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TABLE of Contents

Lab 01 ................................................................................................................................. 6 Error Analysis and Graph Drawing ................................................................................ 6 Error analysis .............................................................................................................. 6 Graph drawing ............................................................................................................ 8 Lab 02 (a) .......................................................................................................................... 12 Introduction to widely used components ...................................................................... 12 Resistors .................................................................................................................... 12 Capacitors ................................................................................................................. 13 Diodes ....................................................................................................................... 14 Meters and Oscilloscope ........................................................................................... 15 Breadboard ................................................................................................................ 16 Strip board................................................................................................................. 16 Function Generator ................................................................................................... 18 Lab 02 (b) .......................................................................................................................... 19 To Find the Resistance by Color-Coding Techniques .................................................. 19 Objective ................................................................................................................... 19 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 19 Tolerance................................................................................................................... 19 Resistor short hand .................................................................................................... 22 Lab 02 (c) .......................................................................................................................... 23 To Study Resistors in Series and Parallel ..................................................................... 23 Objective ................................................................................................................... 23 Resistors in Series: .................................................................................................... 23 Series Resistor Circuit............................................................................................... 23 Series Resistor Equation ........................................................................................... 25 Resistors in Parallel................................................................................................... 25 Parallel Resistor Circuit ............................................................................................ 26 Parallel Resistor Equation ......................................................................................... 26 Lab 03 (a) .......................................................................................................................... 29 Familiarization with Analog and Digital Multimeter ................................................... 29 Objective ................................................................................................................... 29 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 29 Theory ....................................................................................................................... 29 Multimeter................................................................................................................. 29 Lab 03 (b) .......................................................................................................................... 33 Ohms Law.................................................................................................................... 33 Objective ................................................................................................................... 33 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 33 Theory ....................................................................................................................... 33 Ohms Law................................................................................................................ 33 Lab 03 (c) .......................................................................................................................... 35 Voltage Divider and Current Divider ........................................................................... 35 Objective ................................................................................................................... 35 Voltage Divider ......................................................................................................... 35

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Current Divider ......................................................................................................... 35 Experimental Setup ................................................................................................... 36 Observations & Calculations .................................................................................... 36 Lab 04 ............................................................................................................................... 38 Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) ..................................................................................... 38 Objective ................................................................................................................... 38 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 38 Experimental Setup ................................................................................................... 39 Observations & Calculations .................................................................................... 39 Lab 05 ............................................................................................................................... 42 Kirchhoff's Current law (KCL) ..................................................................................... 42 Objective ................................................................................................................... 42 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 42 Statement................................................................................................................... 42 Experimental Setup ................................................................................................... 43 Observations & Calculations .................................................................................... 43 Lab 06 ............................................................................................................................... 45 To Study the Variation of Photoelectric Current with Intensity of Incident Light ....... 45 Objective ................................................................................................................... 45 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 45 Photoelectric effect ................................................................................................... 45 Photo Cell.................................................................................................................. 45 Experimental Setup ................................................................................................... 46 Observations & Calculations .................................................................................... 46 Lab 07 ............................................................................................................................... 47 Magnetic lines of Force ................................................................................................ 47 Objective ................................................................................................................... 47 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 47 Magnetic lines of Force ............................................................................................ 47 Characteristics of magnetic lines of force ................................................................. 48 Procedure .................................................................................................................. 49 Lab 08 ............................................................................................................................... 51 Function Generator and Oscilloscope ........................................................................... 51 Objective ................................................................................................................... 51 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 51 Procedure .................................................................................................................. 53 Lab 09 ............................................................................................................................... 54 Demonstration of Vectors ............................................................................................. 54 Objective ................................................................................................................... 54 Vectors ...................................................................................................................... 54 Resolution of Vectors ............................................................................................... 57 Dot Product: .............................................................................................................. 57 Cross Product: ........................................................................................................... 58 Lab 10 ............................................................................................................................... 59 Motion of a simple pendulum ....................................................................................... 59 Objective ................................................................................................................... 59

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Theory ....................................................................................................................... 59 Procedure .................................................................................................................. 60 Observation and Calculations ................................................................................... 61 Analytical Solution ................................................................................................... 61 Conclusion/Comments .............................................................................................. 61 Lab 11 ............................................................................................................................... 62 Using Vector Addition Method .................................................................................... 62 Objective ................................................................................................................... 62 Apparatus .................................................................................................................. 62 Theory ....................................................................................................................... 62 Procedure: ................................................................................................................. 64 Readings/Results: ...................................................................................................... 65 Observation and Calculations: .................................................................................. 65 Comments/Conclusions: ........................................................................................... 66 Lab 12 ............................................................................................................................... 67 Resolution of a Vector .................................................................................................. 67 Objective: .................................................................................................................. 67 Apparatus: ................................................................................................................. 67 Theory: ...................................................................................................................... 67 Procedure: ................................................................................................................. 68 Measurements and Calculations: .............................................................................. 69 Results:...................................................................................................................... 70 Conclusion/Observation:........................................................................................... 70 Lab 13 ............................................................................................................................... 71 Value of g using spring mass system ......................................................................... 71 Objective: .................................................................................................................. 71 Apparatus: ................................................................................................................. 71 Theory: ...................................................................................................................... 71 Procedure: ................................................................................................................. 71 Observations and calculations: ................................................................................. 72 Lab 14 ............................................................................................................................... 73 Coefficient of sliding friction........................................................................................ 73 Objective: .................................................................................................................. 73 Apparatus: ................................................................................................................. 73 Theory: ...................................................................................................................... 73 Procedure: ................................................................................................................. 75 Observations and calculations................................................................................... 75

PH 1012 Applied Physics Syllabus Course Designation: Core (Natural Sciences) Credits: 1 No. of Sessions per week: 1 Session Duration: 180 min Semester: Fall 2012

Applied Physics Course Instructor Muhammad Numan Office : Engineers Room, 3rd floor , Block (B) E-mail: numan@jinnah.edu.pk Office Hours Monday Tuesday Wednesday Textbook Applied Physics Manual Applied Physics - Course Outline Lab No. 01 Error Analysis and graph drawing Lab 02 (a) Introduction to widely used components Lab 02 (b) To Find the Resistance by Color-Coding Techniques Lab 02 (c) To Study Resistors in Series and Parallel Lab 03 (a) Familiarization with Analog and Digital Multimeter Lab 03 (b) Ohms Law

Week 02

Week 03

Week 03

Week 03

Week 04

Week 04

Lab 03 (c) Voltage Divider and Current Divider Lab 04 Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) Lab 05 Kirchhoff's Current law (KCL) Lab 06 To Study the Variation of Photoelectric Current with Intensity of Incident Light Lab 07 Magnetic lines of Force Lab 08 Function Generator and Oscilloscope Lab No. 09 Demonstration of vectors Lab 10 Simple pendulum Lab 11 Using vector addition method Lab 12 Resolution of vectors Lab 13 Value of g using spring mass system Lab 14 Coefficient of sliding friction

Week 04

Week 05

Week 05

Week 06

Week 07

Week 08

Week 10

Week 11

Week 12

Week 13

Week 14

Week 04

Error analysis

It is impossible to do an experimental measurement with perfect accuracy. Before we go into

details of error analysis it is important to understand the meaning of error in science. Error in a scientific measurement usually does not mean a mistake or blunder. Instead, the terms "error" and "uncertainty" both refer to unavoidable imprecision in measurements. Of course, not all measurements have errors. If asked how many people there are in a room, one can usually give an exact number as an answer. However, if we want to know how many atoms there are in a room, giving an exact answer is nearly impossible. There is always an uncertainty associated with any measured quantity in an

experiment even in the most carefully done experiment and despite using the most sophisticated instruments. This uncertainty in the measured value is known as the error in that particular measured quantity. There is no way by which one can measure a quantity with one hundred percent accuracy.

When a measurement of a physical quantity is repeated, the results of the various measurements will, in general, spread over a range of values. This spread in the measured results is due to the errors in the experiment. Errors are generally classified into two types.

A systematic error is an error, which is constant throughout a set of readings. Systematic

errors are errors associated with a flaw in the equipment or in the design of the experiment. Systematic errors cannot be estimated by repeating the experiment with the same equipment.

Example

If a voltmeter is not connected to anything else it should, of course, read zero. If it does not, the "zero error" is said to be a systematic error. All the readings of this meter are too high or too low. The same problem can occur with stop-watches, thermometers etc. Even if the instrument cannot easily be reset to zero, we can usually take the zero error into account by simply adding it to or subtracting it from all the readings. (It should be noted however that other types of systematic error might be less easy to deal with.) Similarly, if 10 ammeters are connected in series with each other they should all give exactly the same reading. In practice they probably will not. Each ammeter could have a small constant error. Again this will give results having systematic errors. For this reason, note that a precise reading is not necessarily an accurate reading. A precise reading taken from an instrument with a systematic error will give an inaccurate result.

Errors that can be reliably estimated by repeating measurements are called random errors.

These errors can be both positive and negative and lead to a dispersion of the measurements around a mean value.

Example

Connect a voltmeter into a circuit, take a reading, disconnect the meter, reconnect it and measure the same voltage again. There might be a slight difference between the readings. These are random (unpredictable) errors. Random errors can never be eliminated completely but we can usually be sure that the correct reading lies within certain limits. To indicate random error, the results of measurements should be written as Result Uncertainty For example, suppose we measure a length, to be 25cm with an uncertainty of 0.1cm.

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We write the result as = 25cm 01cm By this, we mean that all we are sure about is that is somewhere in the range 24.9cm to 25.1cm.

In a time period measurement, errors in starting and stopping the clock will lead to random errors, while a defect in the working of the clock will lead to systematic error.

Random errors are handled using statistical analysis. Assume that a large number (N) of measurements are taken of a quantity Q giving values Q1, Q2, Q3QN. Let Q be the mean value of these measurements

The result of the measurement is quoted (assuming systematic errors have been eliminated as)

Graph drawing

In practical analysis the graph of experimental data is the most important in improving the understandings of experimental results .Moreover one can calculate unknowns related to the experiments and compare the experimental data with the theoretical curves.

Example

Let us take the example of ohm law in which using the following circuit we can easily measure voltage and current to plot the respective graphs.

From this circuit we take readings of voltage and current plotting them as a graph called a VI characteristic. We normally put the voltage on the y-axis and current on the x-axis. This allows us to determine the resistance from the gradient. This is a voltage current graph for an ohmic conductor.

Figure 1 The straight line in Figure 1 shows a constant ratio between voltage and current, for both positive and negative values. So when the voltage is negative, the current is negative, i.e. flowing in the opposite direction. Ohms Law is obeyed.

Figure 2

For a filament lamp we see in Figure 2 that the resistance rises as the filament gets hotter, which is shown by the gradient getting steeper.

Figure 3 A thermistor (a heat sensitive resistor) behaves in the opposite way as shown in Figure

3. Its resistance goes down as it gets hotter. This is because the material releases more electrons to be able to conduct.

Exercise

Q1 What is the general classification of errors? Give an example of each. How are they taken care of?

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Q2

Consider an experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration g by measuring the time period of a simple pendulum. What are the possible sources of systematic error in this experiment?

Q2

What is the meaning of standard error? Calculate the standard error? Calculate the standard error for the hypothetical data given in the table?

Radius of curvature(cm) 130.121 130.126 130.139 130.148 130.155 130.162 130.162 130.169

Q4 If there are always errors in any measurement then there is nothing like the true value of any measured quantity . Comment on this statement. Q3 Let Q = x - y, where x= 100 2 and y = 96 2 .Calculate Q (express the result with the error included)

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Resistors

Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A resistor restricts the flow of current, for example to limit the current passing Resistor through an LED. It is measured in ohm ( ) The variable resistor as a rheostat is Variable Resistor (Rheostat) usually Examples used to control current. lamp

includes:

adjusting

brightness, adjusting motor speed. The variable resistor as a potentiometer Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage. It can be used as a transducer. The variable resistor as a preset is Variable Resistor (Preset) operated with a small screwdriver. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. For example to set the frequency of an alarm tone

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Capacitors

Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A capacitor stores electric charge. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a Capacitor timing circuit. It can also be used as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals. It is measured in farad A polarized capacitor is one which has a polarity, positive on one terminal, negative on the other. This makes it superficially look like a Capacitor, polarized battery. In use, the capacitor has its positive voltage always higher than that on the negative terminal. This sort of capacitor is commonly found in power supply filters. A variable capacitor is used in a radio sVariable Capacitor tuner. This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is Trimmer Capacitor designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.

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Diodes

Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A device which only allows Diode flow direction. A transducer which LED Light Emitting Diode converts electrical energy to light. A special diode current in to one

which is used to Zener Diode maintain voltage terminals. A light-sensitive Photodiode diode. a across fixed its

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A voltmeter is used to measure voltage. The proper name for voltage is 'potential Voltmeter difference', but most people prefer to say voltage. An ammeter is used to measure current. A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter Galvanometer which is used to measure current in An Ohmmeter ohmmeter is used to . measure

Ammeter

resistance. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting. An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be

Oscilloscope

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Breadboard

A breadboard is used to make up temporary circuits for testing or to try out an idea. No soldering is required so it is easy to change connections and replace components. Parts will not be damaged so they will be available to re-use afterwards. Almost all the Electronics Club projects started life on a breadboard to check that the circuit worked as intended. The photograph shows a typical small breadboard which is suitable for beginners building simple circuits with one or two ICs (chips). Larger sizes are available and you may wish to buy one of these to start with.

Strip board

Strip board has parallel strips of copper track on one side. The tracks are 0.1" (2.54mm) apart and there are holes every 0.1" (2.54mm).

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Strip board is used to make up permanent, soldered circuits. It is ideal for small circuits with one or two ICs (chips) but with the large number of holes it is very easy to connect a component in the wrong place. For large, complex circuits it is usually best to use a printed circuit board (PCB) if you can buy or make one.

Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope is easily the most useful instrument available for testing circuits because it allows you to see the signals at different points in the circuit. The best way of investigating an electronic system is to monitor signals at the input and output of each system block, checking that each block is operating as expected and is correctly linked to the next. With a little practice, you will be able to find and correct faults quickly and accurately. The function of an oscilloscope is extremely simple: it draws a V/t graph, a graph of voltage against time, voltage on the vertical or Y-axis, and time on the horizontal or X-axis.

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Function Generator

A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape of the output from a small number of options. Square wave - The signal goes directly from voltage. Sine wave - The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage. Triangle wave - The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate. The amplitude control on a function generator varies the voltage difference between the high and low voltage of the output signal. The direct current (DC) offset control on a function generator varies the average voltage of a signal relative to the ground. The frequency control of a function generator controls the rate at which output signal oscillates. high to low

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Objective

To understand the color code techniques of resistors

Apparatus

Resistors of different values Multimeter

circuits and sorting of components resistors are color coded for their easy selection of junk and enhanced working. Color bands are on the resistors associated with worldwide known numerical values .Resistors are having different color coding schemes which are given below. The 4-band Resistor Code: The first band gives the first digit. The second band gives the second digit. The third band indicates the number of zeros. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor.

Tolerance

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5% 10% 20%

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Examples

Green, blue, red, with silver tolerance band: 56 x 100 = 5.6 kohms, with a tolerance of 10% . Brown, black, orange, gold tolerance band: 10 x 1000 = 10000 ohms (or 10K ohms), with a tolerance of 5% . The 5-band Resistor Code: The 5 band code is used for marking high quality, precision resistors with 2%, 1% or lower tolerances. The rules are similar to the previous system; the only difference is the number of digit bands. The first 3 bands will represent the value, the 4th band will be the multiplier and the 5th stripe will give us the tolerance.

Examples

Blue, brown, white, brown, red tolerance band: 619 x 10 = 6190 ohms (6.19K ohms), with a tolerance of 2% . Red, red, brown, black, with a brown tolerance band: 221 x 1 = 221 ohms, with a tolerance of 1% . The 3-band Resistor Code or Small value resistors: The standard color code cannot show values of less than 10. To show these small values two special colors are used for the third band: gold which means (multiply by 0.1) and silver which means (multiply by 0.01). The first and second bands represent the digits as normal.

Examples

Red, violet, gold bands represent 27 0.1 = 2.7 Green, blue, silver bands represent 56 0.01 = 0.56

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Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot. Instead the letters R, K and M are used in place of the decimal point. To read the code: replace the letter with a decimal point, then multiply the value by 1000 if the letter was K, or 1000000 if the letter was M. The letter R means multiply by 1.

For example

560R means 560ohm 2K7 means 2.7 k= 2700 1M0 means 1.0 M= 1000 k

Measurements

Serial # 1 2 3 4 5 1st band 2nd band 3rd band Tolerance % Calculated Measured Difference

Exercise

Q1 How a variable resistor is used as potential meter or rheostat?

Q2 what does it mean that when the third band of a resistor is gold or silver?

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Objective

To understand different combinational circuits of resistors

Resistors Combinations

Resistors can be connected together in either a series connection, a parallel connection or combinations of both series and parallel together, to produce more complex networks whose overall resistance is a combination of the individual resistors. Whatever the combination, all resistors obey Ohm's Law and Kirchhoffs Circuit Laws.

Resistors in Series:

Resistors are said to be connected in "Series", when they are daisy chained together in a single line. Since all the current flowing through the first resistor has no other way to go it must also pass through the second resistor and the third and so on. Then, resistors in series have a Common Current flowing through them, for example: IR1 = IR2 = IR3 = IAB = 1mA In the following example the resistors R1, R2 and R3 are all connected together in series between points A and B.

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As the resistors are connected together in series the same current passes through each resistor in the chain and the total resistance, RT of the circuit must be equal to the sum of all the individual resistors added together.

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RT = R1 + R2 + R3 and by taking the individual values of the resistors in our simple example above, the total resistance is given as: RT = R1 + R2 + R3 = 1k + 2k + 6k = 9k Therefore, we can replace all 3 resistors above with just one single resistor with a value of 9k. Where 4, 5 or even more resistors are all connected together in series, the total resistance of the series circuit RT would still be the sum of all the individual resistors connected together. This total resistance is generally known as the Equivalent Resistance and can be defined as "A single value of resistance that can replace any number of resistors without altering the values of the current or the voltage in the circuit". Then the equation given for calculating total resistance of the circuit when resistors are connected together in series is given as:

One important point to remember about resistors in series circuits, the total resistance (RT) of any two or more resistors connected together in series will always be GREATER than the value of the largest resistor in the chain and in our example above RT = 9 k were as the largest value resistor is only 6 k.

Resistors in Parallel

Resistors are said to be connected together in "Parallel" when both of their terminals are respectively

connected to each terminal of the other resistor or resistors. The voltage drop across all of the resistors in

25 Department of Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

parallel is the same. In the following circuit the resistors R1, R2 and R3 are all connected together in parallel between the two points A and B.

In the previous series resistor circuit we saw that the total resistance, RT of the circuit was equal to the sum of all the individual resistors added together. For resistors in parallel the equivalent circuit resistance RT is calculated differently.

the resistances themselves. This gives us a value known as Conductance, symbol G with the units of conductance being the Siemens, symbol S. Conductance is therefore the reciprocal or the inverse of resistance, (G = 1/R). To convert this conductance sum back into a resistance value we need to take the reciprocal of the conductance giving us then the total resistance, RT of the resistors in parallel. Example No1 For example, find the total resistance of the following parallel network

Then the total resistance RT across the two terminals A and B is calculated as:

26 Department of Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

This method of calculation can be used for calculating any number of individual

Exercises

What is the equivalent resistance of these resistance combinations?

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. Exercise

Q1 what will be the current through a series circuit when applied voltage is 10 volts and circuit resistance is 5Ohm?

Q2 what will be the amount of current of each bulb when 12 bulbs are connected in series?

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Objective

To understand and learn the practical use of analog and digital multimeter

Apparatus

Analog multimeter Digital multimeter Ac / Dc power source Resistors

Theory

The perfect use of prcised measuring of equipment is very important before start working with electrical and electronics circuits. Analog meter consists of a galvanometer and a pointer for showing electrical quantities while digital meters use electronics devices like A/D (analog to digital) converter and seven segment display for reading electrical quantities.

Multimeter

A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a volt/ohm meter or VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance

29

Digital Multimeter

Analog Multimeter

It is important for you to have a clear idea of how meters are connected into circuits. Diagrams A and B below show a circuit before and after connecting an ammeter. To measure current, the circuit must be broken to allow the ammeter to be connected in series and ammeters must have a LOW resistance.

Figure A Figure B Think about the changes you would have to make to a practical circuit in order to include the ammeter. To start with, you need to break the circuit so that the ammeter can be connected in series. All the current flowing in the circuit must pass through the ammeter. Meters are not supposed to alter the behavior of the circuit, and it follows that an ammeter must have a very LOW resistance. Using as a Voltmeter

To measure potential difference (voltage), the circuit is not changed. The voltmeter is connected in parallel between the two points where the measurement is to be made. Since the voltmeter provides a parallel pathway, it should take as little current as possible. In other words, a voltmeter should have a very HIGH resistance. Diagram A and C below show a circuit before and after connecting a voltmeter:

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Figure C

R1=1k,R2=2.2k,R3=4.7k No of Observations 1 2 3 Vdc (Battery) 5V 8V 12V Voltage Across R1 (Volts) Voltage Across R2 Voltage Across R3 Current Across R1,R2,R3

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Questions

Q.1 Can we measure power with a multimeter?

Q.2 How a multimeter is connected in a circuit by measuring current through that circuit?

Q.3

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Objective

To verify Ohms Law using different Circuits

Apparatus

Multimeter Resistors of different values Connecting wires

Theory

Current (I) is same in all parts of a series circuit Total resistance (R) equals the sum of all series resistance Total resistance is reciprocal of the sum of all the resistances The applied voltage (V) is the same across the parallel resistors Each branch current (I) equals the sum of the Branch currents

Ohms Law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them .The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is Where I is the current through the resistance in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the resistance in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

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Precautions

No loose connections should exist. Always insert Ammeter in series. Always insert Voltmeter in parallel.

Circuit Diagram

No. of observations 1 2 3 Vs (Applied Voltage)

VR (Volts)

I (mA)

34 Department of Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

Objective

To study Voltage Divider rule and Current Divider

Voltage Divider

The voltage divider rule is a simple rule which can be used in solving circuits to simplify the solution. The voltage divided between the resistors in directly proportional to their resistance. Applying Ohm's Law in the diagram the relationship between the input voltage, Vin, and the output voltage, Vout, can be found:

Current Divider

Current divider is a simple linear circuit that produces an output current (IX) that is a fraction of its input current (IT). A general formula for the current IX in a resistor RX that is in parallel with a combination of other resistors of total resistance RT as shown by Figure .where IT is the total current entering the combined network of RX in parallel with RT. Notice that when RT is composed

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of a parallel combination of resistors, say R1, R2 and R3, then the reciprocal of each resistor must be added to find the total resistance RT:

Experimental Setup

R1 Calculated Measured R2 R3 R4

V1

V2

V3

V4

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Objective

Understanding and performing Kirchhoffs voltage law

Apparatus

Resistors DMM

Statement

The directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed circuit is zero, or: More simply, the sum of the emfs in any closed loop is equivalent to the sum of the potential drops in that loop, or: The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available in that loop.

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Experimental Setup

Calculated values

voltage 5V 12 V 15 V 20 V V1 V2 V3 VTotal= V1+ V2+ V3+ V4

Measured values

voltage 5V 12 V 15 V 20 V V1 V2 V3 VTotal= V1+ V2+ V3+ V4

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40

voltage 5V 12 V 15 V 20 V V1 V2 V3 VTotal= V1+ V2+ V3+ V4

Measured values

voltage 5V 12 V 15 V 20 V

V1

V2

V3

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Objective

Understanding and performing Kirchhoffs current law

Apparatus

Resistors DMM

Statement

At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node, ors The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.

Here,

I = IA + IB + IC

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Experimental Setup

R2

R3

total

Measured values

R2

R3

total

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Lab 06 To Study the Variation of Photoelectric Current with Intensity of Incident Light

Objective

Understand the phenomena of Photoelectric effect and working of photocell

Apparatus

Photocell Resistors DMM

Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect refers to the emission, or ejection, of electrons from the surface of, generally, a metal in response to incident light.

Photo Cell

Introduction: A photocell is a practical application of the phenomenon of photoelectric cell. Construction: A photocell consists of an evacuated sealed glass tube containing a wire anode and a concave cathode of suitable emitting material such as Cesium (Cs) The material of cathode responds to a given frequency range. Working: When light of frequency greater than the threshold frequency of the cathode material falls on the cathode, photoelectrons are emitted. These electrons are collected by the anode and an electric current starts flowing in the external circuit. The current increases with the increase in the intensity of light. The current would stop, if the light does not fall on the cathode.

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Experimental Setup

No of Observations 1 2 3 4 5 6 Square of d Intensity Current (I) A

Distance(d)

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Objective

To understand the properties of magnetic field. To draw the line of force or flux and to understand and utilize electromagnet.

Apparatus

Magnet Bars Multimeter Compass Needle Electromagnet

Introduction Magnetic line of force is continuous curve in a magnetic field. Any point in the magnetic lines of force represents the direction of the magnetic field at that point. This force of lines can be drawn by using the compass needle and the iron fillings. Magnetic lines of force provide the direction of magnetic field.

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Magnetic lines of force have a travel path from north to South Pole of a magnet for outside and for inside it have a travel path from south to North Pole of the magnet.

Magnetic line of force is continuous curve and closed. The strength of the magnetic field should be calculated by measuring the number of lines per unit area.

The lines of force are closer at the poles of the magnet and they are wider when it moves away from the poles of the magnet. Thus the magnetic field is stronger at the poles and it is reduces when it is move away from the poles.

At any point the tangent of the lines of force provides the magnetic field direction also at the same point.

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Procedure

1. Set the bar magnet on the table as shown in figure. 2. Place compass around the magnet for at least 15 positions and record the directions printed by the compass needle. 3. Plot your observed directions and draw the smooth curve to show the lines of force below.

The lines that we have mapped out around the magnet, called the magnetic lines of force, indicate the region in which the force of the magnet can be detected. This region is called the magnetic field. If an iron object is near a magnet, but is not within the magnetic field, the object will not be attracted to the magnet. When the object enters the magnetic field,

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the force of the magnet acts, and the object is attracted. The pattern of these lines of force tells us something about the characteristics of the forces caused by the magnet. The magnetic lines of force, or flux, leave the north pole and enter the south pole.

Since the earth is a huge magnet with a magnetic north and south pole, the lines of magnetic force around the earth look like there is a huge vertical bar magnet running through the center of the earth. We will see in the next experiment how the magnetic lines of flux around a magnet can be seen. The next page will tell you more about how you can observe the magnetic field of a magnet and what you can learn from reading the patterns of the magnetic lines of force.

Questions

1. What happened when you placed the circular piece of metal in the magnetic lines of flux? Outside the lines?

3. If the earth is like a huge magnet, with a magnetic pole at the north end and another magnetic pole at the south end, what might these imaginary lines look like around the earth?

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Lab 08

Objective

To understand the working of Function generator to generate a desired output signal. To understand the working of Oscilloscope to Visualize the Desired output Signal Generated by Function Generator.

Apparatus

Function Generator Oscilloscope Function generator and Oscilloscope probes

Theory

A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. It is used to test the response of circuits to common input signals. After powering on the function generator, the output signal needs to be configured to the desired shape. Typically, this means connecting the signal and ground leads to an oscilloscope to check the controls. Adjust the function generator until the output signal is correct, then attach the signal and ground leads from the function generator to the input and ground of the device under test. For some applications, the negative lead of the function generator should attach to a negative input of the device, but usually attaching to ground is sufficient. The function of an oscilloscope is extremely simple: it draws a V/t graph, a graph of voltage against time, voltage on the vertical or Y-axis, and time on the horizontal or Xaxis. As you can see in Figure 1, the screen of this oscilloscope has 8 squares or divisions on the vertical axis, and 10 squares or divisions on the horizontal axis. Usually, these squares are 1 cm in each direction.

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Many of the controls of the oscilloscope allow you to change the vertical or horizontal scales of the V/t graph, so that you can display a clear picture of the signal you want to investigate. 'Dual trace' oscilloscopes display two V/t graphs at the same time, so that simultaneous signals from different parts of an electronic system can be compared.

Figure 1

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Procedure

1. Turn on the oscilloscope. Check it for the reference signal provided i.e. 2Vp-p and . Is the output correct? If not calibrate until the desired signal is

calibrated. Ask your instructor for details. 2. Turn on the Function Generator .Connect its probes to channel 1 of oscilloscope.

Plot the Graph in the Following Figure and also mention V/Div and Time/Div.

Volt/Div= Time/Div=

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Objective

Introduction to Vectors and Forces

Vectors

Quantities that have direction as well as magnitude are called as vectors. Examples of vectors are velocity, acceleration, force, momentum etc. The magnitude of a vector is denoted by absolute value signs around the vector symbol: magnitude of vector

I.

=| |

The magnitude of a vector in a scaled vector diagram is depicted by the length of the arrow. The arrow is drawn a precise length in accordance with a chosen scale. For example, the diagram shows a vector with a magnitude of 20 miles. Since the scale used for constructing the diagram is 1 cm = 5 miles, the vector arrow is drawn with a length of 4 cm. That is, 4 cm x (5 miles/1 cm) = 20 miles. Using the same scale (1 cm = 5 miles), a displacement vector that is 15 miles will be represented by a vector arrow that is 3 cm in length. Similarly, a 25-mile displacement vector is represented by a 5-cm long vector arrow. And finally, an 18-mile displacement vector is represented by a 3.6-cm long arrow See the examples shown below.

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II.

Unit vector

A vector whose magnitude is equal to 1 is called unit vector. Unit vectors are used to represent the direction of vectors. ( )( )

It is represented by placing a

For example , and are unit vectors along x, y and z axis respectively. Addition of vectors: Vectors can be added and subtracted. Let two vectors, place the tail of and is and be two vectors. To get the sum of the and the distance between the tail of

I.

Parallel vectors

Parallel vectors can be added simply adding the magnitudes of vectors while there direction will remain same.

5N

= 5N

10 N

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II.

Anti-parallel vectors

For anti-parallel vectors magnitude are subtracted and direction of the result will be that of vector that is bigger in magnitude.

5N +

-5N = 0

III.

Vectors that are perpendicular to each other their magnitude can be calculated By using Pythagoras Theorem:

In right angle triangle as shown in Fig. 5: Squaring both sides triangle By solving equation we get the magnitude | | ------------------------ (1) Fig. 2: Right angle

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Resolution of Vectors

Splitting a vector into its components is called resolution of vectors. The component of a vector which are at right angle are knows as rectangular components. Lets consider a vector represented by line (as shown in Fig. 3) making an angle on x-axis than the vector will be

with the x-axis. If we draw projection resolved into two components As and

from point ..

is along x-axis so it is called x-component of vector is parallel to y-axis so this component of vector

is represented as Fy.

| | And

[ ]

Y-axis

Dot Product:

The dot product is the value expressing the angular relationship between two vectors, also called the scalar product. The symbol for dot product is a heavy dot. | || | Example: work

57 Department of Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

Cross Product:

The cross product of two vectors a and b is denoted by a b, the value obtained from cross product is a vector quantity and is perpendicular to both vectors. | || | Example: Torque

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Objective

To determine the time period of simple pendulum

Theory

A simple pendulum consists of a mass m swinging back and forth along a circular arc at the end of a string of negligible mass. The restoring force is the component of the gravitational force that is tangent to the arc, and is given by:

Where is the angle of the string relative to the vertical, if the angle is less than about 15, the sine of is approximated by the angle , and therefore, the restoring force is approximated by:

Where L is the length of the string, in the case where the angle is small, the motion is nearly simple harmonic motion, and the force is given by an equation with the same form as Hooke's law

Where L is the length of the pendulum string and x is the displacement of the pendulum mass m. Therefore, the period of oscillation T of the pendulum is given by

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T L x Fig 1. Simple pendulum Where g is the acceleration due to gravity, in this lab, you will use the motion of a simple pendulum to determine a value for the acceleration due to gravity. You set up a simple pendulum of known length and mass. Next, you will determine the average time interval it takes for the pendulum to swing through one cycle. Finally, you will use the data to determine a value for the acceleration due to gravity.

Procedure

i. Setup the support stand and tie a mass to the end of a string. It should be attached so that it hangs straight, with its 'flat' sides vertical. Cut the string to a free length of approximately 0.5 m. ii. iii. Position the pendulum in order to allow it to swing freely. Measure the length of the string from its pivot point at the top, to the 'center' of the mass at the bottom. Record the length on the data sheet. iv. v. Grab the pendulum mass with one hand, and hold the stopwatch in the other. Pull back the pendulum mass, keeping the string taut. Sighting through the protractor, adjust the angle of the string to be 15 relative to vertical. vi. Release the pendulum mass and simultaneously starts the stopwatch. Let the pendulum swing through 5-10 cycles. Stop the stopwatch at the end of a cycle.

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Record the number of cycles and the elapsed time on the data sheet. Measure the time to the nearest 0.1 s.

vii.

Radius of the bob =

Sr. No

Time on 10 Oscillations

S1

S2

S3

Analytical Solution

Conclusion/Comments

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Objective

To find out the resultant by using vector addition

Apparatus

Weight hangers Pulleys Protector, scale Strings Vector board

Theory

The aim of the experiment is to understand the concepts of vector addition and vector resolution. In the experiment three forces are applied at a point which is in static equilibrium, the goal is to find out the resultant by using methods of vector addition such as, i. Head to tail method

One of the forces is moved parallel to itself and they are drawn head to tail. Neither the direction nor the length of the force is changed during this drawing. A third force drawn from the tail of first force to the head of the second force. Force sun of the resultant of forces ii. Component method and . is

represented the

It is always possible to resolve a force into two components along any given pair of perpendicular directions. In order to resolve a force into its own components we need a suitable co-ordinate system. We generally define the horizontal axis as -axis and vertical axis as -axis.the magnitude of these components is then found using the suitable

trigonometric equations.

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iii.

Parallelogram method

The forces are drawn from the same beginning point to the adjacent sides of parallelogram. The parallelogram is then completed by drawing parallel lines to the two forces and . The diagonal drawn from the beginning of the forces to the opposite representing the sum of and .

-axis

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Procedure:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hang the weights on the pulleys. Balance the ring at the centre of apparatus. Measure the angles that forces are making with x and y axis. Find resultant of two forces by graphical as well as by trigonometric methods. Verify the results with the experimental values of the third force.

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Readings/Results:

[N] [N] [N] [deg] [deg] [deg]

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Calculate the values by using head to tail method and component methods. Compare the results with the experimental values.

Comments/Conclusions:

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Objective:

To show that the resolution of vector into components will have the same effect as the original vector.

Apparatus:

Experiment Board, Force Ring, Mass Hangers, String, Degree Scale, Pulleys, Masses.

Theory:

Splitting a vector into its components is called resolution of vectors, and the component of a vector along x and y axis are knows as rectangular components. Lets consider a vector represented by line OA (as shown in Figure 1) making an angle will with the x-axis. If we draw projection AB from point A on x-axis than the vector resolve into two components and . . Similarly

As OB is along x-axis so it is called x-component of vector represented as is parallel to y-axis so this component of vector is represented as Pythagoras Theorem we can find the magnitude and direction of vector.

. By using

67 Department of Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

| |

[ ]

Procedure:

1. Determine a force vector, F, by hanging a mass from the Force Ring over a pulley. Use the Holding Pin to hold the Force Ring in place. 2. Set up the Spring Balance and a pulley so the string from the balance runs horizontally from the bottom of the pulley to the Force Ring. 3. Hang a second Mass Hanger directly from the Force Ring. 4. Adjust the x and y components in this way until the Holding Pin is centered in the Force Ring. 5. Calculate the components by using Head to Tail method or by component method. 6. Calculate the readings of spring balance and the magnitude of force hanged to adjust the force ring at the centre. 7. Change the magnitude and direction of F and repeat the experiment.

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load extension K

Extension | |

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Results:

Conclusion/Observation:

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Objective:

To determine acceleration due to gravity using mass spring system

Apparatus:

A spring fitted with pointer at its lower end Iron stand Meter rod Slotted weights Stop watch

Theory:

From the previous section it is clear that time period of a simple harmonic oscillator can be given by

Since mass spring system is a simple harmonic oscillator other half of the formula can be used to find out the value of acceleration due to gravity. Here we will use extension in the spring x instead of length l. ( ) Fig 5.1: Mass spring system apparatus This formula will be used for the calculation of acceleration due to gravity.

Procedure:

1. Take an iron stand, suspend the helical spring with pointer and attach a light hanger to its lower end. Note that the spring is hanging freely and the pointer do not touch the scale.

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2. Set the pointer at zero scale and when pointer comes to rest , note its position this will be the initial reading of pointer 3. Now add some weight and note the position of the pointer 4. Pull the pointer down slightly and release it, so that springs make simple harmonic oscillations. Record the time for 20 vibrations 5. Similarly take at least four sets of readings.

Load Pointer reading Initial Final Extension Time for 10 vibrations 1 2 3 Average Time period for 20 oscillation Time period for 1 oscillation

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Objective:

To measure the static coefficient of friction between two surfaces using a ramp.

Apparatus:

Theory:

The coefficient of friction between two surfaces is a number that determines how much force is required to move an object that is held back by friction when the two surfaces are pressed together. The friction equation is Fr = fr x N, where Fr is the resistive force of friction or the amount of force required to overcome friction, fr is the coefficient of friction between the two surfaces, and N is the normal or perpendicular force pushing the two surfaces together. If the force pushing to surfaces together is gravity, then N equals the weight of the upper object.

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For a sliding object, the static coefficient of friction results in the force required to start the object moving. Once the object is sliding at a steady rate, the kinetic coefficient of friction results in the force required to keep the object moving at that velocity. A clever way to determine the static coefficient of friction is to start an object sliding down a ramp. The component of gravitational force that causes the object to just start moving is equal to the resistive force to keep the object stationary. That is the static force of friction. Knowing the force required to overcome the friction and the force pushing the object onto the ramp, will allow you to determine the static coefficient of friction.

Components of gravity:

When an object that weighs W is on a ramp, the force of gravity can be divided into components in perpendicular directions. The force pushing the object against the surface of the ramp is reduced because of the incline. The normal force is ( ) as

show in the picture below. In the case where there is no incline, a = 0 degrees and N = W.

( )

Now when the angle a becomes steep enough, the object starts to move and F = Fr, which is the force of static friction required to start the object moving. But you know that Fr = fr x N. And for the object on the ramp,

74 Department of Mechanical Engineering

( )

Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

Thus

( ) t

( )

( )

( )

( )

Finally, since

( )

we have

Procedure:

1. Place the ramp on the ground and put the object on the ramp 2. Slowly raise one end of the ramp until the object starts to slide 3. Measure the height (A) and length (B) of the inclination, as in the drawing below

4. Calculate the coefficient of friction between the surfaces: fr = A /B

No of Obs Materials pressing on Vertical distance A Horizontal distance B Inclination

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