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Quality Control

Introduction:
Testing the quality of building material is very necessary at the site before it is ready to be
used as a construction material. The material which is used on site suffers from many
different environmental conditions (moisture conditions and temperature conditions) then the
material tested in the laboratory as compared to the control conditions of laboratory. The
material available near the site for example the water has to be tested for its construction
requirements as it may affect the quality of construction. The water used must not have high
chlorine content.

Since the moisture content of sand varies continuously depending upon different weather
conditions so its moisture content has to be check regularly and necessary correction has to
be implanted and proper quantity of sand and aggregate can be used to achieve the desired
standard of strength.

Admixtures are substances used in small quantity to increase the workability of the concrete
for the given water cement ratio without affecting the strength of the concrete. Admixtures
used at the site are Sikament170PL4.

Water proofing of walls and floors are necessary to prevent them from dampness and
destruction of steel in reinforcement due to rusting and to prevent subsequent leakages and
even in worst cases failure of complete structure.

According to the material available at the site before starting of the construction proper mix
design is done and is estimated that what moisture content will amount to what strength in
concrete and a regular check is made by testing the concrete while construction and proper
correction is made if necessary.

Fundamentals of Quality Controls:


• Water proofing of walls and floors are done by layering the walls and floors by water
proofing compound DR. FIXIT PIDECRETE MPB in 1:1 ratio by cement of
thickness about 1 mm.

• The steel used for construction purpose is Fe 500 TMT (Thermo-Mechanically


Treated) bars.

• The grade of concrete used for construction purpose varies from M-25 to M-40 grade
concrete.

• Flakiness and elongation index of aggregate should be below 35%.

• Aggregate are tested for their strength by aggregate crushing and aggregate impact
test on site. Maximum size of aggregate used at site is 20 mm and minimum is 10
mm. The test are made according to IS – 2386 Part (I-VIII).
• Cubes are casted and check for their strength by checking their 7 days and 20 days
compressive strength.

• Non-destructive tests (like ultrasonic test etc.) are done on concrete if the concrete
fails to achieve the desired strength after 28 days to determine the cause of such weak
strength (due to honey-bee structure, etc.)

• Admixture used is 0.6% by weight of cement.

Quality Control at Site:


Quality of the various materials utilized in the field is tested at the site itself. A separate
room for the testing of the various materials has been provided at the site office. A cube
testing machine, a hot-air oven and a sieve shaker is present in the quality control room. At
present only the cube test and the slump test are being conducted, as no other material except
for concrete is being used at the site. Though the cube test is not of much significance here, it
is being conducted at the site to assure the quality of the mix. Since the concrete is being
supplied by the company the cube test of the concrete becomes all the more significant.
Usually 6 cubes are tested when light concreting is being carried out and a minimum of 12
cubes are tested when heavy concreting is being carried out. The samples of concrete are
randomly taken from the trucks that bring in the ready mix concrete. The number of cubes
that are tested depends upon the client also. The cube test is usually conducted in the
presence of the client. The slump test is conducted in the field itself. It is carried out to
determine the workability of the mix. The acceptability limits of the slump of the concrete is
slightly increased after taking into consideration the weather conditions prevalent in the
region i.e. hot and humid weather conditions. The various other tests will be conducted once
the brickwork, plastering, etc. starts. Bricks, sand, etc. will not be supplied by the client hence
the testing of these materials becomes a necessity as the usage of low of the failure will have
to be borne by the company. Quality materials may lead to failure and the whole
responsibility. The bricks will be tested using the hot-air oven. The sieve analysis will be
conducted to test the quality of the sand that is being used. The quality of cement that is being
used is determined by finding the initial setting time and the final setting time of the cement.

Tests Conducted on Soil:


• Sand Replacement Method.
• Core Cutter Method.
• Proctor Test.
• Vicat’s apparatus Test.
• Pycnometer Test.

Test on Aggregate:
• Sieve analyses.
• Flakiness and elongation test.
• Aggregate Impact test.
• Aggregate Crushing test.

Test on Concrete:
• Compressive strength test.
Field Quality Control:
IS/ Job
Sl. Tests to Test conducted
Material Specification Frequency
No. be conducted By
Ref. No.

a. Total IS 2386
deleterious Twice per source Approved Lab
material content Part II

To be done every day before


IS 2386
b. Silt clay start of work for 1st 7 days. Simplex Field
content Later 1 test in every 100 m3 Lab
Part II
Fine of sand.
1.
Aggregate
IS 2386 1 testing daily for 1st 7 days.
c. Particle size Simplex Field
Later 1 every 100 m3 of
distribution Lab
Part I/ IS 383 sand/ change of source if any

1 per 100 m3 except during


IS 2386 Part
d. Moisture monsoon when it has to be Simplex Field
II/ IS 456/ IS
content done every day before start Lab
383
of work.
1 testing daily for 1st 7 days.
a. Particle size IS 2386I/ IS Later 1 every 100 m3 of Simplex Field
distribution 383 stone aggregate/ change of Lab
source if any

b. Percentage of IS 2386 Simplex Field


soft deleterious Twice per source
Lab
material Part III

1 per 100 m3 except during


IS 2386 Part
c. Moisture monsoon when it has to be Simplex Field
II/ IS 456/ IS
content done every day before start Lab
2. 383
Coarse of work.
Aggregate
IS 2386
d. Flakiness Once initially and then Simplex Field
Index change with source. Lab
Part I

IS 2386
e. Elongation Once initially and then Simplex Field
Index change with source. Lab
Part I

IS 2386 Once initially and then once Simplex Field


f. Impact Value
every month. Lab
Part IV

IS 2386
g. Los Angeles Once initially and then once Simplex Field
Abrasion value every month. Lab
Part IV

IS 2386 Once initially and then once


h. Soundness Approved Lab
every month.
Part V

i. Alkali IS 2386 Once initially and then once Simplex Field


Aggregate
every month. lab
Reactivity Part VII

a. Chemical & Water from each source to


Physical IS 3025 be tested before start of work Approved Lab
Properties and then every 6 months.
3. Water
Once initially thereafter Simplex Field
b. pH value IS 456
every month. Lab

IS 4031
a. Initial & Final Every 3000 bags and at least Simplex Field
setting time once monthly. Lab
Part V

IS 4031
b. Compressive Every 3000 bags and at least Simplex Field
strength once monthly. Lab
Part VI
4. Cement
a. Each lot a. Manufacturer
c. Chemical IS 4032/ IS Test Certificate
Analysis 4031 Part II b. Once for every type of
cement b. Approved Lab

d. Fineness & Simplex Field


IS 4031 Each lot
Soundness Lab
a. Manufacturer
All tests as per a. Lot wise Test Certificate
5. Admixture IS 9103
IS 9103 b. Once per source b. Approved
Lab

All tests as per 1 set of 6 cubes per 28 m3 or Simplex Field


6. Concrete IS 516-1959
IS 516-1959 part thereof concrete poured Lab