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Make up Lecture Introduction To Project Management
Make up Lecture
Introduction To Project Management
Make up Lecture Introduction To Project Management Initiation of Projects Project Life Cycle Project Management Processes

Initiation of Projects Project Life Cycle Project Management Processes

Make up Lecture Introduction To Project Management Initiation of Projects Project Life Cycle Project Management Processes
Make up Lecture Introduction To Project Management Initiation of Projects Project Life Cycle Project Management Processes
Topics:  Evolution of Project Management  Project and Project Management  Project Management Office
Topics:  Evolution of Project Management  Project and Project Management  Project Management Office
Topics:  Evolution of Project Management  Project and Project Management  Project Management Office
Topics:
Topics:

Evolution of Project Management

Project and Project Management

Project Management Office

Project Vs Operations Why Project Management?

Role of Project Manager

Project Organisational Structures

Topics  Project Initiation and Selection Models  Project life cycle  Project Management Processes
Topics  Project Initiation and Selection Models  Project life cycle  Project Management Processes
Topics  Project Initiation and Selection Models  Project life cycle  Project Management Processes
Topics
Topics

Project Initiation and Selection Models

Project life cycle

Project Management Processes

Initiation Process

Planning Process

Execution Process Monitoring and Control Process

Closing Process

Evolution of Project Management In early 1970s it was stated in project management community that
Evolution of Project Management In early 1970s it was stated in project management community that
Evolution of Project Management In early 1970s it was stated in project management community that
Evolution of Project Management
Evolution of Project Management

In early 1970s it was stated in project management community that

“project management is the accidental profession.”

It’s a common belief that project management as a new profession had been defined in the late twentieth century. However;

Project management as a separate discipline exists from several

thousand of years. Project management techniques has been used either formally or informally for centuries to plan for, implement, and meet changes.

In 1950s, Project Management was formally recognized as distinct

contribution arising from the management discipline. Since early 1950s, names and labels have been given to the elements

of the project management discipline, helping to facilitate its further

development as a profession.

Project Management Development Era-wise: Stage Era Characteristics 1 Pre – 1950s Informal, No generally accepted
Project Management Development
Era-wise:
Stage
Era
Characteristics
1
Pre – 1950s
Informal, No generally accepted or defined Methods
2
1950s
Formal tools and techniques were developed to
manage complex projects
3
1990s
Focus is shifted to the strategic role of projects,
processes must be put in place to deliver the end
objective of the project.
Project Management Growth history  Modern day project management is associated with Henry Gantt’s development
Project Management Growth history  Modern day project management is associated with Henry Gantt’s development
Project Management Growth history  Modern day project management is associated with Henry Gantt’s development
Project Management Growth history
Project Management Growth history

Modern day project management is associated with Henry Gantt’s development of the bar chart (early 1900s)- planning and controlling of projects

CPA, EV,VE,WBS, CPM, PDM and PERT developed by military and aerospace projects 1950s and 60s era of usa and uk.Typical projects of this era Apollo space programme , Construction of nuclear stations

1970s boundaries expanded from construction and military to other disciplines.

APM and PMI become strong by establishing links with the industry

1980s increase stake holder influence, integration of time, cost and quality was initiated then extended to scope and organisational break down structure extending the boundaries and looking into broader picture addressing the needs of all stakeholders

First project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) was established in 1987, offered an integrated and structured approach rather than an ad-hoc collection of tools and techniques.

1990s project manager becomes integrator,

1990s and 2000s management by project approach leads more leaner, effective organisation, client importance concept, more innovative,TQM, Risk

Management, PMO develops project management culture.

Leading Projects through Human Civilisation: to present:
Leading Projects through Human
Civilisation:
to present:
Leading Projects through Human Civilisation: to present: Examples of some of the leading projects from ancient

Examples of some of the leading projects from ancient times

The Great Pyramids of Egypt (circa 2700 to 2500 B.C.)

The Grand Canal of China (486 B.C. to the present)

The Great Wall of China (221 B.C. to 1644 A.D.)

The first steam engine (1704)

The first Trans- Atlantic cable (1866)

The Suez Canal (1859 to 1869)

The Manhattan Project (1942 to 1946)

Channel Tunnel (1988 to 1994)

Burj Khalifa (2004 to 2009)

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to

create a unique product,

service or result.

“A project is a complex, non routine, one-time effort, limited by time, budget, resources and
“A project is a complex, non
routine, one-time effort,
limited by time, budget,
resources and performance
specifications designed to meet
customer needs.”
Unique Characteristics of Project Temporary Characteristics of Projects – Temporary – Definitive beginning and end
Unique Characteristics of Project Temporary Characteristics of Projects – Temporary – Definitive beginning and end
Unique Characteristics of Project Temporary Characteristics of Projects – Temporary – Definitive beginning and end
Unique
Unique

Characteristics of Project

Temporary
Temporary

Characteristics

of

Projects

Temporary Definitive beginning and end Unique New undertaking, unfamiliar ground

Composed of a series of interdependent tasks

Has a risk, uncertainty

 
  Designing and constructing a building, a road or a ship. Designing and testing a

Designing and constructing a building, a road or a ship.

Designing and testing a new prototype (New car)

Launching new product (advertising and marketing project)

Implementing a new computer system (IT Project)

Olympics, tour de France (Sports Project)

World tour, One time outing (Entertainment Project)

Moving house or going on holiday (Domestic Project)

Planning a wedding

Executing an environmental clean up of a contaminated site

Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet stakeholder’s needs and

Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet stakeholder’s needs and expectations

from project.

Project Management in practice consists of managing people, anticipating problems, utilising resources, and pulling all parts together.

Project Success Criteria Key Performance Indicators for projects included, but not limited to:  Scope
Project Success Criteria Key Performance Indicators for projects included, but not limited to:  Scope
Project Success Criteria Key Performance Indicators for projects included, but not limited to:  Scope
Project Success Criteria
Project Success Criteria

Key Performance Indicators for projects included,

but not limited to:

Scope

Time

Cost

Quality

Environment

Risk

Value

Customer Satisfaction

Project Success Criteria Projects are broadly categorized into one of these three types:  Market
Project Success Criteria Projects are broadly categorized into one of these three types:  Market
Project Success Criteria Projects are broadly categorized into one of these three types:  Market
Project Success Criteria
Project Success Criteria

Projects are broadly categorized into one of these three types:

Market Driven such as (Focused on Customer trends)

Crises Driven such as (Response to

emergency)

Change Driven such as (Technology upgrades)

Understanding the purpose of the project is essential so that appropriate trade-offs in time, cost, scope, quality and customer satisfaction could be done while managing the

project.

Overview of Project Management
Overview of Project Management
 Identifying requirements 
Identifying requirements
 Identifying requirements  Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders as the

Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders as the project is planned and carried out.

Balancing the competing project constraints

including, but not limited to:

Scope

Quality

Schedule

Budget

Resources

Risk


 A Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related

A Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational body or

entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain.

The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project

management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project.

The projects supported or administered by the PMO may not

be related other than by being managed together.

A PMO can be delegated authority to act as an integral stakeholder and a key decision maker during the beginning of each project, to make recommendations, or to terminate projects or

take other actions as required to keep business objectives

consistent.

A PMO may be involved in selection, management, and deployment of shared or dedicated project resources.


 Operations are an organizational function performing the ongoing execution of activities that produce the same

Operations are an organizational function performing the

ongoing execution of activities that produce the same product or provide a repetitive service. Examples include: production operations, manufacturing operations, and accounting operations

manufacturing operations, and accounting operations  Though temporary in nature, projects can help achieve
manufacturing operations, and accounting operations  Though temporary in nature, projects can help achieve

Though temporary in nature, projects can help achieve the organizational goals when they are aligned

with the organization’s strategy.

Projects require project management while operations require business process management or operations management

Why Project Management?
Why Project Management?
Why Project Management? Project management application is becoming more and more important in today's business

Project management application is becoming more

and more important in today's business environment.

Compression of the Product Life cycle

Global Competition (Quality Based. Cost reduction, Meet Deadlines)

Knowledge explosion (Complexities due to rapid development in technology )

Corporate Downsizing (Effective Resource Management)

Increased Customer Focus

Multi dimensional stakeholders

Complexities of Modern Businesses (Effective Risk Management)

Continuously changing scenarios

Benefits of Project Management  Client Satisfaction  Single point of responsibility  Estimating 
Benefits of Project Management  Client Satisfaction  Single point of responsibility  Estimating 
Benefits of Project Management
Benefits of Project Management

Client Satisfaction

Single point of responsibility

Estimating

Network Analysis (CPM)

Fast Track

Schedule Bar chart

Project Integration

Reporting interfaces

Trends Analysis

Procedures to suit project

Project office

Closeout Reports

Marketing

Address the need of Environment (EIAs)

to suit project  Project office  Closeout Reports  Marketing  Address the need of
•
• The role of project manager is distinct from a functional manager or operations manager. 

The role of project manager is distinct from a functional manager or operations manager.

A Project Manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project

objectives.

A Functional Manager is focused on providing management oversight for a administrative area.

An Operations Manager is responsible for a facet of the core business.

Project Manager  The Project Manager is responsible for managing the project within the constraints
Project Manager
 The Project Manager is responsible
for managing the project within the
constraints of scope, quality, time
and cost to deliver specified
requirements and meet or exceed!
customer satisfaction.
Role of a Project Manager As a single point of responsibility for the project, the
Role of a Project Manager As a single point of responsibility for the project, the
Role of a Project Manager As a single point of responsibility for the project, the
Role of a Project Manager
Role of a Project Manager

As a single point of responsibility for the project, the role

of project manager is very crucial for the successful

outcome of project. Project manager is responsible for following important aspects of project:

To integrate all the components of the project

Responsible for developing plans and ensuring their practicality (Time, cost, quality, scope etc)

Planning and arrangement of resources for project Project team building

Motivation and direction of project team members

Establishment and maintenance of effective

communication system

Role of a Project Manager  Continuous monitoring of project progress  Identification and correction
Role of a Project Manager  Continuous monitoring of project progress  Identification and correction
Role of a Project Manager  Continuous monitoring of project progress  Identification and correction
Role of a Project Manager
Role of a Project Manager

Continuous monitoring of project progress

Identification and correction of deviations from

baselines (time, cost, scope, quality etc)

To resolve any project Conflicts

Effective liaison between various stake holders and build

working relation between them

Procurement aspects of the project

Development of effective project culture

Preparation of progress reports for top management and client

Role of a Project Manager
Role of a Project Manager
 Effective project management requires that the project manager possess the following characteristics:  Knowledge
 Effective project management requires that the project manager possess the following characteristics:  Knowledge

Effective project management requires that the

project manager possess the following characteristics:

Knowledge What PM knows about project management?

Performance What PM is able to do or accomplish while applying the Knowledge?

Personal How PM behaves when performing project?

Skills and Personality Traits of Project Manager
Skills and Personality Traits of Project Manager
 

Leadership

Team Building

Conflict resolution

Excellent Communication skills

Organisational Skills

Operational flexibility (Change Management skills)

Decision making

Project Management Expertise

Technical Know how

 Ability to keep the client happy
Ability to keep the client happy
• Organizational structure is an enterprise environmental factor which can affect the availability of resources
• Organizational structure is an enterprise environmental factor which can affect the availability
Organizational structure is an enterprise
environmental factor which can affect the availability

of resources and influence how projects are conducted.

of resources and influence how projects are conducted. Organizational structures range from functional to

Organizational structures range from functional to projectized, with a variety of matrix structures between them.

Functional Structure

Weak Matrix Structure

Balanced Matrix Structure

Strong Matrix Structure

Projectized Structure

Organization Matrix Structure Functional Projectized Project Balanced Strong Weak Matrix Characteristics Matrix
Organization
Matrix
Structure
Functional
Projectized
Project
Balanced
Strong
Weak Matrix
Characteristics
Matrix
Matrix
Project Manager's
Authority
Little or
Low to
Limited
None
Moderate
Moderate to
High
High to
Almost Total
Little or
Low to
Resource Availability
Limited
None
Moderate
Moderate to
High
High to
Almost Total
Who controls the
project budget
Functional
Functional
Project
Project
Mixed
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Project Manager's
Role
Part-Time
Part-Time
Full-Time
Full-Time
Full-Time
Project Management
Part-Time
Part-Time
Part-Time
Full-Time
Full-Time
Administrative Staff
Initiation of Projects: Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of
Initiation of Projects: Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of
Initiation of Projects:
Initiation of Projects:
Initiation of Projects: Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the
Initiation of Projects: Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the

Projects are typically authorized as a result of one

or more of the following strategic considerations:

 Market demand  Organizational need  Customer request   Legal requirements  Ecological
 Market demand
 Organizational need
 Customer request
 Legal requirements
 Ecological Impacts
 Social Needs
Technological advancement
Technological advancement
Project Selection The selection of the right project for future investment is a crucial decision
Project Selection The selection of the right project for future investment is a crucial decision
Project Selection The selection of the right project for future investment is a crucial decision
Project Selection
Project Selection

The selection of the right project for future investment

is a crucial decision for the long term survival of the

company. Project selection is making commitment for the future. Selection methods help organizations decide among

alternative projects and determine the tangible/non-

tangible benefits to the company of choosing or not choosing the project. Project selection methods will vary depending on the company, the people serving on the selection

committee, the criteria used, and the project.

Most organizations have a formal, or at least semiformal, process for selecting and prioritizing projects.