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# Interpretation of Phase Diagram

Phase Rule
1. Phase rule: P+F = C+2 C: number of components (minimum number of constituents in composition)

## 2. Condensed Phase Rule:

P+F = C+1

In many solids with high melting temperature, the vapor phase is effectively non-existent

One-Component Systems
According to phase rule: P + F = C + 2 = 3 (single component) Independent variables in one-component system are temperature and pressure because the composition is fixed.

Bivariant (F=2), Univariant (F=1) and Invariant (F=0); univariant curves, triple points

One-Component Systems_H2O

## Ice less dense than liquid water at 0 C

The melting of ice I is accompanied by a decrease in volume; increase pressure makes melting easier (direction YX)

One-Component Systems_SiO2

## Two-Component Condensed Systems

Two-component or binary systems have three independent variables: pressure, temperature and composition Condensed Phase Rule: P + F = C + 1 = 3 (binary system: C=2)

## Simple Eutectic System

Liquidus curve (xyz) : highest temperature at which crystals can exist Solidus curve (cyd) : highest temperature at which liquid can exist Eutectic point (y) : invariant point (minimum on the liquidus curve) Level rule: relative amounts of two phases in a mixture

## Simple Eutectic System

Saturation solubility curve

A small amount of soluble impurity A will lower the melting point of B from T5 to T4. For example, H2O-NaCl.

## Binary System with Compounds

Congruent melting:

It changes directly from solid AB to liquid of the same composition at temperature T3 No changes would be observed at T1 and T2 on heating pure AB

## Binary System with Compounds

Incongruent melting:

AB A + liquid

Peritectic point: Invariant point at which three phases coexist, A, AB and liquid Non-equilibrium effects:

## Binary System with Solid Solutions

Solid solution: shows complete miscibility in both solid and liquid states Liquidus and solidus are smooth curves which meet only at the end-member composition A and B.

## Binary System with Partial Solid Solutions

Simple eutectic system Binary system

MgO-SiO2: