an existing entity Delete an entity

Execute dynamic queries with the Query API Write simple JPQL queries

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What Is EntityManager?
EntityManager: Is an interface defined in JPA Is a standard API for performing CRUD operations for entities Acts as a bridge between the object-oriented and the relational models
JPA
manages

EntityManager

Entities

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What Is EntityManager? EntityManager is an interface that is defined as a part of the EJB 3.0 Java Persistence API (JPA) specification. It specifies standard APIs for managing the life cycle of the entities, and also for performing a create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operation on the entities. The EntityManager acts as a bridge between the object-oriented and the relational worlds. It interprets the object-relational mapping (ORM) specified for an entity and saves the entity in the database.

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What Is EntityManager?
EntityManager is: Associated with a persistence context An object that manages a set of entities defined by a persistence unit
Application entity classes (Persistence unit)
manages

Persistence context

EntityManager Database
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What Is EntityManager? (continued) EntityManager is also an instance that is associated with a persistence context. A persistence context is defined as a set of managed entity instances, each of which has a unique persistent identity. The persistence context shown in the diagram is the set of entity instances associated with a row in a database. The EntityManager interface provides methods that manage entity instances and their life cycles within the persistence context. The EntityManager API is used to create and remove persistent entity instances to find entities by their primary key and to query entities. By default, the lifetime of the persistence context corresponds to the life of a transaction. An extended persistence context can be extended beyond that of a single transaction. The EntityManager API assumes that the mapped database is accessed using read-committed isolationthat is, it uses an optimistic locking strategy. A persistence unit defines a set of: Entities that can be managed by a specific EntityManager instance Related and grouped application classes that are mapped to a single database An entity has a persistence identity when it has been assigned a unique identifier value, such as the primary key. The persistence identity is used to ensure that an entity is unique.

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Managing an Entity Life Cycle with EntityManager

3 1
New
persist() merge()

EntityManager Detached
merge() remove()

2
Managed
find()

Persistence context
flush() flush()

4
Removed

INSERT

UPDATE SELECT

DELETE

= Persistent identity

Database

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Managing an Entity Life Cycle with EntityManager The diagram shows the life cycle of an entity as managed by the EntityManager API. The diagram does not illustrate the handling of related entities or error scenarios. The numbers represent state changes of entities while the methods of the javax.persistence.EntityManager interface are executed on the entity. 1. A new entity does not have a persistent identity and is not associated with a persistence context until either a persist() or merge() operation is executed by the EntityManager. In either case, a database INSERT statement is executed, the entity enters the managed state, and it becomes known as a managed entity. 2. A managed entity has a persistence context and identity that is initialized when the find() method is called. A find() method executes a SELECT statement based on the primary key and results in a new instance of an entity that forms a part of the managed persistence context. On a managed entity, flush() causes an UPDATE, and a merge() is ignored. 3. A detached entity is an object resulting from a transaction commit or rollback scenario, or a serialized instance passed as a parameter from a separate application tier. A detached entity is not associated with a persistence context until a merge() is performed. Then the entity becomes managed and an UPDATE is applied to the associated database row. 4. A removed entity has a persistence context and identity, and is marked for DELETE when the remove() method is executed. A flush() removes the entity from the database. Note: Not all the methods from the EntityManager interface are shown.
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Managing an Entity Life Cycle with EntityManager (continued) A detached entity instance continues to live outside the persistence context in which it was persisted or retrieved. Therefore, the state of the detached entity may not synchronize with the database. An application can access the available state of the detached entity instance after the persistence context ends, provided that the available state is a persistent field that: Is not annotated with fetch=LAZY Was accessed by the application If the persistent field is an association, its available state can be accessed only if the associated instance is available. Note: The EntityManager contains() method can be used to check whether an entity instance is managed in the current persistence context. The contains() method returns: TRUE if the entity was retrieved and not removed or detached, or if the entity is new and persisted FALSE if the entity is detached or removed, or if it is new and not persisted Entity Life-Cycle Callback Methods Each entity may implement various callback methods during the management of an instances life cycle. A method designated as a life-cycle callback method receives notification of events that affect the entity during its life cycle. A life-cycle callback method may be defined in either the entity class or entity listener class. Any entity may have any number of listener classes defined. A callback method defined in the entity class has the following signature:
void method-name()

A callback method defined in the entity listener class has the following signature:
void method-name(Object obj)

Here, the Object argument is the entity instance for which the callback is invoked. Callback methods can be public, private, protected, or at the package level, but they cannot be static or final. The Java Persistence API specification defines the following annotations to designate a life-cycle event callback method: PrePersist is invoked before the EntityManager persist() method is executed. PostPersist is invoked after the entity has been made persistent. PreRemove is invoked before the EntityManager remove() method is executed. PostRemove is invoked after the entity has been removed. PreUpdate is executed before the database update operation occurs. PostUpdate is executed after the database update operation occurs. Note: PreUpdate and PostUpdate methods are invoked before or after (respectively) when the entity state is updated, or when the changes are flushed to the database, which may occur at the end of a transaction. PostLoad is invoked after the entity has been loaded into the current persistence context or after the refresh operation (before a query result is accessed or an association is traversed). Note: Life-cycle methods are also invoked on operations with appropriate cascade-type operations on associated entities.
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Accessing an EntityManager Instance in an Application


Container-managed EntityManager instances:
Are implemented inside a Java EE container Use the @PersistenceContext annotation Are obtained in an application through dependency injection or JNDI lookup Are implemented outside a Java EE container Are obtainable by using the EntityManagerFactory interface
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Application-managed EntityManager instances:

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Accessing an EntityManager Instance in an Application The most common and widely used EntityManager in a Java EE environment is the container-managed EntityManager. In this mode, all the EntityManager instances are injected into the applications by using the @PersistenceContext annotation. The Java EE container manages the task of looking up, opening, and closing the EntityManager, and is also responsible for managing the transaction boundaries. Therefore, a container-managed EntityManager must implement the Java Transaction API (JTA) transactions. You can obtain a container-managed EntityManager in an application through dependency injection or through JNDI lookup. The application-managed EntityManager enables you to control every aspect of EntityManagers life cycle in the application code. In this mode, the EntityManager is retrieved through the EntityManagerFactory API. Because application-managed EntityManager is implemented outside a Java EE container, the transactions in applicationmanaged EntityManager is controlled through the EntityTransaction API.

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Creating a Container-Managed EntityManager Instance


A session bean using container injection:
@Stateless public class CustomerBean { @PersistenceContext(unitName="Model") private EntityManager em; ... public void createCustomer() { final Customer cust = new Customer(); cust.setName("Valli Pataballa"); ... em.persist(cust); } ... }

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Creating a Container-Managed EntityManager Instance The slide shows an example of a session bean acquiring an EntityManager instance through container injection (dependency injection) by implementing the @PersistenceContext annotation. In this case, the EntityManager instance is bound to the Model persistence unit, which includes the Customer entity. If a Java EE module has a single persistence unit, specifying the unitName is redundant. The EntityManager is used to persist a new Customer instance by invoking the persist() method. Note: Persistence units cannot be set up using code. You need to configure them by using the persistence.xml deployment descriptor.

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Creating an Application-Managed EntityManager Instance


A Java SE application using an EntityManagerFactory API:
public class CustomerApp { public static void main(String args[]) { final EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("Model"); final EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager(); final Customer cust = new Customer() cust.setName("Ron Howard"); ... em.persist(); } }

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Creating an Application-Managed EntityManager Instance The slide shows an example of how a Java SE application obtains an EntityManager instance. In this case, an EntityManagerFactory instance is created and bound to the Model persistence unit (defined in the persistence.xml deployment descriptor), which includes the Customer entity. The createEntityManagerFactory() method of the javax.persistence.Persistence object is essentially a programmatic substitute for the @PersistenceUnit annotation that is used to inject an instance of EntityManagerFactory in a Java EE environment. An EntityManager instance is then created from that factory and is used to persist a new Customer instance.

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Specifying Database Operations with the EntityManager API


The EntityManager API provides the following methods that map to CRUD database operations:

persist(o)

find(classname,pk)

remove(o)

INSERT

SELECT

DELETE

createQuery() createNamedQuery()

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Specifying Database Operations with the EntityManager API The EntityManager API provides the following methods that map to CRUD database operations: persist() maps to an INSERT (create) operation. find() maps to a SELECT (read) operation. remove() maps to the DELETE operation. merge() attaches an entity instance to the EntityManagers persistence context, making the instance managed. You can update an entity by using the entitys public API to modify its persistent state, or by using an update query. In both the cases, the actual database update happens when the current transaction context commits. Alternatively, you can call the flush() method to persist entity state before the current transaction context commits. Note: The Java Persistence API specification assumes the use of optimistic locking, where the databases to which persistence components are mapped are accessed by implementations using read-committed isolation. The specification does not define database isolation levels. Note: The EntityManager interface provides additional methods, known as the Query API, for finding entities: createQuery() creates a Query object for executing a Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) statement. createNamedQuery() creates a Query object for executing a named JPQL or native query.
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Commonly Used Methods in the EntityManager Interface


Method signature of the most commonly used methods of the EntityManager interface:
public public public public public public public public public void persist(Object entity); <T> T merge(T entity); void remove(Object entity); <T> T find(class<T> entityClass, Object primaryKey); void flush(); void refresh(Object entity); void clear(); Query createQuery (String jpqlString); Query createNamedQuery (String name);

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Commonly Used Methods in the EntityManager Interface The slide shows the method signature of the most commonly used methods of the EntityManager interface. persist()saves an entity instance into the database, and also makes the entity managed. It takes an entity object as a parameter. merge()merges the state of the given entity into the EntityManagers persistence context. It takes an entity object as the parameter and returns the entity instance that the state was merged to. remove()removes the entity instance from the database. find()finds an entity instance by its primary key. It retrieves an entity instance from the database by using the entity class name and the entity ID, which are passed as the methods parameter. flush()synchronizes the state of the entities in the EntityManagers persistence context with the database. refresh()resets the state of the instance from the database, overwriting any changes made to the entity. It takes an entity object as its parameter. clear()clears the EntityManagers persistence context, causing all managed entities to become detached. Changes made to entities that have not been flushed to the database are not persisted.
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Commonly Used Methods in the EntityManager Interface (continued) createQuery()creates a dynamic query by using a JPQL statement. It takes a JPQL query string as its parameter. createNamedQuery()creates an instance of Query for executing a named query (in the JPQL or in native SQL) on the entity instance.

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Quiz
The application-managed EntityManager is implemented outside a Java EE container. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 1

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Inserting New Data


To insert new data, perform the following steps: 1. Create a new entity object. 2. Call the EntityManager.persist() method.
@PersistenceContext(unitName="Model") private EntityManager em; // inject the EntityManager ... // object public void persistUser() { Users user = new Users(); user.setFirstName("Steve"); user.setLastName("King"); em.persist(user); // On return the user object contains persisted state // including fields populated with generated id values }

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Inserting New Data The process of creating new data rows requires two steps, provided that you have created an instance of EntityManager: 1. Create an instance of the entity by using the new operator and a constructor of the entity class. Optionally, call the setter methods of the new object to set the state (except for the generated or calculated values, such as primary key fields). 2. Call the persist() method of the EntityManager object with the entity instance to be persisted. Note: If the assigned or generated primary key value is not unique, an exception is thrown. On return, the object supplied as the parameter is updated with the persistent state of the object. This means that the generated primary key and calculated fields of the entity are updated to be consistent with the state of the associated data row in the database table. For this reason, you are able to determine the value of generated primary key fields after the persist() operation is successfully executed. Note: If the entity being persisted has relationships with other entities, the related entity objects are also inserted in the same persistence context. The related entities can be created in the same way or can be located by using a find() or Query API method.

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Deleting Data
To delete data, perform the following steps: 1. Find, set, or refresh the state of the entity to be deleted. 2. Call the EntityManager.remove() method.
@PersistenceContext(unitName="Model") private EntityManager em; ... // Remove a Product by primary key Id value public void removeProducts(Products products) { products = em.find(Products.class, products.getProdId()); em.remove(products); } ...

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Deleting Data To delete an entity instance, perform the following steps: 1. Either query, refresh, or create the entity with its state containing the primary-key value. 2. Execute the remove() method of the EntityManager object. Note: A removed entity becomes detached, and the state of the deleted entity is available in memory after the call is made. If the deleted entity is related to other entity objects, the related entities may be deleted if the relationship mapping or annotation is specified as cascade=CascadeType.REMOVE. Otherwise, an exception is thrown if dependent entities exist.

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Updating and Synchronizing the Entity with the Database


1. Retrieve the rows in a database table into the entity by using the EntityManager API. 2. Use the setter methods of the entity to update the data attributes. 3. Use the flush() method to synchronize the state of the entities in the EntityManagers persistence context with the database. 4. Use the merge() method to reattach an entity to the persistence context to synchronize it with the database.

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Updating and Synchronizing the Entity with the Database To update rows in a database table, retrieve those rows into the entities by using the EntityManager API. Then you can use the setter methods of the entities to update any data attributes (mapped to table columns in the database). The updates are automatically sent to the database. By default, all the EntityManager operations (such as persisting entities, removing entities, and updating entities) are cached in the memory. They are synchronized to the database in a single batch when the current thread (the stack of method calls) finishes, or before the next database query is issued (whichever comes first). Inside a transaction, you can flush the current in-memory changes in the EntityManager to the database by calling the EntityManager.flush() method. The EntityManager keeps track of the entities that it retrieved, and captures all updates to the entities that need to be synchronized to the database. But how do you update a detached entity and get the changes synchronized to the database? You can use the EntityManager.merge() method to perform this task by passing the entity instance as the call parameter.

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Updating Data
To update data, perform the following steps: 1. Find, set, or refresh the state of the entity to be updated. 2. Call the EntityManager.merge() method.
@PersistenceContext(unitName="Model") private EntityManager em; ... // Update a Product by primary key Id value public void updateProducts(Products products) { products = em.find(Products.class, products.getProdId()); products.setListPrice("1000"); ... em.merge(products); } ...

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Updating Data To update an entity instance, perform the following steps: 1. Either query, refresh, or create the entity with its state containing the primary-key value. 2. Update the entity attributes with new values. 3. Execute the merge() method of the EntityManager object. Note: merge() will insert the object if it does not exist. Therefore, if you want an update, ensure that the object exists.

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Finding an Entity by Primary Key


To locate an entity by primary key, perform the following steps: 1. Create and set the primary key object and value. 2. Call the EntityManager find() method with the following parameters:
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Entity class Primary-key object


import org.srdemo.persistence.Users; @PersistenceContext(unitName="Model") private EntityManager em; ... public Users findUserByPrimaryKey(Long id) { Users user = null; user = em.find(Users.class, id); return user; }

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Finding an Entity by Primary Key The find() method of the EntityManager API performs a search by primary key operation. To use the find() method, perform the following steps: 1. Obtain and set the value of the primary key object. 2. Call the find() method with the first parameter specifying the Java type of the entity to be retrieved, and the second parameter specifying the identity value for the entity instance to retrieve. The find() method will return a null if the entity is not found for an instance of the class for the entity type specified in the first parameter. Note: The entity instance returned by the find() method is automatically attached to the EntityManagers persistence context, which means that you can use the EntityManager to manage that entity instance.

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Quiz
The EntityManager.flush() method: 1. Retrieves the rows in a database table into the entity 2. Reattaches an entity to the persistence context 3. Synchronizes the state of the entity in the EntityManagers persistence context with the database

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Answer: 3

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What Is JPA Query API?


The JPA Query API: Includes:
EntityManager methods to create queries Query interface methods for executing queries Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL)

Supports:
Named queries Dynamic queries

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What Is JPA Query API? The JPA Query API enables you to use either JPQL or SQL to create and execute queries. The Query API includes EntityManager interface methods for creating instances, the Query interface methods that define and execute the query, and JPQL that defines searches against persistent entities independent of the mechanism used to store those entities. The Query API supports two types of queries: named and dynamic. Named queries are meant to define complex or commonly used queries, and are intended to be stored and reused. Alternatively, dynamic queries are created without disturbing normal operations at run time. The named queries are prepared once at the time of initialization, whereas dynamic queries are prepared every time they are executed.

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Retrieving Entities by Using the Query API


The EntityManager interface provides the Query API methods to execute JPQL statements:

Query instance methods: EntityManager createQuery(String jpql) setParameter(String, Object) Object getSingleResult() List getResultList() Query setMaxResults(int) Query setFirstResult(int) int executeUpdate()

createNamedQuery( String name)

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Retrieving Entities by Using the Query API The EntityManager interface exposes a Query API through the following methods: createQuery()creates a dynamic query and accepts a JPQL query as its parameter. createNamedQuery() creates a query instance based on a named (precompiled) query. In this case, the query can be JPQL or native SQL. All methods return a javax.persistence.Query instance, which provides the following API calls: setParameter(String, Object) sets the named parameter to the object value. getSingleResult() returns a single Object instance result, if any. getResultList() returns a List collection of entity instances, if any. setMaxResults(int) and setFirstResult(int) return a Query object and accept integer parameters. The former sets the maximum number of instances returned, and the latter sets the first instance to be returned. These methods are useful for paging through large sets of data. executeUpdate() executes a JPQL UPDATE or DELETE operation returning the number of rows affected, and throws an exception for a SELECT statement.

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Writing a Basic JPQL Statement


Syntax for a simple JPQL statement:

SELECT object(o) FROM abstract-schema-name o [WHERE condition]

Examples:
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Find all Users entities:


SELECT object(o) FROM Users o

Find a Users entity with a specific email address:


SELECT object(o) FROM Users o WHERE o.email = 'steve.king@srdemo.org'

Find a Users entity based on a parameter value:


SELECT object(o) FROM Users o WHERE o.firstName = :givenName

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Writing a Basic JPQL Statement The slide illustrates the basic query syntax for a JPQL statement, which has: A mandatory SELECT clause that returns a single entity instance or a collection of entity instances, whose types are determined by the abstract-schema-name specified in the FROM clause A mandatory FROM clause that identifies the abstract-schema-name of the entity being queried. The abstract-schema-name is the name of the entity class, which is given an identifier name (such as the alias o in the slide examples). The identifier refers to an instance of the entity and is used as a prefix for field names, such as o.firstName in the last example in the slide. An optional WHERE clause with one or more conditions The OBJECT()function that is applied to the abstract-schema-name identifier indicates that instances of the identifier type are being retrieved. The first example returns a collection of all Users entity instances. The second query example returns a single Users instance where the email property has the string value steve.king@srdemo.org. The last example is a parameterized JPQL statement. The named parameter givenName is preceded by a colon and acts as a placeholder that supplies the value for the conditional expression at run time. The parameterized query can be written by using the following syntax:
SELECT object(o) FROM Users WHERE o.firstName = ?1

Note: The numbered parameter notation is an alternative to the named notation.


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Creating Named Queries


To create a named query, perform the following steps: 1. Define the query with the NamedQuery annotation.
@NamedQuery(name="findUsersByCity", query="SELECT object(o) FROM Users o " + "where o.city = :city");

2. Create a Query object for the named query with the createNamedQuery() method, setting parameters and returning results.
public List<Users> findUsersinCity(String cityName) { Query query = em.createNamedQuery("findUsersByCity"); query.setParameter("city", cityName); return query.getResultList(); }

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Creating Named Queries Often queries are predefined and stored with EntityManager, allowing queries to be defined ahead of time, recalled, and used at run time. To create a named query, write a NamedQuery annotation to define the query name and query string in the entity bean. In the example in the slide, the findUsersByCity named query is declared in the Users.java entity class definition. To use the named query with the Query API, perform the following steps: 1. Create a Query object with the createNamedQuery() method, whose argument is the name assigned to the name attribute of the NamedQuery annotation. 2. With the query instance returned, call the setParameter() method to supply values for each named parameter or placeholder in the query string. The example uses one parameter called city, whose value is supplied by the cityName argument in the findUsersinCity() method. 3. Call the getResultList() method to return a collection of entities. Note: You call the getSingleResult() method to execute a SELECT query that returns a single result, and you call the getResultList() method to execute a SELECT query that returns the query results as a list. If you call the getSingleResult()method and more than one result is returned, it will throw a NonUniqueResultException.
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Writing Dynamic Queries


Example: Find service requests by primary key and a specified status.
public List findServiceRequests(Long id, String status){ if (id != null && status != null ) { Query query = em.createQuery( "select object(sr) from ServiceRequests sr " + "where sr.svrId = :srvId and sr.status = :status"); query.setParameter("srvId", id); query.setParameter("status", status); return query.getResultList(); } return null; }

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Writing Dynamic Queries By using the Query API of EntityManager, you can create dynamic queries that respond to the application requirements. The createQuery()method accepts a single String argument that defines a JPQL statement to select ServiceRequests entity object instances matching particular search criteria supplied by the application user. Because the parameter is a String, the query string can be dynamically constructed based on user input to return the desired results. The example in the slide shows how to use the following: The setParameter() method supplies values to the :srvId and :status placeholders in the query string. The getResultList() method returns a List collection of service-request instances because the JPQL statement return type is defined by the abstract schema name used in the FROM clause. In this case, the type is ServiceRequests.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Declare an EntityManager reference with the @PersistenceContext annotation Look up an EntityManager reference by using dependency injection Use the EntityManager API to:
Find an entity by its primary key Insert a new entity Modify an existing entity Delete an entity

Execute dynamic queries with the Query API Write simple JPQL queries

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Practice: Overview
This practice covers the adding named queries to entities.

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Developing the Business Logic with Web Services

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Describe Web service technologies Identify the role of SOAP, Web Services Description Language (WSDL), and Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) in Web services Decide on the Web service development approach Develop Web services by using the top-down approach with JDeveloper

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Objectives This lesson provides an overview of Web services, and covers: A discussion about some of the de facto standards such as SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI A complete description about developing a Web service by using the bottom-up approach and top-down approach Developing a Web service by using the top-down approach with Oracle JDeveloper 11g

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Web Service
Is a technology that is based on a set of standards for building interoperable distributed applications Performs self-describing business functions

HTML

HTTP client

Web presentation Business logic

XML

Web service

Database

External applications

Application server

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Web Service A Web service is designed to expose business logic that can be accessed by any application. It is a software component, identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), whose interfaces and bindings can be described by standard Extensible Markup Language (XML) vocabularies. The Web service technology (based on a set of standards) has revolutionized the way in which the application-to-application communication used to happen in an enterprise. An enterprise system usually has multiple applications, each running on different hardware and sometimes implemented in different languages. These applications often need to exchange data with one another, and developers must write additional code to make this integration possible. The Web service technology provides a solution for the enterprise application integration. A Web service supports direct interaction with other software applications or components and is network accessible. With a Web service, you can make your applications programmatically accessible to other applications over the Internet. Web services establish a method to standardize communication, making it easier for applications to share information. For example, in the case of a merger or an acquisition, companies can avoid investing large sums of money on developing software to integrate the systems of the different companies. The information systems of different companies can be linked by extending each companys business applications as Web services. These business systems can then be accessed by using simple SOAP messages over the normal HTTP protocol.
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Web Service Standards


Web service standards can be defined in terms of the following: SOAP WSDL UDDI
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Web Service Standards SOAP is an extensible, text-based framework that enables communication between different applications without prior knowledge of each others environment. The applications can interoperate with each other or even connect dynamically to services without establishing any initial agreements between them. SOAP is extensible and is generous in terms of supporting intermediaries and layered architectures. WSDL is an XML-based language for describing and accessing Web services. It provides a simple way for service providers to describe the basic format of requests to their systems regardless of the underlying protocol (such as SOAP) or encoding (such as Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions [MIME]). WSDL describes services as a set of endpoints operating on messages that are described abstractly. UDDI is an XML-based registry that enables businesses to list themselves and their services on the Internet. It is a platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services. Its ultimate goal is to streamline online transactions by enabling companies to find one another on the Web and to make their systems interoperable for e-commerce.

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SOAP: XML Messaging for Web Services


SOAP: Is an XML-based protocol for exchanging data Represents requests and responses as XML messages Uses HTTP and other protocols at the transport layer Supports data encoding and literal styles Hides details of implementations Works with:
Any programming language Any hardware and software platform
Request (SOAP) Response (SOAP)

Client
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Web service

SOAP: XML Messaging for Web Services SOAP is a lightweight, XML-based protocol for exchanging data in a distributed environment. It hides technology choices and implementation details from both the service requestor and the service provider. SOAP is defined in XML and, therefore, it places no restriction on the format. It introduces a self-describing data representation in XML. By looking at the request and response messages, you can easily find out what was sent as part of a request and what the response was. If the response has a fault element, by looking at it, you know what caused the error. SOAP provides a mechanism for exchanging structured and typed information between peers in a decentralized, distributed environment by using XML. SOAP itself does not define any application semantics such as a programming model or implementation-specific semantics; instead, it defines a simple mechanism to express application semantics by providing a modular packaging model and encoding mechanisms for encoding data within modules. SOAP V1.2 describes how the data types defined in the associated XML schemas can be serialized, or marshaled, over HTTP (or other transports such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol [SMTP] or FTP). SOAP is transport independent. Most common implementations are over HTTP. Both the publisher and the consumer of SOAP messages must have access to the same XML schemas in order to correctly exchange the information. The schemas are normally posted on the Internet and may have to be downloaded to be used by applications that exchange XML messages whose structures are based on the schema.
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Web Services Description Language (WSDL)


A WSDL document is an XML document that describes:
What the service does How the service is accessed Where the service is located

WSDL document
Types

It defines the messages and the operations of a service abstractly in XML.

Port types Bindings Services WSDL document structure

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Web Services Description Language (WSDL) WSDL corresponds to an interface definition language that provides a standard way to describe Web services. WSDL uses the XML format for describing Web services. It describes what functionality a Web service offers, how it communicates, and where it is accessible. Because WSDL is in the standard XML format, the services developed can easily be made available to thousands of users. Users must invoke the correct services with the appropriate parameters. WSDL defines an XML grammar to specify the location of the service and to describe the operations of a service. A WSDL document contains the service interface definition, the implementation details, the access protocol, and the contact endpoints information about an operation. The WSDL document describes a Web service by using these major elements: <portType>: Describes a Web service, the operations that can be performed, and the messages that are involved <message>: Describes the messages used by the Web service; defines the data elements of an operation <types>: Defines the data types used by the Web service <binding>: Defines the communication protocols used by the Web service <service>: Describes the name and location of the Web service and the context with which it can be accessed
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Messages

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UDDI Registry
The UDDI registry: Is an online electronic registry for registering businesses and Web services Is a specification for description and discovery Supports Publishing and Inquiry APIs to publish and query a Web service

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UDDI Registry You should have seen the definition and the benefits of Web services. You should have also observed that WSDL is used to describe Web services and that SOAP is used to invoke them. To invoke a Web service, the service requestor should first discover the service, and then send the SOAP message. Because UDDI is a registry where businesses and Web services are registered, the requestor can use UDDI to discover a Web service. UDDI is a directory service where businesses can register and search for Web services. It is a platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services. The UDDI registry can be used at a business level to verify whether there are any Web service interfaces with a given type of service. UDDI serves as a mechanism for businesses to reach their customers and partners. It is used to locate information about how the service is exposed and to learn the technical details required for interaction with that service.

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UDDI Registry (continued) The UDDI business registry is a logically centralized, physically distributed service with multiple root nodes that replicate data with each other on a regular basis. After a business registers with a single instance of the business registry service, the data is automatically shared with other UDDI root nodes and becomes freely available to anyone who needs to discover which Web services are exposed by a particular business. These are public registries. You can also have private UDDI registries. To ensure that most platforms can access UDDI services, the UDDI directory exposes a set of APIs. These APIs fall under two main categories: Inquiry and Publishing. To use these APIs, you must send SOAP messages with appropriate body content. The SOAP response that comes back from a UDDI registry contains information about the businesses that match the search criteria.

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Web Service Architecture


Find WSIL Locate browser Find (UDDI) 2 Register (UDDI) 1

Web services directory 4 Invoke request (SOAP) Internet 5 Web service client application Send response (SOAP)

Interface (WSDL)

Service implementation

Web service

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Web Service Architecture The diagram shows a conceptual architecture of Web services. The provider of a Web service performs the following steps to expose a Web service endpoint: 1. Generating the WSDL: The Web service is developed and the XML format describing the service (the WSDL) is generated. 2. Registering with the Web service registry: The Web service provider registers itself as a business entity and publishes the WSDL in one or more UDDI registries (for example, Oracle Service registry). The consumer of a Web service performs the following steps to invoke a Web service: 3. Searching with an UDDI registry or a Web Services Inspection Language (WSIL) browser: The consumer searches the UDDI registry or uses a WSIL browser to locate the WSDL for the Web service. 4. Invoking the Web service: The consumer sends a SOAP request to invoke the Web service by using the information stored in the WSDL. The WSDL information, which is obtained from the UDDI registry or WSIL browser, includes: - The URL for the service endpoint to locate the service functions - The WSDL that defines interface methods and messages provided by the service 5. Communicating the response: The provider responds with a SOAP message that communicates information to the consumer. The SOAP request and response are typically transmitted using the simple HTTP request-response protocol.
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Web Service Architecture (continued) WSIL is defined as an XML grammar by the WS-Inspection specification to address the need to facilitate the aggregation of references to different types of service description documents stored in the form of WSDL and UDDI registries. The WS-Inspection specification provides a means to inspect sites for service and locate pointers to service description documents. Note: Java applications can use the Web Services Invocation Framework (WSIF), which is a Java API to invoke Web services. You can use the WSIL browser to search for WSDL descriptions of services. The WSIL browser can locate services published in UDDI registries or in local file systems. The following are the file formats used extensively by Web service standards: XML: Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for defining data markup in a plain text format. XSD: XML Schema Definition (XSD) specifies how to formally describe the elements in an XML document. XSL: Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is a specification (or template) for separating style from content when you create HTML or XML pages. XSLT: Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) is the language used in XSL style sheets to transform XML documents into other XML documents. XPath: XML Path (XPath) is a language with a set of syntax rules for defining parts of an XML document.

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Quiz
The <portType> element in a WSDL describes a Web service, the operations that can be performed, and the messages that are involved. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 1

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Web Service Metadata for Java Platform (JSR-181)


Is a Java specification to develop Web services by using a document written in annotated Java syntax Defines a processor model that acts as a bridge between the annotated document and the Web service artifacts
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Web Service Metadata for Java Platform (JSR-181) JSR-181 defines an annotated Java syntax to enable easy definition of Web services in Java. According to JSR-181, a Java Web service is a simple Plain Old Java Object (POJO) with a few annotations. The annotations are used to define and describe the Web service architecture, such as the Web service name, all the methods that should be exposed in the Web service interface, parameters, their types, the bindings, and other information. JSR-181 also defines a processor (processing environments) that acts as a tool to bridge the gap between an annotated file and the Web service artifacts. For example, the processor can be used to generate a WSDL document from an annotated file or vice versa. It can also be used to generate an Enterprise Archive (EAR) package that can be deployed as a Web service within any Java 2, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) 1.4compliant container. It is essential to note that JSR181 does not define any run-time environment for the Web services, but only provides a model for processing the annotated file and mapping the annotated file to the Java EE 1.4 run-time environment. Note: JSR-175 defines the rules for adding annotations into the Java language syntax.

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Examining the JSR-181 Processor Model


Input

Annotated Java file

JSR-181 processor

WSDL

Deployment descriptors Web service artifacts


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Java classes

Examining the JSR-181 Processor Model The slide displays a sample JSR-181 processor model. The JSR-181 processor can be any tool (such as JDeveloper) that enables a Web service program written in Java (by using Java annotations) to produce the required Web service artifacts. It provides all the functionalities (such as generating Java-to-WSDL mappings and WSDL-to-Java mappings, and generating EAR packages) required to develop and deploy the Java Web service.

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Describing JSR-181 Annotations


Standard annotations defined by JSR-181:

Annotation

Java Class or Interface


javax.jws.WebService javax.jws.WebMethod javax.jws.WebParam javax.jws.WebResult javax.jws.soap.SOAPBinding

@WebService @WebMethod @WebParam @WebResult @SOAPBinding

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Describing JSR-181 Annotations As defined in JSR-181, the important annotations used to define a Java class as a Web service are the following: @WebService: Marks the class indicating that it implements the Web service @WebMethod: Marks methods that generate the service endpoint interface @WebParam: Defines Web service parameters that are specified in the wsdl:part element of the WSDL document @WebResult: Defines the return value in the wsdl:part element of the WSDL document @SOAPBinding: Specifies the SOAP binding details, and provides annotation members for style, use, and parameterStyle properties that customize mappings in the wsdl:binding element Oracle WebLogic Server Web Services supports the entire set of annotations described in JSR-181.

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Sample Annotated Java Web Service File

import javax.jws.WebService; import javax.jws.WebMethod; @WebService(serviceName = "Hello") public class Hello { @WebMethod(operationName="sayHello") public String sayHello() { return "Hello World!"; } }

1
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Sample Annotated Java Web Service File The slide shows a sample annotated Java file. The Hello Java class is deemed to be a Web service implementation class, which defines and implements a sayHello method that can be exposed as a Web service. The annotations are: 1. @WebService: Marks the Hello class indicating that the class implements the Web service. The serviceName attribute specifies the name of the Web service. 2. @WebMethod: Marks the sayHello method that generates the service endpoint interface

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What Is JAX-WS?
JAX-WS: Stands for Java API for XML Web Services Defines the core specification for the Web services standard in Java EE 5 Provides an extension to the JAX-RPC 1.0 Web services standard Enables you to expose both POJOs and stateless Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) as Web services by implementing metadata annotations

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What Is JAX-WS? Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS) is a specification for building Web services and Web service clients that communicate by using XML-based protocols (such as SOAP). JAX-WS allows developers to write message-oriented as well as RPC-oriented Web services. For more information about Web services technology and its standards, refer to the OracleAS 10g R3: Build Web Services course.

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Quiz
As defined in JSR-181, the important annotations used to annotate a Java class as a Web service are: 1. @SOAPBinding 2. @Resource 3. @WebParam 4. @EJB 5. @WebService

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Answers: 1, 3, 5

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Web Service Development Approach


There are two approaches: Bottom-up approach
You can generate the Web service by using the existing code. It requires little or no knowledge of WSDL or XML.

Top-down approach
You can generate the Web service from an existing WSDL file. Server-side and client-side development can be done simultaneously.

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Web Service Development Approach Web services can be generated by using either a bottom-up approach or a top-down approach. Each of these has advantages and disadvantages that determine the pattern that should be used in a given situation. The bottom-up approach starts with coding the business logic that is being abstracted into an interface definition. The interface is then exposed as a Web service. It requires little or no knowledge of WSDL or XML because the WSDL document is automatically generated by the development tools. With the top-down approach, both the server-side and the client-side developers use a WSDL document to produce the artifacts necessary for their respective environments. The server-side developer can start with the WSDL document to define new implementations of portType (defined by WSDL), and the client-side developer can start with the same WSDL document to develop a Web service client. This leads to the independent development of the client-side and server-side simultaneously. The top-down approach model also provides reusability of new schema types developed for the current Web service. It can be achieved by simply incorporating the new XML Schema Definition (XSD) schema into the required Web services. Some developers have also used a third method, primarily because of shortcomings or defects in tools, and a lack of thorough understanding of Web services tools and technologies. In what is called round-trip development, the developer uses a part of the top-down process followed by parts of the bottom-up process. For example, you will follow this approach when you are given a WSDL and also have to work with existing domain classes.
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Bottom-Up Approach

Generate WSDL 2 artifacts Java-to-WSDL 1 Java class/EJB Web service development

WSDL

1 Generate Java artifacts WSDL-to-Java 2 Web service client Web service client development

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Bottom-Up Approach Web Service Development 1. The business logic is coded using either Java classes or EJBs. These contain methods that are exposed in the Web service interface. 2. The Web service generation tool (in this case, Java-to-WSDL) generates the WSDL. The Web service generation tool can be the WebServicesAssembler (WSA) tool or JDeveloper. Web Service Client Development 1. The Web service generation tool (in this case, WSDL-to-Java) generates the client-side proxy class and other client-side artifacts from the WSDL. 2. The Web service client application uses the proxy class to communicate with the Web service application. Note: With the bottom-up approach, the development of the Web service client is dependent on the implementation of the Web service because all the client-side artifacts (such as the proxy and the stubs) are developed from the WSDL document. The bottom-up approach also often leads to very fine-grained services. Therefore, the top-down approach of Web services development is much preferred.

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Top-Down Approach

XSD schemas

WSDL-to-Java Generate Java artifacts 2

WSDL-to-Java 2 Generate Java artifacts

WSDL

Web service implementation Web service development

Web service client Web service client development

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Top-Down Approach Web Service Development 1. A WSDL document is created. You can incorporate multiple XSD schemas in the WSDL document, which describes the input and the output data types for the Web service operation. 2. The Web service generation tool (in this case, WSDL-to-Java) generates the Java artifacts, such as the service endpoint interface, which are implemented as a Web service. Web Service Client Development 1. This is similar to Web service development. 2. The Web service generation tool (in this case, WSDL-to-Java) generates the Java artifacts, such as the client-side proxy class and stub, which are used by the client application to communicate with the Web service. Note: In the top-down approach, the development of the client-side and the server-side can be done in parallel, and without any dependency on each other.

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Developing a Web Service by Using the Top-Down Approach


To develop a Web service by using the top-down approach in JDeveloper, perform the following steps: 1. Define an XSD schema. 2. Create the WSDL document incorporating the XSD schema. 3. Generate the Web service artifacts from the WSDL document by using JDeveloper. 4. Implement the Web service logic. 5. Deploy the generated artifacts by using JDeveloper.
Web service

XSD

WSDL

Java classes

Deploys

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Developing a Web Service by Using the Top-Down Approach To develop a Web service by using the top-down approach model, you start with defining a single or a collection of XSD schemas, which describe the input and output data types for the Web service operations. These XSD schemas are used to design the WSDL document. It can be done by either creating a new WSDL document or editing an existing one. The WSDL document is processed to generate the Java artifacts by using JDeveloper. These artifacts are used to implement the Web service logic. These artifacts are then assembled and deployed to the application server.

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Defining an XSD Schema

Input type

Output type

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Defining an XSD Schema You can create an XSD schema by using JDeveloper. You can visually insert or modify the XSD elements (such as complex types and elements) by using the XSD schema editor utility in JDeveloper. You can insert an XSD node (such as an element, a complex type, and a simple type) by right-clicking any existing node and selecting one of the following options: insert before element, insert inside element, or insert after element, and thereby selecting the appropriate node to insert. You can modify an existing node by double-clicking a specific node and modifying its value. The XSD schema (CreditService.xsd) has been defined that consists of XML complex type and XML elements. The complex CreditCard type is defined to handle the input operation type (method parameter), and the elementsvalid and errorare defined to handle the output operation type (method return type) of the Web service logic (implemented using a Java method).

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Creating the WSDL Document

Imports XSD schema WSDL

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Creating the WSDL Document The slide displays a part of the WSDL document where the specified XSD schema (CreditService.xsd) has been incorporated.

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<definitions name="CreditService"... <types> <schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" targetNamespace="http://www.example.org" ... <xsd:import namespace="http://www.example.org " schemaLocation="CreditService.xsd"/> </schema> </types> ...

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Creating the WSDL Document

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Creating the WSDL Document (continued) The <message> and <portType> elements of the WSDL document are displayed in the slide. There are two <message> elements: CreditCardValidationRequestMessage and CreditCardValidationResponseMessage. CreditCardValidationRequestMessage takes care of handling the input operation and is associated with defining the input parameter for the Web service operation defined in the Web service endpoint interface. The part element indicates that the Web service operation takes a parameter of the CreditCard type. The type is defined as an XML element in the XSD schema (CreditService.xsd). Similarly, CreditCardValidationResponseMessage is associated with the output operation and specifies the return type of the Web service operation. The <portType> element indicates the name of the implementation class, ValidateCreditCard. This class implements the method defined in the service endpoint interface. The <portType> element also specifies the <operation> element whose name attribute is set to VerifyCC, which is the name of the method defined in the service endpoint interface. The service endpoint interface is then exposed as a Web service. The <input> and <output> elements contain the corresponding input message and output message names.

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... <message name="CreditCardValidationRequestMessage"> <part name="CreditCard" element="types:CreditCard"/> </message> <message name="CreditCardValidationResponseMessage"> <part name="valid" element="types:valid"/> </message> ... <portType name="ValidateCreditCard"> <operation name="VerifyCC"> <input message="tns:CreditCardValidationRequestMessage"/> <output message="tns:CreditCardValidationResponseMessage"/> ... </operation> </portType> ...

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Modifying the WSDL Document

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Modifying the WSDL Document You can create or modify the WSDL document in JDeveloper by using the WSDL editor tool. The WSDL editor gives you a design view of the WSDL document that enables you to segregate the different sections of the WSDL document (such as, services, bindings, and port types) in a hierarchical structure. You can expand the tree of a specific section, and can modify the values of different elements present in that specific section. You can double-click any element to modify its value. For example, to modify the value of the VerifyCC element (in the port types section), click the VerifyCC element to open the dialog box that enables you to modify the attributes (such as the name attribute) of the VerifyCC element. You can also perform the same task by using the Structure window. For example, you can insert a predefined schema in the WSDL document by executing the following steps: 1. Open the WSDL document in design view. 2. In the Structure window of JDeveloper, navigate to definitions > Types > types > schema node. Right-click the schema node and select Insert inside schema > xsd:import from the pop-up menu. 3. Enter CreditService.xsd in the schemaLocation field and http://www.example.org in the namespace field. 4. Click the OK button. Similarly, you can also modify the values of the other elements present in the WSDL document.
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Creating the Web Service by Using Oracle JDeveloper 11g


2

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Creating the Web Service by Using Oracle JDeveloper 11g You can use the Oracle JDeveloper 11g Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to develop Web services. You can expose any Java resource (such as a Java class or an EJB) as a Web service in JDeveloper. JDeveloper also enables you to generate a Web service from a WSDL document and a PL/SQL package. You can use the Java Web Service from WSDL Wizard to generate the Web services artifacts from a given WSDL document.

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Implementing the Web Service Logic

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Implementing the Web Service Logic The slide displays the JDeveloper IDE. It consists of the Application Navigator pane, Structure pane, and the code editor. In the Application Navigator, all the necessary resources or artifacts (such as the WSDL document and XSD schema) to develop and deploy a Web service application are displayed (generated by the wizard). If you select any of the Web service artifacts from the Application Navigator pane, the corresponding structure of the component is displayed in the Structure pane. For example, if you select the Web service implementation class (ValidateCreditCardImpl.java) in the Application Navigator pane, you can see its constructor and methods in the Structure pane. Now, if you select any of the methods of the ValideateCreditCardImpl.java in the Structure pane, you can see the corresponding code in the code editor. The Web service application exposes the verifyCC() method as a Web service. You need to modify the code to implement the verifyCC() method (Web service logic) to validate a credit card.

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Describe Web service technologies Identify the role of SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI in Web services Decide on the Web service development approach Develop Web services by using the top-down approach by using JDeveloper

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Practice: Overview
This practice covers the following topics: Creating a Web service application by using the top-down Web service development approach Testing the Web service application by using JDeveloper
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Developing the Web Interface Using JavaServer Faces

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe the purpose of JavaServer Faces Use JSF components Explain the use of managed beans Describe the life cycle of a JSF application Explain the role of the JSF tag libraries Describe how JDeveloper supports JSF Create a JSF-based JSP in JDeveloper

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Objectives In this lesson, you learn about JavaServer Faces (JSF), which are JavaServer Pages (JSP) that contain special user interface (UI) components. Like JSP, JSF supports the MVC framework and is, therefore, a valuable technology for building the view component of Java EE applications. You learn that JDeveloper provides a feature-rich development environment for building JSF pages quickly and easily.

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JSF: Overview
JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a server-side component framework for Web applications. JSF:
Is an implementation of the MVC design pattern Enables separation of business and presentation logic Enables separation of navigational and data flow

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JSF: Overview JSF is a server-side UI technology, as opposed to a client-side UI technology such as Swing. JSF is also a component-based architecture, which means that instead of working with markup, the developer works with UI components, similar to Swing. JSF also implements the MVC design pattern, which includes the UI (view), controller, and the model. The built-in controller provides developers with a technique to cleanly separate the navigational aspects of an application from the data presentation logic.

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JSF: Benefits
Simplifies Java EE development Is intended for RAD style development tools Is a component-based architecture Supports Java EE framework:
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State management Error handling Input validation Type conversion Event handling Page navigation

Is portable across JSF implementations

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JSF: Benefits The JSF technology provides Web application life cycle management through a controller servlet and a rich component model with event handling and component rendering. Because JSF is a component-based architecture, it simplifies the development process. Part of the direction of the JSF specification is to make the architecture readily accessible by using GUI development tools, such as JDeveloper.

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Key Terms
UI component: The components that manage data to be displayed on a page Managed bean: Objects that maintain data and methods that are used across multiple pages Expression Language: Shortcut to access properties and methods from a JSF page Navigation model: The rules that govern page flow Life cycle: The processes that are executed from the time a page is loaded until it is complete

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Key Terms Each of these key terms is discussed in detail later in this lesson.

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JSF Architecture
JavaServer Faces has: A set of prefabricated UI components An event-driven programming model A component model that enables third-party developers to build additional components It can be thought of as Swing for server-side applications.

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JSF Architecture The UI component classes included with the JavaServer Faces technology include the component functionality, not the client-specific presentation. With ease-of-use being the primary goal, the JavaServer Faces architecture defines a separation between application logic and presentation, making it easy to connect the presentation layer to the application code.

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JSF Architecture

HTML browser

HTML render kit Page Front controller WML render kit Page Back-end code

Phone/ PDA

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JSF Architecture (continued) The slide shows the JSF architecture in a simplified manner. Just like any other MVC-based architecture, JSF architecture has its own front controller called the FacesServlet. The FacesServlet acts as a gatekeeper for the application. Upon an initial Web request to access a JSF application, the FacesServlet handles the request by first preparing the JSF context, which is a Java object that holds all application data. As stated earlier, a JSF page is made of a tree of UI components that can be associated with model objects called backing beans. These backing beans handle application or business logic for the application. JSF UI components have the ability to render themselves differently depending on the client type viewing the component. When a page has to be rendered to a particular client type, whether the client type is an HTML browser running on a desktop or a Wireless Markup Language (WML) browser running on a wireless phone, a particular renderer is used for displaying the data maintained in the UI components. Because JSF decouples the UI component from its rendering logic, the same UI component is used for displaying information about different client types using different protocols.

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JSF Components
JSF Components consists of three parts: UI components: Functionality, attributes, or behavior Renderers: Converts components to and from a specific markup language Render kits: Library of renderers (The Basic HTML RenderKit is part of the specification.)

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JSF Components The Components model is a major part of JSF. JSF Components consist of three parts: The components themselves define basic attributes, functionality, or behavior for the components. For example, a button has some expected behaviors, such as what happens when it is clicked. These are defined within the component. If a component has a value-changed event, the developer can create a listener for that event. The framework then invokes that listener at the right time. Components are standardized within JSF, so you can use any component from any vendor with the framework and mix and match them as required, and they all behave in the same way. Renderers convert a component to and from a specific markup language. A renderer makes JSF components flexible with respect to which type of client can use the component. Attributes say nothing about how the component is displayedthat is the responsibility of the renderer. A renderer for a component may output very complex HTML, such as a tree control, or a simple item, such as output text. The generated markup may include JavaScript as well as HTML if a particular component has complex client-side behaviors. Render kits are a library of renderers. The Basic HTML RenderKit is part of the JSF specification.

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JSF UI Components
Are the basic building blocks of a JSF application Are stateful server objects Do not define rendering Can represent simple to complex user interface components ranging from a button or input field to a complete page Can be associated to model data objects through value binding Can use helper objects, such as validators, converters, listeners, and events

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JSF UI Components JSF UI components are what you use to build a JSF user interface. UI components are stateful server objects. They are maintained on the server. They do not define any rendering characteristics. Rendering is handled by the renderers. The components range from simple text field components to complex shuttle type controls. Each component can be associated to a model by using value binding. Each component can also use helper objects that are included in JSF, such as validators, converters, listeners, and events. When a JSP page is created using JSF components, a component tree or view is built into memory on the server with each component tag corresponding to a UIComponent instance in the tree. The component tree is used by the JSF framework to handle your application request and create a rendered response.

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JSF Component Architecture


Markup <f:view> <h:inputText required="true" value="#{emp.name}" /> </f:view>

Device Renderer

UI component

Expr. Language

JSF page

Managed bean

J2EE Persistence Layer/JDBC

RDBMS

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JSF Component Architecture In this diagram, all the three main JSF components are highlighted: the component renderer, the component itself, and the binding expression.

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Quiz
Identify the correct statements about JavaServer Faces. 1. It includes a set of APIs for representing the user interface (UI) components and managing their state, handling events and input validation, converting values, defining page navigation, and supporting internationalization and accessibility. 2. It includes a default set of UI components. 3. It includes a server-side event model. 4. It includes state management. 5. It includes managed beans (JavaBeans created with dependency injection).

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Answers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

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Tag Handlers and Component Trees


Each tag has a corresponding tag handler class. JSF tag handlers collaborate with each other to build a component tree. Examples of JSF tags are: f:form, h:inputText, h:inputSecret, h:commandButton
UIForm

UIInput

UIOutput

UICommand

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Tag Libraries
Core tag library
f: tags for faces Custom actions independent of any rendering kit Example: f:validator, f:converter, f:selectItem h: tag for HTML Component tags for all UI components and HTML rendering kit Example: h:form, h:inputText, h:messages
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HTML tag library

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Tag Libraries Core tag library Validation: It is difficult to imagine a Web application that does not perform a healthy dose of data validation. JavaServer Faces provides a handful of standard validators and a simple mechanism for implementing your own validation. Data Converters: A Web application stores data of many types, but the Web user interface deals exclusively with text. For example, suppose the user needs to edit a Date object. First, the Date object is converted to a string that is placed inside a text field. The user then edits the text field. The resulting string must be converted back to a Date object. Navigation: Consider what happens when the user of a Web application fills out a Web page. The user enters text and clicks option buttons and drop-down lists. All of these edits happen inside the users browser. The changes are transmitted to the server when the user clicks a button that posts the form data. At that time, the Web application analyzes the user input and must decide which JSF page to use for rendering the response. The navigation handler is responsible for selecting the next JSF page. HTML tag library This library contains tags for standard HTML style elements.

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Configuration Files
faces-config.xml
Defines managed beans Specifices navigation rules Must exist with WEB-INF Similar to struts-config.xml

Servlet mapping in web.xml uses a faces extension. URL pattern *.faces maps to java.faces.webapp.FacesServlet.

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Configuration Files One or more configuration files are used to configure a JSF application. The main configuration file for an application is the WEB-INF/faces-config.xml file. Files in the same format can be bundled also within JAR files containing custom components, renderers, or any other custom JSF classes. Within the <faces-config> element body, top-level elements can be included in any order. Each top-level element is described in a separate section in the appendix. The top-level elements are all optional and can be included more than once, unless otherwise stated. Most top-level elements contain other elements.

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JSF Renderers
Two rendering models:
Direct implementation Delegated implementation

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JSF Renderers The renderer creates the client-side representation of the component, takes any input from the client, and transforms it into something that the component can understand. The typical renderer implementation generates HTML and understands how to transform values from HTML form POSTs into values the component understands. However, this is not the only client type that can be rendered by a JSF renderer. For example, the reference implementation comes with a set of Extensible User Interface Language (XUL) renderers.

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Delegated implementation enables separation of UI from how they appear to the user. Each JSF implementation must provide a default RenderKit instance. JSF specification includes the Standard HTML RenderKit Specification.

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Managed Beans
Java objects (empty constructor), maps, lists Defined in faces-config.xml Defined with various scopes:
application session request none

Lazy initialization by JSF as needed

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Managed Beans Along with components, managed beans are a key part of JSF. Any Java object can be a managed bean as long as it has a no-arg constructor. The managed bean is defined in XML in the facesconfig.xml file. This file exists in the WEB-INF directory of the application and is the master file for a JSF application. When you create a page, you can automatically create a managed bean with references to the objects you create on the page. This type of managed bean is called a backing bean, and it also provides a place to put code. In many cases, the backing bean contains only action code with no references to the UI components, or references to only a few of the components that you need to manipulate programmatically. Managed beans can also be used to hold information about the request, application, or session. The life cycle of a managed bean is handled by JSF. When the bean is first referenced, JSF creates an instance of the relevant Java class and keeps it around as long as is specified by the bean definition. The none scope listed in the slide is used to define transitory objects that are used just to populate other managed beans and are never used outside that context. Usage of that managed bean is then through Expression Language, which is discussed in the following slide.

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Expression Language
Dot notation for attributes (JavaBean model): #{userbean.name} same as instance.getName(); Map notation: #{foo["baa"]} same as instance.get("baa"); Expressions can be of any depth: #{foo["baa"].person.name}

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Expression Language Expression Language (EL) is the binding factor in JSF. It provides the hook between the user interface and the managed bean facility. Almost any property in a component can be set to an EL expression. The primary use of EL is to set properties is to bind the value of a component to something in the model. You can also bind attributes to EL, such as the rendered attribute supported by all components. You can set a value directly or to an expression that evaluates to a Boolean value to do conditional processing. You can use EL not only for binding to managed beans, but also for directly referencing various known scopes, such as request or session scope.

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Life Cycle of a JSF Page


A JSF page is represented by a tree of UI components, called a view. When a client makes a request for the page, the life cycle starts. During the life cycle, JSF implementation must build the view while considering the state saved from the previous postback. When the client performs a postback of the page, JSF implementation must perform life-cycle steps:
Validation Conversion

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Life Cycle of a JSF Page The life cycle of a JavaServer Faces page is similar to that of a JSP page. The client makes an HTTP request for the page, and the server responds with the page translated to HTML. However, because of the extra features that JavaServer Faces technology offers, the life cycle provides some additional services to process a page. A JavaServer Faces page is represented by a tree of UI components, called a view. When a client makes a request for the page, the life cycle starts. During the life cycle, the JavaServer Faces implementation must build the view while considering the state saved from the previous postback. When the client performs a postback of the page, the JavaServer Faces implementation must perform several tasks, such as validating the data input of components in the view and converting input data to types specified on the server side. The JavaServer Faces implementation performs all these tasks as a series of steps in the life cycle.

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JSF Life Cycle: Initial Request

Client/Browser Restore/create view. Apply request values. Process validation.

Render response.

Invoke application.

Update model.

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JSF Life Cycle: Initial Request The life cycle handles both kinds of requestsinitial requests and postbacks. An initial request for a page is when the user requests the page for the first time. During the initial request, JSF creates a server-side component tree based on the components on the page. It populates the tree with whatever values are appropriate at the time. Because this is an initial request with no user input or actions to process, JSF executes only the restore view and render response phases.

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JSF Life Cycle: Postback

Client/Browser Restore/create view. Apply request values. Process validation.

Render response.

Invoke application.

Update model.

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Life Cycle: Postback A postback occurs when the user submits the form contained on a page that was previously loaded into the browser as a result of executing an initial request. When the life cycle handles a postback, it executes all the phases. Apply request values: Components that hold a value, such as input fields, have their values applied to their counterparts in the view tree. Events such as ValueChangeEvents (VCE) or ActionEvents (AE) are queued for processing later at the end of this phase. A VCE means that a value has changed for a specific UI component. An AE means that a button (or any UI component that is a source of an action) was clicked. Process validation: Validation and conversion logic is executed for each component (both built-in validation and data conversion, or custom validation and conversion added onto the components). If a validation error occurs, an error is reported, the life cycle halts, and the response is rendered with validation error messages. Update model: Any managed bean properties that are bound to UI components by using the Value attribute are updated with the value of the component.

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Life Cycle: Postback (continued) Invoke application: Queued ActionEvents are executed in this phase. For example, an action method such as loginAction() is executed at this point. Render response: Three things happen here1) a possible navigation is handled depending on the outcome of the action method (if any), 2) the view tree renders itself to the client, and 3) the view tree is saved for future requests.

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Quiz
Backing beans are JSF-managed beans that are associated with the UI components on a JSF page. 1. True 2. False
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Answer: 1

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Using JSF Tag Libraries


JSF UI components are encapsulated in JSP tag libraries: Core: For application tasks, such as validation, and data type conversion HTML: For rendering basic HTML, such as input fields, menus, tables, and buttons

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Using JSF Tag Libraries JDeveloper provides the standard JavaServer Faces (JSF) tag libraries for use in your JSF pages: JSF Core tag library: Used with other components to perform core actions that do not depend on a particular render kit JSF HTML tag library: Used to represent HTML form controls and other basic HTML elements. These controls display data or accept data from the user. This data is collected as part of a form and is submitted to the server, usually when the user clicks a button. To use any of the standard JavaServer Faces tags, you must include the taglib directives at the top of each page containing the tags defined by the tag library. For example: <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f"%> <%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h"%> For a JSP document, the directives are different: <jsp:root xmlns:jsp="http://java.sun.com/JSP/Page" version="2.0 xmlns:h="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html xmlns:f="http://java.sun.com/jsf/core">

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JSF Applications
A typical JSF application consists of: One or more JSPs containing JSF components A navigation model specified in the faces-config.xml file
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A set of managed beans that facilitate the UI logic of the application

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JSF Applications Typically, a JSF application consists of a number of JSF pages connected by JSF navigation cases that are defined in the faces-config.xml file. Each page probably uses a set of managed beans to help facilitate page-specific UI application logic. It may also include other managed beans for application-level methods, which are typically helper type methods that multiple pages may use.

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JSF and JDeveloper 11g


JDeveloper provides many features for creating JSF components: JSF visual editing
JSF UI component visual editing Provides back-end code generation (double-click)

JSF Configuration Editor for productive editing of faces-config.xml

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JSF and JDeveloper 11g JDeveloper is a feature-rich development environment for JSF. It provides visual editing for pages, including drag-and-drop for JSF components. It also provides back-end code generation that creates backing beans for you. It also keeps the backing beans in sync with components added to the page. It also includes the JSF Configuration Editor that provides an easy way to see and modify any part of the Faces configuration (managed beans, navigation cases, validators, converters, and so on). When you create an application or page using JSF technology in JDeveloper, the necessary JSF tag libraries and JAR files are automatically set up in the project properties. The faces-config.xml file is created and the Faces Servlet and Faces Servlet Mapping definitions are automatically inserted into a web.xml file. In JDeveloper, you can develop applications with JSF technology when you: Create a new application using a template, such as a Web application (JSF, EJB, or TopLink) that uses the JSF technology scope Create a new JSF Page Flow and Configuration file, or a JSF JSP file in an existing project Add the JSF technology scope to an existing project in the project properties Create a new project using an existing JSF application or .war file

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JSF Navigation Diagram

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JSF Navigation Diagram JDeveloper includes a Visual Editor or diagrammer for the JSF navigation model, which you can also edit directly in XML. The diagram in the slide depicts a series of rules, which are named events that link pages (or views in JSF) together. If a command item, such as a button on the Main page, raises an editProduct outcome, then the JSF framework acts as a page flow controller to forward (or redirect, if required) the browser to the EditProduct page. This is an example of where good tooling for JSF can make a real difference. Rendering the navigation model as a diagram and enabling visual editing gives the developer both a productive way of defining the application page flow and a visual document of the application page structure and relationships. If the application flow needs to changefor example, if a page needs to be addedthen the relationships in this diagram can be redrawn, but the pages themselves do not have to be touched. This is an implementation of the JSP Model 2 Architecture as pioneered by the Struts framework.

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Adding to JSF with ADF Faces


Built on top of JSF APIs Much larger component set: over 100 types More advanced and interesting components
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Partial-page rendering Scrollable, sortable table

Rich feature set for customizing applications Uses Ajax, SVG, and Flash ADF model support Runs on any JSF-compliant implementation
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Adding to JSF with ADF Faces Oracle ADF Faces is a rich set of user interface components based on the JavaServer Faces JSR. Oracle ADF Faces uses the flexible JSF rendering architecture to combine the power of Ajax and JSF to provide over 100 components with built-in functionalitysuch as data tables, hierarchical tables, and color and date pickersthat can be customized and reused in your application. Each component also offers complete customization, skinning, and support for internationalization and accessibility. ADF Faces also provides a rich set of Flash- and SVG-enabled components that are capable of rendering dynamic charts, graphs, gauges, and other graphics that provide real-time updates. This built-in support for Ajax, SVG, and Flash enables developers to build rich UIs without an extensive knowledge of the underlying technologies. ADF Faces also simplifies the code necessary to connect application logic in existing business services to UI components. Its components are JSR-227 compliant, enabling developers to easily bind services to their UIs at design time. ADF Faces components can be used in any IDE that supports JSF.

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Using ADF Faces Layout Components


You can use the following components to achieve the desired layout:
af:spacer af:separator af:panelSplitter af:panelStretchLayout af:panelAccordion af:panelFormLayout af:panelTabbed af:showDetail af:panelGroupLayout af:panelCollection af:panelHeader af:showDetailHeader af:group af:panelList af:panelBox af:panelBorderLayout

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Using ADF Faces Layout Components ADF Faces layout components include the following: spacer, separator: To add blank space and divider lines panelSplitter, panelStretchLayout: To enable automatic component stretching on your pages panelSplitter, panelAccordion: To create collapsible panes panelFormLayout: To arrange items in columns or grids panelTabbed: To create stacked tabs showDetail: To hide and display groups of content panelGroupLayout: To enable automatic scrollbars on your pages, and arrange items horizontally or vertically panelCollection: To add menus, toolbars, and status bars to data aggregation components such as tables, trees, and tree tables panelHeader, showDetailHeader: To create titled sections and subsections group: To group semantically related components panelList, panelBox: To create styled lists and content boxes panelBorderLayout: To place items in fixed, peripheral areas around a central area The following slides show how to use these components for various layout tasks.

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Creating Resizable Panes


Panel Splitters af:panelSplitter Horizontal orientation: Nested: Vertical orientation:

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Creating Resizable Panes When you have groups of unique content to present to users, consider using multiple panes separated by adjustable splitters. When viewing the page in a client browser, users can change the size of panes by dragging a splitter, and also choose to collapse or restore panes. When a pane is collapsed, its contents are hidden; when a pane is restored, the contents are displayed. The af:panelSplitter component enables you to organize contents into two panes separated by an adjustable splitter. Clicking the arrow button on a splitter collapses or expands a pane (and its contents) in the direction of the arrow. The value of the orientation attribute determines whether the panes are horizontal (default) or vertical. The pane contents are specified in the facets first and second. The slide shows a page divided into two horizontal panes (placed left to right), and another page divided into two vertical panes (placed top to bottom). It also shows a nested panelSplitter, created by a horizontal panelSplitter into the first facet of a vertical panelSplitter. The af:panelSplitter component uses geometry management to stretch its children components at run time. This means when the user collapses one pane, the contents in the other pane are explicitly resized to fill up the available space. If af:panelSplitter is the root component for your page contents, you have to set the inlineStyle attribute on af:panelSplitter for maximum stretching.

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Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Splitter Component


Attributes:
collapsed positionedFromEnd
true true false false true true

Behavior
First pane hidden; second pane stretches

Both panes displayed, with splitterPosition governing the size of the second pane and splitter arrow pointed toward the second pane Both panes displayed, with splitterPosition governing the size of the first pane and splitter arrow pointed toward the first pane

false

false

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Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Splitter Component Another feature of the panel splitter component is that users can collapse or restore its panes. When a pane is collapsed, the pane contents are hidden; when a pane is restored, the contents are displayed. The collapsed attribute on af:panelSplitter determines whether the splitter is in a collapsed (hidden) state. By default, the collapsed attribute is false, which means both panes are displayed. When the user clicks the arrow button on the splitter, collapsed is set to true and one of the panes is hidden. ADF Faces uses the collapsed and positionedFromEnd attributes to determine which pane (that is, the first or second pane) to hide (collapse) when the user clicks the arrow button on the splitter. When collapsed is true and positionedFromEnd is false, the first pane is hidden and the second pane stretches to fill up the available space. When collapsed is true and positionedFromEnd is true, the second pane is hidden instead. Visually, the user can know which pane will be collapsed by looking at the direction of the arrow on the button. When the user clicks the arrow button on the splitter, the pane collapses in the direction of the arrow. The splitterPosition and collapsed attributes are persistablethat is, when the user moves the splitter or collapses a pane, ADF Faces can implicitly persist the attribute value changes for the component.

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Second pane hidden; first pane stretches

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Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Accordion


With default settings

<af:panelAccordion> <af:showDetailItem text="This is a pane"/> <af:showDetailItem text="This is another pane"/> </af:panelAccordion>


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Creating Collapsible Panes with the Panel Accordion Component Another component that enables you to create collapsible panes is panel accordion. A series of af:showDetailItem components inside af:panelAccordion make up the accordion panes, with one af:showDetailItem component corresponding to one pane. The pane contents are the children components inside each af:showDetailItem. You can use more than one af:panelAccordion component on a page, typically in different areas of the page, or nested. After adding the af:panelAccordion component, insert a series of af:showDetailItem components to provide the panes by using one af:showDetailItem for one pane. Then insert components into each af:showDetailItem to provide the pane contents.

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Characteristics of Panel Accordion component: Does not automatically stretch it children Panes cannot be resized at run timeonly expand or contract Panes defined by showDetailItem

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Panel Accordion Overflow


Automatic overflow icons to display content out of view

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Panel Accordion Overflow At run time, when available browser space is less than the space needed to display expanded pane contents, ADF Faces automatically displays overflow icons that enable users to select and navigate to those panes that are out of view. The slide shows overflow icons at the upper left (first example) and at the lower right (second example). When the user clicks the overflow icon, ADF Faces displays the overflow pop-up menu, as shown in the slide, for the user to select and navigate to a pane that is out of view.

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Setting Panel Accordion Properties


<af:showDetailItem text="Browse Products" inlineStyle="width:100%; height:100%;" flex=1"> <af:showDetailItem text="Selected Product" inlineStyle="width:100%; height:100%;" flex="2">

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Setting Panel Accordion Properties The following properties govern the behavior of the panel accordion at run time: discloseNone: Allow all panes to be collapsed at once (default is false) discloseMany: Allow multiple panes to be expanded at once (default is false) The following properties of showDetailItem affect the behavior of the accordion panes: text: Specifies the text string to display as the title in the header of the container. flex: Specifies a non-negative integer that determines how much space is distributed among the af:showDetailItem components of one af:panelAccordion. By default, flex is 0 (zero), that is, the pane contents of each af:showDetailItem are inflexible. To enable flexible contents in a pane, specify a flex number larger than 0. inflexibleHeight: Specifies the number of pixels a pane will use. Default is 100 pixels. that is, if a pane has a flex value of 0 (zero), ADF Faces will use 100 pixels for that pane, and then distribute the remaining space among the nonzero panes. If the contents of a pane cannot fit within the af:panelAccordion container given the specified inflexibleHeight value, ADF Faces automatically pushes out nearby contents into overflow menus, as described previously. Because neither of the above components automatically stretches its children, you may need to set the width and height of any children of showDetailItem to 100%.

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With discloseMany="true" discloseNone="true"

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Setting Panel Accordion Properties (continued) The discloseMany attribute governs how many panes can be visible at once: Set to true if you want users to be able to expand and see the contents of more than one pane at the same time By default, discloseMany is falsethat is, only one pane can be expanded at any one time. For example, suppose there is one expanded pane A and one collapsed pane B when the page is first loaded. If the user expands pane B, pane A will be collapsed because only one pane can be expanded at any time. The discloseNone attribute governs whether users can collapse all panes. Set the discloseNone attribute to true to enable users to collapse all panes. By default, discloseNone is falsethat is, one pane must remain expanded at any time.

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You can add toolbars and toolbar buttons in the pane headers. To add toolbar buttons to a pane, insert the af:toolbar component into the toolbar facet of the af:showDetailItem component that defines that pane. Then insert the desired number of af:commandToolbarButton components into the af:toolbar component. Although the toolbar facet is on af:showDetailItem, it is the parent component af:panelAccordion that renders the toolbar and its buttons. To allow users to print the contents of a single pane, place the af:showPrintablePageBehavior component (wrapped in af:commandButton) within the af:showDetailItem whose pane contents you want users to be able to print.

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Creating Titled Sections and Subsections

Show detail header component with sections that expand or collapse: af:showDetailHeader

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Creating Titled Sections and Subsections You may want to divide a page into sections and subsections, starting each section or subsection with a header. The af:panelHeader component enables you to create sections and subsections with a label and an icon at the top of each section or subsection header, as shown in the first example in the slide. To enable users to toggle the display of contents under each section or subsection header, use the af:showDetailHeader component instead. This is similar to the af:panelHeader component, except that it renders a toggle icon that lets users hide or display the section or subsection contents. The second example in the slide shows a top section with its contents displayed, and a subsection with its contents hidden. Partial page rendering (PPR), which is covered later in this lesson, is automatically used to refresh a section of the page when the user selects to hide or show contents under the header. The disclosed attribute on af:showDetailHeader specifies whether to show or hide the contents under its header. The default is falsethat is, the contents are hidden. When the user clicks the toggle icon, an org.apache.myfaces.trinidad.event.DiscloserEvent is raised to the server. If you want to perform special handling of this event, you can bind the components disclosureListener attribute to a DisclosureListener method in a backing bean.

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Panel header component with sections and subsections: af:panelHeader

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Grouping Related Components


Use af:group to: Add multiple components to a facet Group related child components
<af:panelFormLayout> <af:inputDate label="Pick a date"/> <!-- first group --> <af:group> <af:selectManyCheckbox label= "Select all that apply"> <af:selectItem label="Coffee" value="1"/> //other select items </af:selectManyCheckbox> <af:inputText label="Special instructions" rows="3"/> </af:group> <!-- Second group --> <af:group> <af:inputFile label="File to upload"/> <af:inputText label="Enter passcode"/> </af:group> <af:inputText label="Comments" rows="3"/> <af:spacer width="10" height="15"/> <f:facet name="footer"/> </af:panelFormLayout>

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Grouping Semantically Related Components The af:group component aggregates or groups together child components that are related semantically. The af:group component does not provide any layout for its children. Used on its own, the af:group component does not render anything; only the child components inside of af:group render at run time. You can use any number of af:group components to group related components together. For example, you might want to group some of the input fields in a form layout created by af:panelFormLayout, as shown in the example in the slide that groups two sets of child components inside af:panelFormLayout. When the af:group component is used as a child in a parent component that provides special rendering for af:group children, then visible separators, such as bars or dotted lines, display around the children of each af:group. For example, af:panelFormLayout and af:toolbar support special rendering for af:group children. The example in the slide shows how at run time the af:panelFormLayout component renders dotted separator lines before and after the first and second af:group of children components. Children inside af:group are never split across a column on a form. The af:group component is especially useful when you need to group components under a facet, because a facet may have only one child.

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Arranging Items Around a Central Area

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Arranging Items Around a Central Area The af:panelBorderLayout component is a layout element for arranging components in predefined, named areas around a center area. The center area is where direct children components of af:panelBorderLayout render consecutively. In addition to the center area, the af:panelBorderLayout component supports the following named areas, each of which is defined by a facet bearing the name for the area: top: Renders children above the center area bottom: Renders children below the center area start: Renders children at the left of the center area between the top and bottom facet children, if the reading direction of the client browser is left-to-right. If the reading direction is right-to-left, it renders children at the right of the center area. end: Renders children at the right of the center area between the top and bottom facet children, if the reading direction of the client browser is left-to-right. If the reading direction is right-to-left, it renders children at the left of the center area. left: Renders children at the left of the center area between top and bottom facet children. If the reading direction is left-to-right, left has precedence over start if both left and start facets are used. If the reading direction is right-to-left, left also has precedence over end if both left and end facets are used.

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Note: For BiDi support (right-to-left layout), Oracle Applications developers should not use the left and right areas of af:panelBorderLayout. Start and end should be used instead of left and right. To add items in predefined areas using PanelBorderLayout: 1. Add the Panel Border Layout component to the JSF page. 2. To place content in the center area, insert the desired components inside af:panelBorderLayout. 3. The children components are displayed consecutively in the order in which you inserted the desired components. If you want some other type of layout for the children, wrap the components inside af:panelGroupLayout. 4. To place the content in one of the named areas around the center area, do one of the following: - If the facet is visible (for example, start or end), insert the desired components into the facet, grouping multiple components because a facet can take only one child. - If the facet is not visible, right-click af:panelBorderLayout, select Facets - Panel Border Layout from the context menu, and choose a facet name from the list. Visible facets are indicated by a check mark in front of the facet name. Insert the desired components into the visible facet.

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Arranging Items Around a Central Area (continued) right: Renders children at the right of the center area between top and bottom facet children. If the reading direction is left-to-right, right has precedence over end if both right and end facets are used. If the reading direction is right-to-left, right also has precedence over start if both right and start facets are used. innerTop: Renders children above the center area, but below the top facet children innerBottom: Renders children below the center area, but above the bottom facet children innerLeft: Similar to left, but renders between innerTop and innerBottom, and between left and the center area innerRight: Similar to right, but renders between innerTop and innerBottom, and between right and the center area innerStart: Similar to innerLeft, if the reading direction is left-to-right; similar to innerRight, if the reading direction is right-to-left innerEnd: Similar to innerRight, if the reading direction is left-to-right; similar to innerLeft, if the reading direction is right-to-left

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Describe the purpose of JavaServer Faces Use JSF components Explain the use of managed beans Describe the life cycle of a JSF application Explain the role of the JSF tag libraries Describe how JDeveloper supports JSF Create a JSF-based JSP in JDeveloper

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Summary JSF is a server-side component framework for Web applications that implements the MVC design pattern. JSF components have attributes, behaviors, and one or more renderers whose job it is to decide how the component is displayed. The UI components may also be represented in managed beans, which are Java objects that are managed in the faces-config.xml file. Managed beans provide a code point for processing or UI manipulation. You can use Expression Language to bind UI components and actions to managed beans. The life cycle for the initial request of a JSF JSP includes creating a server-side tree based on the components on the page, and then rendering the response. When the user submits a form on the page, a postback occurs, in which values of UI components are applied to their counterparts in the serverside tree, validation and conversion logic is executed for each component, the business model is updated, action events are executed, and then finally the response is rendered, which may include navigation to another page. There are two basic tag libraries for defining JSF components: JSF Core for application tasks and JSF HTML for rendering basic HTML. JDeveloper provides these tags from the Component Palette. JDeveloper also provides visual editing of the JSF JSP and faces-config.xml file, which includes the JSF Navigation Diagram.

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Practice: Overview
This practice covers the following topics: Creating a Managed Bean to support a page Creating a basic JSF page Adding layout components to the JSF page
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Planning Navigation and Page Flow

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Use a JavaServer Faces (JSF) Navigation diagram to plan the pages of an application and the navigation between them Describe JSF Navigation Describe the types of JSF Navigation cases Create a backing bean for a JSF page

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Objectives In this lesson, you learn how to use JSF to control navigational and data flow within an application. The JSF Navigation diagram provides a way to visually design navigation and flow, handle interactions with business services, and determine which page to display. Additionally, JSF components are mapped to managed beans, which control user actions on the components themselves.

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Traditional Navigation
In traditional navigation, a button or hyperlink is used to navigate to a specific page.
<body> <form action="myNewPage.html"> <button type="button"/> </form> <a href="http://myNewPage.html"> Go To My New Page </a> </body>

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Traditional Navigation This type of navigation is also referred to as the Model 1 type. In both cases, if the physical location of the page is changed, you have to modify all the links and forms that use it. JSF controls the pages using an XML file that contains all the navigation mechanisms.

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What Is JSF Navigation?


JSF Navigation is defined through rules. Rules use outcomes to determine which page is displayed in a user interface (UI) event. Rules can be defined as:
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Static Dynamic

They are defined in faces-config.xml.

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What Is JSF Navigation? JSF Navigation is a set of rules that define navigation from view to view. Generally, you define one navigation rule per page. Each navigation rule may have several valid outcomes. For example, a login page may have several outcomes: one for a successful login, and another for a login failure. Both of these outcomes are defined in the navigation rule. The rules can be defined as static or dynamic. Static rules are an explicit reference to an outcome. A dynamic rule is a rule that is bound to a method that may return one of several possible outcomes. Navigation rule definitions are stored in the JSF configuration file (faces-config.xml).

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JSF Navigation: Example

firstPage
Button

success

firstPage.jsp

myNewPage.jsp

JSF Navigation Rules

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JSF Navigation: Example In JavaServer Faces, navigation between application pages is not hard coded in the file, but is defined by a set of rules. Navigation rules determine the next page that is to be displayed, when a user clicks a navigation component, such as a button or a hyperlink. A navigation rule defines the navigation from one page to one or more other pages. Each navigation rule can have one or more cases, which define where a user can go from that page. For example, if a page has links to several other pages in the application, you can create a single navigation rule for that page and one navigation case for each link to the different pages. The rule itself can define the navigation from: A specific JSF page All pages whose paths match a specified pattern, such as all the pages in one directory, which is called a pattern-based rule All pages in an application, which is called a global navigation rule

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myNewPage

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JSF Navigation Rules


Navigation rules are stored in faces-config.xml. Navigation rules can be defined by using:
The faces-config console The Pageflow diagrammer The faces-config.xml file directly
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JSF Navigation Rules Navigation rule definitions are stored in the JSF configuration file (faces-config.xml). You can define the rules directly in the configuration file, or you can use the JSF Navigation Modeler and the JSF Configuration Editor in JDeveloper. Oracle recommends that you use Navigation Modeler and Configuration Editor, because these tools: Provide a GUI environment for modeling and editing the navigation between application pages Enable you to map out your application navigation by using a visual diagram of pages and navigation links Update the faces-config.xml file for you automatically Use the navigation modeler to initially create navigation rules from specific pages to one or more other pages in the application. Use the configuration editor to create global or patternbased rules for multiple pages, create default navigation cases, and edit navigation rules.

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JSF Navigation Rules


Example: /login.jsp is the navigation rule with two cases. login.jsp is managed by the login backing bean. loginAction() is the method that returns success or failure:
If the method returns success, forward the user to /successPage.jsp. If the method returns failure, forward the user to /failurePage.jsp.

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JSF Navigation Rules (continued) In this example, there is one navigation rule with two cases. The outcome is returned from the loginAction() method in the login backing bean. The method checks the values of the username and password. If the combination is valid, the method returns an outcome of success. If the combination is not valid, the method returns failure. The appropriate navigation case is then used by JSF to display the correct page. The following is the XML:
<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>login.jsp</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-action>#{Login.loginAction} </from-action> <from-outcome>success</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/successPage.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> <navigation-case> <from-action>#{Login.loginAction} </from-action> <from-outcome>failure</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/failurePage.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule> Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g: Build Java EE Applications 12 - 7

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faces-config Console

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faces-config Console This console provides a visual way to edit all elements of faces-config.xml, as opposed to a navigation model.

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JSF Navigation Modeler


You create a JSF Navigation Diagram by dragging elements from the Component Palette. The faces-config.xml diagram is automatically updated.

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JSF Navigation Modeler The JSF Navigation Modeler is the tool used for creating a navigation diagram. Notice in the slide that the Component Palette automatically displays the JSF Navigation Modeler components. You add components to the diagram by dragging them from the Component Palette to the diagram. When you first create a JSF Page Flow and Configuration file (faces-config.xml), JDeveloper also creates a diagram file (faces.config.oxd_faces) to hold the diagram details such as layout and annotations. JDeveloper always maintains this diagram file alongside the faces-config.xml file, which holds all the settings needed by your application.

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JSF Navigation Diagram


With the JSF Navigation Diagrammer, you can visually design your application from a birds eye view.

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JSF Navigation Diagram The JSF Navigation diagram is your workbench for: Planning out the pages and the navigation between them for your JSF application Creating new pages for your application Defining the navigation rules and cases for navigating around the application pages Including existing pages in your application flow by dragging them Annotating the diagram with general notes and notes attached to individual elements

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Navigation Elements
<navigation-rule> <from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-action> <from-outcome> <to-view-id>

<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/Main.jspx</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>addProduct</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/addProduct.jspx</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule>

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Navigation Elements A navigation rule consists of the following elements: <navigation-rule>: The wrapper element for the navigation cases <from-view-id>: Contains either the complete page identifier (the context-sensitive relative path to the page) or a page identifier prefix ending with the asterisk (*) wildcard character. If you use the wildcard character, the rule applies to all pages that match the wildcard pattern. To make a global rule that applies to all pages, leave this element blank. <navigation-case>: The wrapper element for each case in the navigation rule. Each case defines the different navigation paths from the same page. <from-action>: An optional element that limits the application of the rule only to outcomes from the specified action method. The action method is specified as an Expression Language (EL) binding expressionfor example, #{backing_addProduct.cancelButton_action}. JDeveloper displays a list of valid binding expressions for you to choose from.

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Navigation Elements (continued) <from-outcome>: Contains an outcome value that is matched against values specified in the action attribute of UI components. Later in the lesson, you see how the outcome value is referenced in a UI component either explicitly or dynamically through an action method return. <to-view-id>: Contains the complete page identifier of the page to which the navigation is routed when the rule is implemented

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Global Rules
Global rules apply to all pages in an application. Examples: Help page, Home page, Contact page Define <from-view-id> with an asterisk (*) wildcard. Define <from-outcome> (help). Define <to-view-id> (help.jsp). Any page in the application that returns help displays help.jsp.

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Global Rules Global rules are navigation rules that can be accessed from any page in the application. JSF does not force you to define every possible event. If you have common navigation eventsfor instance, Logoutyou can use wildcards in the <from-view-id> definition to specify that any page matching this pattern can implement this outcome. An example of a good use of a global rule is a Help page. Any page in the application can access the Help page. You define a global rule by setting the <from-view-id> to a wildcard (*). You can also define a global rule by completely omitting the <from-view-id> tag. In the following example, any page in the path /faces/ that returns an outcome of help is forwarded to help.jsp.
... <from-view-id>*</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>help</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/menu/help.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> ...

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Pattern-Based Rules
Pattern-based rules are similar to global rules. Include a pattern for the <from-view-id> element: <from-view-id>/staffPages/* This rule is used by all pages in the /staffPages path.
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<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/staffPages/*</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>help</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/menu/staffHelp.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule>

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Pattern-Based Rules You can also define rules that apply to a specific set of pages, by including a path and wildcard in the <from-view-id> tag. The rule includes all the same elements as a global navigation case. In this example, all the pages in the /staffPages path navigate to staffHelp.jsp when the outcome from the page is help. This technique is useful where several pages should navigate to a single common outcome page, such as a Help page. Rather than adding multiple navigation cases, you add a single global navigation rule to the common page.
<navigation-rule> <from-view-id>/staffPages/*</from-view-id> <navigation-case> <from-outcome>help</from-outcome> <to-view-id>/menu/staffHelp.jsp</to-view-id> </navigation-case> </navigation-rule>

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JSF: Example
Sample JSF login application:

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JSF: Example This is an example of a simple JSF page. The page has two input fields and a button. As discussed in the following slides, the page has an associated managed bean that has access to the values entered on the page. When the user clicks the Login button, JSF calls the associated action, which is a method in the bean. This method tests the values and determines whether the user is valid. If the login values are valid, the user is directed to a success page. Otherwise, the user is directed to a failure page.

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JSF: Example
A simple example of a JSF Login Application:
loginAction Success
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success.jsp login.jsp

Failure
failure.jsp

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JSF: Example (continued) This is the JSF Case Navigation for this application. The simple case is that the user input values are valid, so navigation proceeds to the success page. If the values are not valid, navigation is to the failure page. If the values that the user entered fail a JSF Validator, the user stays on the login page to change the values.

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JSF Navigation: Example


UI components and value binding to a managed bean:

<h:InputText value="#{Login.userId}"/> <h:InputSecret value="#{Login.password}"/>

login.jsp

Login: A managed bean with the userId and password fields and the loginAction()method

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JSF Navigation: Example Both the fields use value binding to associate the values on the page with the managed bean. The command button has an action associated with Login.loginAction, which is a method in the bean.

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Submit

<h:commandButton action="#{Login.loginAction}"/>

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JSF Navigation: Example


A command UI component bound to an action:
<h:commandButton action="#{Login.loginAction}"/>

login.jsp

Login: A managed bean (Login.java) with an action method called loginAction() Returns string: failure or success
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JSF Navigation: Example (continued) In the example, a UI component (commandButton) has been bound to a managed bean, Login.java, which contains the loginAction() method. At run time, the JSF default implementation reads the navigation rules in the facesconfig.xml file and calls the NavigationHandler class, which evaluates the rules and determines which page to display. When evaluating which navigation rules to execute, the navigation handler looks at: The ID of the current page The action method used to handle the link. In this case, it is loginAction(). The outcome string value of the action attribute, or the string returned by the action method. In this example, it is either failure or success.

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JSF Navigation: Example

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JSF Navigation: Example (continued) The slide shows the code for the loginAction() method. The method checks the value of the user ID and password. If they match the defined values, the method returns success; otherwise it returns failure. JSF then checks for an outcome that matches the return string and displays the view associated with that outcome.

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public String loginAction() { String userId = (String)this.getUserId().getValue(); String password = (String)this.getPassword().getValue(); if (userId.equalsIgnoreCase("gary") & password.equalsIgnoreCase("test")) { return "success"; } return "failure"; }

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Using the JSF Configuration Editor

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Using the JSF Configuration Editor You use the Navigation Modeler to initially create navigation rules from specific pages to one or more other pages in the application. You then use the Configuration Editor to create global or pattern-based rules for multiple pages, create default navigation cases, and edit navigation rules. You invoke the editor by clicking the Overview tab at the bottom of the diagram page in the Visual Editor. If you click the second option, Navigation Rules, in the list on the top left, you can see rules that have been defined through the diagram. You can also add new rules here.

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Managed Beans
Managed beans can:
Store state Execute a Java routine Define a handler for event listeners
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They have no-argument constructors. Lazy initialization is performed by JavaServer Faces. Access scope may be none, request, application, or session. Backing beans:
Are special types of managed beans Contain getter and setter methods for UI components

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Managed Beans If you want to code your own update routine, you can place the code in a managed bean. Managed beans are objects that are defined in a configuration file (faces-config.xml, by default). They can be Plain Old Java Objects (POJO), lists, or maps. The classes that can be used as managed beans have constructors with empty arguments. The managed-bean element in the faces-config.xml file represents a JavaBean of a particular class, which is dynamically instantiated at run time (by the default VariableResolver implementation), if it is referenced as the first element of a value-binding expression, and if no corresponding bean can be identified in any scope. In addition to the managed bean creation and the optional storing into the specified scope, the nested managed-property element can be used to initialize the contents of settable JavaBeans properties of the created instance. Managed bean configuration in faces-config.xml:
<!ELEMENT managed-bean (description*, display-name*, icon*, managed-bean name, managed-bean-class, managed-bean-scope, (managed-property* | map-entries | list-entries))> A special type of managed bean.

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Uses of Managed Beans Managed beans are typically used to: Store state (for example, information about the authenticated user) Execute Java routines (for example, by clicking a button) Define handlers for event listeners Creating Managed Beans There are three ways to create managed beans: You can create Java classes in a project and then configure them as managed beans. You can create managed beans when binding a Command button. When you create a new page, you are given the opportunity to automatically expose UI components in a new managed bean. If you select this option, JDeveloper creates a managed bean, and accessors are automatically added for all components that you add to the page. This type of managed bean for the UI components on a page is called a backing bean. Backing Beans Backing beans are a special type of managed beans used to contain getter and setter methods for UI components. If you choose to automatically expose UI components in a managed bean when you design a JSF page, JDeveloper automatically synchronizes the components that you add or modify with the backing bean.

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Managed Beans (continued) A managed-bean element must contain the following elements: - managed-bean-name: Specifies the name that is used to refer to the JavaBean throughout the application - managed-bean-class: Contains the fully qualified class name for the JavaBean - managed-bean-scope: Defines the scope of the JavaBean. Some possible values are application, session, request, or none. A managed-bean element can optionally contain any number of descriptions, display-name, icon, and managed-property/map-entries/listentries elements. If the value of the managed-bean-scope element is something other than none, the JavaBean created is stored in the corresponding object. For example, if the value is session, the JavaBean is stored in the session object of a given user. If you define the bean with a scope of none, the bean is instantiated each time it is referenced. You can use a scope of none when a managed bean references another managed bean; if the referenced bean is supposed to be created only when it is referenced, it should be defined with a scope of none.

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Creating Managed Beans


Entry in faces-config.xml:
<managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>productBrowsingBean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>ui.backing.ProductBrowsingBean </managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope> session </managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean>

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Creating Managed Beans You configure managed beans in the faces-config.xml file. 1. Double-click the faces-config.xml file in the Navigator. 2. Click the Overview tab to display the JSF Configuration Editor. 3. In the element list on the left, select Managed Beans. 4. Click the New button on the right to open the Create Managed Bean dialog box. 5. Provide the name and fully qualified class path for the bean. Select a scope, select the Generate Java File check box, and click OK.

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Managed Bean: Example


Definition:
<managed-bean> <managed-bean-name>userbean</managed-bean-name> <managed-bean-class>com.oracle.sample.User</managed-bean-class> <managed-bean-scope>request</managed-bean-scope> </managed-bean>

Usage on a page:
<h:inputText value="#{userbean.name}"/>

Usage in code:
Application app = FacesContext.getCurrentInstance().getApplication(); ValueBinding bind = app.createValueBinding("#{userbean}"); User user = (User)bind.getValue(ctx);

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Managed Bean The definition of a bean is simple. You provide the following information: An alias (userbean in the example) The class to instantiate (com.oracle.sample.User in the example) The lifespan (request in this example) Then the usage of that managed bean is through Expression Language (EL).

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Setting Managed Bean Scope


Each managed bean has a scope: Application Session Request None

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Setting Managed Bean Scope Application: The bean is available for the duration of the Web application. This is helpful for global beans such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directories. Session: The bean is available to the client throughout the clients session. Request: The bean is available from the time it is instantiated until a response is sent back to the client. This is usually the life of the current page. None: The bean is instantiated each time it is referenced. This is helpful if the bean is referenced within another bean. Managed properties are any properties of the bean that you would like populated with a value when the bean is instantiated. The set() method for each declared property is run after the bean is constructed. When you configure a managed property for a managed bean, you declare the property name, its class type, and its default value. If the default is null, you use a <nullvalue> element. The value can also be another bean referenced in a JSF EL expression. When the parent bean is initialized, the nested bean declared in the value is also created and initialized. When nesting a bean, you must ensure that it exists in the faces-config.xml file and that the scopes are compatible.

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Relationships Between Managed Beans


Managed beans can access other beans:
Beans in scope Access beans in scope none none application session request
Yes Yes Yes Yes

application
No Yes Yes Yes

session
No No Yes Yes

request
No No No Yes

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Relationships Between Managed Beans The table in the slide shows which scopes of managed beans can access other managed beans with the same or a different scope. Note that request is the only scope that can access managed beans of any scope.

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Managed Properties
Managed bean variables that are exposed through getter and setter methods Configured in faces-config.xml
<!ELEMENT managed-property (description*, displayname*, icon*, property-name, property-class?, (map-entries|null-value|value|list-entries))>

Possible values:
Null Literal string Lists and maps Value binding expression (EL)

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Managed Properties Managed properties are bean variables that are exposed through setter and getter methods for write and read access. All variables not explicitly set as managed properties retain the default values upon bean instantiation. The managed-property element, nested within the <managed-bean> element, represents an individual property of a managed bean. A managed property calls the equivalent setter method of the bean on bean initialization. Managed properties must have a name and a value. The optional property class does not need to be mentioned for simple types because JSF can figure it out. The optional description, display name, and icon attributes are for tools to display the property and have no meaning for the JSF application at run time.

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Managed Properties: Examples


Literal string:
<managed-bean> <managed-property> <property-name>label</property-name> <value>Hello World</value> </managed-property>

EL accessing a managed bean:


<managed-bean> <managed-property> <property-name>label</property-name> <value>#{UserInfo['firstname']}</value> </managed-property>

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Managed Properties: Examples Expression Language (EL) can be used within the faces-config.xml file to initialize the value of a managed property. EL can reference any object that is in the scope, including previously defined managed beans. Managed beans and managed bean properties can also be initialized as lists or maps, provided that the bean or property type is a List or Map, or implements java.util.Map or java.util.List.

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Managed Properties: Examples


Populating a list:
<managed-bean> <managed-property> <property-name>bookmarks</property-name> <list-entries> <value>http://otn.oracle.com/products/jev</value> <value>http://otn.oracle.com/products/ias</value> </list-entries> </managed-property>

Use <map-entries> to specify managed properties that are of the Map type.

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Managed Properties: Examples (continued) Map entry example:


<managed-bean> ... <managed-property> <property-name>bookmarks</property-name> <map-entries> <map-entry> <key>JDeveloper Home</key> <value>http://otn.oracle.com/products/jdev</value> </map-entry> <map-entry> <key>OracleAs Home</key> <value>http://otn.oracle.com/products/ias</value> <map-entry> </map-entries> </managed-property> ...

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Using the Managed Bean on the JSF Page


Access UI components and values
Login.java managed bean:

successPage.jsp:

<h:outputText value="#{Login.userId.value}" binding="#{SuccessPage.outputText1}" id="outputText1" />

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Using the Managed Bean on the JSF Page After a managed bean is defined with the relevant properties and methods, you use JSF EL expressions (such as <h:outputText value="#{Login.userId.value}" in the slide) to bind a UI component attribute to the appropriate property (or method) in the bean. In addition to value and method binding, you can also bind the UI components instance to a bean property by using the binding attribute. In the example above, successPage.jsp includes an outputText field with the ID of outputText1. It retrieves its value from the Login managed bean property userId. It is also bound to the outputText1 property of the SuccessPage backing bean.

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Getter for userId Setter for userId

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: Use a JSF Navigation Diagram to plan the pages of an application and the navigation between them Describe JSF Navigation Define types of JSF Navigation cases Create a backing bean for a JSF page

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Summary JSF Navigation is a set of rules that define how users navigate from one view to another. The rules use outcomes that may be static or dynamic. Navigation rules may be global to the application as a whole, or may apply to a specific set of pages. You can use the JSF Navigation Diagrammer to visually plan the pages of an application and to define the navigation paths between them. This diagram is a Visual Editor for the faces-config.xml file for pages and navigation rules. Managed beans are also defined in faces-config.xml and can be configured in the JSF Configuration Editor. Backing beans are a special type of managed beans to interact with the UI components and the model. You can create a managed bean automatically when you create a page. You can create managed beans by associating class files with a named managed bean in the JSF Configuration Editor. Because managed beans can have scope, you can use them to store information for the duration of the request, application, or session.

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Practice: Overview
These practices covers the following topics: Using a JSF Navigation Diagram to model page flow in an application Creating the JSF pages of the application Binding components to a managed bean

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