Design of OFDM reciever

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Design of OFDM reciever

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- Researchpaper OFDM Modulator for Wireless LAN WLAN Standard

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signal to be transmitted is divided into a set of independent signals called subcarriers in

the frequency domain. Thus, the original data stream is divided into many parallel

streams (or channel). Each subcarrier is then modulated with a conventional modulation

scheme, and then they are combined together to create the FDM signal at the receiver

.Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique which is

now used in most new and emerging broadband wired and wireless communication

systems, because it is an effective solution to inter-symbol interference caused by a

dispersive channel. Main advantage of this scheme is robustness against channel fading

.In this paper OFDM transmitter is designed. This includes modules like mapper, serial to

parallel converter, parallel to serial converter and IFFT. The tool used to achieve the set

of objectives is Xilinx. Code is written in VHDL language to generate desired

environments and response can be generated in the form of waveforms.

Keywords: OFDM,VHDL,IFFT,FDM,SC

Anupma Kamboj

Shivani Sehgal

Department of Electrical and Electronics

Engg.,DVIET,Karnal

I SSN 2319-9725

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 594

1. Introduction:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a parallel transmission scheme,

where a high rate serial data stream is split up into a set of low-rate sub-streams, each of

which is modulated on a separate sub-carrier (frequency division multiplexing). Thereby, the

bandwidth of the sub-carriers becomes small compared with the coherence bandwidth of the

channel i.e. the individual sub-carriers experience flat fading, which allows for simple

equalization. This implies that the symbol period of the sub-streams is made long compared

to the delay spread of the time-dispersive radio channel. By selecting a special set of

orthogonal carrier frequencies, high spectral efficiency is obtained, because the signal spectra

corresponding to the different sub-carriers overlap in frequency domain, while mutual

influence among the sub-carriers can be avoided.

Using interactive software, such as XILINIX it is now possible to place more emphasis on

learning new and difficult concepts than on programming algorithms. Interesting practical

examples can be discussed, and useful problems can be explored. VHDL is a high

performance language for technical computing. It integrates Computation, Visualization and

programming in an easy way.

2. Wireless OFDM:

The concept of using parallel-data transmission and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

was developed in the mid-1960s, the total signal frequency band is divided into N non

overlapping frequency sub channels. Each sub channel is modulated with a separate symbol,

and then the N sub channels are frequency multiplexed. To eliminate inter-channel

interference avoid spectral overlap. However, this leads to inefficient use of the available

spectrum. To overcome with the inefficiency, the idea is to use parallel data and FDM with

overlapping sub-channels, in which each, carrying a signaling rate b, is spaced b apart in

frequency to avoid the use of high-speed equalization and to combat impulsive noise and

multipath distortion, as well as to use the available bandwidth. OFDM is one of the

applications of a parallel-data-transmission scheme, which reduces the influence of multipath

fading and makes complex equalizers unnecessary. In OFDM, a single data stream is

transmitted over a number of lower-rate subcarriers. OFDM can be seen as either a

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 595

modulation technique or a multiplexing technique. One of the main reasons to use OFDM is

to increase robustness against narrowband interference. In a single-carrier system, a single

fade or interferer can cause the entire link to fail, but in a multicarrier system, only some SCs

will be affected. Error-correction coding can then be used to correct for the few erroneous

SCs

3. Orthogonality:

Since the original OFDM model was proposed in the 1960s, the core structure of OFDM has

hardly changed. The key idea of OFDM is that a single user would make use of all orthogonal

subcarrier in divided frequency bands. Therefore, the data rate can be increased significantly.

Since the bandwidth is divided into several narrower Sub-channels, each sub-channel requires

a longer symbol period. Therefore OFDM systems can overcome the inter symbol

interference (ISI) problem. As a consequence, the OFDM system can result in lower bit error

rates but higher data rates than conventional Communication Systems. So Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier transmission technique, where

single data stream is transmitted over a no. of lower rate subcarrier.In order to guarantee the

high spectral efficiencysubchannel of the waveforms must have overlapping transmit

spectra.To satisfy the orthogonality there are some rules to be satisfied.The receiver and

transmitter have to be entirely synchronized. In order to satisfy this requirement is it

necessary to guess the same modulation frequency and the same time scale for transmission

which is not really possible.It is also necessary to have the best quality of the analogue

transmitter and receiver part.Orthogonality is defined for both real and complex valued

functions.

4. OFDM system:

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 596

Figure 1: OFDM System

The serial data stream is mapped to symbols with a symbol rate of 1/Ts using modulation

scheme like M-PSK, QAM. The resulting symbol stream is de-multiplexed into N data

symbols So to SN-1 (in this example). The parallel data symbol rate is 1/NTs. This means the

parallel symbol duration is N times longer than the serial symbol duration Ts. The inverse

FFT (IFFT) of the data symbol is computed and the output s0 to sN-1 constitute an OFDM

symbol. This symbol period is transmitted serially over the channel with symbol rate of 1/Ts.

At the receiver, the received time domain symbols are decomposed by employing FFT

operation, the recovered data symbols are restored in serial order. Assume the OFDM

spectrum is finite, the corresponding time domain signal has an infinite duration. Recall, the

DFT operation assume the signal is periodic for infinite duration. However, in practice, it is

sufficient to repeat the time domain signal periodically for the duration of channel delay

spread. Hence, for transmission over dispersive channels, each time domain OFDM symbol is

extended by cyclic extension or guard interval of Ng samples duration in order to overcome

ISI due to channel delay spread. The disadvantage of cyclic extension is its reducing the

OFDM transmission rate by N/(N+Ng) assuming the transmission rate is N.

5. Design Of OFDM Transmitter:

The generation of OFDM signal starts from amplitude modulation mapping bank. The serial

input data is mapped to appropriate symbol to represent the data bits. These symbols are in

serial and need to be converted into parallel format since IFFT module requires parallel input

to process data. The serial to parallel module does the conversion. These parallel symbols are

transformed from frequency domain into time domain using IFFT module. These signals are

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 597

converted into serial format and being added a cyclic prefix to data frame before being

transmitted.

Fig2shows the mapping module for transmitter. The mapping module used is BPSK type of

modulation. BPSK is used because this type of module is much easier to design as compared

to QPSK or other modulation method. If the input is 1 then the value is mapped with 1

while if the input is 0 the value is mapped with 0. This type of modulation is monopodal

type. The input passed through this module actually does not get any changes to the value,

but it can be assumed that the input is modulated after passing through it.

Figure 2: Mapping Module

A serial to parallel converter is somewhat the reverse of the operation of parallel to serial

converter. The data comes serially from the input port SERIN. The parallel data is output

from DOUT port. Output port DRDY is asserted 1 when the start bit, 8 bit data and the

parity bit is received. Output port PERRn is asserted 0 when the parity bit received is

different from the parity generated inside the serial to parallel circuit. When parity error is

detected, the serial to parallel circuit would be reset before its normal operation can be

performed. This is the operation for serial to parallel module.

Figure 3: Serial to Parallel Module

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 598

A parallel to serial converter is a special function of shift register. The data is parallel loaded

to the shift register and then shift out bit by bit also is bounded by a start bit and stop bit. In

OFDM transmitter module, a parallel to serial converter is used to convert computation result

which is in parallel to serial before being sent to other module for processing. This parallel to

serial module is design such that the data to be transmit is first parallel loaded then

transmitted bit by bit by a start bit of value 1. This is followed by the 8-bit data with the left

bit most bit first. The converter holds the output low when the transmission is completed.

Figure 4: Parallel to Serial Module

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is used to generate OFDM symbols. The data bits is

represent as the frequency domain and since IFFT convert signal from frequency domain to

time domain, it is used in transmitter to handle the process. IFFT is defined as the equation

below:

6. Results:

Results are driven for the transmitter block using XILINIX.Codes has been written in VHDL

language.Results canbe compared with theoretical concepts.

6.1. Results for Mapping Module:

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 599

Figure 5: Mapping Module response

6.2. Results for Serial to Parallel Module:

Figure 6: Serial to parallel Module response

6.3. Results for Parallel to Serial Module:

Figure 7: Parallel to Serial Module Response

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 600

6.4. Results for Fast Fourier Transform:

Figure 8: FFT Module response

7. Conclusion:

A base band OFDM Reciever was successfully designed. On the receiver part there are four

blocks which consists of mapper, serial to parallel converter, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

block and parallel to serial block. Each of these blocks was tested using Xilinx Project

navigator software during design process. During the implementation stage, the operation for

FFT was tested using Xilinx Project navigator software. FFT module is working correctly as

the Xilinx Project navigator computation.Thus, base on the test result, it was concluded that

FFT module was viably used in transmitter part as processing module.

References:

June, 2013 www.ijirs.com Vol 2 Issue 7

International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies Page 601

1. Sudhakar Reddy.P and Ramachandra Reddy. G Design and Implementation of

Autocorrelation and CORDIC Algorithm for OFDM Based WLAN ISSN 1450-

216X Vol.25 No.2 (2009), pp.200-213

2. Ahmad Sghaier, Shawki Areibi and Robert Dony IEEE 802.16 OFDM Functions

Implementation on FPGAs with Design Exploration IEEE Trans. Comm, Dec2006

3. Ahmad Sghaier, Shawki Areibi and Bob Dony A Pipelined Implementation of OFDM

Transmission on Reconfigurable Platforms IEEE Trans. Comm, Dec 2007

4. Gordon L. Stuber, John R. Barry, Steve W. Mclaughlin, Ye (Geoffrey) Li, Mary Ann

Ingram and Thomas G. Pratt Broadband MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications

IEEE, Vol. 92, No. 2, Feb 2004

5. Muhammad Hasrul Mamat, Nasir Shaikh Husin, Sharifah Kamilah Syed Yusof

Implementation of an Inter-carrier Interference Self-Cancellation Technique for

OFDM System in Altera Cyclone II FPGA 978-1-4244-2315-IEEE, 2005

6. Dusan Matiae, OFDM as a possible modulation technique for multimedia applications

in the range of mm waves, TUD-TVS, 1998.

7. R.W Chang, Synthesis of Band limited Orthogonal Signals for Multichannel Data

Transmission, Bell System Tech. J., pp.1775-1776, Dec 1996.

8. B. R. Saltzberg, Performance of an Efficient Parallel Data Transmission System,

IEEE Trans. Comm., pp. 805-811, Dec 1967.

9. S.B Weinstein and P.M. Ebert, Data Transmission by Frequency Division

Multiplexing Using the Discrete Fourier Transform, IEEE Transactions on

Communication Technology, Vol. COM-19, pp. 628-634, October 1971.

10. A. Peled an A. Ruiz, Frequency Domain Data Transmission using Reduced

Computational Complexity Algorithms, In Proc. IEEE Int. conf. Acoust., Speech,

Signal Processing, pp. 964-967, Denver, CO, 1980.

11. Paul A. Lynn, Wolfgang Fuerst, Introductory Digital Signal Processing with

Computer Application, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, England, 1999.

12. Aseem Pandey, Shyam Ratan Agrawalla and Shrikant Manivannan, 2002, VLSI

Implementation of OFDM Modem, White Paper, Wipro Technologies-Wipro

Limited (NYSE:WIT).

13. An Introduction to OFDM, International Engineering Consortium (IEC),

http://www.iec.org/online/tutorial/ofdm/topic04.htm

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