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Contents

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Meaning of Two Nation Theory .................................................................................................................... 2 BASIS OF CREATION OF PAKISTAN ................................................................................................................ 2 Factors that divided the subcontinent into two nation ................................................................................ 2 Religious Differences..................................................................................................................................... 3 Cultural Differences ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Economical differences ................................................................................................................................. 5 Education Difference .................................................................................................................................... 5 Political Differences ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Language ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 Sir syed and two nation theory ..................................................................................................................... 7 Allama iqbal and two nation theory: ............................................................................................................ 7 Quaid-e-azam and two nation theory:.......................................................................................................... 7 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 Importance of Two Nation Theory................................................................................................................ 8

INTRODUCTION
The concept of Muslims as a Nation was exist before the establishment of Pakistan. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent started when the first man accepted Islam Islam was introduced by the Arab traders who came from the coastal areas. Muslims flourished with their own identity. In spite of living with Hindus for many centuries they could not adopted their culture and maintain their separate identity. After the War of Independence (1857) British ruled on sub-continent, and with the passage of time the Muslims were put into the backwardness in all aspects of life, as they blamed that only the Muslims were responsible

for the War .At that time the concept of Two Nation Theory raised, that Muslims and Hindus were two different nation and it is impossible to life together.

Meaning of Two Nation Theory


The Two Nation theory means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. This theory means that there were two nations in the subcontinent. Subcontinent consists of two nations having their own philosophy of life. This theory gave rise to two distinct political ideologies that was responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.

BASIS OF CREATION OF PAKISTAN


The Two nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan as an independent state. In spite of living together for centuries the two communities not forgot their individual cultures and civilization.It raised a direction for the Muslims on the basis of which Pakistan was achieved. The Pakistan movement started after the concept of two nation. The main foundation of ideology of Pakistan us based on two nation theory. Al - beruni Al - Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as

"The Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course."

Factors that divided the subcontinent into two nation


Following are a few factors which split the people of the Sub Continent into two nations. Religious Differences Hindu Nationalism
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Cultural Differences Social differences Economic Differences Educational Differences Political Differences Language

Religious Differences
Muslims believes Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes that Allah is the creator of the universe. Muslims are the believers of Allah , the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the messenger of Allah. Muslims firmly believe on the Holy book Quran(complete code of life) and the life hereafter. Hindus believes Hindu believes in many gods. They have thousands of gods. Prophets(or rishi)are people who see god. they teach about god. And they have characeristics of god. Their writings are called vedas.

Hindu Nationalism
A number of Hindu nationalist movements were started in the subcontinent that added fuel to the fire, and increased the conflict between the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution of Muslims in the Indian society and push the Muslims on one side. There was also some movements that aimed to merge the Muslims with Hindu culture.

Social differences
The two communities of the Sub Continent were different in their social life. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the construction of homes were different.
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The words of greeting, way of response towards social matters ,the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately represented to their distinctive origin. The moral values, ethics and norms of both the communities are totally different

Cultural Differences
Islamic culture Muslim followed the Islamic culture . Muslims buried their dead bodies. Hindu culture Hindus followed a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies.

Muslims slaughtered the cow. Muslims were against the tradition of Sati and strictly forbade it.

Hindus considered the Mother cow as a Holy animal, few community worship it. They performed Sati and worshipped.

In Islam every human beings are equal

There exists a caste system in hindus.

Economical differences
Muslims There is a proper check and balance of economy in Islam. Zakat aushur is compulsory for Muslims. Hindus No check and balance.

No concept of Zakat in Hindu's religion.

Interest(suut) is strictly forbade in Islam. Muslims were thrown out side the government sector, they were financially week.

No concept of interest. the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.

Education Difference
Muslims Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions. They could not cope with the society because they ignore the modern education. Hindus The Hindus were advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. They occupied the best social status because of the modern education

Political Differences
The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have great impact on the evolution of Two Nation Theory.

(i) Hindi Urdu Controversy

In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Urdu Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims. (ii) Congress Attitude The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all Communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus. They deceive Muslims and only focus on their aims and progress of Hindus. (iii) Partition of Bengal The partition of Bengal in 1905, brought a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched perturbation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.

Language
Muslims The language of the Muslims was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. Urdu language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Hindus The Hindus spoke Hindi language that was written in Sanskrit. Hindi language had its own way of writing in every art which is quite different from urdu

This difference is small but it lead to a strong conflict between the two nations.

Sir syed and two nation theory:


The pioneer of two nation theory said that: I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other."

Allama iqbal and two nation theory:


"Muslims are not a minority, they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation."

Quaid-e-azam and two nation theory:


In 1973, he said:

"Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitants one nation. This is Sub Continent which consist of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nations."

Conclusion
The Muslims realized that they would lose their religious and cultural identity if they remained a part of British India. They also able to understand the above mentioned differences between them and hence demanded a separate homeland on the ground where they freely practiced their religion in accordance with Quran and Sunnah and Islamic teachings. They demanded a piece of land where their property and life would be safe guarded and secure

Importance of Two Nation Theory

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan whichheld that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of livingtogether for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. The Muslims considered that western democracy was not suitable for India, wherethere were two communities, one was in majority and other was in minority. In thecase of United India, Hindus will remain in power, which will harm the interests of Muslims. The Muslims also apprehended that they would lose their identity if theyremained a part of Hindu society. On one occasion, Quaid-e-AzamHindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never beenblended into one nation. They were always two separate entities. The Muslims had learnt from the past experience of Congress's rule of 1937-39 inwhich they adopted Gandhian philosophy, Wardha Scheme and Vidya Mandirscheme of education, Bande Mataram as national anthem and promotion of Hindilanguage. Muslim mass contact compaign had convinced the Muslims that Congresswas aiming at a death blow to Muslim political thought and was working forregneneration and revival of the old Hindu civilization and culture. They alsorealized the difference between them and the Hindus and hence demandedseparate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e. two nation theory is the basis of thecreation of Pakistan because without this concept, Pakistan would not come intobeing on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan .