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CHAPTER 5 - SCREW FASTENINGS AND RIVETS V-Thread its sharp crest and root are undesirable on occasional cuts

s on lathes because the thin material is easily injured and because the concentration of stress at the root of the thread is large. Sellers thread comes in the form of flat crest and root which partially removes the weakness of the V-thread. Whitworth thread features rounded crests and roots and has been standard in Britain. Major Diameter the largest diameter of the screw thread. - The diameter of the imaginary cylinder that bounds the crests of an external thread and the roots of the internal thread. Minor Diameter the diameter of the imaginary cylinder that bounds the roots of an external thread or the crests of an internal thread. Lead the distance in inches a screw thread advances axially in one turn. Initial Tension the stress or load induced by the tightening operation. Effective Strain Length defined as that length which when divided into the total elongation gives the unit elongation. Proof load or Proof stress 96% of the 0.2% offset yield strength

Flange Pressure the amount of pressure on the gasket material Standard Threads Coarse-thread series recommended for general use; where jar and vibration are not important factors. Fine-thread series frequently used in automotive and aircraft work; where a fine adjustment is required with the use of a castle nut. Extra-fine-thread series used in aeronautical equipment; suitable where thin-walled material is to be threaded. 8-thread series used on bolts for high-pressure pipe flanges, cylinder-head studs etc. Types of Bolts and Screws Machine Bolt old name for an unfinished through bolt, comes with a square hexagonal or round head and with coarse or fine threads. Coupling Bolt - finished all over, usually having coarse threads. Automobile bolt has fine UNF threads and made with heat treated steel and frequently has a castle nut. Cap Screw come in a variety of heads; hexagonal, fillister, button, flat head and hollow heads. Carriage bolt distinguished by a short portion of the shank underneath the head being square or finned or ribbed. Eye bolts provide a place for lifting parts

Stud bolts threaded on both ends and can be used where a through bolt is impossible. Stove bolt cheap variety of bolt made in small sizes. Machine Screws more accurately made than stove bolts, finished all over and have fine or coarse threads, various heads. Plow bolts widely used on farm machinery. SelfTapping Screw economical in assembly operations involving plastics, die castings, and sheet metal. Lag Screw large wood screw used to fasten machinery and equipment to a wooden base. Turnbuckle a convenient device used to adjust the length of tie rods. Thread-locking devices Lock Washers heat treated and maintains pressure between the threads of the bolt and nut. Lock Nuts drawn up so tightly that the nuts press on the threads in opposite directions. Flexloc locknut separated by radial slots, have been permanently deformed inward. Esna insert type ring insert fiber or nylon at the top; with the nut on the bolt. An-cor-lox nut ring of soft metal, such as soft steel or brass, at the bottom of the nut which turns freely until the nut strikes the part.

Speed Nut excellent locking properties for light assemblies. Dardelet Rivet-Bolt has a self-locking thread, used in place of rivets in assembling steel structures. CHAPTER 6 SPRINGS Spring used to absorb energy or shock loads. Spring Index tells the relative sharpness of curvature of the coil, a low index corresponding to high sharpness of curvature. Pitch the distance between corresponding points of adjacent coil. Solid Height the over-all length of the spring when it is compressed until all adjacent coils touch. Free Length the length of a coil spring under no load Materials Used for Springs Hard-drawn wire low-cost material, suitable where service is not severe and dimensional precision is not needed. Music Wire made of high grade steel; excellent surface, comparable to valve-spring quality Oil-tempered spring wire cold drawn to size and then hardened and tempered Valve-spring-quality the highest quality oil-tempered wire Chromium-vanadium steel oil tempered; 0.45 to 0.55% carbon; superior to carbon steels of the same quality. Chromium-silicon good quality for impact loads and moderately high temperatures

Stainless steel corrosion resistant; cold drawn and its relaxation at higher temperatures is much less than the other grades. Presetting have the coiled spring somewhat longer than desired. Kinds of Springs Extension Spring generally wound with the coils pressing against each other. Initial tension the force on the spring when the coils are on the point of separating. Torsion Spring one that resists a moment tending to wind up the spring. Garter Spring helical coil wrapped into a circle forming an annular ring. Motor Spring thin flat strip wound up on itself as a plane spiral. Hairspring wire or strip rolled into a plane spiral, no contact between coils. Volute Spring wide-strip material wound on a conical helix Conical spiral spring wound in the form of a conical helix of round wire. Belleville Spring one made in the form of a dished washer. Negator Spring a patented form, exerts virtually a constant force after a certain initial deflection. Rubber spring used in mountings to isolate vibrations

Flat Springs may be in the form of a cantilever beam. Leaf Spring have holes or notches that are points of stress concentrations. CHAPTER 7 COLUMNS, CENTRAL LOADS Buckling type of failure due to an instability. Slenderness ratio measure of slenderness of a column Critical load causes the column to be on the point of buckling. Effective length taken as the length between the sections of zero bending moment. Eulers Formula applies to a very slender column and the formula for frictionless rounded ends. J.B Johnsons formula applies for short columns. Secant formula assumes that the load has an eccentricity.