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# Incidence Matrix, A

i
EE-304 ENT credits: 4 L{3} P{0} T{1}
Lairenlakpam Joyprakash Singh, PhD
Department of ECE,
North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU),
Shillong 793 022
jplairen@nehu.ac.in
August 8, 2013
1 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory: Incidence Matrix
Incidence matrix provides information like
1
Which branches are incident at which nodes,
2
What are the orientations of branches relative to the nodes.
Types:
1
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
,
2
Reduced incidence matrix, A.
2 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
A complete incidence matrix of a connected graph with 4 branches
and 5 nodes is given by:
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
4 a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
5 a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54

In a matrix, A
i
, with n rows and b columns, an entry, a
ij
, in the i
th
row and j
th
column has the following values:
a
ij
=
_
_
_
1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented away from the node, i,
1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented towards the node, i,
0, if the branch j is not incident to the node, i.
3 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
A complete incidence matrix of a connected graph with 4 branches
and 5 nodes is given by:
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
4 a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
5 a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54

In a matrix, A
i
, with n rows and b columns, an entry, a
ij
, in the i
th
row and j
th
column has the following values:
a
ij
=
_
_
_
1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented away from the node, i,
1, if the branch j is incident to and oriented towards the node, i,
0, if the branch j is not incident to the node, i.
3 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
a
b
c
d
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
a
b
c
d
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
aa
b
c
d
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1
1 0 1
0
1 1 0
1
0 1 1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
a
bb
c
d
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1 1
0 1
0 1
1 0
1 0
1 1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
a
b
cc
d
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1 1 0
1
0 1 1
0
1 0 1
1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Graph Theory Incidence Matrix
Complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
An complete incidence matrix of a graph with n = 3 and b = 4
A
i
=

branches
nodes
a b c d
1 a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
2 a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
3 a
31
a
32
a
23
a
24

1 2
3
a
b
c
dd
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph with matrix
element values is
branches
nodes
a b c d
A
i
=
1
2
3

1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1

## 4 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
aa
b c
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1
1 0 1 0 0
0
1 1 0 1 0
1
0 1 0 0 1
0
0 0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
bb c
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1
1 0 1 0
1 0
1 0 0 1
0 0
0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b cc
d
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0
1 0 0
0 1 1
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
dd
e f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1
0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0
1 0 1 0
0 1
0 0 0 1
1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
d
ee f
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1 0
0
0 1 1 0 1
0
1 0 1 0 0
1
0 0 0 1 1
1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Example - I
1
2
3
4
+

V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a)
1
2
3
4
a
b c
d
e ff
(b)
Figure 1 : A circuit (a) and its graph (b).
The complete incidence matrix of the above graph is
A
i
=

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1

## 5 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix

Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Incidence Matrices: A
i
and A
Complete incidence matrix, A
i
, has the order n b and saties the following
properties:
i) The algebraic sum of elements in any column of A
i
is zero.
ii) Given the incidence matrix A, the corresponding graph can easily be
constructed since A
i
is a complete mathematical replica of the graph.
iii) The determinant of A
i
of a closed loop is zero.
Incidence matrix or Reduced incidence matrix, A:
1
If any row is removed from the incidence matrix A
i
with nxb dimension, the
remaining matrix is known as a reduced incidence matrix, A.
Where n is the total number of nodes and b the total number of branches in
the given graph.
2
The order of the reduced incidence matrix A is (n 1) b, i.e. it has (n 1)
rows and b columns.
3
Normally, the row corresponding to the reference node is deleted to form a
reduced incidence matrix, A, from an incidence matrix, A
i
.
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
Incidence Matrix, A
i
Reduced incidence matrix, A
6 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Network, Graph, A
i
, and A
Number of possible trees in the graph, Fig. 1(b)
Let us considered the Figure 1 and write the incidence matrix, A
i
and its reduced incidence matrix,
A as
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
The transpose of the reduced incidence matrix, A is then given by
A
T
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 1
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_

_
And now we have,
AA
T
=
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 1
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_

_
=
_
_
3 1 1
1 3 1
1 1 3
_
_
Therefore the possible number of trees that can be constructed from the graph in Figure 1(b) is

AA
T

= 3

3 1
1 3

(1)

1 1
1 3

+ (1)

1 3
1 1

= 3(9 1) + (3 1) 1(1 + 3)
Although
6
C
3
= 20 combinations exist for tree formation, the possible combnations are

AA
T

= 24 4 4 = 16 only.
7 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Possible trees of a network
Drawing all possible trees of the network shown in 1(a)
1
2
3
4
+
V
s
I
s
R
R
1
I
1
R
2
I
2
R
3
I
3
C
I
C
L
I
L
(a) A Circuit
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(b) The graph
Possible trees of the above graph [Trees 1 - 4]:
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(c) Tree 1
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(d) Tree 2
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(e) Tree 3
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(f) Tree 4
8 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Possible trees of a network
Drawing all possible trees . . .
Possible trees of the given graph [Trees 5 - 10]:
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(g) Tree 5
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(h) Tree 6
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(i) Tree 7
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(j) Tree 8
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(k) Tree 9
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(l) Tree 10
9 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Possible trees of a network
Drawing all possible trees . . .
Possible trees of the given graph [Trees 11 - 16]:
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(m) Tree 11
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(n) Tree 12
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(o) Tree 13
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(p) Tree 14
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(q) Tree 15
1
2
3
4
a
b c
f e
d
(r) Tree 16
10 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Possible trees of a network
Summary:
In the given graph, we have the number of nodes and the branches are n = 4 and b = 6 respectively.
Hence, total number of twigs and links in a tree are, t = n 1 = 3, and l = b t = b n + 1 = 3.
Possible trees of the given graph Fig. 1(b) are only:
Possible trees(16 Nos.) drawn above may be written as:
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Tree 1 : Twigs{a, b, d},Links{c, e, f}
Tree 2 : Twigs{a, b, e}, Links{c, d, f}
Tree 3 : Twigs{a, c, e},Links{b, d, f}
Tree 4 : Twigs{a, c, f},Links{b, d, e}
Tree 5 : Twigs{a, b, f},Links{c, d, e}
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Tree 16 :Twigs{b, e, f},Links{a, c, d}
11 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
OR
1 2
3 4
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
OR
1 2
3 4
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
OR
1 2
3 4
a
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b c
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
c
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b c
d
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
c
d
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b c
d
e
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
c
d
e
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b c
d
e f
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
c
d
e
f
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph
Exercise:
Q. Draw a complete graph from the following incidence matrix.
A =
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
_
_
Answer: Creating a complete Incidence Matrix, A
i
, from the given
reduced incidence matrix, A, we get
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
_

_
And its graph
1 2
3
4
a
b c
d
e f
OR
1 2
3 4
a
b
c
d
e
f
12 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and KCL:
Kirchhos current law (KCL) of a graph can be expressed in terms of
the reduced incidence matrix as A
i
I
b
= 0 where I
b
represents branch
current vectors I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, I
4
, I
5
, and I
6
.
For example:
_
_
_
_
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
I
1
I
2
I
3
I
4
I
5
I
6
_

_
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
_

_
13 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and KCL:
Kirchhos current law (KCL) of a graph can be expressed in terms of
the reduced incidence matrix as A
i
I
b
= 0 where I
b
represents branch
current vectors I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, I
4
, I
5
, and I
6
.
For example:
_
_
_
_
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
I
1
I
2
I
3
I
4
I
5
I
6
_

_
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
_

_
13 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and KCL
A complete incidence matrix A
i
and a graph constructed
from it are given below
A
i
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
_

_
If branch currents of branches a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h are
I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, I
4
, I
5
, I
6
, I
7
and I
8
respectively, then using
AI
b
= 0 we have
1
2
3
4
5
a
b
c
d
e f
g
h
_
_
_
_
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
I
1
I
2
I
3
I
4
I
5
I
6
I
7
I
8
_

_
=
_
_
_
_
0
0
0
0
_

_
Branch current equations: from above equation- after applying KCL at nodes 1, 2, 3 and 4
in the graph-
I
1
+ I
3
I
5
= 0
I
1
+ I
2
+ I
8
= 0
I
3
+ I
4
+ I
6
= 0
I
2
I
4
+ I
7
= 0
I
1
+ I
3
I
5
= 0
I
1
+ I
2
+ I
8
= 0
I
3
+ I
4
+ I
6
= 0
I
2
I
4
+ I
7
= 0
14 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Incidence Matrix and KCL
Incidence Matrix and Branch Voltages
Incidence Matrix and Branch Voltages:
If branch voltages of branches a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h in the ciruit are
V
a
, V
b
, V
c
, V
d
, V
e
, V
f
, V
g
and V
h
while nodes-to-reference voltages are
e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, e
4
, e
5
, e
6
, e
7
and e
8
respectively, then the branch voltage
vector, V , and the node voltage vector e are given by
V =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
a
V
b
V
c
V
d
V
e
V
f
V
g
V
h
_

_
and e =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
e
5
e
6
e
7
e
8
_

_
Then branch voltages of the last graph are then given by [A
T
][e] = [V ]
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 0
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
e
5
e
6
e
7
e
8
_

_
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
V
a
V
b
V
c
V
d
V
e
V
f
V
g
V
h
_

_
15 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph References
Text Books & References
M. E. Van Valkenburg
Network Analysis, 3/e.
PHI, 2005.
W.H. Hayt, J.E. Kemmerly, S.M. Durbin
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/e.
MH, 2012.
M. Nahvi, J.A. Edminister
Schuams Outline Electric Circuits, 4/e.
TMH, SIE, 2007.
A. Sudhakar, S.S. Palli
Circuits and Networks: Analysis and Synthesis, 2/e.
TMH, 2002.
16 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph References
Text Books & References
M. E. Van Valkenburg
Network Analysis, 3/e.
PHI, 2005.
W.H. Hayt, J.E. Kemmerly, S.M. Durbin
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 8/e.
MH, 2012.
M. Nahvi, J.A. Edminister
Schuams Outline Electric Circuits, 4/e.
TMH, SIE, 2007.
A. Sudhakar, S.S. Palli
Circuits and Networks: Analysis and Synthesis, 2/e.
TMH, 2002.
16 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix
Network & Graph Khublei Shibun!
Thank You!
Any Question?
17 / 17 L. Joyprakash Singh (ECE, NEHU) EE-304 ENT :: Incidence Matrix