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RBI (Risk Based Inspection)


Definition of Risk
Risk is danger and undesirable event represent for People , Environment and Economic assets. Risk In Risk Based Inspection, risk is defined as the product of two separate terms the Likelihood that a failure will occur and the Consequence of a failure

Risk = Probability of Failure x Consequences of Failure
Failure mode, Material/Environment; Degradation ; type & rate,.... Damage tolerance Personnel Environment Economic Quality

What is Risk Management ?

Risk management is a process to identify , measure (quantify) and then develop plans to maintain risks at on acceptable level. It is a well known fact that , in general 80% of the failures occur in 20% of the equipment.

Risk-Based Inspection
API AP581 A risk assessment and management process that is focused on loss of containment of pressurized equipment in processing facilities, due to material deterioration. These risks are managed primarily through equipment inspection

Scope of API RP 580

Equipment Covered Pressure Vessels - All pressure containing components. Process Piping - Pipe and piping components. Storage Tanks - Atmospheric and pressurized. Rotating Equipment - Pressure containing components. Boilers and Heaters - Pressurized components. Heat exchangers (shells, floating heads, channels, and bundles). Pressure-relief devices. Not covered Electrical systems Instrument and control systems structural systems, machinery components (except pump and compressor casings).

What is RBI ? (Risk Based Inspection)

Risk Based Inspection is a dynamic , Systematic tool for prioratising inspection according to the potential risk associated with specific equipment. RBI systematical evaluated both the probability of failure and the associated consequence of failure.

Management of Risk using RBI

Risk Plot


The Principles of RBI

It formalises a common-sense approach It considers the Consequences and Likelihood of failure Identifies the highest-risk equipment Quantifies the risk Reflects the risk in the written scheme of examination

Benefits of RBI program

The basic benefits of a RBI program are : It provides the capability to define and measure risk It allows management to review safety in and integrated , cost-effective manner Systematically reduces the likelihood of failures by making better use of the inspection resources Improves the reliability of plant equipment

RBI Process
Probability of Failure Data and Information Collection Consequence of Failure
Risk Assessment Process

Risk Ranking

Inspection Plan

Mitigation (if any)



Establish RBI Team

Planning the Risk Analysis

Collect data

Probability of Failure Identify Damage Mechanism

Consequence of Failiure

Determine the Damage Mode (Option)

Identify credible consequence scenarios

Determine credible failure mode(s)

Determine the probability of each consequence scenario

Determine the probability of failure

Risk Analysis Process

Determine the risk

Develop and inspection plan

Develop Mitigation (if any)


Type of RBI Assessment

Qualitative : provides a broad-based risk assessment of and operating unit or a part of an operating unit ,required less detail information about the facility. In this assessment using engineering judgment and experience for the analysis of probability and consequences of failure Quantitative : Provides risk values for each equipment item and pipe segment in a operating unit , required comprehensive detail information about the facility and equipment. In this assessment using logic models , likelihood and probability data to calculate the risk of failure

Semi-qualitative : Some were between either approach.


Assessing Probability of Failure


Damage (or deterioration) Mechanism A process that induces micro and/or macro material changes over time that are harmful to the material condition or mechanical properties. Damage mechanisms are usually incremental, cumulative, and, in some instances, unrecoverable. Common damage mechanisms include corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, creep, erosion, fatigue, fracture, and thermal aging. Damage (or deterioration) mode The physical manifestation of damage (e.g. wall thinning, pitting, cracking, rupture). Failure mode The manner of failure. For RBI, the failure of concern is loss of containment of pressurized equipment items. Examples of failure modes are small hole, crack, and rupture.


Probability of Failure


Assessing Consequences of Failure

Safety and health impacts Environmental impacts Economic impacts


Risk Ranking


Inspection and Maintenance Planning


Inspection and Maintenance Planning



RBI Assessment to Inspection Program


Other Mitigation Plan

Equipment Replacement and Repair Fitness-for-Service Assessment Equipment Modification, Redesign, and Rerating Emergency Isolation Modify Process Reduce Inventory Etc.

Difference Between RBI & Others Inspection Philosophes



- RBI is used for static equipment, where the main failure is loss of containment or structural damage. Usually there are a few failure modes only, e.g. corrosion, erosion etc.
- RCM is suitable when there are many failure modes and consequences. It usually applies to complex machinery such as Pumps, compressors, alternators etc.
V.Narayan (Vee) Lead Author, 100 Years of Maintenance: Practical Lessons from Three Lifetimes, Industrial Press.NY ISBN-13: 9780831133238 Author, Effective Maintenance Management: Risk and Reliability Strategies for Optimizing Performance, Second Edition, 2011, Industrial Press NY ISBN-13: 978-0-8311-3444-0