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2.

016 Hydrodynamics
Professor A.H. Techet
by TA B. P. Epps
0.1 Derivation of Added Mass around a Sphere
When a body moves in a uid, some amount of uid
must move around it. When the body accelerates, so
too must the uid. Thus, more force is required to ac-
celerate the body in the uid than in a vacuum. Since
force equals mass times acceleration, we can think of
the additional force in terms of an imaginary added
mass of the object in the uid.
One can derive the added mass of an object by
considering the hydrodynamic force acting on it as it
accelerates. Consider a sphere of radius, R, acceler-
ating at rate U/t =

U. We nd the hydrodynamic
force in the x-direction by integrating the pressure
over the area projected in the x-direction:

F
x
=
_
p d

A
x
where
d

A
x
= cos dA, dA = 2rds, r = Rsin, ds = Rd
p =
_

t
+
1
2
|

|
2
_
, by unsteady Bernoullis equation
= U cos
R
3
2r
2
, for axisymmetric ow around a sphere

t
|
r=R
=

U cos
R
3
2r
2
=

U cos
R
2
1
2
|

|
2
|
r=R
=
1
2
|(U cos
R
3
r
3
, U sin
R
3
2r
3
)|
2
=
1
2
[U
2
cos
2
+
1
4
U
2
sin
2
]
so
F
x
=
_

0
_

t
+
1
2
|

|
2
__
cos 2R
2
sind
=
_

0
_

_

U cos
R
2
+
1
2
(U
2
cos
2
+
1
4
U
2
sin
2
)
__
cos 2R
2
sind
= 2R
2


U
R
2
_

0
sin cos
2
d
. .
=2/3
2R
2

1
2
U
2
_

0
[sin cos
3
+
1
4
sin
3
cos ]d
. .
=0
=
2
3
R
3

U
where

U is the acceleration of the body, and the negative sign indicates that the force is in the negative
x-direction, opposing the acceleration. Thus, the body must exert this extra force, and the apparent added
mass is
m
a
=
2
3
R
3
1
0.2 Derivation of Added Mass around a Cylinder
Similarly, for a cylinder of radius, R,
and length, L, accelerating at rate

U.
We nd the hydrodynamic force in
the x-direction by integrating the pres-
sure over the area projected in the x-
direction:

F
x
=
_
Pd

A
x
where
d

A
x
= cos dA
dA = Lds
ds = Rd
P =
_

t
+
1
2
|

|
2
_
, by unsteady Bernoullis equation
= U
R
2
r
cos , for ow around a cylinder

t
|
r=R
=

U
R
2
r
cos =

URcos
1
2
|

|
2
|
r=R
=
1
2
|(U
R
2
r
2
cos , U
R
2
r
2
sin)|
2
=
1
2
U
2
so
F
x
=
_
2
0
_

t
+
1
2
|

|
2
__
cos RLd
=
_
2
0
_

_

URcos +
1
2
U
2
)
__
cos RLd
= RL

UR
_
2
0
cos
2
d
. .
=
RL
1
2
U
2
_
2
0
cos d
. .
=0
= R
2
L

U
where a =

U is the acceleration of the body, and the negative sign indicates that the force is in the negative
x-direction, opposing the acceleration. Thus, the body must exert this extra force, and the apparent added
mass is
m
a
= R
2
L
2