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COMPUTER SIMULATION OF WAYSIDE ENERGY STORAGE SUBSTATIONS IN DC TRACTION POWER SYSTEMS

J.G.Yu, MIET, PhD


SYSTRA Consulting,Inc 1600 Market St, Suite 1310 Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA gyu@systrausa.com; 1-603-667-8270

Keywords: Traction Power Systems, Energy Storage Devices, Wayside Energy Storage Substations, Computer Simulation; Energy Savings.

The core components of most wayside energy storage substations consist in a storage medium and a power control unit, as well as the necessary DC bus and switchgears for power intake from and distribution to the tracks. In order to quantify the cost/benefit parameters which are critical to making investment decisions, computer simulation techniques have been developed. Simulation can help designers and operators find the optimal parameters of WESS in terms of locations, device ratings and sizes, duty cycles and operational characteristics. 1.2 WESS power control Figure 1 shows the power control diagram of a typical WESS.

Abstract
This paper describes a computer simulation technique that has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of wayside energy storage substations (WESS). Possible benefits afforded by a WESS, such as train voltage support and energy saving, are presented through the simulation results of a sample light rail transit system.

1 Introduction
With the rapid development of energy storage devices (ESD), in the forms of flywheels, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, wayside energy storage substations (WESS) are emerging as a viable supplement to traditional substations for traction power system designers. A WESS can be located on its own anywhere along the track, without the need of medium voltage power supply sources. 1.1 WESS equipment The main components of a WESS installation and a traditional rectifier substation are shown in the following figure.

Figure 2: Power control diagram for WESS. The main parameters of a WESS are listed as follows: Energy storage capacity Power rating Power conversion efficiency Maximum current (charging or discharging) Control voltage (Vc) and various other voltage levels for charging and discharging control Figure 1: Comparison of the main components between a rectifier substation and a WESS. For battery substations that do not have power control units, i.e., when the battery units are directly connected to the DC

bus, the modelling will be different from the above descriptions, which is not covered by this paper.

Simulated Train Voltages (Case 60 - Normal Operation, 5-Minute Headway)


1,000

Train Voltage Substations Stations

2 Simulation results and analysis


Train Voltage (V)

900 800

2.1 System parameters The main parameters of the light rail transit (LRT) system being simulated are listed as follows: 7 Miles of track (double track system) 12 Stations 750V nominal voltage DC traction power system, 7 Traction power substations (TPSS); each equipped with 1.5MW rectifier unit 1 Circuit breaker house (CBH) 2 car trains in operation with regenerative braking 5 Minute headway in peak hours 15 Minute headway in off peak hours and weekends The following figure shows the motoring and regenerative braking control diagram for the LRT vehicle.

700 600 500


A1-TPSS A4X-CBH A2-TPSS A3-TPSS A4-TPSS A5-TPSS

400 300

ST 02

ST 01

ST 03

ST 04

ST 05

ST 07

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 06

ST 11

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

Location (miles)

Figure 4: Train voltages under normal conditions. This indicates that all train voltages are above 600V, which are adequate for trains to achieve their on-time performance. When the rectifier in A4-TPSS is out of service, the train voltages are shown in the following figure.
Simulated Train Voltages (Case 64 - A4 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)
1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4X-CBH A2-TPSS A3-TPSS A5-TPSS

Train Voltage Substations Stations

400 300

ST 02

ST 01

ST 03

ST 04

ST 05

ST 07

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 06

ST 11

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

Figure 3: Power control diagram for the LRT vehicle. 2.2 Train voltage support requirement Train voltage is a critical performance parameter for the traction power system. Under normal conditions (when all substations are in service), the simulated train voltages over 15 minutes are shown in the following figure.

Location (miles)

Figure 5: Train voltages under A4-TPSS outage condition. Note that the minimum train voltage drops to 504V, which means that the train at the point of time and location would have almost no tractive effort available. Similarly, when A5-TPSS is out of service, the minimum train voltage drops to 559V, as shown in the following figure.

ST 12

200

A6-TPSS

A7-TPSS

A4-OUT

ST 12

200

A6-TPSS

A7-TPSS

Simulated Train Voltages (Case 65 - A5 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)


1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4X-CBH A4-TPSS

Train Voltage Substations Stations

Simulated Train Voltages (Case 85-A5 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)


1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4X-TPSS A4-TPSS A2-TPSS A3-TPSS

Train Voltage Substations Stations

A7-TPSS

A6-TPSS

A2-TPSS

A3-TPSS

400 300

400 300

ST 02

ST 03

ST 02

ST 01

ST 04

ST 01

ST 03

ST 07

ST 04

ST 05

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 11

ST 05

ST 07

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 06

ST 12

ST 06

ST 11

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

Location (miles)

Location (miles)

Figure 6: Train voltages under A5-TPSS outage condition. In order to avoid the excessively low voltage conditions when the rectifier in A4-TPSS or A5-TPSS is out of service, either a full rectifier substation or a WESS at A4X-CBH location can be considered. 2.3 New rectifier substation option If a full sized substation is installed in location A4X, the train voltages are shown in the following figures when A4-TPSS or A5-TPSS is out of service.
Simulated Train Voltages (Case 84 - A4 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)
1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4X-TPSS A7-TPSS A2-TPSS A3-TPSS A5-TPSS A6-TPSS A4-OUT

Figure 8: Train voltages under A5-TPSS outage condition (A4X as TPSS). The above figures indicate that the new rectifier installation in A4X location will be adequate for train voltage support when A4-TPSS or A5-TPSS is out of service. 2.4 New WESS option If a WESS is installed in location A4X, the train voltage improvements are shown in the following figures when A4TPSS or A5-TPSS is out of service.
Simulated Train Voltages (Case 74b - A4 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)
1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4X-ESD A2-TPSS A3-TPSS A5-TPSS

Train Voltage Substations Stations

Train Voltage Substations Stations

400 300

400 300

ST 02

ST 03

ST 02

ST 01

ST 04

ST 01

ST 03

ST 07

ST 04

ST 05

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 11

ST 05

ST 07

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 06

ST 12

ST 06

ST 11

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

Location (miles)

Location (miles)

Figure 7: Train voltages under A4-TPSS outage condition (A4X as TPSS).

Figure 9: Train voltages under A4-TPSS outage condition (A4X as WESS with Vc at 760V).

ST 12

200

200

A6-TPSS

A7-TPSS

A4-OUT

ST 12

200

200

A6-TPSS

A7-TPSS

A5-Out

A5-Out

Simulated Train Voltages (Case 75b-ESD760V - A5 Outage, 5-Minute Headway)


1,000 900 800 700 Train Voltage (V) 600 500
A1-TPSS A4-TPSS A4X-ESD A2-TPSS A3-TPSS

Train Voltage Substations Stations

The above tables illustrate the variations in WESS energy rating requirements versus the magnitude of voltage improvement. Higher levels of voltage improvement demand higher energy ratings (and possibly higher power ratings). With the installation of the WESS in location A4X, the systems receptivity (the ratio of utilized regenerative energy over the total available regenerative energy) will also be improved. As a result, the energy saving ratio due to regenerative braking (the ratio of energy consumption figure with regenerative braking over the energy consumption figure without regenerative braking) can be improved. The following table has a summary of the system receptivity and energy savings for the simulated conditions.
Case # 64 74a 74b 84 65 75a 75b 85 Scenario A4 outage, A4XCBH A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V A4 outage, A4XTPSS A5 outage, A4XCBH A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V A5 outage, A4XTPSS Receptivity (%) 85.0 85.7 88.8 84.1 84.4 85.1 87.6 83.8 Energy Savings (%) 30.4 30.7 31.8 30.1 30.2 30.4 31.3 30.0

400 300

ST 02

ST 01

ST 03

ST 04

ST 05

ST 07

ST 08

ST 09

ST 10

ST 06

ST 11

100 24.5 25.0 25.5 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0

Location (miles)

Figure 10: Train voltages under A5-TPSS outage condition (A4X as WESS with Vc at 760V). The above figures indicate that the new WESS installation in A4X location will also be adequate for train voltage support when A4-TPSS or A5-TPSS is out of service. The minimum train voltages for the two options are summarized in the following table.
Case # Scenario A4 outage, A4XCBH A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V A4 outage, A4XTPSS A5 outage, A4XCBH A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V A5 outage, A4XTPSS Minimum Train Voltage (V) 504 562 588 605 559 626 630 632 Voltage Improvement (V) n/a 58 84 101 n/a 67 71 73

64 74a 74b 84 65 75a 75b 85

ST 12

200

A6-TPSS

A7-TPSS

A5-Out

Table 3: System-wide energy summary (with WESS in voltage support mode). The above table demonstrates that the WESS installation will improve the system receptivity and energy savings compared against the rectifier substation option. It also demonstrates the effects of ESD control voltage settings on system receptivity and energy saving parameters. Many factors affect the system receptivity and energy saving figures, such as track alignment, passenger station locations, electrical parameters of the traction power system, vehicle characteristics, train operational characters (acceleration and braking rates, coasting, offsets in headway dispatches on the two tracks, timing deviation from regular headways, etc.). The figures contained in this paper represent the specific conditions that have been simulated. Variations from these figures can be expected when system conditions change. 2.6 WESS parameters in energy saving mode When all substations are in service, all the train voltages will be healthy. As a result, the voltage support function of the WESS at A4X will not be required. The control voltages of the WESS may be adjusted to energy saving mode, so that the WESS can recycle the maximum amount of regenerative energy. The following table shows a summary of the systemwide energy comparison under different control voltages.

Table 1: Minimum train voltage summary. The above table also illustrates the effects of control voltage settings of the ESD on the performance of the WESS. 2.5 WESS parameters in voltage support mode The following table shows the energy and power rating requirements for the ESD under voltage support mode as presented above.
Case # 74a 74b 75a 75b Scenario A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A4 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=720V A5 outage, A4XESD Vc=760V ESD Mode Voltage support Voltage support Voltage support Voltage support ESD Energy ESD Power (kWh) (kW) 1.90 3.10 1.30 3.70 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500

Table 2: ESD energy and power rating summary in voltage support mode.

Case # 60 70a 70b 70c 80

Scenario Normal operation, A4X-CBH Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=720V Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=760V Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=793V Normal operation, A4X-TPSS

Receptivity (%) 83.6 84.1 84.5 88.0 83.3

Energy Savings (%) 29.9 30.1 30.2 31.5 29.8

5-minutes in peak hours (6-10Am and 4-8PM), 15-minutes in off-peak hours and weekends, No train service between 1AM and 4AM on any day. Using published electricity tariffs from a USA utility company [1], the annual cost for each substation is calculated based on individual traction substation billing arrangement. These are listed in the following table.
Annual Electricity Cost Summary
Substation A1 With A4XTPSS $182,342 $202,057 $173,973 $172,945 $93,875 $161,894 $181,397 $159,353 $1,327,835 With A4XWESS $184,763 $207,687 $181,808 $183,581 $0 $172,907 $189,110 $162,810 $1,282,666 Savings with WESS -$2,422 -$5,630 -$7,835 -$10,637 $93,875 -$11,012 -$7,713 -$3,456 $45,169

Table 4: System-wide energy summary (with WESS in energy saving mode). The following table shows the corresponding energy and power rating requirement under energy saving mode.
Case # 60 70a 70b 70c Scenario Normal operation, A4X-CBH Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=720V Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=760V Normal operation, A4X-ESD Vc=793V ESD Mode n/a Energy saving Energy saving Energy saving ESD Energy ESD Power (kWh) (kW) n/a 0.20 1.30 2.30 n/a 1,500 1,500 1,500

A2 A3 A4 A4X A5 A6 A7 Sum

Table 5: ESD energy and power rating summary in energy saving mode.

Table 7: Summary of annual electricity cost saving due to WESS (all figures in US$). The above table indicates that the WESS installation will have the benefit of $45,000 annual electricity saving (based on the current tariffs) compared against a full rectifier installation in the A4X location. The annual savings will increase in the future as the electricity tariffs tend to go up in line with the general energy cost increases. Since the WESS installation can achieve the required voltage support function in the same manner as the full rectifier substation, the added benefit of electricity cost saving due WESS favours the WESS option. On the other hand, a cost analysis, including both capital cost and operational cost, should also be performed to compare all the available options that will be under consideration. Since the cost will be project-specific and site-specific, it is not covered in this paper.

3 Electricity cost saving analysis


A cost saving analysis is performed to compare the two options presented above. The 1-minute average powers of all substations in the system under normal operation are compared in the following table.
15-Minute Average Power (kW) 5-Minute Headway Substation With A4XTPSS 403 449 388 382 208 366 412 361 2,969 With A4XESD 406 458 408 410 0 395 425 368 2,870 15-Minute Headway With A4XTPSS 162 178 152 153 81 137 153 134 1,150 With A4XESD 165 185 156 159 0 144 162 138 1,110

A1 A2 A3 A4 A4X A5 A6 A7 Sum

Acknowledgements
The simulation results presented in this paper were obtained by using SYSTRAs RAILSIM Load Flow Analyzer. The author would like to acknowledge the useful discussions on this subject with Messrs. Martin Schroeder and David Teumim of APTA/EPRI Energy Storage Consortium.

Table 6: 15-minute average powers in substations. The 15-minute average power in each substation in 5-minute headway represents the peak power demand and is used for demand charge calculations. In order to calculate the annual energy consumption for each substation, the following train operation schedules are assumed:

References
[1] LADPW Electric Rates - SCHEDULE A-1: SMALL GENERAL SERVICE (Rate Effective July 1, 2009) (http://www.ladwp.com)