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10

Aggregate Crushing Value Test


INTRODUCTION

The principal mechanical properties re~ired in road stones are satisfactory resistance to crushing under the roller during construction and (jjI adequate resistance to surface abrasion under traffic. Also surface stresses under rigid tyre rims of heavily loaded animal, drawn vehicles ate high enough to consider the crushing strength of road aggregates as an essential requirement in India. Crushing strength of road stones may be determined either on aggregates or on cylinderical specimens cut out of rocks. These two tests are quite different in not only the approach but also in the expression of the results.' Aggregates used in road construction, should be strong enough to resist crushing under traffic wheel loads If the aggregates are weak, the stability of the pavement structure is likely to be adversely affected. The strength of coarse aggregates is assessed by aggregates crushing test. The aggregate crushing value provider. a relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregate possessing low aggregate crushing value should be preferred.
Apparatus
I

.j

The apparatus for the standard aggregate crushing test consists of the following: (i) Steel cylinder with open ends, and internal diameter 25.2 cm, square base plate plunger having a piston of diameter ~ with a hole provided across the stem of the plunger ~o that a rod could be inserted for lifting or placing the plunger in the cylinder. Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of

(ii)

p.5

cm and height 18 cm.

(iii) (v)

Steel temping rod with one rounded end, having a diameter of

1 cm

and length 45 to 60 cm

(iv) Balance of capacity ~ kg with accuracy upto I g. Compressions testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tonns, at a uniform rate of loading of 4 tonns per mjnute.

z u s:
<t

l'61~u
till

ez
~

E
u

-4'~~ "CYLINDRICAl MEASURE

,~~l
~
STeEL TAMPING

ROO

Procedure The aggregate passing 12.5 mm IS sieYF and retained on 10 mm IS sjeySiis selected for standard test. The aggregate should be in surface-dry condition before testing. The aggregate may be dried by heating at a temperature lOO:>Cto llOC for a period of 4 hours and is tested after being cooled to room temperature. The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of aggregate in three layers of approximately equal depth, each layer being tamped~imes by the rounded end of the tamping rod. After the third layer is tamped. the aggregates at the top of the cylindrical measure is levelled off by using the tamping rod as a straight edge. About ~ of aggregate is required for preparing two test samples. The test sample thus taken is then weighed. The ~am wejght of the sample is taken in the repeat test. The cylinder of the test apparatus is placed in position on the base plate; one third of the test sample is placed in this cylinder and tamped 25 times by the tamping rod. Similarly, the other two parts of the test specimen are added, each layer being subjected to 25 blows. The total depth of the mater;'l in the -cylinder after tamping s}lall however be .uu.n. The surface of the aggregates is levelled and the plunger inserted so that it rests on this surface in level position. The cylinder with the test sample and plunger in position is placed on compression testing machine. Load is then applied through the plunger at a 40 tonnes, and then the load is released. uniform rate of ~ tonnes per minute until the total load is Aggregates including the crushed portion are removed from the cylinder and sieved on a 2 36 mm IS ~jeve. The material which passes this sieve is collected. The above crushing test is repeated on second sample of the same weight in accordance with above test procedure. Thus two tests are made for the same specimen for taking an average value.

Total weight of dry sample taken = WI g. IS sieve = W2 g.

The aggregate crushing value is defined as a ratio of the weight, of fines passing the specified IS sieve to the total weight of the sample expressed as a percentage. The value is usually recorded up to the first decimal place. ggregate crushing value
Results
=

100 W2 WI

.The mean of the crushing value obtained in the two te<;tsis reported as the aggregate crushing value. Determination of Ten Percent Fines Value The 'ten percent fines' value is a measure of resistance of tbe aggregates to the crushing. The apparatus -and materials used are the same as for tbe standard aggregate crushing test. The test sample in the cylinder with the plunger in position is placed in the compression testing machine. The load is applied at a uniform rate so as to cause a total penetration of the plunger of about 20 mm for normal crushed aggregates in 10 minutes. But for rounded or partially rounded aggregates, the load required to cause a total penetration of 15 mm is applied where as for honeycomb~d aggregate like expanded shales-or slags that for a total penetration of 24 mm is applied in 10 minutes. After the maximum specified penetratiC:n is reached, the load is released and the aggregates from the cylinder is sieved on a 2.36 mm IS sieve. The fines passing this sieve is weighed and is expressed as a percentage by weight of the test sample. This percentage normally falls in the range of 7.5 to 12.5; but if it does not fall in this range, the test is repeated with necessary ..adjustment of the load.

Two tests are carried out at the load (x tonnes) which give the percentage fines between 7.5 and 12.5 and let tae mean of the percent fines be 'y' for calculating the load required for 10 percent fines. Load for 10 percent fine = --(y
14x

+ 4)

In general, large size of aggregates used in the test results in higher aggregates crushing value. The relationship between the aggregate sizes and the crushing values will however vary with the type 0'[ specimens tested. When non-standard sizes of aggregates are usnd for the crushing test, (i.e. aggregate larger than 12.5 mm or smaller than 10 mm) the size of the cylinder, quantity of material for preparation of specimen size of IS sieve for separating fines and the amount and rate of compaction shall be adopted as given in Table 10.1.

Aggregate size Passing sieve size, mm 25

I Retained
20

on

Diameter of Quantity of material and preparation of test cylinder to sample be used,cm 15 * (standard cylinder)

Loading

Size of IS sieve for separating fines

sieve size, mm Standard method Standard method Metal measure 5 cm dia Rate of loading one & 9 cm height tamping tonne per min. upto rod 8mm dia 30cm long a total load of 10 depth of material in 7.5 tonnes. cm cylinder after tamping 5 cm as above as above as above as above as above as above +Standard loading Standard loading 4.75 mm 3.35 mm

20

12.5

"
7.5-

10

6.3

1.70 mm

6.3 4.75 3.35


"Standard

4.75 3.35 2.36

7.5 7.5 7.5

1.18 mm 850 microns 600 microns

Standard cylinder as given in Figure 10.1. method of preparing sample as given in procedure. +Standard loading as given in procedure.

The aggregate sample for conducting the aggregate crushing test for the first time is to be taken by volume in the specified cylindrical measure by tamping in a specified manner and the weight of the sample is determined. When the test is repeated using the same aggregate, it is sufficient to directly weigh and take the same weight of sample This is because it is necessary to keep the volume and height of the test specimens in the aggregate crushing mould constant when testing any aggregate sample"so that the test, conditions remain unaltered. If the quantity of test sample to be taken is specified by weight, the volume and hence the height may vary depending on the variation in specific gravity and shape factors of different aggregates. When aggregates are not available, crushing strength test may be carried out on cylindrical specimen prepared out of rock sample by drilling, sawing and grinding. The specimen may be subjected to a slowly

increa~ing compressive load until failure to find the crushing strength in kg/cm2 However, ~ this test is seldom carried out due to difficulty in preparing specimens and not getting reproducible results. On the contrary, the aggregate crushing test is simple, rapid and gives fairly consistent results. Applications of Aggregate Crushing Test The aggregate crushing value is an indirect measure of crushing strength of the aggregates.'" Low aggregate crushing value indicates strong aggregates, as the crushed fraction is low. ~hus the test can be used to assess the suitability of aggregates with reference to the crushing strength for various types of pavement components. The aggregates used for the surface course of pavements should be strong enough to withstand the high stresses due to wheel loads, including the .. steel tyres of loaded bullock-carts. However as the stresses at the base and sub-base courses are low aggregates with lesser crushing strength may be used at the lower layers of th~ pavement. ~Indian Roads Congress and IS) have specified that the aggregate crushing value of the coarse aggregates used for cement concrete pavement at surface should not exceed 30 percent. For aggregates used for concreteothet than for wearing surfaces, the aggregate crushing value shall not exceed 45 percent, according to the ISS. However aggregate crushing values have not been specified by the IRC for coarse aggregates to be used in bituminous pavement construction methods.

It

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Methods for Sap:tpling and Testing of Mineral Aggregates, Sands and Fillers BS 812, British Standards Institution. Indian Standard I Methods of Test for Aggregate for Concrete, IS: 2386 Part IV, Indian Standards Institution. Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural IS : 383 Indian Staadards, Institution. Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Construction Indian Roads Congress. of Concrete Sources for concrete, Roads, IRC: 15, 1970,

Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D.S.I.R., H.M.S.O., London.

How is the crushing strength test carried out on cylindrical stone specimen? carried out commonly ? Explain aggregate crushing value. How would you express? Briefly explain the aggregate crushing value test procedure. What is the specified standard size of aggregates? size aggregate evaluated ?

Why is the test not

How is the aggregate crushing value of non-standard Which one is better ~nd why?

Aggregate crushing value of material A is 40 and that of B is 25. What are the applications of aggregate crushing test?

What are the recommended maximum values of aggregate crushing value for the aggregates to be used in base and surface courses of cement concrete? What are the uses and applications of the aggregate crushing test?

Sample Number

Total weight of dry Sample. WI g

Weight of fines passing 2.36 mm IS Sieve. WI g

Aggregate crushing value = W 2 X tOO [Cent WI pc

Average aggregate crushing valueAverage of cot (4)

12
Aggregate Impact T.est
INT~~u:~~:sI~~ the property of a material to resist impact. Due to traffic loads, the road stones are]

i
subjected to the pounding action or impact and there is possibility of stones breaking into smaller piece~'l The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones i.e., the resistance of the stones to fracture under repeated impacts may bel

i
l

called an impact test


Impact

(0'

mad stnnes.
be carried out on cylindrical stone specimens as in Page Impact test or on stone and has also Impact test

l.
1
J.'

test may either

aggregates as in Aggregate Impact test. The Page Impact test is not carried out now-a-days been omitted from the revised British Standards for testing mineral aggregates. The Aggregate has been standardised by the British Standards Institution and the Indian Standards Institution.}

The aggregate impact value indicates a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to a sudden shock or an impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load. The method of test covers the procedure for determining the aggregate impaet value of coarse aggregates.

i
I

Apparatus
The apparatiis balance and oven. consists of an impact testing machine, a cylindrical measure, tamping rod, IS sieves,

(a) Impact testing machine,.


well on a firm floor,

The machine consists of a metal base with a plane lower surface supported without rocking. A detachable cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10). em and

depth~ is rigidly fastened centrally to the base plate. A metal hammer of weight between ll and W. kg having the lower end cylindrical in shape, ~m in diameter and 5 em IQng, with 2 mm charpfer at the lower edge is capable of sliding freel)' between vertical guide!', and fall concentric over the cup. There is an arrangement for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height of 38 crr on the test sample in the cup, the height of fall being adjustable upto~. A key is provided for supporting th~ hammer while fastening or removing the cup. Refer Figure 12.1. (b) measuring Measure: aggregates. A cylindrical A straight metal measure having internal diameter

1,5 em and depth.1.!p


in diameter and~

for

(c) (d)
(e)

Tamping rod:
at one end

metal tamping

rod of circular cross section,~

long, rounded

Sieve:
Balance:

IS sieve of sizes 125 !J1Ql, 10 mm and 2 36 mm for sieving the aggregates. A balance of capacity not less than 500 g to weigh accurate drying oven capable upto 0.1 g. constant temperature

<f) Oven: A thermostatically ~etween 100C and 100C.


Procedure

controlled

of maintaining

The test sample consists of aggregat.es passing ~m

sieve and retained

on

10 mm sieve and dried in

an oven for four hours at a temperature 100C to llOC and cooled. Test aggregates are filled upto about one-third full in the cylindrical measure. and tamped ,25 times with lounded end of the tamping rod Further quantity of aggregates, is then added upto about two-third full in the cylinder and 25 strokes of the tamping rod are given. The measure is now filled with the aggregates to over flow, tamped 25 times. The surplus aggregates are struck off using the tamping rod as straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the measure is determined to the nearest gram and this weight of the aggregates is used for carrying out duplicate test on the same material. The impact ma,chine is placed with its bottom plate fiat on the floor so that the hammer guide columns are vertical. The cup is fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sampie from the cylindrical measure is transferred to the cup and compacted by tamping with ~5 strokes. The hammer is raised until its lower face is J. cmal2gve the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup, and allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected to a total of J 5 sucb blowli, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. The crushed aggregate is then removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the ~6 mm sieve until no further significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to!!J..& The fraction retained on the sieve is also weighed and if the total weight of the fractions passing and retaind on the sieve is added it should not be less than the original weight of the specimen by more than one gram; if the total weight is less than the original by over one gram, the result should be-discarded and a fresh test made. The above test is repeated on fresh aggregate sample.
Calculation

The aggregate impact value is expressed as the percentage of the fines formed in terms of the total weight of the sample. Let the original weight of the oven dry sample be WI g and the weight of fraction passing 2.36 mm I~ sieve be W 2 g.

Aggregate impact value

100 W~ = --percent.

Wl

This is recorded correct to the first decimal place.


Results

The mean of the two results is reported whole number. Aggregate impact below:
Aggregate impact values

as the aggregate

impact value of the specimen to the nearest

value

is to classify the stones in respect of their toughness property as indicated

< 10% 10-30%

Exceptionally strong:. Satisfactorily for road surfacing;

10-20%

>

35%

Strong Weak for road surfacing

Chief advantage of aggregate impact test is that test equipment and the test procedure are quite simple and it determines the resistance to impact of stones simulating field condition. The test can be performed in a short time even at construction site or at stone quarry, as the apparatus is simple and portable. Well shaped elongated stones. !!bical stones provide higher resistance to impact when compared with flaky and

It is essential that the first specimen to be tested from each sample of aggregate is equal in volume; this is ensured by taking the specimen in the measuring cylinder in the specified manner by tamping in three layers. If all the test specimens to be tested in the aggregate impact testing mould are of equal volume, the height of these specimens will also be equal and hence the height of fall of the impact rammer on the specimens will be equal. On the other hand, if equal weight of different aggregate samples are taken, their volume and height may vary depending upon the specific gravity of the aggregates and their shape factors. There is no definite reason why the specified rate of application should be maintained Applications of Aggregate Impact Value The aggregate impact test is considered to be an important test to assess the suitability of aggreg~tes as. regards the toughness for use in pavement construction. It has been found that for majority of ~ggregates, the agAregate crushing and aggregate impact values are numerically similar within close limits. But in the case of fine grained highly siliceous aggregate which are less resistant to impact than to crushing. the aggregate impact values are higher (on the average, by about 5) than the agg1egate crushing values. . Various agencies have specified the maximum permissible aggregate impact values for the different types of pavements, those recommended by the Indian Roads congress are given in Table 12.1. For deciding the suitability of soft aggregates in base course construction, this test has been commonly used. A modified impact test is also often carried out in the case of soft aggregates to find the wet impact value after soaking the test sample. The recommendations given in Table 12.2 based on work reported by different agencies; have been made to assess the suitability of soft aggregates for road construction. of the blows of the impact rammer

AGGREGATE

IMPACT TEST

TABLE 12.1 Maximum Allowable Impact Value of Aggregate in Different Types of Pavement Material/Layers Aggregate impact value, maximum, % Water bound macadam (WBM), sub-base course Cement concrete, base course (as per ISO (i) WBM base course with bitumen surfacing (ij) Built-up spray grout, base course Bituminous macadam, base course

(ii)

Built-up spray grout, surfacing course penetration macadam binder course

(iii) Bituminous
(iv)
(v)

Bituminous macadam,

(vi) (vii) (viii)

Bituminous surface dressing Bituminous carpet Bituminous! Asphaltic concrete Cement concrete. surface course
\

Condition of sample

Maximum aggregate impact value, perceilt

I Sub-base and

base Surface course

Dry

Wet

Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D.S I.R. H.M.S.O., London. ~oad Aggregates. their uses and testing BH. Knight, and R.G. Knight, Edward Arnold Co., London. \ Indian standard Methods of Test for Aggregate for Concrete, Institution.
'i

IS:

2386 part IV Indian Standards Natural Sources, IS : 383,

Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine ~lndianStandard Institution.

Aggregate from

AGGREGATE

IMPACT TEST

TABLE 12.1 Maximom Allowable Impact Value of Aggregate in Different Types of Pavement Material/Layers Aggregate impact value, maximum, % Water bound macadam (WBM). sub-base course Cement concrete, base course (as per 151) (i) WBM base course with bitumen surfacing (ij) Built-up spray grout, base course Bituminous macadam, base course (i) (ii)
(iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

WBM, surfacing course Built-up spray grout, surfacing course Bituminous penetration macadam binder course

Bituminous macadam,

Bituminous surface dressing Bituminous carpet Bituminous! Asphaltic concrete Cement concrete. surface course

(vii) (viii)

Condition of sample

Maximum aggregate impact value, percent

I Sub-base and base I Surface

course

Dry

Wet

I. 2. 3. -4:. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D.S I.R. H.M.S.O., London. Road Aggregates. their uses and testing BH. Knight, and R.G. Knight, pdward Arnold Co., London. Indian standard Institution. Methods of Test for Aggregate for Concrete, IS: 2386 part IV Indian Standards Natural Sources, IS : 383,

Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine .Indian Standard Institution.

Aggregate from

Tentative Specification [For Various Types of Construction Methods], Indian Roads Congress. Standard Specifications and code of Practice for Construction Indian Roads Congress. of Concrete Roads, IRC: 15 - 1970,

Methods for sampling and Testing of Aggregates, Sands and Fillers, BS : 812, British Standard Institution. Report of the Seminar on Low Cost Roads and Soil Stabilization, E.C.A-.F E., New Delhi, 1958~

What are the advantages of Aggregate IIQpact test <>Ver Page Impact test? Briefly mention the procedure of aggregate iqlpa~ test? How is aggregate imI:lact value expressed? , What I!-re the desirable limits of aggregate impact value specified for different types of pavement ~~? ~ Aggregate impact value material A is 20 and that of B is 45. Why? Which one is better for surface course?

.~

~ 'i

&erial

Trialnam:

No.
1 Total weight of agregate sample filling the cylindrical , measure = WI g. Weight of aggregate' ~sing the test = WI g 2.36 moo sieve after

2 3

Weight of aggregaterctained on 2.36 moo sieve after the test ~ Ws g {WI W2

+ Wa> g "
Impact value

l.

AJlllI"sate

= percent fines

= 100

_t
Wt

percent'

Abrasion Test
Due to the movements of traffic, the road stones used in the surfacing course are subjected to wearing action at the top. Resistance to wear or hardness is hence an essential property for road aggregates, especially whp.n uled in wearing course. Thus road stones should be hard enough to resist the abrasion due to the traffic. When fast moving traffic fitted with pneumatic tyres move on the road, the soil particies present between the wheel and road surface causes abrasion on the road stone. Steel tyres of animal drawn vehicles which rub against the stones can cause considerable abrasion of the stones on the road surface. Hence in order to test the suitability of road stones to resist the abrading action due to traffic, tests are carried out in the laboratory. Abrasion test on aggregates /lre generally carried out by anyone of the following methods:
(j)

Los Angeles abrasion test Deval abrasion test Dorry abrasion test

(ij)

(iii)

Of these tests, the Los Angeles abrasion test is more commonly adopted as the test values of aggregates have been correlated with performance of studies. The ISI has suggested that wherever possible, LOI Angeles abrasion test should be preferred.
I

In addition to the above abrasion tests, another test which is carried out to test tbe extent to which the aggregates in the wearing surface get polished under traffic, is ' P olished Stone Value' test. Samples of aggregates are subjected to an accelerated polishing test in a machine and a friction test is carried out on the polished specimen. The results of this test are useful only for comparative purpose and specifications are not yet available.

Introduction

The principle of Los Angeles abrasion test is to find the percentage wear due to the relative rubbin& action between the aggregates and steel balls used as abrasive charge; pounding action of these balls also exist while conducting the test. Some investigators believe this test to be more dependable as rubbing and pounding action simulate the field conditions where both abrasion and impact occur. Los angeles abrasion test has been standardised by the ASTM, AASHO and also by the IS]. Standard specification of Los Angelesabrasion values are also available for various types of pavement constructions.

<\n opening opening interior cylinder

is provided

in the cylinder for the introduction

of the test

sample.

A removable

cover of the

is provided in such a way that when closed and fixed by bolts and nut, it is dust-tight and the surface is perfectly cylindrical. A removable steel shelf projecting radiaIly 8.8 cm into the and extending to the full length of it, is mounted on the interior surface of the cylinder rigidly,

parallel to the axis The shelf is fixed at a distance of 125 cm from the opening. measured along the circumference in the direction of rotation, Refer Figure 11.1. Abrasive charge, consisting of cast iron spheres approximately 4.8 cm in diameter and 390 to 445 g in weight are used. The weight of the sphere used as the abrasive charge and the number of spheres to be used are specified depending on the gradation of the aggregates tested. The aggregate grading have been standardised as A. B. C, D. E, F, and G for this test and the IS specifications for the grading and abrasive charge to be used IS sieve with l. 70 mm opening is used for separating the fines after the abrasion test. are given in Table 11.1,

CROss

SECTION

Figure 11.1

Los Angeles Machine

Proct'dure
Clean aggregates dried in an oven at 105-110C grading A, to G, as per Table Il.l. is used for the test. nearest and II) charge placed to the kg for is also in the to constant The grading weight. confMming to anyone of the or gradings used in the test should be

grading to be used in the construction. Aggregates weighing 5 kg for grading A. B, Cor D gradings E, For G may be taken as test specimen and placed in the cylinder. The abrasive chosen in accordance with Table 11.1 depending on the grading of the aggregate and is cylinder of the machine. The cover is then fixed dust-tigllt. The machine is rotated at a per minute. The uniform machine for is rotated 1,000 speed. for 500 revolution machine for gradings A. B, C E F and G, it shaIl be rotated revolutions The should be balanced

speed of 30 to 33 revolutions and D. for gradings

and driven in such a way as to maintain

peripheral

After the desired number of revolutions, the machine is stopped and the material is discharged from the machine taking care to take out entire stone dust. Using a sieve of size larger than I. 70 mm IS sieve, the material is first separated into two parts and the finer position is taken out and sieved further on a 1.7 mm IS sieve. The portion of material coarser than 1.7 rom size is washed and dried in an oven at 105 to llOQC to constant weight and weighed correct to one gram.

Calculations
The difference between the original and final weights of the as the percentage wear. sample is expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the sample is reported

TABLE 11.1 Specifications for Los Angeles Test ~ Weight in grams of each test sample in the size range, mm (Passing and retained on square holes.) Abrasive charge Number Weight of . charge, g 509025 4513425 333020 250015 500025 500025 500025

:.a
_~

1------;----'-------------------------:--80-63163-50150-40140-25:25-20120-12.5112.5-lOilO-6.3~6.3-4.751 1250 1250 1250 2500 1250 2500

::j~-.s;:eres
12
II

A B C D E
F

8 6 2500* 2500 5000 5000 5000 5000* 12 12 12

Let the original weight of aggregate Loss in weight due to wear

=Wlg

Weight of aggregate retained on 1.70 mm IS sieve after the test = W2 g

(WI-W2) g (WI-W2)

100

WI Result The result of the Los Angeles abrasion test is expressed as a percentage wear and the average value of two tests may be adopted as the Los Angeles abrasion value.

It may seldom happen that the aggregates desired for a certain construction project has the same grading as anyone of the specified gradings. In all the cases, standard grading or gradings nearest to the gradation of the selected aggregates may be chosen Different specification limits may be required far gradings E, F and G, when compared with A, B, C and D. Further investigations are necessary before any such specifications could be made. Los Angeles abrasion test is very commonly used to evaluate the quality of aggregates for use in pavement construction, especially to decide the hardness of stones. The allowable limits of Los Angeles the field. abrasion values have been specified by different agencies based on extensive performance studies The ISI has also suggested that this test should be preferred wherever possible. However, this test may be considered as one in which r<:sistance to both abrasion and impact of aggregate may be obtained simultaneously, due to the presence of abrasive charge. Also the test condition is considered more representative of field conditions. The result obtained on stone aggregates are highly reproducible.

in

Applications of Los Angeles Abrasion Test Los Angeles Abrasion test is very widely accepted as a suitable test to assess the hardness of aggregates used in pavement construction. Many agencics have specified the desira ble limits of the test, tor different

methods of pavement construction. The maximum allowable Los Angeles abrasion values of aggregates as specified by Indian Roads Congress for different methods of ~onstruction are given in Table 11.2. TABLE 11.2 Maximum Allowable Los Angeles Abrasion Values of Aggregates in Different Types of Pa,ement Layen Serial
No.

Los Angeles abrasion value, maximum % Water Bound Macadam (WBM), sub-base course

0) WBM base course with bituminous surfacing


(ii) (iii) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) Bituminous Macadam base course Built-up spray grount base course WBM surfacing course Bituminous Macadam binder course Bituminous penetration Macadam Buil-up spray grout binder course Bituminous carpet surface course Bituminous surface dressing, single or two coats Bituminous surface dressing, using precoated aggregates Cement concrete surface course (as per IRe)

1
I
}

(i) Bituminous! Asphaltic concrete surface course (ii) Cement concrete pavement surface course (as per ISI)

Introduction Deval abrasion test was devised to test rock fragments. Later this test has been standardised by ASTM for finding the rate of wear of stone aggregates. by crushing them to tumble one over other in a rattler in presence of abrasive charge. Deval abrasion test has also been standardised by ISI as a test for abrasion of coarse aggregates. In this test also both abrasion and impact take place due to the steel balls used as abrasive charge. Apparatus The apparatus for the test consists of the Deval machine and standard sieve. The deval abrasion testing machine consists of one or more (generally two) hollew cast iron cylinders closed at one end and provided with iron cover at the other end, capable of fitting tightly. The inside diameter of the cylinder is 20 cm and length is 34 cm. The cylinders are mounted on a shaft at an angle of 30 degrees with the axis of rotation. See figure 11.2. Cast iron or steel spheres of about 4.8 cm diameter and 390 to 445 g weight are used as abrasive charge. Six such spheres are used as abrasive charge, their total weight being 2500 10 g. IS sieves having 1.70 mm square holes are used for sieving the materials after the abrasion test. Procedure The test sample consists of dry coarse aggregates made of different percentages of the various sizes

conforming to anyone of the gradings given in Table 11.3. The material. is washed dried and separated to different sizes by sieving. The grading adopted for the test should be the one which most nearly represents the coarse aggregate to be used for a particular construction project. Crushed gravel conforming to the above specifications can also be used.
TABLE 11.3

Grading of Aggregates for Deval Abrasion Test Passing IS sieve. mm 20 25 40 50 20 25


40

Retained on IS sive mm 12.5 20.0 25.0 40.0 12.5 20.0 2~.0 12.5 20.0 4.75 12.5 4.75 10.00

Percentage of sample 25 25 25 25 25 25 50 50 50 50

20 25 12.5 20
10

SO
50 50

12.5

The weight of the sample to be taken for the test depends on its average specific gravity and is given in Table 11.4.

Over 2.8 *2.4 to 2.8 2.2 to 2.39 less than 2.2

5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000

The sample and the abrasive charge of 6 spheres of total weight 2,500 ]0 grams are placed in the Deval abrasion testing machine and the cover is tightly fixed. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33 r.p.m for 10,000 revolutions. At the completion of the above number of revolutions, the material is removed from the machine and is sieved on a 1.70 mm IS sieve. The materia] retained on the sieve is. washed, dried and weighed to the nearest gram. Calculation The loss in weight by abrasion is the difference between the original weight of the test sample and the weight of material retained on the 1.70 mm IS sieve after the test. The percentage of wear is the loss in weight by abrasion expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the sample.
(0

Let the original weight of the sample be

=
%

WI g

. Weight of material retained on 1.70 mm IS sieve after the abrasion test ~, W2 g Therelore " percentage wear or Deva I abraSion . value,
(

----WwlIW2

100

(ii) In the case of crushed gravel (i.e, fragment of gravel having atleast one fractured face) the percentage by weight of crushed fragments should be determined and the permissible percentage wear is calculated as given below W Where

AL

OOO-A) L'
100

W = permissible percentage of wear A = percentage of uncrushed fragments L = maximum perCentage of wear permitted consisting entirely of crushed fragments. (100- A) and L' by the specifications for aggregates.

=
=

percentage of crushed fragments, maximum percentage of wear permitted entirely of crushed fragments. by the specifications of gravel consisting

Results

Duplicate test may be carried out simultaneously by placing similar specimens in the second cylinder ~nd the average values of the two tests may be calculated. The report includes (a) percentage of wear. (b) percentage of crushed fragments in the test sample and (c) weight and grading of the test sample. Discussion When coarse aggregates furnished for the work contains as much as 25 percent of material finer than 12 5 mm but is of such size tbat either grading A, B or C would be used for the abrasion test, a second abrasion test should be carried out, using grading D, if in the opinion of the engineer, the particles lesser than 12.5 mm size are not at least equal in hardness to those particles greater than ]2.5 mm size. The British attrition test using Deval's machine is similar to tbe rattler type of test explained in this experiment with an exception that no abrasive charge is used. Deval abrasion test is in fact a modified Deval's attrition test, using abrasive charge. The attrition test which was formerly standardised by BSI has been omitted, later on as of doubtful value. Application of Deval Abrasion Test It has been recommended by the ISl that where ever possible the Los Angeles abrasion test should be preferred to the Deval abrasion test. The desirable limits of percenta&e wear by the Deval abrasion test

nave not been specified by agencies, as this is not a common test applications.

Thus the test has limited uses and

Introduction This test for the determination of aggregate abrasion value has been standardised by the British Standards Institution. Formerly the Dorry abrasion test was devised for testing the resistance to abrasion of cylindrical stone specimens on a rotating metal disc in presence of sand used as abrading agent. Now the test has been modified so as to find the abrasion value of aggregates.
Apparatus

The apparatus consists of the Dorry abrasion machine and accessories and a set of B.S. test sieves. The abrasion machine has a flat circular cast iron or steel disc, not less than 60 cm in diameter which can be rotated in a horizontal plane at a speed of 28 to 30 r.p.m. Two trays made from 3 mm mild steel plate, of internal dimensions 95 X 57 X 8 mm are used for holding the smaller trays with samples. These two trays are to be held with their centre points 26 cm from. the centre of disc, diametrically opposite to each other and with their long side placed in the direction of rotation of the disc. A weight of 2 kg is used to press the test sample down on the disc. There is a device to feed standard abrasion sand continuously on the disc in front of each test sample at a rate of 680 to 900 g per minute. Two smaller trays made of mild steel of internal dimensions 92 X 54 X 8 mm are used for keeping the test sample. These smaller trays can just fit inside the large trays meant for holding the test specimens. B.S. test sieves of sieve openings 12.5, 8.3,0.85,0.6,0.42,0.3 and 0.15 mm are also necessary to sieve the aggregate sample, the abrasive sand and fine 'sand. Other apparatus are hot plate, oven, balance, etc. Procedure The test sample consists of clean aggregates, passing 12.5 and retained on 8.3 mm sieve, free from flaky particles, 33 cm3 of such dry aggregates is placed in one of the smaller trays to form a single layer projecting 5 to 6 mm above the upper edge of the tray. The interstices between the aggregates is filled up to the level of the top of smaller tray by fine sand passing 0.15 mm sieve. The tray with the aggregate and fine sand is heated to temperature not less than 80e. One of the larger trays is placed on a hot plate and is filled with a molten setting compound. The setting compound may consist of a mixture of pitch and plaster of Paris of equal proportions. The compound is allowed to cool till it is viscous enough to enable the tray be inverted and pressed down on the hot aggregate in the smaller tray The two trays are kept pressed together and cooled till the single layer of projecting aggregate is firmly held by the setting compound. The test sample of aggregate should have some what flat upper surface, approximately level with the top edge of the tray. The sand and surplus setting compound are removed and the tray with the aggregate set-in is weighed. The sample trays are placed on the abrasion machine. and loaded so that the total load including the specimen vdth tray is 2 kg. Standard Buzzard Silica sand, at least 75 percent passing 0.6 mm sieve and all passing 0.85 and retained on 0.3 mm sieve is used as abrasive sand. This abrassive sand is fed continuously on the disc of the machine which is rotated at a speed of 28- 30 r.p.m. Two samples of test specimens are tested simultaneously. After 500 revolutions, the test samples are removed and weighed.
Calculation

The aggregate abrasion value is expressed as the percentage loss in weight due to abrasion!

This is

calculated from the formula: Percentage loss in weight

= 100 ~-C)

A = weight of oven-dry sample aggregate, g B = weight of tray with aggregate and setting compound before abrasion, g C = weight of tray with aggregate and setting compound The mean of the two test results is reported as the aggregate abrasion value. Discussion The aggregate abrasion test given above is rapid and easy to perform, except for the preparation of test specimen, which is difficult and time consuming. This test is however carried out commonly in U.K. and a few other countries. The Dorry abrasion testing machine which was previously used to test cylindricat stone specimens can be used for conducting this aggregate abrasion test, with slight modifications for holding the specimens. In many countries, abrasion of road aggregates is assessed by the Los Angeles abrasion test as the results of this test have been extensively correlated with performance studies. Application of British (Dorry) Aggregate Abrasion Test The presence of sand on the pavement is considered to act as abrading material between the traffic wheels and the aggregates on the surface, causing addional wea~. Hence the Dorry abrasion test results should be useful in assessing the suitability of aggregates for use in the pavement surface courses. The aggregate abrasion value by this test is found to vary from below I for some Flints to ever 15 for aggregates which may normally be regarded as too soft for use in wearing course of pavements. The aggregate abrasion value of Granites are found to vary between 3 and 9 where as those of Basalts vary between 7 and 25 and Lime stones between 17 and 33. Aggregates with abrasion values below 5 may thus be considered quite hard varieties. after the abrasion value.

I. 2. 3, 4. 5.

Indian Standard Institution.

Methods of Test for Aggregate for Concrete, IS:

2386 part IV.

Indian Standards IS: 383, Indian Arnold and

Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources, Standards Institution. Road Aggregates, Co., London. Their luses and Testing, B. H. Knight and R. C. Knight.,

Edward

Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D.S.I.R., H.M.S.Q., London. Tentative Specifications [For Various Types of Construction Congress! MelhodsJ, IRC: 15, 1970, Indian Roads

6. 7.

Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Construction of Concrete Roads. Indian Roads Congress Methods for Sampling Standards Institution. and Testing of Mineral Aggregates Sands and Filler::., BS: 812, British

3.

The abrasion value found from Los Angeles test for aggregates A and B are 3.5 and 1.5 respectively. Which aggregate is harder? Why? For what types of constructions are these suitable?

5.

What are the desirable limits of Los Angeles Abrasion values specified for different types of pavement surfacings ?

9.

Explain briefly how the British (Dorry) aggregates abrasion value is found.

10. Discuss the significance of sand used in the Dorry aggregate abrasion test? 11. How is British (Dorry) aggregate abrasion value expressed? and 10 respectively. Which one is harder and why? Two materials have abrasion values 3
,.:~ . in,'
i ~;

(i) Type of aggregate


(ij)

Grading Weight of charge Number of revolutions =

(iii) Number of spheres used = (iv) (v)

Test
______ 1---1---1--2---

Number

2.

Weight of specimen after abrasion test, coarser than 1.70 mm IS sieve = WI g (WI-WI)
WI

3. Percentage wear =

100

(i) Type of aggregate


(ii)

Percent crushed fragments

(Hi) Grading of sample (iv)

Specific gravity of the sample = Test


1

Number 2 I

Me

Weight of material retained 001.7 mm IS sieve after abrasion test = W2 g Percentage wear

(Wl;~I)

100
,

Original weight of aggregate

= WI g

Weight of worn aggregate after abrasion test

W2 g

Loss in weight due to abrasion = (WI - W2) g Abrasion value of aggregate


=

percent Joss in weight

15

Shape Test
INTRODUCTION ---The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and elangated particles contained in it. In the case of gravel it is determined by its angularity number. For base course and ---construction of bituminous and cement concrete types, the presence of flaky and elongated particles are considered undesirable as they may cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads. Rounded aggregates are preferred in cement concrete road construction as the workability of concrete improves. Angular shape of particles are desirable for granular base course due to increased stability derived from the better interlocking. When the shape of aggregates deviates more from the spherical shape, as in the case of angular, flaky and elongated aggregates, the void content in an aggregate of any specified size increases and hence the grain size distribution of a graded aggregate has to be suitably altered in order to obtain minimum voids in the dry mix or the highest dry density. The angularity -l1UIDber denotes the void content of single sized aggregates in excess of that obtained with spherical --!ggregates of the same size. Thus angularity number has considerable importance in the gradation requirements of various types of mixes such as bituminous concrete and soil-aggregate mixes. Thus evaluation of shape of the particles, particularly with reference to angularity is necessary. flakiness, elongation and

The flakiness index of aggregates is the percentages by weight of particles whbse least dimension (thickness) is less than three-fifths (0.6) of their mean dimension. The test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm.
Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a standard thickness gauge shown in Figure

15.1, IS sieves of sizes 63, 50, 40,

.0
1
~

~ .O'2~~t:r I~
i ~
13.50

.~rm
ro;I:'~~
::t

~:
I

j 19'50bTQ2SI-25~ L

1-33.90-l 27.00 _ 70;;;;) :-r ;!} ____________________________________


\6/11", THICk "'.S.SHEET ROLLED OVER 8 /11Mt/> BAIl Al.l. OI"'ENSlONS IN 1\1I'"

Procedure
The sample is sieved with the sieves mentioned in Table 15.1. A mlD1mUm of 200 pieces of each fraction to be tested are taken and weighed = WI g. In order to separate flaky materials, each fraction is then gauged for thickness on a thickness gauge shown in Figure 15.1 or in bulk on sieves having elongated slots. The width of the slot used should be of the dimensions specified in column (3) of Table 15.1 for the appropriate size of material. The amount of flaky material passing the gauge is weighed to an a<lCuracyof at least 0.1 percent of the test sample.

Size of aggregate Passing through IS sieve mm 1


f

Retained on IS sieve, mm 2 50.0 40.0 25.0 25 () 200 16.0 12.5 10.0 6.3

(a) Thickness gauge (0.6 times the mean sieve), mm 3 33.90 27.00 19.50 16.95 13.50 10.80 8.55 675 489

(b) Length gauge (1.8 times the mean sieve), mm 4

~ ~~.

i'
It:

63.0 50.0 40.0 31.5 25.0 20.0 16.0 12.5 10.0

81.0 58.5 40.5 324 25.6 20.2 14.7

In order to calculate the flakiness index of the entire sample of aggregates first the weight of each As an example let 200 " ction of aggregate pasSing and retained on the specified lttf of sieves is noted. . s of the aggregate passing 50 mm sieve and retained on 5(}mm sieve be = WI g. Each of the particle m this fraction of aggregate is tried to be passed through the slot of the specified thickness of the thickness Ule; in this example the width of the appropriate gauge of the thickness gauge is :"I; (50+40) --2X 0.6 = 27.0 mm gauge. the weight of the flaky material paassing this gauge be WI g. Similarly the weights of the ions passing and retained the specified sieves, WI, W2, Ws etc. are weighed and the total weight W2 W3 = W g is found. Also the weights of material passing each of the specified thickness are found = WI, W2, Ws... and the total weight of material passing the different thickness gauges Then the flakiness index is the total weight of the flaky material , r+ W2 + Ws + '" = w g is found. ~},ingth~ various thickness gauges expressed as a per~ntage of the total weight of the sample gauged. ~ I' d (WI +W2+WS+ ... ) 100 ' , 10 w Fl a k mess n ex = WI + Wa Ws percent c=: 0 W percent.

c'

"+

ae .

+ '"

+...

----

ELONGATION INDEX ~~ The elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension The elongation test is not (length) is greater than one ftRd foUl' fifth timos"<1.8 times) their mean dimension. applicable to sizes smaller th"ln 6.3 mm.
Apparatus

The apparatus consists of the length 15.1 and.a balance.


Procedure

gauge shown in Figure

5.2, sieves of the sizes specified in Table

The sample is sieved through the IS sieves specified in Table 15.1. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction is taken and weighed. In order to separate elongated material, each fraction is then gauged The gauge lengths used should be those individually for length in a length gauge (See Figure J 5.2) specified in column 4 of the. Table for the appropriate material. The pieces of aggregates from each fraction tested which cOl1ldnot pass through the specified gauge length with its long side are elongated particles and are collectejd separately to find the total weight of aggregates retained on the length gauge from each fraction. Th~ total amount of elongated material retained by the length gauge are weighed to an accuracy of atleast 0.1 percent of the weight of the test sample.
:;'~!;"EG

~~~~-

-110 ..,110 I

12.5 16

ao

25 20.

40 25

I
.

sa

12.5. 16

40

~._+-~fJ]
-11

LJJJJLJlJL
----------------

.~Jl,m"1r~'~I-Z
~
.J

~~r:

In order to calculate the elongation index of the entire sample of aggregates, the weight oJ aggregates which is retained on the specified gauge length from each fraction is noted. As an example, let 200 pieces of the aggregate passing 40 mm sieve and retained 25 mm sieve weight Wl g. Each piece of these are tried to be passed through the specified gauge length of the length gauge, which in this example is (40 2 + 25) x I .8 - 585 . mm

with its longest side and those elongated pieces which do not pass the gauge are separated and the total weight determined = WI g. Similarly the weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on specified sieves sizes are found, WI, W2, Ws ... and the total weight of sample determined = WI W2 Ws + ...= Wg. Also the weight of material from each fraction retained on the specified gauge length are weight retained determined = Xl X2 Xs + ... = X g. found = Xl, XI, xs . and' the total

The elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges, expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged. . I d El ongatlOn n ex
ARGULARITY NUMBER
= Wl+W2+W3+

(Xl+X2+X3 ... ) 100 100 X '" = W percent

Based on the shape of the aggregate particle, stones may be classified as rounded, angular and flaky. Angular particles possess well defined edges formed at the intersection of roughly plane faces and are commonly found in aggregates prepared by crushing of rocks. Since weaker aggregates may be crushed during compaction, the angularity number does not apply to any aggregate which breaks down during compaction. Angularity or absence of the rounding of the particles of an aggregate is a property which is of---importance because it affects the ease of handling a mixture of aggregate and binder or the workability of the mix. The determination of angularity number of an aggregate is essentially a laboratory meth~ intended for comparing the properties of different aggregates for mix design purposes and for deciding their gradation requirements. The degree of packing of particles of single sized aggregate depends on the shape and angularity of the aggregates. If a number of single sized spherical particles are packed together in the densest form, the total volume of solids will be 67 percent and the volume of voids 33 percent of the total volume. However if the shape of the particles of the same size deviatess from the spherical shape to irregular or angular shape, when they are densely packed the volume of solids decreases resulting in an increase in the volume of voids. Hence the angularity of the aggregate can be estimated from the properties of voids in a sample of aggregates compacted in a pa~ticular manner. The angularity number of an aggregate is amount by which the percentage voids exceeds 33 after being compacted in a prescribed manner. The angularity number is found from the expression, (67 minus the percent solid volume). Here the value 67 represents the percentage volume of solids of most rounded gravel whi:~\V~ll~c! have 33 percent voids. Apparatus The apparatus consists of (a) a metal cylinder closed at one end and of about 3 litre capacity, the It{ S '( diameter and height of this being approximately equal, i.e., about .!-5.64e~ia. X 15.64_cm height. ~
~.
~,

~I

(c6

i at one end

(b)

A metal tamping rod of circular cross section, 16 mm in diameter and 60 em in length, rounded

f ~~

(c)

A metal~coop of about one liter heaped capacity of size 20 X 10 X 5 cm, and A balance of capacity 10 kg to weigb up to 1.0 g

,' I
';,'. r

The cylinder is calibrated by determining the weight of water at 27C required to fill it, so that no ; meniscus is present above the rim of the container. The amount of aggregate available should be sufficient to provide, after se, paration on the appropriate pair of sieves, at least 10 kg of the predominent size,' as ," determined by the sieve analysis on the 20, 16, 12.5, 10, 6.3~ and 4.75 mm IS sieves. The test sample should " consist of aggregate retained between the appropriate pair of IS sieves having square holes from the following setS': 20 and 16 mm , 16 and 12.5 mm, , 12.5 and 10 mm , 10 and 6.3 mm , 6.3 and 4.75 mm

In case aggregate larger than 20 mm sieve is used for the test, the volume of the cylinder should be sreater than 3 litres, but when aggregates smaller than 4.75 mm size are used, a smaller cylinder may be

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Explain Flakiness Index. How is it found? What is Elongation Index? How is it determined in the laboratory ? Discuss the advantages and limitations of rourtded and angular pavements. Explain Angularity Ntimber. 110\\1 is it found? What are the applications of shape tests?

aggregates in different types of

General description of the aggregate : Size of aggregate Passing through IS sieve, 1~1
2 63 50 40 25 25 20 16 12.5 10.0 6.3

Retained on IS sieve, mm

Weight of the fraction consisting of atleast 200 pieces, g


3

Thickness gauge size. mm

Weight of aggregate in each fraction passing thickness gauge, g


5

Length gauge size, mm


___ 6

Weight of aggregates in each fraction retained on llength ~auge, g

4 -2J~9a 27.00 1950 16.95 13.50 10.80 8.55 6.75 4.89

SO
40 31.5 25 20 16 12.5 10.0

WI= W2= Ws= W4,= Ws= W6= W7= Ws= W9= W

WI = W2= ws = w,= Ws == W6 = W7= Wa= W9= W =

81.0 58.0 40.5 32.4 25.5 20.2

Xl

X2 =

xs=
X4 =

Xs
X7

=
=

X6==

14.7

Total

_ (Wt+ W2+ WS+) 100 W FIa k'lness J nd ex percent = ]00 percent = -W (Wl+W2+WS+ ... ) Elongation ANGULARITY Index = (~,':I:~:~:S ~ .:: .~ 100 percent
'=

1 ~x

percent =

NUMBER Weight of water filling the cylinder

= Cg=
Trial number Mean I 4

Specific gravity of the aggregate = G


____

Particulars

Mean weight of aggregate fitling the cyiinder, Wg = Angularity Number = 67 Remarks


WOW

CG

17

Penetration Test
The consistency of bituminous materials vary depending upon several factors such as constituents, temperature, etc. At temperature ranges between 25 and 50C most of the paving bitumen grades remain in semi-solid or in plastic states and their viscosity is so high that they do not flow as liquid. But the viscosity of most of the tars and cutbacks are sufficiently low at this temperature range to permit these bituminous materials to be in a liquid state, enabling some of the grades to be mixed with aggregates even without heating. Determination of absolute viscosity of bituminous materials is not so simple. Therefore the consistency of these materials are determined by indirect methods; the consistency of bitumep is determined by penetration test which is a very simple test; the viscosity of tars and cutback bitumens are determined indirectly using an orifice viscometer in terms of time required for a specified quantity of material to flow through an orifice. There is a certain range of consistency of bituminous materials, where-in the material is too soft for penetration test, but the viscosity is so high that the material can not flow through the orifice ()f the viscometer; the consistency of such materials is measured by 'float test'. Various types and grades of bituminous materials are available depending on their origin and refining process. The penetration test determines the consistency of these materials for the purpose of grading them, by measuring the depth (in units of one tenth of a millimeter or one hundredth of a centimeter) to which a standard needle will penetrate vertically under specified conditions of standard load, duration and temperature. Thus the basic principle of the penetration test is the measurement Of the penetration (in units of one tenth of a mm) of a standard nsedle in a bitumen sample maintainad at 25C during five seconds, the total weight of the needle assembly being 100 g. The softer the bitumen, the greater will be the penetration. The penetration test is widely used world over for classifying the bitumen into different grades. The ISI has standardised the penetration test equipment and the test procedure. Even though it is recognised that the empirical tests like penetration, softening point etc. can not fully qualify the paving binder for its temperature susceptibility characteristics, the simplicity and quickness of operation of this test can not be ignored for common use. The concept of the penetration test and the test set up are illustrated in Figure 17.1. Apparatus It consists of items like container, needle, water bath penetrometer, the standard specifications as per ISI for the above apparatus. Container: 57 mm in height.
(0)

stop watch etc.

Following are

A flat bottomed cylindrical metallic container

55 mm in diameter and 35 mm or

(b) NrGdle' A straight, highly polished cylindrical, hard steel needle with conical end, having the shape and dimensions as given in Figure 17.2. The needle is provided with a shank approximately 3.0 mm in diameter into which it is immovably fixed.

(c) ~qter-hqtb: A water bath is maintained at 25 1C containing not less than 10 litres of water, the sample is immersed to depth not less than 100mm from the top and supported on a perforated shelf not less than !j0 mm from the bottom of the bath. (d) fenetrowel.: It is a~ ~pparatus whic~ allows t~e need.le assembly. of. gross weight i to penetrate without appreciable fnctlOn for the desued duratlo~ of tIme. The dIal IS .accurately cah rated to give penetration value in units of one tenth of a mm. ElectTlcally operated automatIc penetrometers are also available. Typical sketch of penetrometer is shown in Figure 17.3.

I~S

-. - - - - ll'E~~E~A.TUIN 100' tOO,


TUMEN DIAL FOR MEASURING PENETRATION

START

AFTER 5 SEe.

Fig. 17.1 Penetration Test Concept

r
01

1.00 TO '.02 DIA.


()'94 TO 0.99DlA. 0.14 TO 0.1

T~ L -I

20T025

-.15

.1

DlA

:........1

SO APPROX-l

Figure 17.2 Penetration Needle

Procedure
The bitumen is softened to a pouring consistency between 75 and 100C above the approximate temperature'at which bitumen softens. The sample material is thoroughly stirred to make it homogenous and free from air bubbles and water. The sample material is tben poured into the container to a depth at least 15 mm more than the expected penetration. The sample containers are cooled in atmosphere of temperature not lower than 13C for one hour. Then they are placed in temperature controlled water bath at a temperature of 259 for a period of one hour.

The sample container is placed in the transfer tray with water from the water bath and placed under the needle of the penetrometer. The weight of needle, shaft and additional weight are checked. The total weight of this assembly should be 100Q; Using the adjusting screw, the needle assembly is lowered and the tip of the needle is made to just touch the top surface of the sample; the needle assembly is clamped in this position. The contact of the tip of the needle is checked using the mirror placed on the rear of the needle. The initial reading of the penetrometer dial is either adjusted to zero or the initial reading is taken before releasing the needle. The needle is released exactly for a period of 5.0 secs. by pressing the knob and the final reading is taken on the dia.J. At least three measurements are made on this sample by testing at distance of not less than 10 mm apart. After each test the needle is disengaged and cleaned with benzene and carefully dried. The sample container is also transferred in the water bath before next

testing is done so as to maintain a constant temperature of 25C. other containers.


Results

The test is repeated

with sample in the

The difference between the initial and final penetration readings is taken as the penetration value. The mean value of three consistent penetration measurements is reported as the penetration value. It is further specified by ISI that results of each measurement should not vary from the mean value reported abevo by more than the following : Repeatability 0-80 80-225 Above 225 4 percent 5 percent 7 percent

Discussion It may be noted that the penetration value is influenced by any inaccuracy as regards:
(i) pouring temperature (ii) size of needle (iii) weight placed on the needle (iv) test temperature (v) duration of releasing the penetration needle

It is obvious to obtain high values of penetration if the test temperature and/or weight (place over the needle) are/is increased. Higher pouring temperatures than that specified may result in hardening of bitumen and may give lower penetration values. Higher test temperatures give considerably higher penetration values. The duration of releasing the penetration needle should be exactly 5.0 sees. It is also necessary to keep the needle clean before testing in order to get consistant results. The penetration needle should not be placed closer than 10 mm from the side of the dish. Applications of Penetration Test Penetration test is the most commonly adopted test on bitumen to grade the material in terms of its hardness. Depending up un the climatic condition and type of construction, bitumens of different penetration grades are used. 80/100 bitumen denotes that the penetration value ranges between 80 and 100. The penetration values of various types of bitumen used in pavement construction in this country range between ~and~. For bituminous macadam and penetration macadam, Indian Roads Congress suggests bitumen grades ~0/40, 6Q17Q and plIOO. In warmer regions lower penetration grades are preferred and in colder regions bitumen 'with higher penetration values are used. The,penetration test is not intented to estimate the consistency of softer which are usually graded by a viscosity test in an orifice viscometer. materials like cutback or tar,

The Indian Standards Institution has classified paving bitumen available in this country into the following six categories depending on the penetration values. Grades designated 'N (such as A 35) are from Assam Petroleum and those designated'S' (such as S 35) are from other sources.

A 90 & S 90 80to100

A 200 & S 200 175 to 225

1. Indian Standard Methods for Testing Tar and Bitumen, Determination of Penetration, IS 1203, Indian Standards Institution. 2. Bituminous Road Construction. Burmah Shell 3~ Asphalts, ESSO 4. Bituminous Materials in Road Construction,D.S.I R., H.M.S.O., London 5. Recommended Practice for Bituminous Penetration Macadam, (Full Grout), Indian Roads Congre.,.,. 6. Indian Standard Specification for Paving Bitumen, IS: 73-1961, Indian Standards Institution.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How is penetration value of bitumen expressed ? What are the standard load, time and temperature specified for penetration test. Briefly outline the penetration test procedure. What do you understand by 80/100 bitumen ? What are the effects of: (i) higher test temperature (ii) higher pouring teinperature (Hi) exposed bitumen, on penetration test results.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Pouring Temperature, c = Period of cooling in atmosphere, minutes = Room temperature, c Period of cooling in water bath, minutes! = Actual test temperature, c = Sample No. Readings Test
1

Sample No. Mean value


I

Test 2

Test 3

Test
1

Test 2

Test
3

Penetrometer dial reading ( i) initial (i i) final

II

Mean value

Penetration value Repeatability, percent

18 Ductility Test
In the flexible pavement construction where bitumen binders are used, it is of significant importance that the binders form ductile thin films around the aggregates. This serves as a satisfactory binder in improving the physical interlocking of the aggregates. The binder material which does not possess sufficient ductility would crack and thus provide pervious pavement surface. This in turn results in damaging effect to the pavement structure. It has been stated by some agencies that the penetration and ductility properties, go together; but depending upon the chemical composition and the type of crude source of the bitumens, sometimes it has been observed that the above statement is incorrect. It may hence be mentioned that the bitumen may satisfy the penetration value, but may fail to satisfy the ductility requirements. Bitumen paving engineer would however want that both test requirements are satisfied in the field jobs. Penetration or ductility can not in any case replace each other. The ductility is expressed as the distance in centimeters to which a standard briquette of bitumen can be stretched before the thread breaks. The test is conducted at 27 0.5C and a rate of pull of 50 2.5 mm per minute. The test has been standardized by the ISI. The ductility test concept is shown in Figure IS!.

7~O.2

END

1l1=@1;f] 1~., ..,.

Figure 18.1 Ductility Test Concept Apparatus The ductility test apparatus consists of items like ~ample (briquette) moulds water bath square-end trowel or putty knife sharpened on end and ductility machine. Following are standard specifications as per the ISI for the above items : (a J Briquette mould: Mould is made of brass metal with shape and dimensions as indicatcd in Figure 18.2. Both ends called clips possess circular holes to grip th6 fixed and movable ends of the tesiing machine. Side pieces when placed together form the briquette of the following dimensions: Length Distance between clips Width at mouth of clips Cross section at minimum width

30mm
20mm 10mmxl0 mm

(b) Ductility machine: It is equipment which functions as constant temperature water bath and a pulling devicc at a precalibrated rate. The central rod of the machine is threaded and through a gear

system provides movement to one end where the clip is fi.xed during initial placement. The other clip end is hooked at the fixed end of the machine. Two clips are thus pulled apart horizontally at a uniform speed The machine may have provision to fix two or more moulds so as to test of 50 2.5 mm ger mjnute_ these specimens simultaneously. Procedure The bitumen sample is melted to a temperature of 75 to 190" above the approximate softening point until it is fluid. It is strained through IS sieve 3D, poured in the mould assembly and placed on a brass plate, after a solution of glycerine and dextrine is applied at all surfaces of the mould exposed to bitumen. Thirty to forty minutes after the sample is poured into the moulds, the plate assembly alongwith the sample is placed in water bath maintained at 27C for 30 minutes. The sample and mould assembly are removed from water bath and excess bitumen material is cut off by levelling the surface using hot knife. After trimming the specimen, the mould assembly containing sample is replaced in water bath maintained at 2toC for 85 to 95 minuies. The sides of the mould are now removed and the clips are carefully hooked on the machine without causing any initial strain. Two or more specimens may be prepared in the moulds and clipped to the machine so as to conduct these tests simultaneously. The pointer is set to read zero. The machine is started and the two clips are thus pulled apart horizontal1y. While the test is in operation, it is checked whether the sample is immersed in water at depth of at least !Q.!tm. The distance at which the bitumen thread of each specimen breaks, is recorded (in cm) to report as ductility value.
4

Results The distailce stretched by the moving end of the specimen upto the point of breaking of thread measured in centimeters is recorded as ductility va.l;le. It is recomm,ended by IsI that test results should not differ from mean value by more than the followhig : Repeatability Reproducibility: Discussion The ductility (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) (v) S. percent 10 percent

value gets seriously affected if any of the following factors are varied: pouring temperature dimensions of briquette improper level gjrbriquette placement test temperaturl' rate of pulling.

Increase in minimum cross section of 10 sq, mm and increase in test temperature would record increased duciility value. Applications of Ductility Test A certain minimum ductility is necessary for a bitumen binder. This is because of the temperature changes in the bituminous mixes and the repeated deformations that occur in flexible pavements due to the traffic loads. If the bitumen has low ductility value, the bituminous pavement may crack, especially in cold weather. The ductility values of bitumen vary from 5 to over 100. Several agencies have specified the minimum ductility values for various types of bituminous pavement. Often a minimum ductility value of 50 cm is specified for bituminous construction. The minimum ductility values specified by the Indian Standards bitumen available in India are given below: Institution for various grades
01

Source of paving bitumen and penetration grade Assam petroleum A 25


A 35

Minimum ductility value, cm

A 45 A 65, A 90 & A 200 Bitumen from sources other than Assam Petroleum S 35 S 45, S 65 & S 90

Indian Standard Method for Testing Tar and Bitumen; Determination of Ductility, Standards Institution. Bituminous Road Construction, Burmah Shell. Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D S I.R., H.M.S.O., London. Indian Standard Specification for Paving Bitumen, IS: 73-1961, Indian Standards Institution.

1. 2. 3. . S. 6.

Expl" ductility of Bitumen and its significance. How is ductility value expressed ? Outline the ductility test procedure. What is the minimum area of cross section of the ductility specimen ? What are the precautions to be taken while finding the ductility value? What are the factors affecting the ductility test results? OBSERVATION SHEET

DUCTILITY TEST
(i) (ij) (iii) (iv)

Grade of bitumen : = Pouring temperature, C Test temperature, C = Periods of cooling, minlltes (a) in air (b) in water bath before trimming (c) in water bath after trimming Briquette Number

(ii)

1. Ductility value (cm) 2. 3. Repeatability percent Reproducibility percent

19 Softening Point Test


Bitumen does not suddenly change from solid to liquid state, but as the temperature increases, it gradually becomes softer until it flows readily. All semi-solid state bitumen grades need sufficient fluidity before they are used for application with the aggregate mix. For this purpose bitumen is sometimes cut back with a solvent like kerosene. The common procedure however is to Iiquify the bitumen by heating. The softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains particular degree of softening under specifiedcondition of test. For bitumen, it is usually determined by Ring and Ball test. A brass ring containing the test sample of bitumen is suspended in liquid like water or glycerine at a given temperature. A steel ball is placed upon the bitumen and liquid medium is then heated at a specified rate. The temperature at which the softened bitumen touches the metal plate placed at a specified distance below the ring is recorded as the softening point of a particular bitumen. The apparatus and test procedure are standardized by ISI. It is obvious that harder grade bitumens possess higher softening point than softer grade bitumens. The concept of determining the softening point by ring and ball apparatus is shown in Figure 191. .

STAR'

!
Each has a diameter of 9.5 mill and weigh 2.5 .05~. 6.4 mm Inside diameter at top Outside diameter

Apparatus It consists of Ring and Ball apparatus. (a)


(b)

Weel Balls: Brass Rings:

They are two in number. Depth lnside diameter at bottom

There are two rings of the following dimensions,

15.9 mm

Brass rings are also placed with ball guides as shown in Figure 19.2.
(c)

Support:

The metallic support is used for placing pair of rings.


,

The upper surface of the rings is adjusted to be~mm below the surface of water or liquid contained in the bath. A distance o{ ~5 wlP between the bottom of the rings and top surface of the bottom plate of support is provided. It has a housing for a suitable thermometer.

f SU8H'TLY(APPAOJl
...-12d /

THIS OlMlEftR

TO O05MIIIl) LAAGER THAN ',5 TO

ALLOW Pt,ACING AND


CENTElhNG 9'5 5"!EEL I!tALL

0W
'7.51:0.'

'.6 SLOT 10" ALLOW FOR ~


~'reGMWITM

... \.6
-I

2.4 WALL WITH '.6 RECESS FOA HOLDING AING THREE OUALLY SPACED 4.8 OIA. HOLES BETWUtI ~EACH LUC

u:O' I r
~ 1
,10.,
---,..

~22'3 )-17.5 .!Ii

aO6tO.,

t.6

:1l6

(d) Bath and stirrer: A heat resi8tant glass container of 85 mm diameter and 120 mm depth is used. Bath liquid is water for material having softening point below 80C and glycerine for materials having softening point above 80C. Mechanical stirrer is used for ensuring uniform heat distribution at all times throughout the bath. Procedure Sample material is heated to a temperature between 75 and 100C above the approximate softening point until it is completely fluid and is poured in heated- rings placed on metal plate. To avoid sticking of the bitumen to metal plate, coating is done to this with a solution of WXcerineand dextrine. After cooling the rings in air for JV miQU1es, the excess bitumen is trimmed and rings are placed in the support This as discussed in item (c) above. At thi~ time the temperature of distilled water is kept at temperature is maintained for ~ minutes after which the balls are placed in position. The temperature of water is raised at uniform rate of 5aC per minute with a controlled heating unit, until the bitumen softens and touches the bottom plate by sinking of balls. At least two observations are made. For material whose softening point is above 80C, glycerine is used as a heating medium and the starting temperature is 35C instead of 5C.

..

Result The temperature at the instant when each of the ball and sample touches the bottom plate of support is recorded as softening value. The mean of duplicate determinations is noted. It is essential that the mean value of the softening point (temperature) does not differ from individual observations by more than the following limits. Softening point Below 30C 30C to 80C Above SOC
Discussion

Repeatability
2C

Reproducibility
4C 2C 4C

1C
2C

As in the other physical tests on bitumens, it is essential that the specifications discussed above are strictly observed. Particularly, any variation in the following point would affect the result considerably quality and type of liquid (ii) weight of balls (iii) distance between bottom of ring and bottom base plate (iv) rate of heating. (i)

Impurity in water or glycerIne has been observed to affect the result considerably. It is logical to observe lower softening point if the weight of ball is excessive. On the other hand, increased distance between bottom of ring and. bottom plate iticrea,ses the softening point. Application of Softening Point Test Softening point is essentially the temperature at which the bituminous binders have an equal viscosity. The softening point of a tar is therefore related to the eqiliviscous temperature (e. v. t.). The softening point found by the ring and ball apparatus is approximately 20C lower than the e. v.t. Softening point, thus gives an idea of the temperature at which the bituminous material attains a: certain viscosity. Bitumen with higher softening point may be preferred in warmer place. Softening point is also sometimes used to specify hard bitumens and pitches. The ranges of softening point specified by the Indian Standards bitumen are given below : Institution for various grades of

*A25&A35

55 to 70 50 to 65 45 to 60 40 to 55 35 to 50 30 to 45

*S

35 A 4!), S 45 & A 65

S 65 A90&S90 A 200 & S 200

'A' denotes bitumen from Assam Petroleum and '5' denotes bitumen from sources other than from Assam Petroleum. Also see Table under 'Applications of penetration test'.

,to
2. 3. 4.

Indian Standards Methods of Testing Tar and Bitumen: Indian Standards Institution. Bituminous Road Construction, Burmah Shell.

Determination of Softening Point. IS: 1205.

Bituminous Material in Road Construction, D.S.! R HM.S.O., Indian Standar(tSpecification

London.

for Paving Bitumen, IS: 73, 1961, Indian Standards Institution.

1. 2. 3. 4.

What is softening point? What does softenin! point of bituminous materials indicate? What are the applications of ring and ball test results? What are the factors which affect the ring and ball test results?

(i) (ii)
(Hi)

Bitumen grade Approximate softening point Liquid used in the bath Period of air cooling. minutes Period of cooling in water bath, minutes

(iv)
(v)

== ==

-Test Property

Sample no. I Ball no. (i) (ii) (i)

Sample no. 2 Ball no. (ii) Mean value. Softening point

Temperature (OC) at which sample touches bottom plate

Repeatability

I I

I
I

Reproducibility

25
Marshall Stability Test
INTRODUCTION

Bruce Marshall, formerly Bituminous Engineer with Mississippi State Highway Department, USA formulated Marshall method for designing bituminous mixes. Marshall's test procedure was later modified andimptoved upon by U.S. Corps of Engineers through their extensive research and corelation studies. ASTM vide designation D 1559-62 T has standardised the test procedure. Generally, this stability test is applicable to hot-mix design using bitumen and aggregates with maximum size of 25 mm. In this method, the resistance to plastic deformation of cylindrical specimen of bituminous mixture is measured when the same is loaded at the periphery at 5 cm per minute. This test procedure is used in designing and evaluating bituminous paving mixes. The test procedure is extensively used in routine test programmes for the paving jobs. There are two major features of the Marshall method of designing mixes namely, 0) density-voids analysis (ii) stability-flow tests. The Marshall stability of the mix is defined as a maximum load carried by a compacted specimen at a standard test temperature at 60C. The flow value is the deformation the Marshall test specimen undergoes during the loading, upto the maximum load, in 0.25 mm units. In this test an attempt is made to obtain optimum binder content for the type of aggregate mix and traffic intensity. The proposed design steps for the design of bituminous mix are given below: (i) Select grading to be used. (ii) Select aggregates to be employed in the mix.

(iii) Determine the proportion of each aggregate required ~o produce the design grading. (iv) Determine the specific gravity of the aggregate combination and of the asphalt cement. (v) Make up trial specimens with varying asphalt contents.
-

~.~
.. ,

(vi) (vii) (viii)


OX)

Determine the specific gravity of eacbcompactedsp~cimc:-n. Make stability tests on the specimens.
\.---,,".:o?:..,:o-:,-=,.

,
_
__,./

\,

Calculate the percentage of voids, VMA and the percent ~~s


.,'/II

filled with bitumen in each specimen.

,~,'-t

Select the optimum bitumen conteDtfl'o.1l1.Jb~4.ata obUjined. '

(x) Check the values of Marshall Stability, Flow, Voids in total mix and Voids filled with Bitumen obtained at the optimum bitumen content, with the design r~quirements. The design may be repeated if necessary after altering the gradation so as to fulfil tbe design requirements.
Apparatus

(a) Mould Assembly: Cylindrical moulds .of 10 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height are required. It further consjsts of a ba:se plate and c~llar extension. They are designed to be interchangeable with either end of cylindrical mould. (b) Sa mple Extractor: For extruding the compacted specimen from the mould, an extractor suitably fitted with a jack or compression machine. (c) Compattion Pedestal arid Hammer: It consists of a wooden block capped with M.S. plate to hold the mould assembly in position during compaction. The compaction hammer consists of a flat circular
-. ,,j

tamping face 8.8 cm diameter and equipped with a 4.5 kg weight constructed to provide a free fall of 45.7 cm. Mould holder is provided consisting of spring tension device designed to hold compaction mould in place on the compaction pedestal. (d) Br eaking Hea d: It consists of upper and lower cylindrical segments or test heads having an inside radius of curvature of 5 cm The lower segment is mounted on a base having two vertical guide rods which facilitate insertion in the holes of upper test head. (e) Loading Machine: See Figure 25.1. The loading machine is provided with a gear system to lift the base in upward direction. On the upper end of the machine, a precalibrated proving ring of 5 tonne capacity is fixed. In between the base and the providing ring, the specimen contained in test head is placed. The loading machine produces a movement at the rate of 5 cm per minute. Machine is capable of reversing its movement downward also. This facilitates adequate space for placing test head system after one specimen has been tested.

Figure 25.1

Marshall Stability Testing Machine

(f) Flow meter: One dial gauge fixed to the guide rods of a testing machine can serve the purpose. Least count of 0 025 mm is adequate. The flow value refers to the total vertical upward movement from the initial position at zero load to a value at maximum load. Tho dial gauge or the flow meter should be able to measure accurately the total vertical movement upward. Besides the above equipment, the following are also required: (i) Ovens on hot plates, (ii) Mixing apparatus (iii) Water bath (iv) Thermometers of range upto 200C with sensitivity of2.5C.

Procedure In the Marshall method each compacted test specimen is subjected to the following tests and analysis in the order listed below : (i) Bulk density determination (ii) Stability and flow test

(iii) Density and voids analysis Atleast three samples are prepared selected. Preparation of Test Specimens

for each binder content and in all four to five binder contents are

The coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and the filler material should be proportioned and mixed in such a way that final mix after blending has the gradation within the specified range. The specified gradation of mineral aggregates and bitumen binder as per IRe: 29 - 1968 are given in Table 25.1. The aggregates and filler are mixed together in the desired proportion as per the design requirements and fulfilling the specified gradation. The required quantity 0 f the mix is taken so as to produce a compacted bituminous mix specimen of thickness 63.5 mm approximately Approximately 1200 g of aggregates and filler are taken and heated to a temperature of 175 to 190C. The compaction mould assembly and ram mer are cleaned and kept pre-heated to a temperature of 100C to 145C The bitumen is heated to temperature of 121 to 138e and the required quantity of first trial percentage of bitumen (say, 3.5% by weight of mineral aggregates) is added to the heated aggregate and thoroughly mixed using a mechanical mixer or by hand mixing with trowel. The mixing temperature The mix is for 80/100 grade bitumen may be around 154e and that for 60/70 grade about 160 e. placed in a mould and compacted by rammer. with 50 blows on either side. The compacting temperatures may be about 138"e for SO/100 grade bitumen and 149e for 60/70 grade. The compacted specimen should have a thickness of 63.5 mm. The weight of the aggregate taken may be suitably altered to obtain a thickness of 635 3.0 mm. Atleast two specimens, but preferably three or four specimens should be prepared at each trial bitumen content which may be varied at 0.5 percent increments up to about 7.5 or 8.0 percent.
0 0

Tests Specific Gravity of Compacud Specimens .' The specific gravity values of tije different aggregates, filler and bitumen The theoretical specific gravity G. of the mix is given by:
G. WI W2

used are determined :tirst. U \ -tU L.~


~

= WI/GI + + + W 4/G4 = percent by weight of coarse aggregates = percent by weight of fine aggregate

100 W2/G'l. Wa/Ga

Gt;;.

~,,1L.

Wa

pelY"'ent by weight of filler

W,. = percent by weight of bitumen in total mix.


GI, G2 and Gs are apparent specific gravity values of the coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and filler Tespecti~ly and G, is the specific gravity of bitumen.

Density and Voids A.nalysis Soon after the compacted bituminous mix specimens have cooled to room temperature, the weight, average thickness and diameter of the specimen are noted. The specimyns are also weighed in air and then in water. The bulk density value Gb of the specimen is calculated from the weight and volume. The voids analysis are made as given below: V

o/t 100 (Gt~Gb) T,. G. %


= Gb X

W,
G,

VII,

VMA, %

v" + Vb

VFB ./ = 100 Vb , /. VMA Vv = air voids in the mix, % Vb = volume of bitumen VMA = voids in mineral aggregates, VFB = voids filled with bitumen, % Mar shall Stability and Flow Values The specimens to be tested are kept immersed under water in a thermostatically controlled water bath maintained at 600 10C for 30 to 40 minutes. The specimens are taken out one by one, placed in the Marshall test head and the Marshall stability value (maximum load carried in kg, before failure) and the flow value (the deformation the specimen undergoes during loading upto the maximum load in 0.25 mm units) are noted. lhe corrected Marshall stability value of each specimen is determined by applying the appropriate correction factor, if the average height of the specimen is not exactly 63.5 mm. The correction factors are given in Table 25.2.

Five graphs are plotted with values of bitumen content against the values of : (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) (v) density Gb, g/cm3 Marshall stability, S kg voids in total mix, Vv % flow value, F (0.25 mm units) voids filled with bitumen, VFB

Let the bitumen contents corresponding to maximum density be BI, corresponding to maximum stability be B2 and that corresponding to the specified voids content Vv (4.0% in the case of dense AC mix) be Bs. Then the optimum bitumen content for mix design is given by : Bo
=

(BI

+ B2 + Bs)/3

The value of flow and VFB are found from the graphs, corresponding to bitumen content Bo All the design values of Marshall stability, flow, voids and VFB are cheeked at the optimum bitumen content Bo; with the specified design requirements of the mix. Design Requirements of the Mix As per IRC: 29-1968, when the specimens are compacted AC mix should fulfil the following requirements. (i) (ii) Marshall stability value kg (minimum) Marshall flow value, 0.25 mm units with 50 blows on either face, the designed
= 340 <= 8 to 16

(Hi) Voids in total mix, Vv % (iv) Voids in mineral aggregates filled with bitumen, VFB%

= 3 to 5 = 75 to 85

The highest possible Marshall stability values in the mix should be aimed at consistent with the other three requirements mentioned above. In case the mix designed does not fUlfil anyone or more of the design requirements, the gradation of the aggregates or filler content or bitumen content or combination of these are altered and the design tests are repeated till all the requirements are simultaneously fulfilled.

Job Mix Formula The proportion in which the different aggregates. filler and bitumen are to be mixed are specified by weight or by volume for implementation during construction:

The following values are either measured or, computed : (i) Bulk density (ii) Stability (iii) Flow (iv) Percent air voids (v) Percent voids filled with bitumen or tar (vi) Percent voids in mineral aggregate. Values (i), (ii) and (iii) are measured whereas values listed in (iv), (v) and (vi) are computed from the following: Percent Air Voids Vv = Gt-Gb Gt
X

~.~~~~
100

c..,\-'~S4~ ~-lJ\.Q.\.

Gb = bulk density Gt = theoretical specific gravity mixture Gt


.".

100 WI + W2 + Ws Gt G2 Gs

+ W4
G4

Where. WI = percentage weight of coarse aggregate . W2 = percentage weight of fine aggregate Wa = percentage weight of fines/Filler W4 = percentage weight of bitumen in total mix GI = apparent specific gravity ~f coarse aggregates G2 = apparent specific gravity of fine aggregates Gs = apparent specific gravity of fines/Filler G4, = density of bitumen, g/cm3 Percent of Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA) VMA = Vv+ where Vb Vb
X

= Gb

W,,G4

Percent of Voids Filled with Bitumen or Tar (VFB) VFB = 100 Vb


VMA

Above values obtained for four or five binder contents with a constant aggregate gradation are plotted on the graph for determining optimum binder content. Atypical set of such plots is shown in Figure 25.2~ From these plots, bitumen contents are determined corresponding to the following: a. Maximum stability.

b. Maximum bulk density.

..
~
:;
ill 1000

~ 20

i !
a:

~
5: 10

II.

...
5.5

500
45 5.5

.10

o
7.5 4-$.

.5

~2.4 7S

4.5

5.5

.6.5

'1. alTUMEN

alTuMIN
120

BITUMEN

..

12

S
~ 4 a
,..

0
40&

S.S

10 7.S

l.alT~

Figure 25.2 c.

Bituminous Mix Design by Marshall Test

Percent air void. between 3 to 5 (depending upon the type of mix and the traffic intensity, usually taken as 4%).

The optimum bitumen content of the mix is the numerical average of the three values for the bitumen contents determined as mentioned above.
Discussion

The Marshall stability test method is very simple and rapid'imethod for designing bituminous mixes scientifically. The stability values obtained in this test procedure indirectly represent the strength of a paving mix at a zero vertical stress level which is critical. Mixes with very high Marshall stability values and very low Flow values are not desirable as the pavements of such mixes may be brittle and are likely to crack under heavy traffic.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and other Hot mixp"ypes, The Asphalt Institute, U.S.A. Design and Construction of Asphalt Pavements, J R. Mar tin and H.A. Wallance, McGraw Hill Book Co. Bituminous Materials in Road Construction, D.S.I.R. H.M.S.O. Asphalt Pavement Engineering, HA. Wallance and J fl. Martin,'McGraw Hill book Co. Tentative Specification for 4 em Asphalt Corcrete Surface Course, IRC: 29, 1968, Indian Roads
Congress.

1; 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Why do we ne.ed to design bituminous mix? What are the essential properties of bituminous mixes? What is the significance of flow value in Marshall test? Why is the sample in Marshall test placed on its periphery while loading? What is the measure taken if a mix results in excessive voids ? What is filler? What are different types of fillers? Does Portland cement, if used ~n bituminous mix improve strength ? Briefly out line Marshall Stability test procedure? How is bituminous mix designed based on Marshall design approach?

20m.m 12.5 mm lOmm 4.7$ mm 2.36 mol 600 micron 300 micron , 150 micron 75 micron

100 100

80-100

55-75
35-50 18-29 13-23

8-1.
4-10 5-7.5

80-100 70~90 50-70 35-50 18-29 13-23 8-16 4-10 5-7.S

Volume of Specimen in Cu hic Centimeters

Approximate Thickness Specimen in mm

of

Cerrection Factors'

457-470 471-482 483-495 496-508 509-522 523-535


536-546

57.1
58.7

1.19 1.141.09 1.04 1.00

60.3
61.9 63.5 65.1 66.7

0.96 0.93
0.89 0.86

547-559
560-573
*Notes-(i)

68.3 69. 9

Tile measured stability of a specimen multiplied by the ratio for the tbickn o( the specimen i. equal to the corrected stability (01' a 63.5 mm spec:imell.

OBSERVATION SHEET MARSHALL STABILITY TEST Stability and flow value determinations Type ,of grading of aggregate: Mixing temperatute, C : Number of blows on either side Flow, ,value dial, Ldivjsion
=

Grade of bitumen : Compacting temperature, C Proving ring calibration factor

-=

.
Saml?l'r~o.

Bitum~ conte~t, percent

Maximum proving ring reading

Stability value, kg .. Measured correcte~

Flow dial reading

Flow value O.25mm. units

--

Density and 'oid determiDatioDS

WIWs Sample No. Bitumen cont"nt. percent Height of sample, mm

01=
Os == Weight g in air

w.=
W,,=

in water

Bulk Density
Gb

V..,

V.

VMA

VFB

. Plot the graphs as in Figure 25.2 (i) Maximum stability, kgglee (ii) Maximum bulk density, (Hi) Percent air voids

, at bitumen content. % , at bitumen content % == , at bitumen content % == Average bitumen content -

BITUMEN EXTRACTION TEST Aim of the test The method described is a procedure used to determine the bitumen content of bitumen aggregate mixtures. Units of Measure The bitumen content is expressed as a percent by dry weight of extracted aggregate. Apparatus And Materials Equipment Centrifuge extractor with a bowl. The extractor must be capable of rotating the bowl at controlled variable speeds up to 3600 rpm. Paper or felt filter rings to be placed on the rim of the bowl and beneath the bowl lid. Scale capable of weighing to 2500 g at a 0.1 g accuracy. Heating equipment such as electric stove. 500 ml cup or beaker. Hand Tools - spatula, small brush, scoop, large pan for collection of a representative bitumen mix sample, pan for test sample. Container for collection of bitumen laden solvent thrown from the bowl during extraction. Materials Solvents - suggested materials are benzene or Carbon Tetra chloride. Procedure A representative sample about 400gm is exactly weighed and placed in the bowl of the extraction appartatus and covered with commercial grade of benzene. Sufficient time (not more than 1 hour) is allowed for the solvent to disintegrate the sample before running the centrifuge. The filter ring of the extractor is dried, weighed and then fitted around the edge of the bowl. The cover of the bowl is clampled tightly. A beaker is placed under to collect the extract. The machine is revolved slowly and then gradually, the speed is increased to a maximum of 3600 r.p.m. The speed is maintained til the solvent ceases to flow from the drain. The machine is allowed to stop and 200 ml. of the benzene is added and the above procedure is repeated. A number of 200 ml. solvent additions (not less than three) are used till the extract is clear and not darker than a light straw colour. The filter ring from the bowl is removed, dried in air and then in oven to constant weight o at 115 C and weighed. The fine materials that might have passed through the filter paper are collected back from the extract preferably by centrifuging. The material is washed and dried to constant weight as before.

Calculation The percentage of binder in the sample is calculated as follows: W1 (W2 + W3 + W4) W1

Percentage binder on the total mix = Where

W1 = weight of sample W2 = weight of the sample after extraction W3 = weight of fine material, recovered from the extract W4 = increase in weight of the filter ring

Results The percentage of binder in the sample is reported as binder content. Application of Test The bitumen content of bitumen-aggregate mixtures as determined by the described test method is used for product acceptance, quality assurance, process quality control and research activities. Sources of Error Incomplete washing of the asphalt from the mix. Non-consistent torques applied to the bowl cover plate. Loss of mineral aggregate particles when transferring from extractor bowl and filter papers to pan. Not doing moisture and extraction corrections. Not meeting the specified rpm requirements on the extractor. Overheating the aggregate during drying. Tolerances and Repeatability Tolerances for repeatability and reproducibility are specified below: Single Operator: two tests on the same sample should not vary by more than + .1% Multiple Operator: two tests on the same sample shall not vary by more than +.2%

Designation: D2172/D2172M 11

Standard Test Methods for

Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen From Bituminous Paving Mixtures1


This standard is issued under the xed designation D2172/D2172M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope 1.1 These test methods cover the quantitative determination of bitumen in hot-mixed paving mixtures and pavement samples. Aggregate extracted from a paving mixture may be used for sieve analysis using Test Method D5444. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.2.1 Measurements of volume and mass are only given in SI units because they are the only units typically used in practice when performing this test method. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specic hazards are given in Section 7.
NOTE 1The results obtained by these test methods may be affected by the age of the material tested, with older samples tending to yield slightly lower bitumen content. Best quantitative results are obtained when the test is made on mixtures and pavements shortly after their preparation. It is difficult to remove all the asphalt when some aggregates are used and some chlorides may remain within the mineral matter affecting the measured asphalt content.

C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials D70 Test Method for Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method) D604 Specication for Diatomaceous Silica Pigment3 D979 Practice for Sampling Bituminous Paving Mixtures D1461 Test Method for Moisture or Volatile Distillates in Bituminous Paving Mixtures D1856 Test Method for Recovery of Asphalt From Solution by Abson Method D2111 Test Methods for Specic Gravity and Density of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures D3666 Specication for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Testing and Inspecting Road and Paving Materials D5444 Test Method for Mechanical Size Analysis of Extracted Aggregate D6368 Specication for Vapor-Degreasing Solvents Based on normal-Propyl Bromide and Technical Grade normalPropyl Bromide 2.2 Federal Specications: O-T-634 (latest) normal Propyl Bromide, Technical4 3. Summary of Test Methods 3.1 The paving mixture is extracted with trichloroethylene, normal Propyl Bromide, or methylene chloride using the extraction equipment applicable to the particular method. The bitumen content is calculated by difference from the mass of the extracted aggregate, moisture content, and mineral matter in the extract. The bitumen content is expressed as mass percent of moisture-free mixtures. 4. Signicance and Use 4.1 All of these test methods can be used for quantitative determinations of bitumen in hot-mixed paving mixtures and pavement samples for specication acceptance, service evaluation, control, and research. Each method prescribes the solvent or solvents and any other reagents that can be used in

2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards:2 C128 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specic Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate

1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D04 on Road and Paving Materials and are the direct responsibilities of Subcommittee D04.25 on Analysis of Bituminous Mixtures. Current edition approved Feb. 1, 2011. Published March 2011. Originally approved in 1963. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as D2172 05. DOI: 10.1520/D2172-11. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on the ASTM website.

3 Withdrawn. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.astm.org. 4 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS.

Copyright. (C) ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbour Drive P.O. Box C700 West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959, United States

D2172/D2172M 11
the test method. Test Method D1856 requires that Method A be used when asphalt is recovered from solution.
NOTE 2The quality of the results produced by this standard are dependent on the competence of the personnel performing the procedure and the capability, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Standard Practice D3666 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/ inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3666 alone does not completely assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; following the suggestions of Practice D3666 or some similar acceptable guideline provides a means of evaluating and controlling some of those factors.

Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists6 for the current threshold limit values. 8. Sampling 8.1 Obtain samples in accordance with Practice D979. 8.2 Preparation of Test Specimens: 8.2.1 If the mixture is not sufficiently soft to separate with a spatula or trowel, place it in a large, at pan and warm to 110 6 5C [230 6 10F] only until it can be handled or mixed. Split or quarter the material until the mass of material required for test is obtained. 8.2.2 The size of the test sample shall be governed by the nominal maximum aggregate size of the mixture and shall conform to the mass requirement shown in Table 1 (Note 3):
NOTE 3When the mass of the test specimen exceeds the capacity of the equipment used (for a particular method), the test specimen may be divided into suitable increments, tested, and the results appropriately combined for calculation of bitumen content (Section 12).

5. Apparatus 5.1 Oven, capable of maintaining the temperature at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. 5.2 Pan, at, at least 300 mm [12 in.] long, 200 mm [8 in.] wide, and 25 mm [1 in.] deep. 5.3 Balance, or balances having an accuracy of at least 0.01 % of the sample mass. 5.4 Hot Plate, electric, 700-W continuous or low, medium, and high settings. 5.5 Small-Mouth Graduate, 1000 or 2000-mL capacity. Optional small-mouth graduate, 100-mL capacity. 5.6 Ignition Dish, 125 mL capacity. 5.7 Desiccator. 5.8 Analytical Balance. 6. Reagents 6.1 Purity of ReagentsReagent grade chemicals shall be used in all tests. Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that all reagents shall conform to the specications of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical Society,5 where such specications are available. Other grades may be used, provided it is rst ascertained that the reagent is of sufficiently high purity to permit its use without lessening the accuracy of the determination. 6.2 Ammonium Carbonate SolutionSaturated solution of reagent grade ammonium carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]. 6.3 Methylene Chloride, technical grade. Cautionsee Section 7. 6.4 normal-Propyl Bromide (nPB), conforming to Specication D6368. Cautionsee Section 7. 6.5 Trichloroethylene, technical grade, Type 1, Federal Specication O-T-634, latest revision. Cautionsee Section 7. 7. Hazards 7.1 CautionThe solvents listed in Section 6 should be used only under a hood or with an effective surface exhaust system in a well-ventilated area, since they are toxic to various degrees. Consult the current Threshold Limit Concentration

8.2.3 In addition, a test specimen is required for the determination of moisture (Section 9) in the mixtures. Take this test specimen from the remaining sample of the mixture immediately after obtaining the extraction test specimen.
NOTE 4If recovery of bitumen from the solution obtained from the extraction test is not required, the entire test specimen may be dried to constant mass in an oven at a temperature of 110 6 5C [230 6 10F] prior to extraction instead of determining the moisture content (Section 9).

9. Moisture Content 9.1 Determine the moisture content of the mixture (see 8.2.2) in accordance using the procedure described in Test Method D1461. 9.2 Calculate the mass of water, W2, (12.1) in the extraction test portion by multiplying mass percent water (9.1) by the mass of the extraction test portion, W1, (12.1). TEST METHOD A 10. Apparatus 10.1 In addition to the apparatus listed in Section 5, the following apparatus is required for Test Method A: 10.1.1 Extraction Apparatus, consisting of a bowl approximating that shown in Fig. 1 and an apparatus in which the bowl may be revolved at controlled variable speeds up to 3600 r/min. The speed may be controlled manually or with a preset

6 Available from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240, (513) 7422020, (www.acgih.org).

TABLE 1 Size of Sample


Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size Standard, mm 4.75 9.5 12.5 19.0 25.0 37.5 Sieve Size (No. 4) 38 in. 12 in. 34 in. 1 in. 112 in. Minimum Mass of Sample, kg 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4

Reagent Chemicals, American Chemical Society Specications, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. For suggestions on the testing of reagents not listed by the American Chemical Society, see Analar Standards for Laboratory Chemicals, BDH Ltd., Poole, Dorset, U.K., and the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary, U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. (USPC), Rockville, MD.

D2172/D2172M 11

FIG. 1 Extraction Unit Bowl (Test Method A)

speed control. The apparatus should be provided with a container for catching the solvent thrown from the bowl and a drain for removing the solvent. The apparatus preferably shall be provided with explosion-proof features and installed in a hood or an effective surface exhaust system to provide ventilation.
NOTE 5Similar apparatus of larger size may be used.

10.1.3 Low-ash paper lter rings may be used in place of the felt lter ring (10.1.2). Such lter rings shall consist of low ash lter paper stock approximately 1.3 mm [0.05 in.] thick. The ash content of the paper shall not exceed 0.2 % (approximately 0.034 g per ring). 11. Procedure 11.1 Determine the moisture content of the material in accordance with Section 9.

10.1.2 Filter Rings, felt or paper, to t the rim of the bowl.

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11.2 Place a 650 to 2500-g test portion into a bowl. See Annex A1 for alternative procedures to those prescribed herein and in 11.5. 11.3 Cover the test portion in the bowl with trichloroethylene, normal Propyl Bromide, or methylene chloride and allow sufficient time for the solvent to disintegrate the test portion (not over 1 h). Place the bowl containing the test portion and the solvent in the extraction apparatus. Dry and determine the mass of the lter ring and t it around the edge of the bowl. Clamp the cover on the bowl tightly and place a beaker under the drain to collect the extract. 11.4 Start the centrifuge revolving slowly and gradually increase the speed to a maximum of 3600 r/min or until solvent ceases to ow from the drain. Allow the machine to stop, add 200 mL of trichloroethylene, normal Propyl Bromide, or methylene chloride and repeat the procedure. Use sufficient 200-mL solvent additions (not less than three) so that the extract is not darker than a light straw color. Collect the extract and the washings in a suitable graduate.
W4 5 G[V1/~V 1 2 V2!# (1)

where: G = ash in aliquot, g, V1 = total volume, mL, and V2 = volume after removing aliquot, mL. 11.6.2 Centrifuge Method: 11.6.2.1 For this test method use any suitable high-speed (3000 g or higher) centrifuge of the continuous-ow type. 11.6.2.2 Determine the mass of a clean empty centrifuge cup (or bowl) to 0.01 6 0.005 g and place in the centrifuge. Position a container at the appropriate spout to catch the effluent from the centrifuging operation. Transfer all of the extract (from Test Methods A, B, C, D, or E as appropriate) to an appropriate (feed) container suitably equipped with a feed control (valve or clamp, etc.). To ensure quantitative transfer of the extract to the feed container, the receptacle containing the extract should be washed several times with small amounts of clean solvent and the washings added to the feed container.

11.5 Remove the lter ring from the bowl and dry in air. If felt lter rings are used, brush off mineral matter adhering to the surface of the ring and add to the extracted aggregate. Dry the ring to constant mass in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. Carefully remove all the contents of the bowl into a metal pan and dry on a steam bath and then, dry to constant mass in an oven or on a hot plate at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. If trichloroethylene or normal Propyl Bromide is used as the extraction solvent, the preliminary drying on a steam bath may be omitted. The mass of the extracted aggregate, W 3, is equal to the mass of the aggregate in the pan plus the increase in mass of the lter rings. 11.5.1 Use the following alternative procedure when lowash lter rings are used: Place the aggregate and lter rings in a clean metal pan. Dry as specied above. Carefully fold the dried lter ring and stand it on the aggregate. Burn the lter ring by igniting with a bunsen burner or match. Determine the mass of the extracted aggregate in the pan, W3.
NOTE 6Since dry aggregate absorbs moisture when exposed to air containing moisture, determine the mass of the extracted aggregate immediately after cooling to a suitable temperature.

11.6 Determine the amount of mineral matter in the extract by any of the following test methods: 11.6.1 Ashing Method: 11.6.1.1 Record the volume of the total extract in the graduate (11.4). Determine the mass of an ignition dish. Agitate the extract thoroughly and immediately measure approximately 100 mL into the ignition dish. Evaporate to dryness on a steam bath or hot plate, except use a steam bath when the solvent is benzene. Ash residue at a dull red heat 500 to 600C [930 to 1110F], cool, and add 5 mL of saturated ammonium carbonate solution per gram of ash. Digest at room temperature for 1 h. Dry in an oven at 100C to constant mass, cool in a desiccator, and determine the mass. 11.6.1.2 Calculate the mass of mineral matter in the total volume of extract, W4, as follows:
4

Start the centrifuge and allow to reach a constant operational speed (for example, 9000 r/min for the SMM type and 20 000 + r/min for the Sharples type). Open the feed line and feed the extract into the centrifuge at a rate of 100 to 150 mL/min. After all the extract has passed through the centrifuge, wash the feed mechanism (with centrifuge still running) with several increments of clean solvent, allowing each increment to run through the centrifuge until the effluent is essentially colorless. 11.6.2.3 Allow the centrifuge to stop and remove the cup (or bowl). Clean the outside with fresh solvent. Allow the residual solvent to evaporate in a funnel or steam hood and then dry the container in an oven controlled at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. Cool the container and redetermine the mass immediately. The increase in mass is the mass of mineral matter, W4, (12.1) in the extract. 11.6.3 Volumetric Method: 11.6.3.1 Place the extract in a previously tared and calibrated ask. Place the ask in a controlled-temperature bath controlled to 60.1C [0.2F], and allow the contents to reach the temperature at which the ask was calibrated. When the desired temperature has been reached, ll the ask with solvent which has been kept at the same temperature. Bring the level of the liquid in the ask up to the neck, insert the stopper, making sure the liquid overows the capillary, and remove from the bath. Wipe the ask dry, determine the mass to the nearest 0.1 g, and record this mass as the mass of ask plus extract. See Annex A2 for a volumetric test method alternative procedure if a controlled-temperature bath is not used as prescribed herein. 11.6.3.2 Calculate the volume of asphalt and nes in the extract as follows:
V1 5 V 2 2
~M1 2 M 2! ~ G1 !

(2)

where: V 1 = volume of asphalt and nes in the extract,

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V2 = volume of the ask, M1 = mass of the contents of the ask, M 2 = mass of the asphalt and nes in the extract = mass of the total samples minus the mass of the extracted aggregate, and G1 = specic gravity of the solvent determined to the nearest 0.001 in accordance with Test Methods D2111. 11.6.3.3 Calculate the mass of nes in the extract as follows:
M3 5 K ~M 2 2 G3V1! (3)

where: M 3 = mass of nes in the extract, G2 = specic gravity of nes as determined in accordance with Test Method C128, G3 = specic gravity of asphalts as determined in accordance with Test Method D70, K = G2 / G2 2 G3 , V1 = as given in 11.6.3.2, and M2 = as given in 11.6.3.2. 12. Calculation of Bitumen Content 12.1 Calculate the percent bitumen in the test portion as follows:
Bitumen content, % 5

~W1 2 W2! 2 ~W 3 1 W4! 3 100 W1 2 W 2

(4)

where: W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 =

mass mass mass mass

of of of of

test portion, water in the test portion, the extracted mineral aggregate, and the mineral matter in the extract.

NOTE 7When ashless lter rings are not used, add the increase in mass of the felt lter ring to W4. NOTE 8For paving mixtures in which tar is used as the binder, a modication of Test Method A is given in Annex A3.

TEST METHOD B 13. Apparatus 13.1 In addition to the apparatus listed in Section 5, the following apparatus is required for Test Method B: 13.1.1 Extraction Apparatus, similar to that shown in Fig. 2. 13.1.1.1 Glass Jar, cylindrical, plain, made of heat-resistant glass. The jar shall be free of cracks, scratches, or other evidence of aws that might cause breakage during heating. 13.1.1.2 Cylindrical Metal Frames, one or two. The lower frame shall have legs of sufficient length to support the frame, including the apex of the metal cone and paper cone liner above the solvent level. When two frames are used, the upper frame shall have legs of sufficient length to support the metal cone and paper cone liner at or above the top rim of the lower frame. The legs of the upper frame shall t securely in the top rim of the lower frame. A bail handle may be provided on the inside of the top rim of each frame for convenient handling. The metal used in fabricating the frames shall be essentially inactive to the solvents used in the test method.
FIG. 2 Extraction Apparatus (Test Method B)

13.1.1.3 Condenser, fabricated with a truncated hemispherical condensing surface and a truncated conical top. Other suitable geometric shapes may also be used provided they accomplish the condensing and ow functions intended. The material used in fabricating the condenser shall be essentially unreactive to water and to the solvent used and shall be provided with suitable water inlet and outlet. 13.1.1.4 Filter Paper, medium-grade, fast-ltering. The diameter of the paper shall be such that when folded in accordance with the directions given below, it shall completely line the metal cones in the frames. 13.1.1.5 Heat Resistant-Coated Wire Mesh, approximately 3 mm [0.1 in.] thick for use as insulation between the glass jar and hot plate.

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13.1.1.6 Electric Hot Plate, Thermostatically Controlled, of sufficient dimensions and heat capacity to permit reuxing of the solvent as described in 15.2.5. 14. Preparation of Test Portion 14.1 Prepare a test portion for moisture determination and extraction in accordance with the procedure described in Section 8. 15. Procedure 15.1 MoistureDetermine the moisture content of the mixture (see 8.2) in accordance with the test method described in Section 9. 15.2 Extraction: 15.2.1 Dry and determine the mass of one sheet of lter paper for each frame to be used. Fold each paper on its diameter, fold the ends over, and spread it open to form a proper size to t inside the metal cones. 15.2.2 Determine the mass of each frame with its lter paper liner to the nearest 0.5 g. Record the mass, identifying each frame by number. 15.2.3 Place the test portion in the frame or frames. If two frames are used, distribute the test portion approximately equally between the two. The top of the test portion must be below the upper edge of the paper liner. Determine the mass of each loaded frame separately to the nearest 0.5 g. Again, record the mass. 15.2.4 Use one of the solvents specied in 6.3, 6.4, or 6.5. Pour the solvent into the glass cylinder and place the bottom frame into it. The solvent level should be below the apex of the one in the (lower) frame. If two frames are used, place the upper frame in the lower frame, tting its legs into the holes in the upper rim of the lower frame.
NOTE 9Sufficient denatured ethyl alcohol may be poured over the test portion(s) to wet the lter paper.

or 11.6.3. In this case, it is not necessary to transfer the extract from the extraction cylinder to a graduated cylinder. The extract may be transferred directly from the extraction cylinder to the centrifuge feed container (11.6.2.2). 16. Calculation of Bitumen Content 16.1 Calculate the percent bitumen in the test portion in accordance with the procedure described in Section 12. TEST METHOD C 17. Apparatus 17.1 In addition to the apparatus listed in Section 5, the following is required for Test Method C: 17.1.1 Extraction Apparatus, consisting of a container, condenser lid, and stand. Suitable types are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4; however, other extractors of differing shapes may also be used successfully. A standard 25 L aluminum cooking utensil has been found to be suitable. The important features regardless of shape are that the extractors have snug-tting lids, be of sufficiently large size to accommodate the required test portion, and include cooling ns arranged so as to provide for efficient reuxing. 17.1.2 Basket, for test portion as shown in Fig. 3 or one designed for use with an extractor of different shape. 17.1.3 Filter Cloth,7 of approximately 185 mesh, placed over the 4.75 mm (No. 4) screen and shaped to cover the inside of the basket completely to ensure retention of all aggregate sizes greater than the cloth mesh during extraction. 18. Preparation of Test Portions 18.1 Prepare test portions for moisture determination and extraction in accordance with the procedure described in Section 8. 19. Procedure 19.1 MoistureDetermine the moisture content of the mixture (see 8.2) in accordance with the test method described in Section 9. 19.2 Extraction: 19.2.1 Determine the mass of the sample (3500 to 10 000 g) in the tared basket assembly to the nearest 1 g and place in the extractor. Pour 1150 to 1250 mL of trichloroethylene, normal Propyl Bromide, or methylene chloride (Section 6) over the test portion. Fit the extractor lid tightly in place and allow water to circulate freely in the top. Apply heat from either a gas burner or an electric hot plate. 19.2.2 Reux the sample 1.5 to 3 h until all bitumen is extracted from the aggregate. Shut down the extractor after 1.5 h and inspect the test portion. Mix the test portion with a trowel and continue extraction to completion.

15.2.5 Place the thermal insulating pad on the hot plate and then the cylinder on the pad. Cover the condenser. Circulate a gentle steady stream of cool water through the condenser. Adjust the temperature of the hot plate so that the solvent will boil gently and a steady stream of condensed solvent ows into the cone. If necessary, adjust the temperature of the hot plate to maintain the solvent stream at a rate necessary to keep the test portions in the cone(s) completely covered with condensed solvent. Take care not to allow condensed solvent to overow the lter cone(s). Continue the reuxing until the solvent owing from the lower cone is light straw color (when viewed against a white background). At this point, turn off the hot plate and allow the apparatus to cool with the water running in the condenser. When boiling has ceased and the cylinder is cool enough to handle, turn off the condenser and remove from the cylinder. 15.2.6 Remove the frame assembly from the cylinder. Allow to dry in air (hood) and dry to constant mass in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F] (see Note 6). 15.2.7 Transfer the extract quantitatively to the graduated cylinder (5.5) and determine mineral matter in the extract in accordance with 11.6.1. Alternatively, mineral matter in the extract may be determined by the method described in 11.6.2
6

7 The sole source of supply of the 16XX Swiss Stencil Cloth known to the committee at this time is Atlas Silk Screen Supply Co., 1733 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, IL 60647. If you are aware of alternative suppliers, please provide this information to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee,1 which you may attend.

D2172/D2172M 11

FIG. 3 Extraction Apparatus (Test Method C)

D2172/D2172M 11

FIG. 4 Extractor Unit (Test Method C)

NOTE 10The test portion is completely extracted when, upon inspec-

tion, no discoloration is found on the aggregate or on the surface of a

D2172/D2172M 11
trowel that has thoroughly mixed the test portion.

19.2.3 Remove the basket with the test portion, dry in air and then to constant mass on a hot plate or in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. 19.2.4 Drain the extract from the extractor and wash clean with fresh solvent. Combine the extract and the washings in a graduated cylinder. 19.2.5 Determine the mass of mineral matter in the extract in accordance with the test method described in 11.6.1, 11.6.2, or 11.6.3. 20. Calculation of Bitumen Content 20.1 Calculate the percent bitumen in the test portion in accordance with the procedure described in Section 12. TEST METHOD D 21. Apparatus 21.1 In addition to the apparatus listed in Section 5, the following apparatus is required for Test Method D: 21.1.1 Extraction apparatus, Fig. 5 consisting of an extraction kettle of metal or borosilicate glass, tted with a perforated basket and a condenser top. The underside of the condenser shall be covered with numerous rounded knobs to distribute the condensed solvent uniformly over the surface of the sample. The suspension of the basket shall be arranged to support the basket 13 mm [12 in.] above the bottom of the kettle, for immersion of test portion in the solvent, and at least 75 mm [3 in.] above the bottom of the kettle for reuxing (see Note 5).

21.1.2 Cloth Filter Sacks, with an elastic hem for lining the basket. 22. Preparation of Test Portions 22.1 Prepare test portions for moisture determination and extraction in accordance with the procedure described in Section 8. 23. Procedure 23.1 MoistureDetermine the moisture content of the mixtures (see 8.2) in accordance with the test method described in Section 9. 23.2 Extraction: 23.2.1 Insert a lter sack in the extraction basket and determine the mass with the tare pan to determine the total tare weight. Place the test portion (Note 3) in the lter sack and determine the total mass. Calculate the mass of the test portion. 23.2.2 Attach the suspension rod to the loaded basket and set the assembly into the extraction kettle. Pour approximately 600 mL of solvent (6.2, 6.3, or 6.4) over the test portion. Set the condenser cover in place on the kettle. Provide a ow of cold water through the condenser lid. Raise the basket to immersion level, for example 13 mm [12 in.] above the bottom of kettle, by inserting the support pin through the upper hole of the suspension rod. Place the extractor on the hot plate and adjust the heating rate so that solvent is maintained at a gentle boil, avoiding vigorous boiling which might wash nes over sides of basket. 23.2.3 Continue heating with the test portion in immersion position for 15 to 30 min and then raise the basket to reuxing

FIG. 5 Extractor Unit (Test Method D)

D2172/D2172M 11
level. Increase the heat and maintain active boiling until solvent dripping from the basket appears light straw color when viewed against a white background. If a stainless steel kettle is used, lift out the basket and the condenser cover assembly for examination of the solvent. 23.2.4 Remove the extractor from the hot plate and allow to cool for several minutes. Lift out the basket and condenser assembly. Cover the kettle, remove the lter sack, distribute its contents onto the tared pan in which the mass of the test portion was originally determined. Place the lter sack on top of the recovered aggregate. Dry on a steam bath and then in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F] to constant mass. Transfer the extraction to a 1000-mL graduate. Wash the extractor clean with solvent and add the washings to the extract. 23.2.5 Determine the mineral matter in the extract in accordance with any of the procedures in 11.6. 24. Calculation of Bitumen Content 24.1 Calculate the percent bitumen in the test portion in accordance with the procedure described in Section 12. TEST METHOD E 25. Apparatus 25.1 In addition to the apparatus listed in Section 5, the following apparatus is required for Test Method E: 25.1.1 Vacuum Extractor, complete with the vacuum pump, gasket, rubber tubing, lter paper, support plate, and funnel ring, similar to that shown in Fig. 6. 25.1.2 Filter Paper, medium-grade, fast-ltering, 330 mm [13 in.] in diameter. 25.1.3 Stainless Steel Beaker, having a capacity of approximately 8 L. 25.1.4 Erlenmeyer Flasks, glass, two, having a capacity of 4000 mL each. 25.1.5 Graduate, glass, having a capacity of 500 mL. 25.1.6 Wash Bottle, plastic, having a capacity of 500 mL. 25.1.7 Dial Thermometer, having a range from 10 to 80C [50 to 180F]. 25.1.8 Mixing Spoon, 300 mm [12 in.] long. 25.1.9 Spatula, 230 mm [9 in.] long. 25.1.10 Stiff Bristled Brush, 25 mm [1 in.] wide. 25.1.11 Erlenmeyer Flask, glass, having a capacity of 1000 mL. 25.1.12 Watch Glass, having a 100 mm [4 in.] diameter. 25.1.13 Metal Tongs, 150 to 200 mm [6 to 8 in.] long.
NOTE 11Use apparatus and materials listed under 25.1.11, 25.1.12, 25.1.13, and 26.1.2 only with paving mixtures hard to lter, as in Method E-II.

FIG. 6 Vacuum Extractor (Test Method E)

10

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26. Reagents and Materials 26.1 Diatomaceous Silica Filtering Aid conforming to Type B of Specication D604.7,8 26.2 Ethyl Alcohol, denatured. 26.3 Methylene Chloride. 27. Preparation of Test Portions 27.1 Prepare test portions for moisture determination and extraction in accordance with the procedure described in Section 8. 28. Procedure 28.1 MoistureDetermine the moisture content of the mixture (see 8.2) in accordance with the test method described in Section 9. 28.2 Extraction: 28.2.1 Place the extraction test portion into the tared stainless steel beaker and determine the mass. 28.2.2 If the test portion is above 54C [130F], allow it to cool to a temperature less than 54C [130F]. When sufficiently cool, pour 200 mL of denatured alcohol over the specimen. Add approximately 700 mL of methylene chloride and stir until the asphalt is visually in solution.
NOTE 12If equipment is available, an ultrasonic cleaning tank may be used instead of the beaker (28.2.1) and the bitumen brought into solution (28.2.2) in the cleaning apparatus.

28.2.10 Transfer the extract to the graduated cylinder (5.5) and determine the mineral matter in the extract in accordance with the test method described in 11.6.1. Alternatively, mineral matter in the extract may be determined in accordance with the test method described in 11.6.2 or 11.6.3. In this case, it is not necessary to transfer the extract to the graduated cylinder. The extract may be transferred directly from the extractor to the centrifuge feed container (11.6.2.2).
NOTE 13Sections 28.2.10 and 28.2.16 may be omitted when this test method is used only for control of paving mixture bitumen content during construction (plant control).

TEST METHOD E-II 28.2.11 To extract a slow-ltering paving mixture efficiently, prepare the test portion as in 28.2.1 and 28.2.2. 28.2.12 Place a dry tared lter paper on the vacuum extractor, taking care to center the lter, and tighten the wing nuts nger tight. 28.2.13 Weigh 50 g of oven-dried diatomaceous silica ltering aid into a 100-mL Erlenmeyer ask and add 500 mL of methylene chloride. Swirl until the diatomaceous silica is completely in suspension. 28.2.14 Immediately pour the diatomaceous silica and methylene chloride over the lter. Start the vacuum pump and let it run until the pad formed by the diatomaceous silica is surface dry and begins to crack slightly. 28.2.15 Place the watch glass in the extractor and gently pour the solvent from the test portion over it. Remove it with tongs and wash with the wash bottle. Add the rest of the sample and proceed as in 28.2.4-28.2.9. Subtract the mass of the drying pan, lter paper, and diatomaceous silica from the total mass to determine the (dry) mass of aggregate. 28.2.16 Determine the amount of mineral matter in the extract in accordance with the procedure described in 28.2.10 (see Note 13). 29. Calculation of Bitumen Content (Applicable to Both Method E-I and Method E-II) 29.1 Calculate the percent bitumen in the test portion in accordance with the procedure described in Section 12. 30. Precision and Bias 30.1 Mixtures with Aggregate Water Absorption Capacities of Less than 1.25 % (Note 14):
Test and Type Index Single-operator precision (Note 16) Method A (centrifuge) Method B, C, and D (reux) Method E (vacuum) Multilaboratory precision (Note 16) Method A (centrifuge) Method B, C, and D (reux) Method E (vacuum) Standard Deviation, (1s)A 0.21 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.22 Acceptable Range of Two Test Results (d2s)A 0.59 0.54 0.59 0.62 0.65 0.59

TEST METHOD E-I 28.2.3 Place a dry tared lter paper on the vacuum extractor, taking care to center the lter, and tighten the wing nuts nger tight. 28.2.4 Start the vacuum pump and decant the solvent from the beaker into the extractor, taking care not to transfer the aggregate from the beaker to the extractor. Stop the vacuum when all solvent has been removed. 28.2.5 Add another 700 mL of methylene chloride to the sample container and stir. 28.2.6 Repeat 28.2.4 and 28.2.5 until the solution is a light straw color and the aggregate is visually clean. After the last wash, gently pour the entire sample into the extractor and thoroughly rinse all aggregate particles from the sample container. Carefully spread the aggregate evenly over the lter. 28.2.7 Operate the vacuum pump for a few minutes after the last wash to aid in drying the test portion. Scrape the aggregate away from the side of the funnel ring toward the center of the lter to avoid loss when the ring is removed. Remove the ring and brush the clinging aggregate into the drying pan. Then pick up the lter paper and aggregate by holding the paper on opposite sides and raising it straight up. Place the test portion in the tared pan and brush the clinging aggregate from the lter into the pan. 28.2.8 Dry the extracted aggregate and lter to a constant mass in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F]. 28.2.9 Determine the mass of the lter and aggregate in the pan and record. Subtract the mass of the lter and pan to determine the mass of the extracted aggregate.
8 Celite 110, manufactured by Johns-Manville, has been found satisfactory for this purpose.

A These numbers represent, respectively, the (1s%) and (d2s%) limits as described in Practice C670.

NOTE 14These precision statements are based on an analysis of the

11

D2172/D2172M 11
AMRL9 data base from 1974 through 1985. Asphalt cements used over the years included AC-10, AC-15, AC-20, AR-2000, AR-4000, and AR-8000. Gradations consistently had a nominal maximum aggregate size of at most 34-in. stone. Water absorption capacities were consistently below 1.25 %. NOTE 15A statistical evaluation showed no difference in precision between various solvents. Therefore the precision statement for each test method includes data obtained using any of the following solvents: benzene, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride.
Test and Type Index Method A (centrifuge) Method B, C, and D (reux) Method E (vacuum) Multilaboratory precision Method A (centrifuge) Method B, C, and D (reux) Method E (vacuum) Standard Deviation, (1s)A 0.30 0.19 0.27 0.37 0.37 0.29 Acceptable Range of Two Test Results (d2s)A 0.85 0.54 0.76 1.05 1.05 0.82

30.2 Mixtures with Aggregate Water Absorption Capacities Greater than 1.25 and Less than 2.5 %: 30.2.1 The precision and bias statements for aggregates with these properties are currently being developed. 30.3 Mixtures with Aggregate Water Absorption Capacities Greater than 2.5 % (Note 16):
Test and Type Index Single-operator precision Standard Deviation, (1s)A Acceptable Range of Two Test Results (d2s)A

A These numbers represent, respectively, the (1s) and (d2s) limits as described in Practice C670.

NOTE 16These precision statements are based on 1 material, 2 replicates, and 112, 42, and 30 laboratories for the centrifuge, reux, and vacuum extraction methods, respectively. The data were obtained from the AASHTO Materials Reference Laboratory (AMRL)9 results for sample pair 37 and 38, distributed in 1992 for the Bituminous Mixture Design prociency program.

AASHTO Materials Reference Laboratory (AMRL), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gathersburg, MD 20899.

30.4 BiasSince there is no acceptable reference material suitable for determining the bias for this test method, no statement of bias can be made.

ANNEXES
(Mandatory Information) A1. TEST METHOD A ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE

A1.1 In 11.2 place a 650 to 2500-g test portion in a bowl that has been previously dried to a constant mass with the lter ring. A1.2 In 11.5 instead of removing the lter ring from the

bowl and drying in air, dry the bowl with the lter ring to a constant mass under an infrared lamp or in an oven at 110 6 5C [230 6 10F].

A2. TEST METHOD A (VOLUMETRIC METHOD) ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE

A2.1 Instead of using a controlled-temperature bath as prescribed in 11.6.3.1, measure the temperature of the extract

and make necessary corrections to the volume of the ask and density of asphalt and the solvent.

A3. TEST METHOD A MODIFICATION FOR DETERMINATION OF TAR

A3.1 Cover the test portion in the bowl with crystal-free creosote and place the bowl for 1 h on a hot plate or in an oven maintained at 116C [240F]. Proceed in accordance with 11.3 and 11.4 except use two 200 mL additions of creosote previously heated to 116C [240F]. Treat the test portion in the bowl with three 200 mL additions of trichloroethylene, following the same procedure. A3.2 Continue in accordance with 11.5 and 11.6.1 except

evaporate the aliquot portion of the solvent (11.6.1) on the steam bath until trichloroethylene is removed. Then evaporate the remaining solvent to dryness on a hot plate and ash as directed in 11.6.1. A3.3 Calculate the percent tar in the sample in accordance with Section 12.

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D2172/D2172M 11
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.astm.org/ COPYRIGHT/).

13

STP 204-2

Standard Test Procedures Manual

Section: Subject:

ASPHALT MIXES ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

1.

SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test The method described is a procedure used to determine the asphalt content of asphaltaggregate mixtures. 1.2. Application of Test The asphalt content of asphalt-aggregate mixtures as determined by the described test method is used for product acceptance, quality assurance, process quality control and research activities. 1.3. Units of Measure The asphalt content is expressed as a percent by dry weight of extracted aggregate corrected for asphalt mix moisture content and extractor error.

2.

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 2.1. Equipment Centrifuge extractor with a bowl approximating that shown in Figure 1 of ASTM D 2172 Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen Paving Mixtures. The extractor will be capable of accepting between 500 g and 2000 g of asphalt mix. The extractor must be capable of rotating the bowl at controlled variable speeds up to 3600 rpm. The apparatus should be equipped with explosion proof features and installed in a fume hood or an effective surface exhaust system to provide ventilation. Tachometer to check rpm of extractor bowl. Paper or felt filter rings to be placed on the rim of the bowl and beneath the bowl lid. Scale capable of weighing to 2500 g at a 0.1 g accuracy. Heating equipment such as electric stove.

Date: 1994 09 20

Page 1 of 6

Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

Thermometer capable of measuring temperature between 50o C and 150o C. 250 ml cup or beaker. Torque wrench capable of producing 35 N.m of torque. Hand Tools - spatula, small brush, scoop, large pan for collection of a representative asphalt mix sample, pan for test sample. Container for collection of asphalt laden solvent thrown from the bowl during extraction. 2.2. Materials Solvents - suggested materials are chlorothene or trichloroethylene. 2.3. Sample To Be Tested Obtain representative samples of the asphalt-aggregate mixture. Asphalt mix samples will be collected in accordance with STP 103 - SAMPLING ASPHALT MIXES. Asphalt concrete samples will be collected in accordance with STP 204-5 ASPHALT CONCRETE SAMPLES OBTAINED BY CORING. 2.4. Data Required Sample information including date, time, sample number, sampling location, sampled by, tested by, contract number, control section, contractor, asphalt type, aggregate type, extractor make, model and serial number. 3. PROCEDURE 3.1. Equipment Preparation Ensure extractor bowl, hand tools and sample containers are cleaned of all residual asphalt and aggregate materials and dry before commencing the test. Check extractor rpm to ensure that a maximum of 3600 rpm is being achieved.

Page: 2 of 6

Date: 1994 09 20

Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES 3.2. Sample Preparation

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

Collect representative samples as described in section 2.3 above. Sample size will depend on the extractor bowl size. Larger samples will give more accurate results. Weigh the asphalt mix and record as "weight of asphalt mix". A sample of asphalt mix is required to determine the moisture content of the asphalt mix. Sample size and preparation are described in STP 204-1, MOISTURE CONTENT BY OVEN DRYING. 3.3. Test Procedure Turn ventilation equipment on and adjust for maximum suction from the extractor and enclosure. Spread the asphalt mix sample evenly in the bowl. Cover the sample with the specified solvent. Rotate the bowl back and forth gently by hand to distribute solvent and asphalt mix evenly in the bowl. Place two filter rings on the bowl rim and secure the bowl cover plate on top of the filter papers. Tighten the cover using a torque wrench up to a maximum torque of 17 N*m. Ensure that for all subsequent extractions the bowl cover plate is tightened with the same torque. Allow the material to soak for 5 minutes before the first centrifuge is begun. Begin centrifuging slowly, increasing bowl speed slowly to a maximum of 3600 rpm. When the asphalt-solvent effluent stops flowing from the extractor, turn off the motor, slow and stop the bowl using the braking mechanism. Add approximately 250 ml of solvent to the bowl and repeat the above described procedure. The procedure should be repeated until the extracted effluent has a light yellow straw colour. This is usually accomplished in 4 to 6 washings. After the final wash, remove the filler screw and cover plate. Remove the filters carefully, clean the extracted aggregate from the filter papers and bowl and place in a clean pan. The recommended drying procedure is to place the extracted aggregate in an oven at a controlled temperature of 120o C and dry to a constant weight. Establish the required drying time by weighing after repeated heating and cooling until the weight is constant. To prevent burning of the mineral particles, do not heat the aggregate above 120o C.

Date: 1994 09 20

Page: 3 of 6

Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION In a field quality control setting, the extracted aggregate may be dried on a hot plate or stove burner element. The method is more subject to burning of the mineral particles and is a less desirable method. After cooling, weigh the dried aggregate to the nearest 0.1 g. Dry aggregate may absorb moisture from the air. Determine the mass of the extracted aggregate immediately upon cooling to ambient temperature. Record the weight of the dry extracted aggregate to the nearest 0.1 g.

4.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS 4.1. Collection of Test Results The following data is required: - Weight of asphalt mix before extraction to the nearest 0.1 g - Weight of dried aggregate after extraction to the nearest 0.1 g - Moisture content of the asphalt mix as determined by STP 204-1, MOISTURE CONTENT BY OVEN DRYING - Extractor correction as determined by STP 204-23, EXTRACTION AND MOISTURE CORRECTIONS 4.2. Calculations Uncorrected Asphalt Content = (wt. of asphalt mix - wt. of dry agg.) x 100 (Calculated to the nearest .01%) wt. of dry aggregate Corrected Asphalt Content = Uncorrected Asphalt Content (%) - Moisture Content (%) + Extractor Error (%) NOTE: 1) The corrected asphalt content should be rounded to the nearest 0.1%. 2) Refer to STP 204-23 "Extraction and Moisture Corrections" to determine the proper type of extractor correction to be used.

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Date: 1994 09 20

Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES 5.

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

CALIBRATIONS AND REPEATABILITY 5.1. Equipment Calibration Periodical checking of extractor rpm should be conducted. Each time extractor or operators are changed, a new extraction correction should be done. The extractor correction test should have the same number of washings as used in the actual extracted sample. Extraction corrections should also be done for each asphalt mix design or approved job mix formula. 5.2. Tolerances and Repeatability Tolerances for repeatability and reproducibility are specified below: Single Operator: two tests on the same sample should not vary by more than + .1% Multiple Operator: two tests on the same sample shall not vary by more than + .2% 5.3. Sources of Error Incomplete washing of the asphalt from the mix. Non-consistent torques applied to the bowl cover plate. Loss of mineral aggregate particles when transferring from extractor bowl and filter papers to pan. Not doing moisture and extraction corrections. Not meeting the specified rpm requirements on the extractor. Overheating the aggregate during drying.

Date: 1994 09 20

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Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES 6. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 6.1. Sample Retention

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

The extracted aggregate may be retained for gradation analysis using STP 204-4, SIEVE ANALYSIS. 6.2. Safety Provide good ventilation as solvent fumes may be injurious to your health. Propane stoves should not be used in laboratories where chlorothene and trichloroethylene solvents are being used.

Page: 6 of 6

Date: 1994 09 20

Standard Test Procedures Manual


Section: Subject:

STP 204-2

ASPHALT MIXES APPROVAL SHEET

ASPHALT CONTENT BY CENTRIFUGE EXTRACTION

New Revision X Date of Previous Document 92-12-10 Effective Date: 94-12-21 Description of Revision (Reason for Revision): Removed requirement of applying 17 N*m torgue to the extractor lid. Referred to it as a maximum torgue. Added note to ensure that the same torque be applied for all extractions Review/Implementation Process: Reviewed by the End Product Specification Committee and Technical Standards and Policies Branch. Other Manuals/Policies Affected: Nil Follow Up/Training Required: Nil Comments/Concerns/Implications (Budget/Environment/Stakeholders):

Prepared by

D. MacLeod Date

94-09-20

Recommended by D. MacLeod Materials Standards Engineer

94-09-20 Date

Approval Recommended by R.A. Widger Senior Materials Engineer

94-12-20 Date

Approved by

A.R. Gerbrandt 94-12-21 Dir., Technical Standards & Policies Br. Date

Electronic File Updated Update Mailed

95-01-31 - -

Date: 1994 09 20

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