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Interpretation of Phase Diagram

Phase Rule
1. Phase rule: P+F = C+2 C: number of components (minimum number of constituents in composition)

P: number of phase (e.g. Polymorphism, solid solution)

F: number of degrees of freedom (temperature, pressure and composition of phases)

2. Condensed Phase Rule:

P+F = C+1

In many solids with high melting temperature, the vapor phase is effectively non-existent

One-Component Systems
According to phase rule: P + F = C + 2 = 3 (single component) Independent variables in one-component system are temperature and pressure because the composition is fixed.

Bivariant (F=2), Univariant (F=1) and Invariant (F=0); univariant curves, triple points

One-Component Systems_H2O

Ice less dense than liquid water at 0 C

The melting of ice I is accompanied by a decrease in volume; increase pressure makes melting easier (direction YX)

One-Component Systems_SiO2

-quartz -quartz -tridymite -cristobalite liquid

Two-Component Condensed Systems


Two-component or binary systems have three independent variables: pressure, temperature and composition Condensed Phase Rule: P + F = C + 1 = 3 (binary system: C=2)

Simple eutectic system

Liquid solution: single phase

Simple Eutectic System

Liquidus curve (xyz) : highest temperature at which crystals can exist Solidus curve (cyd) : highest temperature at which liquid can exist Eutectic point (y) : invariant point (minimum on the liquidus curve) Level rule: relative amounts of two phases in a mixture

Simple Eutectic System


Saturation solubility curve

A small amount of soluble impurity A will lower the melting point of B from T5 to T4. For example, H2O-NaCl.

Binary System with Compounds

Congruent melting:

It changes directly from solid AB to liquid of the same composition at temperature T3 No changes would be observed at T1 and T2 on heating pure AB

Binary System with Compounds

Incongruent melting:

AB A + liquid

Peritectic point: Invariant point at which three phases coexist, A, AB and liquid Non-equilibrium effects:

Binary System with Solid Solutions


Solid solution: shows complete miscibility in both solid and liquid states Liquidus and solidus are smooth curves which meet only at the end-member composition A and B.

Fractional crystallization: cooling takes place sufficiently slow Coring

Binary System with Partial Solid Solutions


Simple eutectic system Binary system

Binary system with incongruent melting compound

Binary System with Solid-Solid Phase Transitions

Binary System with Phase Transitions & Solid Solutions

Eutectoids: point b (eutectoid reaction) Peritectoids: point y

Binary System with Liquid Immiscibility

MgO-SiO2: