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Effect of antenna size on gain, bandwidth and efficiency

Ansoft Corporation
Robert Myoung

Antenna parameter

Major Antenna parameter Frequency Band Width Radiation EFficiency GAin(MAX, EVERAGE) SiZe Trade off of major antenna parameters
FBW FBW REF[c1] GA SZ REF GA SZ

Size of Antenna

Definition radius of sphere enclosing the maximum dimension of the antenna Size of Antenna=2a
Antenna Structure Feed point

Transmission Line

Boundary sphere

Definition of Q

Definition

Definition of energy and power We Wm Q = 2 , We > Wm or 2 , Wm > We Prad Prad Define of Fractional Bandwidth

VSWR

fL fH fC 1 Q= = = BW f fH fL =
f L fC f H
f

( fH / fL ) ( fH / fL ) 1

BW: Fractional bandwidth

Minimum Q of Electrically Small Antennas:(1/4)

Spherical wave expressions


H = Er = E =

H = A
n n n

Pn1 (cos ) h n ( kr ),
1/ 2

E rn En

= j = j

A n n ( n + 1) Pn (cos )

h n ( kr ) , kr

1/ 2

A n Pn1 (cos )

1 d [ rh n ( kr )] kr dr

Pn (cos ) : Legendre polynomial of order n Pn1 (cos ) : First associated Legendre polynomial hn (kr ) : Spherical hankel function of order n

Minimum Q of Electrically Small Antennas:(2/4)

Non-propagation energy

[1]

[2]

Minimum Q of Electrically Small Antennas:(3/4)

The total radiated power


[3]

[4]

Q1, Q2, Q3,[5]

Q1 =

3 6 18 1 1 , + Q = + + 2 ka (ka)3 ka (ka)3 (ka)5 6 21 135 675 Q3 = + + + ka (ka) 3 (ka) 5 (ka) 7

Minimum Q of Electrically Small Antennas :(4/4)


1 1 1 2 ; k= Qn = = + 3 c BW ka (ka)

Meaning of Minimum Q [in case of ESA]

For the any given Value of 2pi*a/lambda, all Qs have different values. Hence, the above equation can be satisfied when there is only one term under the summation sign. The corresponding Q of the antenna is equal to the Qn of the term used. Since Q1 has the lowest amplitude, we conclude that the antenna which generates a field outside the sphere corresponding to that of an infinitesimally small dipole has potentially the broadest band width of all antennas. The gain of this antenna is 1.5

sin

Minimum Q vs. Size of Antenna


10
3

Chu-Harrington limit
10
2

10

GPS(52.5) Bluetooth(30.5) IEEE802.11a(26.2) PCS(15.1) CDMA(12.3)

Target Q
10
0

Antenna Size UWB(0.764)

2a
10
-1

10

-2

10

-1

10 Antenna size (2a/ c )

10

Example(1/2)

Limitation of antenna Size


Type GPS PCS(KOREA) CDMA(KOREA) Bluetooth 802.11a Ultra-Wideband (UWB) fH(GHz)
1.59042 1.87 0.894 2.4 5.35

fL(GHz)
1.56042 1.75 0.824 2.48 5.15

fC(GHz)
1.57535 1.809 0.8583 2.4397 5.2490

Q
52.5 15.1 12.3 30.5 26.2

2a(mm)
16.6 22.6 55.0 13.0 6.36

10.6

3.1

5.73

0.764

29.0

Example(2/2)
10
3

2.4GHz Microstrip patch antenna FR-4, rectangular type 2.4GHz Sleeve dipole antenna

10

10

35.8mm

Bluetooth(30.5)
VSWR

10

55mm

1 1.5

2.5 Frequency (GHz)

3.5

10

UWB(0.764)

PCB type UWB antenna


VSWR, Msh3030 10 9 8 7 6 VSWR 5 4

10

-1

47mm
10
3

10

-2

10

-1

10 Antenna size (2a/ c )

30mm30mm
1 0 1 2

6 7 8 frequency (GHz)

10

11

12

Effect of Radiation Efficiency

Radiation efficiency, Q
TRL antenna Prad

Prad Prad = Paccept Prad + Ploss

W Q = 2 Prad + Ploss
Pin Prefl Paccept Ploss

Prad W = 2 = Q Prad Prad + Ploss

The effect due to Bandwidth

There is a possibility of getting bandwidth which is wider than the antenna size.

Q vs. Size of Antenna


10
3

Q=10 maintaining Efficiency: 100%20% decrease Size : 0.544


10
2

=100% =80% =60% =40% =20%

Maintaining Antenna Size Efficiency: 100%20% BW: 5 Q=1 maintaining Efficiency 100%20% decrease Size: 0.45 Maintaining Antenna Size Efficiency: 100%20% decrease BW: 5

10

2
10
0

0.2
10
-1

0.0866 0.2100 -1 0.1592 10

0.4666
Antenna size (2a/ c )

10

Conclusion

It gives to objection smallest Q value which is existence of given antenna size f 1 1 1 Q = = C = + BW ka ( ka ) 3 f

The hazard which gets the bandwidth of the BW it stands 2a antenna space necessity of size

Effect of Radiation Efficiency


Maintaining Antenna BW

Radiation Efficiency Antenna Size Radiation Efficiency BW

Maintaining Antenna Size