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Sentence Structure

The most common order of the different elements of a sentence in English is: WHOWHATWHEREWHENHOWWHY A sentence usually begins with WHO (a subject), followed by WHAT (a verb). Eg. John called. The bus returned. Some verbs require an object. The object is also part of the WHAT element. Make sure you keep the verb and its object together. Verbs with a direct object: Eg. John ate breakfast. The bus hit the tree. Verbs with an indirect object: There is a preposition between verb and object. Eg. John spoke to Juile. The bus collided with the tree. After WHO-WHAT, We add the other elements in the following order: WHEREWHENHOWWHY Eg. John called earlier to cancel his appointment. John ate breakfast on the train this morning because he was late. The bus returned to the station to drop off the passengers. The bus hit the tree with great force. If one of these elements is composed of different parts, go from the smaller unit to the larger one. Different elements of WHEN: The conference started at 10am on Tuesday last week. Different elements of WHERE: They live in a flat in a big city in India. You may occasionally hear a sentence start with an element other than WHO. This happens when you want to emphasis that element, and your voice should emphasis it as well. Corrections: 1. Sam ate slowly his meal. 2. We drove at the weekend to the seaside. 3. He goes by train to work. 4. They contact everyone because it is easier by phone. 5. She went to town to post her letters this morning.

Exercises 1 Make the following sentences by putting the words in the right order. 1. to Tokyo / we / last year / went 2. the packet / he / slowly / opened 3. flew / to Madrid / I / to visit my friend 4. children / learn / easily / languages 5. don't come back / they / every night / late 6. next month / Susan / to Dublin / will go 7. couldn't go / yesterday / Rob /to school 8. Karen / to Paris / last night /had to fly 9. in a big city / lives / my mother/ in Portugal 10. doesn't remember / Sally / very well / names 11. she / to London / moved / in 2004 12. Jane / for an hour / jogs / every day 13. didn't land / in Rome / our flight/ on time 14. left / the children / quietly / the room 15. my colleague / here / tomorrow/ won't be 16. because of bad weather / we / our holiday / cancelled 17. she / in the evening / coffee /doesn't drink 18. He / every year / his car / changes 19. the problem / I / briefly / will explain 20. later / you / to the office / won't have to go 21. everyone / the movie / very much/ enjoyed 22. I / could post / yesterday / my letter 23. They / arrived / last Monday /at 5 o'clock 24. came here / Sally / yesterday /to see me 25. couldn't sleep / I / last night/ because I wasn't tired 26. in Paris / attended / a conference/ they / many years ago 27. people / come here / to see this monument / from all over the world 28. is improving / his health / quickly/ thanks to the medicine 29. because she was tired / Jane /didn't watch / last night / television 30. to the shop / she / went / to buy a magazine / yesterday 31. he / has read / on his desk / the articles / carefully 32. I / on the radio / heard / last week / the programme 33. later / I / will check / in my phone book / his number 34. to improve her French / Sarah /went / last summer / to France 35. every morning / Dan / to work /goes / by train 36. they / confirmed / yesterday /in writing / their order 37. Harry / Economics / in Zurich /is going to study / next year 38. are rising / profits / sharply/ because of the new product 39. to avoid confusion / she / clearly/ explained / the situation 40. next month / will spend / they/ three days / in New York

Position of Adverbs
Frequency Adverbs The most common position for these adverbs is before the main verb in the WHAT part. Eg. I always watch the news. If there is an auxiliary (do,does,etc) or a modal verb (can,must,etc) they come between the auxiliary or modal and the main verb. Eg. I dont always watch the news. I cant always watch the news. They will never do that again. He hardly ever goes out. She can rarely have a rest. It seldom rains here. She occasionally writes to me. He sometimes has to work late. She doesnt usually work on Frisdays. I have often seen him. It always happens in winter. Other Adverbs that come before the main verb. Eg. I have already had lunch. They have recently bought a new car. She has just come back. We finally managed to contact him. We will soon have a break. He is still watching television. I almost forgot. They have all finished. They are currently negotiating a deal. I would also like to visit the church. We will probably get a letter next week. We both arrived late. I cant even move my fingers. I could hardly hear him. Exception: verb to be as the main verb. Frequency adverbs: Eg. She is always here. The bus is rarely on time. They are often tired. Other adverbs: Eg. We were all happy. August was even hotter than July. I am already late.

Adverbs of Manner, answering the question How now, if the How is an ly adverb such as quickly, slowly, gently, carefully, etc, you can put it before the main verb, as we have seen with the other adverbs. If you do this, you are stressing this element and should reflect it in your voice. Eg. He opened the door quietly.=He quietly opened the door. We could see it in the distance clearly=We could clearly see it in the distance. She was singing happily.=She was happily singing. You may occasionally see some of these adverbs at the beginning of a sentence. This is to put more emphasis on this element, and your voice should emphasis it as well.

Exercises 2 Insect the frequency adverb in the right place in the sentence. 1. We don't work with this company. (often) 2. Mary travels abroad. (occasionally) 3. I have been to Africa. (never) 4. We can't find a solution. (always) 5. It doesn't snow here. (usually) 6. Sam goes to the cinema. (rarely) 7. They are on time. (seldom) 8. I had to work very late. (sometimes) 9. I will forget this. (never) 10. He was absent. (often) 11. We have lived here. (always) 12. My colleague answers the phone.(sometimes) 13. Jim watches the news. (hardly ever) 14. She must drink coffee at night. (never) 15. They were at home. (rarely) 16. The bus leaves on time. (always)

Exercises 3 Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 2. , 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alan 9. Jack 10. Tom 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Tracy 22. Amy


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Exercises 4 Describe an interest or hobby that you enjoy. Write about 100 words. You may include: 1. how you became interested in it 2. how long you have been doing it 3. why you enjoy it 4. explain what benefits you get from this interest or hobby Exercises 5 Describe one of your friends. Write about 100 words. You may include: 1. how you meet 2. how long you have known each other 3. how you spend time together 4. explain why you like this person.